MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.....303 QueryMemPages.... External functions for timer code .........................................................................288 Listing 19................................... Code for the KillAlarm function................................................... Code for the MicrDelay function ...................10.......................................309 Listing 20...........................................315 Listing 20................................312 Listing 20................................309 Sleep() .............................................................................11..............................311 Alarm()...................................................... TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................291 AddUserPT ..........8........................................................................19........................................................................................................................ Code to return the timer tick ............................. Adding an aliased run of linear memory.......................... Code to produce a beep........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Code to find number of free pages..........................................................................................................................23.......................................................................312 Listing 20...............................................................................................................................................296 AddIDTGate.......................................................311 Listing 20....................................................307 TIMER DATA .....................................................................................3...................................................................................................................... Code to find a free run of linear memory.............................................................................................................................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ..............................................................................................................................................16.....................299 DeAliasMem..........301 DeAllocPage ..............................................................................................................................308 Listing 20....................... Loop in timer ISR ...............................................298 AliasMem .....................................................................................................................................294 Listing 19............................................................................................................................................................................................. Code to read the CMOS date .................................................................................................................... Adding a page table for user memory...........................................304 Listing 19................................315 GetTimerTick()................................FindRun .............................................................................................................................................288 AddRun ..2............................ Adding an operating system page table ...................................... Allocating a page of linear memory.........................................................................................................................................................................296 Listing 19...............................................................314 Listing 20................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................303 Listing 19...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ... Adding a call gate to the GDT ........7.........................14.................6.........................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS .......................14............................................ Data and constants for timer code.... The timer interrupt service routine .........................12........................................ Code for the Alarm function ........ Adding a run of linear memory......................................................................................................................................18...............................................................................................................................................20...........................................304 GetPhyAdd ......................................................313 GetCMOSTime() ............317 Listing 20...................297 Listing 19..................308 TIMER CODE .................293 AddOSPT ............................................................316 Listing 20...........................314 GetCMOSDate() ...........................................................................................................316 Beep_Work() .........................................................................................................13..............297 AllocOSPage............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Adding entries to the IDT .5....................................................... Public for linear to physical conversion...................................................................................313 Listing 20.....................................1...................................25............................................................................317 Tone()........................................................................................................................................................................................................................296 AddGDTCallGate ..................................21.................................................................................................... Code to alias memory ................................................ Code to read the CMOS time........................................................................317 Listing 20.............................................................................................................................................290 AddAliasRun .301 Listing 19......................................313 MicroDelay() ..................................................299 Listing 19.............................................309 The Timer Interrupt ......................................293 Listing 19......................................................................................................9................................317 MMURTL V1........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to remove alias PTEs..291 Listing 19...............................................................................................................................................316 Listing 20... Deallocating linear memory...........................................24.............................307 INTRODUCTION .........................305 Listing 19.................................15................................................................................................................305 CHAPTER 20.............17.................. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ...289 Listing 19.. Code to produce a tone ........................................................4..........................................................316 Beep().......................................................................................22.............................................................................................................................307 Listing 20.....................................................................298 Listing 19...........................................................................................................................................309 Listing 20...........13.................... Code for the Sleep function .............................312 KillAlarm()....................................................................................................................

................................... 415 Listing 24................ 414 Listing 24..............................................................................3.....................................CHAPTER 21.................. 395 Listing 24..........................................................................................5.............3........................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7........................................................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) .................................................................................................h Header File ................ 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING .................. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point..2.................................................................................................................................... 327 Listing 21............................ Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ............0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ............................................................................................. 429 INTRODUCTION ................................................... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ..................................12..................................................... Jobc................................................................ 319 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Initialize call gates amd the IDT.............................................................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) .............. Main Operating System Data .........................................................................1............................................................................................................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ......................... 415 Listing 24..........1... 436 Keyboard ISR...................................................................................................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ....................... 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ................... 393 Listing 24............................................................ 410 Listing 24............................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ............... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) .................................................................................................. 417 Listing 24........................................................ 390 Listing 24.................................................................................................................................................. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger..................................................................................................... 365 Listing 23......... 442 Listing 25................... Keyboard ISR Code............................................................... 365 INTRODUCTION ............................. 326 Listing 21.......................................3....................... 409 Listing 24.......6................6...................................................................................2........................ 409 Listing 24.............................................................................................. 389 INTRODUCTION ................................2......................................................... 344 Listing 22......................... 429 KEYBOARD DATA............ 429 Listing 25........... 325 Listing 21.............................................. 337 INTRODUCTION ..................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)...................... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ................................................................................................................................................ 319 OS GLOBAL DATA ....................................................... End of Initialization Code................................... 438 Listing 25............................ 424 CHAPTER 25............................................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ................ 438 Reading the Final Buffer ...................................................................................................... RS-232................................................................................ 321 Listing 21................... 328 Listing 21............................................... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ...........................................................................................................................................................................................4......................................................................................................................................................... 344 CHAPTER 23....................................................................................................................... 389 Listing 24.................4................... 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ........................................................................................ 366 Listing 23....................................................... 331 CHAPTER 22........................................... Continuation of OS initialization... Keyboard Translation Code................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) .............................................................................. 366 CHAPTER 24........................... Debugger Data and Code.................................................... 413 Listing 24......... Continuation of OS initialization................................................................................................................................ 321 Listing 21...................................... Read Keyboard Buffer Code .................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) .................................................................1..............................................................................................11.............. Keyboard Data and Tables ............... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER.................................. 442 MMURTL V1.................................................................................................. JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ...............................................2...............................13.................10.... 436 Listing 25.. KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE.............................................................5.........................................................................................................8.... SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE...... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) ................................................................................................... INITIALIZATION CODE ............. 436 Keyboard Translation............... Initialization Subroutines............ 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ................................................................................... Job Management Subroutines...............................................7.......................14........................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) .....................2............................ 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ...................................................... 337 Listing 22...............................................................................................................................................................1.......... DEBUGGER CODE .... 319 Listing 21........................................................................................................4.....................................c source code.........................................1........................ 398 Listing 24.................................9.................. 389 Listing 24.................

...........453 CHAPTER 26...................................................466 Listing 26.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... VIDEO CODE ..... Keyboard Service Initialization ...........457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ..........6............................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position.....................................................................539 INTRODUCTION ...................................... DASM....................................................13........................................................................................ Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen .........................................................................................474 Listing 27................................443 Listing 25.................................................................................................................................................................................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code .....9............10....468 Listing 26.............................................................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ....................................................................... Code to Set the Video Owner ...12............................................................5......................................................................................................................................................................................448 Listing 25..........................................................................................................................................................................................7...........................................................9..................................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization ................................................................................................................................................................................................539 DASM CONCEPTS ....................................................................................452 Listing 25...........................2.................... FILE SYSTEM CODE......................................................... Code to Initialize Video ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to Get a Character and Attribute...................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ...................... Video constants and data ...............457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ...........464 Listing 26.......................................461 Listing 26.......8........................................................................................................ Code to Get the Current Video Owner.................................................. Simple Application Template File ....................................................................................539 USING DASM..................................................................541 List File Option .......................................8...............................................................................14.................................................................................540 Application Template File........................................................................................................................ Low-level Keyboard Control Code......................................................... Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ...................................................................................................472 CHAPTER 27.......................................................................................................540 Listing 28........................15................451 Listing 25..............1....460 Listing 26........ Code to Return Current Cursor Position .. Code to Clear the Screen .....................................464 Listing 26.....................................................................................457 Listing 26.457 THE VIDEO CODE ....................................................................................................................................................................................11.....................................................................................................5.................................459 Listing 26...................................................................................................................462 Listing 26.................................................................................................................. Code to Screen Video Attributes .....................1......................................................................................7............The Keyboard Service ...............................................4..............................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector ................469 Listing 26........460 Listing 26........................................................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ..................................................................................................................... Code to Edit a Line on the Screen...................... A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER ..................................................................................................................................541 Command Line Options ................................................461 Listing 26............................. Keyboard system service code...............................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up.................................................... A More Complicated Template File ..............................................................................................542 Device Drivers ............ Code to get the Normal Video Attribute..........................................................................465 Listing 26.....................................................................................................473 INTRODUCTION ...............450 Listing 25........................................ Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ..........542 Dynamic Link Libraries ...........................458 Listing 26.................................................................10..468 Listing 26....................................................................473 Logical Block Address (LBA)..........................................................................................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers................................................................................................................... MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ......540 Listing 28............................................................................................................................................................................ Code to set Normal Video Attribute ............................474 CHAPTER 28............................................................................................474 File System Initialization ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................457 INTRODUCTION ..............452 Hardware Helpers .................................................0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ........ Code to Set Cursor Position............................................................................................................................541 Errors Only Option .................................................................................... Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen.6.......................................2..........................................................................................................................................................3.............................................................542 MMURTL V1.............................................................................................................................................................................. Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call .............................453 Listing 25...........................16...............................458 Listing 26....448 Debugger Keyboard......................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ......................1..................................................................................................473 Hidden Sectors....................

...................... 562 FAR Calls ................................................................................................ Standard String Functions for MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 569 Listing 29................................................................................................... 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ................................................................................................................ 561 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................CD-ROM CONTENTS .......................... 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM .....................................................3 .......................................................................................................................................................3............................... 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information................................... 558 Your Own Assembler? ...... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ........... 556 Tag Descriptions........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 Interrupt Functions......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ................................................................................................................................................................Supported Instructions ......................................................................... 552 Table 28...................................... 568 Command Line Options ................................. 559 CHAPTER 29.............................................................2. 569 Library Code Examples ................................................... Alternating data and code in a template file .................................................................................................. Standard file I/O for MMURTL ............................................................................ 566 Initialization of Static Variables ................Specifying Memory Operands................. 575 APPENDIX A -.................................................................................. 548 Labels and Address......................... 543 DOT Commands ................. 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ................................................. 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ........................................................ 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES .............................................................................................................................................................................................3.............................. 581 MMURTL V1..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DF (Define Far Word) .................................... 548 EXTRN Declarations............................................................................................................................................. 565 Far External Functions .......................................................... 542 Memory Model................................Tag Usage .......................... 548 PUBLIC Declarations............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Supported Library Functions ............ 542 DASM Program Structure ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 568 USING CM32............................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ............................................................................................................................................................ 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations .............................................DASM Source Files ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 568 Library Functions .................................................................................................................. 565 Structure Limitations ...................................... 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ................................................................................................................ A 32-BIT C COMPILER ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 543 Listing 28................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 545 Table 28..................................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ...................................................... 570 Listing 29...................................................................................... 547 DW (Define Word) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 547 DB (Define Byte)......................................................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 563 Library Header File Access................. 555 Table 28................................................................................................................................ 570 Listing 29..................................... 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ................................................. CM32...............................................2 .................................................................................................................. 565 Type Conversion and Pointers........................ 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ............................1.................................................................................................................................. 562 Variable Length Argument Lists ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 545 Storage Declarations............................ 579 INDEX .........................................................................................................................................................................1 ............................................... 545 DASM Addressing Modes ................................. 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ...........................................................................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. They use them. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. and begin coding. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. they work with them. If you're an experienced programmer. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. The most obvious of these. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. I determined the specifications for the final product. memory model. not his IQ. You. You don't need to design your own. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. If you write something that no one can use. In the early days. IBM. Realizing this. portability issues size and speed. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. I decided what stayed and what went. As coding began. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. I have documented what it takes to really write one. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. It's up to you. When I started out. it's a complete system. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. code. as viewed by the outside programmer. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. are the tasking model. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. Unfortunately. however. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. I set the ground rules. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. but very light on specifics.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 1. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. NOT SO FAST THERE. do some research on each of the desirables. That was part of my wish list. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. I would just make a list. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. or Sun. In the case of my own operating system. But I wanted a small API. and the programming interface. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. MMURTL V1. it's unlikely they'll use it. When OS/2 was first developed. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on.

I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). modify. Throughout this book. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. In my opinion. programming interfaces. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. would help me write better application software for it. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. or write your own. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. You may or may not want to do this for your system. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. message based. In fact.to 32-bit jump. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. ideas from it. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. along with all the tools necessary to build. You can use pieces of it. Even though they have added speed. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. Serial and Parallel Ports. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. For instance. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. and some serious "turbo" modifications. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. or all of it if you wish to write your own. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. a few more instructions. This was completely intentional. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). the memory model. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. will provide the information for you to use my system as is.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . which I felt. but it was a "must" for me. they are effectively super-386 processors. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). Hardware Timers. real-time. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. MMURTL V1. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. change it to suit your needs. hardware interface. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. so I've removed the mystique. redesign it to meet your requirements. But that's not what this book is about. your goals may be different. I'm sure it won't. This was the 16. It clouds far too many real issues these days. Once again. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. 80486 (486). For this reason. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. portability issues. The source code. multitasking. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. size and speed.

Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). and also what I decided on. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. Easy programming . and 4 (Interprocess Communications). We. hardware paging. if we knew how.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. I also wanted to maintain a small. If it is another processor. LOMEM. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. HIMEM. the right mix of capability and simplicity.” Simplicity . but not all the options. Power without BLOAT. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. “The Hardware Interface. many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply.” Protection from other programs . the humans. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done.” and chapter 8. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements. General Discussion and Background.The ability to react to outside events in real time. Real-time operation . in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network).My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap.Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. I discuss this in chapter 6. and most of them are grossly under used. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification.. LIM. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. you may have a different platform in mind. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. yet powerful enough to get the job done. I use the stack. I'll discuss some of your options. Message agents could be added to any platform. YOURMOTHERSMEM. UMBs. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. If you don't have this requirement. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. or start one from scratch. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. We want the system to react to us.But not the programmer. “Programming Interfaces. and for a very good reason. You may start with my list and modify it. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS .” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . Client/Server design . Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. Extended. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). but I don't recommend it. Chapter 5 covers memory management. “Programming Interfaces. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions..Not just task switching between programs. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). I didn't want to do this. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). are outside events. If you're going to write your own. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. such as C or Pascal. and what my end result was. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. is with a procedural interface.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. calling conventions. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. but real multi-threading . This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. or maybe a little less? Of course. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . “The Hardware Interface.Keep the system as simple as possible. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. MMURTL V1.

Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). MMURTL V1. and the initialization entry point jumped to. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. Yes. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . but only a distant cousin. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. make up your own! But. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. If you intend to run MMURTL. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. the code. If you don't like my acronym. expand it to your heart's desire. Real-Time. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. or use any of the tools I included. And of course. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). Message based. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. If you don't want to start from scratch. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). Sections of the source code will. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. or for general reference. I'm sure. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. Multitasking. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. x86/Pentium processors. and 64K of data). The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. kerneL. no doubt. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. In the educational field. I put together my own operating system. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. Dedicated. Real-Time. Then again. the tools. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. nor is it intended to directly replace them. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications).A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. be of value in your other programming projects as well. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. If you're not worried about memory consumption.

Both 5. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual.25" and 3. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter).The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. also – 2000). The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). This includes Cyrix. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. EISA (Ed. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. and more importantly. IDE is preferred. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. (or even MS-DOS). If you want to run DOS. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. The processor must be an Intel 80386. Pentium. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. not at all the same. 8250. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided.5" are supported. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. Hence. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). you can ignore this section. The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. IBM and other clone processors. but a few are not). The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. Note: PCI bus designs work well. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. One Megabyte of RAM is required. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. AMD. 80486. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. but still. but only out of convenience. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. eases the development burden. you can change the code as needed. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. If yours isn't.x (IBM). It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. MMURTL V1. that is. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required.

.

0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . or even just use MMURTL the way it is. make a lot of sense. write your own operating system. Burroughs and Sperry. I might add). It whet my whistle. Borrow from mine.). as well what may influence your design. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. In Chapter 1. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. for no apparent reason). My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. you might not want to). my schooling. Five years later. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS).000. has had an effect. no doubt.k. and just make it better if you have the desire. here it is. MMURTL V1. I would not let this happen. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. As you can see. improve. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. Every little thing you've run across will. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. my reading of various publications and periodicals. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. Far too often. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. a. affect its design. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. merged). a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers.” I covered what my final design goals were. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. etc.a. In fact. and borrowed with great respect. “Overview. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. add. It does. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. client server designs. simplified memory management. however. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. That was 1989. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. take away. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. That worked out just about right. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer.Chapter 2. It was a 32-bit system.

People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. however. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. MS-DOS was everywhere. a lure that could not be suppressed. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . however. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. Operating system developers. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. I'm not a Borland salesman. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. It's the place to start. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. It was limited to the small memory model. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. The next major decision was the software development environment. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use.x linker. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's.including assembler. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. There was no turning back.. but the tools just worked better. I thought about other processors. It is just now becoming popular. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). I really do hate reinventing the wheel. popular platform.. and utilities . Memory access was limited. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. was a must. in the process of using these other tools. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. Once again. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. compiler. I really had no choice.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series.all but ancient history now. In fact. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. maybe. or even OS/2. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. As you may be aware.1. or ported to a system. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. but as you well know. Then those were the 2. Again. there was no such thing. Of course.x assembler and 2. at times it was quite difficult. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation.After I got involved with the IBM PC. like a bad virus. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. Message-based. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. but the tools worked. but it worked nonetheless. and a few others.0) and later moved to 5.

even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. which is 32 bits for the most part. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. a disassembler. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. interface design.. but I pretty much built from scratch. In fact. Needless to say. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. I think many people started there. a major task. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. It is tied to the internal bus. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack.some tools from the major software vendors. etc. DMA. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. and the called function cleans the stack. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. as you may understand.). or even port MMURTL to it. That's right. no linker.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. Besides. Communications controllers. There is no linker. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. To fully understand this. at least. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". These documents are usually free. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. in itself. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. in which case.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. but another port is in the works. you will need to read chapter 28. documents. etc. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler.. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. or may not. The C compiler produces assembly language. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). Parameters are passed left to right. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. I plead the "Fifth" on this. SX MMURTL V1. articles. as well as the software control of these devices. Developing this assembler was. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. and a few other minor utilities. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. DC. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. Computer chip manufacturers. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. Many different books. I do so because its bus.” Assembly language has its place in the world. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. TTL. IBM published theirs. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. That set me back four months. discreet devices in the IBM AT system.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . It's simply not needed. such as Chips & Technologies. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). want or need. which is fed to the assembler. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while).

In a paged system. aliasing is also required. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. All of the early test programs were in assembler. It has turned out very nicely. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. timers. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. There was no loader. of course. etc. Windows version 3. all implementations of UNIX). "Thunking" was out of the question. In chapter 5.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI.. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees.and 16-bit code and data. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. During this time. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. If you use Intel-based platforms. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. gentler" environment I was after. no way to get test programs into the system. EISA. from a 16-bit code segment. The segmented memory idea was canned. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). It was a "kinder. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. The thought was rather sickening. MMURTL V1. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start.x.g. this is a year you won’t have to go through. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. as you will see.two segments per program and two for the OS. but this is transparent to the programmer. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. you'll be ahead of the game. but it presented several serious complications.). My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). powerful. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. This easily consumed the first six months. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. [Thunking is when you interface 32. but not a fully segmented model . OS/2 version 2. anyway (e. as well as the stack storage. anyway. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. If you write your own system. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. This was timeconsuming. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING.x. This simple model could allocate and manage memory. but instead a lean. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). even the operating system writer.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. but it's not at as complicated. But as you may be aware.). and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. etc. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. I discuss several options you have. all based on their own selectors. I had to meet my design goals. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. Memory Management.

The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. For example. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. will depend on the memory model you choose. The Critical Path Along your journey. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. but they just didn't say. But I'll try. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it.anything that you think you'll need to remember. But. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. Know your desired application. Or at least when you get it working. compilers and utilities. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. It will be worth the time spent. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. Select your hardware platform. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. Decide on your basic models. you know that it can be a very daunting task. I have provided such an operating system with this book. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. This includes the tasking model. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). I envy you. garbage collection. "You start here. I was really interested in communications. This may sound a little humorous. do it. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. get to know it very well. Get to know your assemblers. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. Memory management is next. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. how much knowledge you have. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. memory model and basic programming interface. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. the rest is real work. Investigate your tools. This is called the critical path. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). you know that certain items in a project must work. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. hints are about all I CAN give you. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it." It is difficult for me to do this also. but whatever you decide on. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. Document the problems. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. the discoveries . it may be CISC. you'll NEVER really be done with it. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. If this has never happened to you. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. and overall program management – as you see fit. and there will also be background noise. There are so many platforms out there. but I'm very serious. you will no doubt find bugs. The level of complexity. It may be RISC. I'll tell you the easiest.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . Go for the kernel. of course. I say this from experience. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. or how much time you really have to invest. but there wasn’t. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. You can then “port” the prototype. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. Of course. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. the actual application may not be so important. MMURTL V1. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not.

I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. it won't be luck. and then I write the code.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain).” Once satisfied. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. all the way. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. easily digestible chunks. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. compilers. Document as you go. I had my wish list well in advance. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. Good luck. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. These tools include documentation for the hardware. Sounds backwards? It is. I moved on from there. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. I lay out my notes for what I want. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. sweat and maybe some tears. But don't set them too high. it's worth the time. It will be blood.Working Attitude Set your goals. But really. MMURTL V1. As I mentioned above. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. I write the documentation. Work with small. dependable pickup truck. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous.

People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. In other words. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. TASK . A single computer program can have one or more tasks. at least temporarily. If you write your own. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising.” while others call it a “thread. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. Most of the discussion centers on resource management.” In most instances I call it a TASK. I admit some guilt here too). There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. then start another task running. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. it’s PREEMPTIVE. KERNEL . It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. Tell the programmers what you mean. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). But this is not cast in stone either.g. and I'm not talking about programming languages. This makes it a very small kernel. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine).. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. MMURTL V1. I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. Some documentation." which means communications between tasks.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. CPU utilization. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. be specific about it. After all. but it is.Chapter 3. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. save its state. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. You may not agree with the definitions. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. It shouldn't be. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. Generally. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. In its executable form. When a task is suspended from execution. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications.This term is not disputed very much. MS-DOS TSRs . Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. however. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. and more specifically. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. coffee and soda spilled on them. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. Hence. and most people refer to. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . but doesn't expect the interrupt. or at least coming to agreement on them. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some operating systems call a task a “process.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). but I hope you will accept them.

rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). Input/Output (I/O) devices. when the mission was accomplished.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . memory management. comms programs). then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. Quite obviously. Single vs. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. or even network connections for logons. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). Task Management Tasks begin. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. including video. How tasks are handled. These are the real resources. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. execute programs as the new users desire. and why. Interrupt Controller Units. but it may not be so easy for you. good old Albert). Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet.In other words. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. or the user was done. it didn't sit too well with me. When I wrote these programs. This is its only real purpose in life. Managing these resources in a simple. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. On the other hand. Multitasking. But in almost all of these systems. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. and hardware (Timers. You may MMURTL V1. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. etc. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. Tasks end. Nor did I want it to be. In each case. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. It may have memory assigned to it. "Everything should be as simple as possible." but needless to say. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. disk. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. Single User. DMA. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. keyboard. "simple software for simple minds. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. One of my friends suggested the motto. In other words. and some are user-oriented software. Some are communications programs (FAX software. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. I deal with one user at a time. Tasks crash.). and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU .

then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. it would seem to return at its leisure. When you restore a task. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . My first programs were written with that attitude. In a multitasking operating system. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. but effective. It's actually easier than it sounds. I had my very own processor. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. Then I asked. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. The CPU takes care of it for you. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. We were each getting a piece of the pie. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state.want to deal with many. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. In the case of hardware interrupts. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. The software state can consist of almost nothing. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. "It's 11:00PM. It was crude. When you change tasks. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. This is where the hardware-state is saved. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. but an important one. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. MMURTL V1. Microcomputers spoiled me. This will be the heart and brains of the system. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. If you must do it yourself. it was a breeze. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. Yet. this is usually a no-brainer.

They can. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable.I'm done with the CPU for now. MMURTL V1. you are cooperating with the operating system. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. he then monopolizes the CPU. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. or to pause when it has nothing to do. Cooperative and Preemptive. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. or a combination of the two. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). It may not always be obvious when it happens. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). In this case. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. and in some cases. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts." From there. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. A task that has the processor gives it up. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. if necessary. In fact. Meanwhile. In a single tasking operating system. For instance. With these calls.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. you basically have a hardware manager. a single threaded system may be the best solution. and basic input/output. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. interrupt servicing. the screen and everything else looks frozen. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. This can be for a number of reasons. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). management of CPU time is easy. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function).0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. however. which I cover in this chapter. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. This may be in milliseconds. In many single tasking systems. And yes. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. however. do an adequate job in many cases. "Hey . programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution.

or the operating system from an external device (e. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. The timer can help determine when to preempt. the task that's running. disk drive. the scheduler.communicating. MMURTL V1. On most platforms. To expand on that definition.).g.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . or it may be for something extremely critical. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). communications device. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. or a few other hardware-related things. controlling. etc. Generally. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). and maybe memory context. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. Most of the time. is a preemptive system. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). and how long does that task get to run? Who. when a task is preempted. It does nothing to prepare for it. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. For the preemptive system. In a preemptive system. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. As I also mentioned earlier. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. When do we switch tasks. The currently running task is preempted. there is going to be a desire. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. or monitoring. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). They are also. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. it doesn't expect it. These parties include the programmer. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. quite often. However. connected to the outside world . Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. The next section is the tricky part. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. a program. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. the scheduler simply determines who's next. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. Also. In fully cooperative systems. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. outside events. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. we must now decide which task runs next. this adds the requirement of timing. or even a requirement. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. hardware timer. When. or after a set period of time. the entire "state" of your task is not saved.. after the interrupt is finished. As you can see. to which task do we switch.

In a time sliced preemptive system. Who determines which task gets more time. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . and if a user interface is involved. This also implies that some may not be ready at all.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. each task will get a fixed amount of time . It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. Time slicing is an old technique. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. and the next task in line is restored and executed. When a task's time is up. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. (the others will be flipping 8. each task gets 25 milliseconds. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. A simple queuing system suffices." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. "a slice of time. but it won't be on their terminals. In a cooperative system. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. This is usually not very effective. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. its complete hardware and software state is saved. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so.000 burgers. For example. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. the one with the highest priority will be executed. For example. In the simplest time sliced systems.all tasks will get the same slice . otherwise.and they will be executed in the order they were created. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. In some systems. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. only the very highest would ever get to run. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. The others may see a slow down. This gives the scheduler something to work with. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. Not quite that simple. But it has some major drawbacks. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. it can serve admirably.

Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. But I opted to "get real" instead. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. We want good. dependable. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. but it makes the point. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do.g. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. computers are everywhere. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. come do something with this data before I lose it"). The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. These are communications and user interface issues. This IS real-time stuff. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. Now. In a message based system. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. things are never as simple as they seem. Thus. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. The buffer will overflow. clean communications. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. but it's not dramatic enough. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. Therefore. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. For instance. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. or the user. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch.to go around on the system. but one channel is handling five times the data.. and we want our machines responsive to us.

To be honest. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. No doubt. and even help define the tasking model. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. A task may. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. I can't picture a system without it. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). Primarily Cooperative. A very simple. Time Sliced. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. it would still be scheduled to execute. all tasks will get to run. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. however. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). Fully Time Sliced. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. Some Cooperation In this type of model. based on the number of tasks scheduled.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . all tasks will be scheduled for execution. MMURTL V1. In addition. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. although such systems exist. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. In this type of system. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. you have a few ideas of your own. Users on a larger. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. But even when the task has nothing to do. See what works for your applications. even though these methods are very important.

if you have 256 priorities. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. This is a speed issue.Primarily Cooperative. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. To briefly explain my tasking model. I never wanted to miss outside events. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. This could have presented some protection problems. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. preemptive. Limited Time Slicing category. file access. and in reality. timer services. multitasking. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. Go for the fastest option . goes into a "waiting" state. In such a system. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. real-time operating system. I wanted a priority based. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . the outside events are even more important than placating the user. much faster. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. and the next task with the highest priority executes. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. The less time the better. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. To me. For instance. Other processors may offer similar options. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. It's faster – actually. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. or whatever. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. "Experience is a wonderful thing. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. The timer-interrupt routine. Keep them short. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted.PERIOD. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. The task based ISR is slower. and no. After all. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. monitors the current task priority. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. and limit the functionality if at all possible.

or Ms.management headaches.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . who's to say when Mr. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. For instance. MMURTL V1. On systems that are primarily time sliced. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety).only the user knows. you switch tasks. In a cooperative environment. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. After a period of time has elapsed. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. or even possibly the users. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). the problems didn't surface. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model.

As you will see in this chapter. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. In operating systems that use semaphores." MMURTL V1. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. Of course. where it waits. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. it could cause some serious problems. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. On a single CPU. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. perform operations on the semaphore structures. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. portions of the code will not be reentrant. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). As I described in earlier chapters. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. However. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. In other words. what operation you want to perform. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. or is suspended when it can't run. As the name implies. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute.Chapter 4. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. if it's being allocated).0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. nor should they have to. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. only one task can execute at a time. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important.

I have added a second. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations.). Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). only the basic form of messaging is implemented. OS/2. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. tasks are not wholly independent. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. As you can see. This is much more efficient. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. OpenPipe(). They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). such as those procedures that create new tasks. OS/2 is one such system. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. He or she will make a system call for some resource. such as MMURTL.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. and WritePipe(). In fact. or similar ones. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. In my system. In my humble opinion. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. You will see these commands. But once again. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. In fact. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. ReadPipe().In most cases. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. ClosePipe(). I refer to a program as a “job.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. you should study how they are used on other systems. on most real-time operating systems. public pipes are very handy. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). a program is made up of one or more tasks. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. which will consist of one or more tasks. destroy tasks. but I used a second form of messaging instead. more powerful. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. etc. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. or schedule tasks for execution. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. In a message-based system. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. I didn't. If you intend to implement semaphores.

pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. his offer is the pits. a task is born. Consider the phone again. You also need a way to send the message. "Tell Mr. MMURTL V1. it's a little more complicated than that. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). for which you expect no response. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. WaitMsg(). One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. or just about any other name you like. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). In an operating system's case. You tell it what exchange. Now. It returns 0 if all goes well. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. char *pMsgRet). char *pMsgRet). The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . Zork to forget it. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. SpawnTask(). The most common is the send() function I described earlier. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet).not in detail yet. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing.it sends a message. long dMsgPart2). Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. request() and respond(). only one task is actually executing instructions. It does just what it says . MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. such as. The task is the human. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. CheckMsg(). and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. a bin. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. If you're lucky. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. You point to a piece of code. Now I have some very important terms and functions . long dMsgPart1. and VIOLA. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. the answering machine is the exchange. an exchange point. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. SendMsg(). dExch is the destination exchange. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. I called it an Exchange. Not too large to move around. give it the message and away it goes. or whatever you call it.functions. Yes. In MMURTL's case. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. provide some other pieces of information. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. but enough that we can talk about them. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. You can send one way messages to a person. the message is received right away. It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information." This is an example of a one way message. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. but large enough for a couple of pointers. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered.

Kernel makes Task1 run. Task2 is higher. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. You start with a single task executing. Table 4. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. Table 4. None found. In this example. Task2 is still running. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. It's still task 2. As we move down the table in our example.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Task1 is ready to run. time is passing. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1.. very small. it's not called the kernel zone. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2.). Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. None are waiting.. Task2 allocates Exch2.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. Just kidding. What it's doing isn't important. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue.

A fully loaded system may have 5.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work.. you will more than likely not use these types in your system.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. With MMURTL. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. This may not work on all types of processors.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. they must be waiting for something. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. BBS systems. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. I didn't do this with MMURTL. the receiving task is made to run. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. keyboard input. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. In some systems. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. each service installed is given a name. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. only the service name. If there is a task at the exchange. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. They are ideal for things like file systems. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. The name must be unique on the machine. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). Each time an interrupt occurs. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. Each service can provide up to 65. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName.. FAX services. This can simplify the scheduler. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. From the simple example in table 4. In fact. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . It gives task2 the message. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). . the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. unsigned int wSvcCode. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. If there is one. MMURTL V1. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. They are dedicated types. When the service is first installed. it will be made to run. The processing is carried out by the service. e-mail services.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . queued file management. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. the list could go on and on. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. 10 or even 15 system services. but the name will always be the same. This way. printing services.1.. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference)..

dRespExch .Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). At first glance. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). dnpSend . Zero (0) usually indicates no error. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. long dStatRet). They are described below: dRqHndl . and spacepadded on the right. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. dStatRet . but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords.Number of the specific function you are requesting.the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. This will be explained later in memory management. pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). dData1. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . Two questions arise: 1. Where is the response data and status code? First. long dcbData2SR. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. wSvcCode . *pData1 . If you made more than one request.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. long dcbData1SR. long *pdRqHndlRet.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS .long dRespExch. dcbData1 . it is NOT a response. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). If this is the response. or pData2 to send data to the service. long dData0. dcbData2 . 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. char *pData2SR. Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. and dData2 . you'll need to know which one is responding.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. But. If you remember. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). *pData2 . For instance. These are documented independently by each service. if the request was serviced (with no errors).Pointer to the service name you are requesting. all capitals. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). long dData2 ). dData0. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0.the status or error code returned to the requester.is the number (0.This is the same as dcbData1. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. The service already knows this. In many functions you will not even use pData1. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). If it is 80000000h or above. but network transport mechanisms do not. in the file system OpenFile() function. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. long dData1. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. There's still a little work to do. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). The service name is eight characters. Second. This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. Using the Open File() example. These can never be pointers to data. Second. *pdRqHndlRet . dnpSend would be 1. this would be the size (length) of the filename.

but this would slow things down a bit.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. As you know. lets look at an example. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. Not very big. it is preempted. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. Not as difficult as you expect. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. task1 gets to run again. To really understand this issue. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. For the sake of understanding this. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. Also. MMURTL V1. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. So. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. checks the semaphore. An exchange is a small structure in memory. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. Each task that enters the code. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. Now. Now. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. even in a multitasking system.it's crash time. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. As you can see. So the code goes in.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . only one task can really be running at a time. The buffer is gone. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. and show you what can happen. It's really quite simple. pointers are off the ends of arrays. but still very important. right? But let me guess . it's a mess. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. and WHAMO . task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). or pauses in the middle of them. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. Semaphores are used on many systems. When each task is done with the allocation routine. there was only one buffer left. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed.to read or write data. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. But when it reaches PointX.

Also. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. “Memory Management. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. In the kernel code. The next sections discuss this. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . WHOA THERE . Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused.200 baud in Windows 3. and maybe even not often enough.task switches. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. Don't blame Windows though.” MMURTL V1. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. You will lose data. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). it will simplify IPC greatly . but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. but my testing shows I did OK.000.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often.x? You will lose data. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38.000 * 3). Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. I started with one and abandoned it early on. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. You didn't disable interrupts. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. It will be the only way. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. and also "the biggie" . Good tight code in the kernel is a must. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. In theory. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot.If the instruction sequence is short enough. This is 1/38. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. let's look at a real-world example. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds.

Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. MMURTL V1. Basic Terms Once again.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . so does an operating system. This greatly affects the next three items. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application.Chapter 5. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. if available. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Either way. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. Some do it with internal paging hardware. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. Address 0 is the first. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. The memory model you choose. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. it's all basically the same. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. or another complicated applications. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). Instead. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. For instance. I do make some assumptions about your processor. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. Whether or not you use paging hardware. With the Intel processors. There are some major differences though. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it.

different memory allocation schemes (top down. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. MMURTL V1. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. As programs are loaded. chunks of physical memory called pages. and possible partitioning for each program. at least for the operating system. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement. In this type of system. Figure 5.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. As programs are loaded. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. With this scheme. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). and bad. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. Figure 5. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. etc.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. No address translations take place in hardware.). The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. You may be restricted from using some of these options. This can be good. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. bottom up. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations.1. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap.

the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. Figure 5. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. For example. more than likely a hard disk drive. MMURTL V1. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. direct access storage device. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. or even 64 MB). With this scheme.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory. With demand-paged memory. Figure 5.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. With paged memory.Figure 5. For instance. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32.2 .2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. Figure 5.

So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. The minute you apply this term to memory management.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. it means that you're lying to your programs.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique. but it sure looks like it is. With paging hardware. Look at Figure 5. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. and indeed you are.3 . MMURTL V1. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. as in virtual reality. and the hardware allows it. all the programs still use the same linear space.Figure 5. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces.

and implement some of your own. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. The options here are almost mind boggling. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. In order to allow multiple. different data or code). This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs.4 . but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent.Figure 5. parallel linear spaces. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. Note the advantages here.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . yet. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. the memory management hardware must support it. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. MMURTL V1. Once again. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. No doubt. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. which is the idea. A way around this to use a shared memory area. memory is NOT flat. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. there are many possible variations. In Figure 5. Note also the disadvantages. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. you will think of.

This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. and the popular Zilog Z80). They used something called a segment register. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. they needed to identify and manage those segments. All of the Intel products are very well documented. 80186. MMURTL V1. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. When the 80286 came on the scene. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. and you need to understand the implications.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. OS/2 or Windows). The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. They allowed multiple sequential. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. 20 to be exact. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. we had some pretty limited address spaces. Likewise. What they came up with is called Segmentation. The most common. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. When a page has been written to.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. When this was a 16-bit world. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. so I won't go into further detail. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. one for code and several for data access. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. The LRU schemes have many variations. it is usually termed as "dirty. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. or even an 8-bit one. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. However. 8088. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. In fact. They are not limited to 64K. To make this work. When you use a selector. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). and generally the most efficient. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. This was actually several registers.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes.g. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. This means you can save the time rewriting it. It's just what it sounds like. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. and 80286).. This is a very handy feature.

and it will be based on many factors. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. I will give you a good idea what it's like. You make the rules. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. I learned this the hard way. Allocating memory to load applications and services. one person). The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. when one application crashes. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. which will be defined by the paging hardware. With this scheme. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. the type of applications you cater to. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. each block holds its own link. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. You'll have to make a decision. it usually takes the whole system down. when one application crashes. If you do. Allocating memory for applications. Other factors include how much memory you have. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. Remember. MMURTL V1. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. you ARE the operating system. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. Tracking client linear memory allocations. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common.” Before you decide which method to use. They are “linked lists” and “tables. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. But in many systems.With a 32-bit system. I'll discuss each of these things. and Handling protection violations. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . especially if you have a very small programming team (say. This can be a real hassle. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. How you store the links in this list can vary. This way. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. but not in the order I listed them. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. if your hardware supports it.

struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. you would set up the two base link structures. pMemInUse. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. you must remember that pLink. but I'll touch on it some.pNext = 0x100000.pNext until pLink. In the process of memory management initialization.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. } When a client asks for memory. long owner. pFree. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000.pPrev = 0. pMemInUse. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated).size is large enough. pFree. pFree and pMemInUse.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. You now have an idea where they went. /* " " */ long Client = 0. pMemInUse. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic. These are the first links in your list.owner = 0. For my description. which means you can't honor the request.pNext = 0. MMURTL V1. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space.pPrev = 0. char *pPrev.size = 0.owner = 0.16. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. pMemInUse. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. pLink->pNext = 0. struct MemLinkType pFree. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. }. No next link yet. or you reach a link where pNext is null. struct MemLinkType *pLink. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. Of course. This is done by following pLink. pFree.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. I haven't disassembled their code. In the following simple linked list scheme. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. pLink->owner = 0. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse).size = 0. This is another topic entirely.

} } return(0). /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. it WILL get fragmented.WantSize . /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. pNewLink->owner = 0. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1.pNext = &pLink. If you use this code. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request.. And believe me. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. } /* Sorry . pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. WantSize is the size the client has requested.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. Granted. pNewLink->size = pLink->size .pNext. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16). The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. Client is the owner of the new block.16. pLink->size = WantSize. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. The function returns the address of the new memory.. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree.

But you can't depend on this. But we can't add our size to pFree. In other words. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. which returns memory to the free pool. There are several thoughts on cleanup. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. change its owner. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. This will be useful in the following routine. You have the linear address. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. depending on the order of deallocation. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. /* scan till we find out where we go. This will add time to deallocation routines. then move it to the pFree list.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . This provides instant cleanup. validate the link. but cleanup will be a snap. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address.deallocate. This makes the most sense to me.pNext. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. This is where the fragmentation comes it. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . or you can do it all after the fact. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory.16. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. and you insert it there. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. if at all possible. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev.

pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. we couldn't be combined with the previous. you can decide how you want them setup. there are physical pages assigned to it. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. pNewLink->owner = 0.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. If you don't use the paging hardware. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. you will have two memory spaces to track. In the case of the paging hardware.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. } } /* If we got here. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. MMURTL V1. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. The two must be synchronized. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. */ /* In this case. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. It should give you a great number of ideas. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. You can expand on them if needed. return(0). pLink = pNextLink->pNext. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one.

You will be allocated these up front. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. “the Hardware Interface. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. it becomes allocated memory right away. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. it will generally be in a block of addresses. It will be the page’s size. In some cases. Batteries fail.When you work with paging hardware. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. “OS Initialization. and turn on the paging hardware. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. If your processor gives you these types of options. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. add the translations you need and are already using. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. But it's up to you. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . and you should take that into consideration. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. From there. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. MMURTL V1. You must consider where the operating system loads. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. you will have to move it all. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. Wherever you load it. you will have independent tables for each application. You must set up tables. trap. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage.” but once the operating system is loaded. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. This can get complicated. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. If you use paging. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. For instance. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process.

For instance. Large. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. and one data segment for all programs and applications. This could change in future versions. Compact. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. the application code segment. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. uninitialized data segment. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. Medium. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. and I even use the Intel segment registers. The user code segment is 18h. Small. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. and many others. you know that with MS-DOS. the concept of program segments is an old one. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. This greatly simplifies every program we write. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. This was too complicated for me. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . The common data segment is 10h. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. I wanted only one program memory model. If you have no desire to use them. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. but in a very limited fashion. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. and even larger with demand page memory. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. It can be very complicated to use on any system. the initialized data segment. The operating system code segment is 08h. but nice to have.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. 32-bit offset). but will have no effect on applications. and one or more code segments. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. set them all to one value and forget them. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. If you are familiar with segmented programming. I use almost no segmentation.

runs in the task of the job that called it. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. its not magic. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory.967." huh?). Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs).0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each PTE is four bytes long. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS .1. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). No. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. Every Job gets its own PD.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). and each application the same thing. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). but it’s close. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. which can have 1024 entries. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. MMURTL V1. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. Sure. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. For instance. Each PDE is also four bytes long. the kernel . 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). What you don't see. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. because I haven't explained it yet. The operating system itself is technically not a job. is that you really do need most of this capability. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE).memory. but most of the operating system code – specifically. Right? Wrong. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. Each of the PDEs points to a PT. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. If you get our calculator out.294. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. If you want just a few bytes. but you need it in pieces. it has code and data and a task or two. Besides. Because of this. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory.

now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. but it wasn't needed. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. Sounds like a lot of work.1 . Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. yes. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). Finding the PD for an application is no problem. MMURTL V1. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. possibly several for each application. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. Of course. 20. Besides. When I started the application. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. I didn't give it to the Red Cross).0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. Sure. I wanted to keep the overhead down. certainly less overhead than this explanation). the secret is out. Now it's got the PTE. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. If you remember. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. and it needs it fast. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. but when you start talking 10. In the scheme of things. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. Now that it knows where the PD is. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. I could have built a separate table and managed it. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). This is fine for one address per job.Table 5. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. Read on and see what I did. but it does this with very little overhead. Likewise.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. But it was for a good cause (No. However. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. in a word. Code. Well.

.. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum).. MMURTL V1. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. all the shadow entries are marked not present. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. in Table 5. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job.2.. Table 5. AllocPage().. it would be transparent to applications anyway. AllocOSPage(). but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. in fact. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present.. This is 0 to 1Gb.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. 256 257 . As shown. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. If I decided to do it. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. 512 513 .Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. but you get the idea. 768 769 . If I desired. That would really be a waste. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB.0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS .1. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary.. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA.. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors.

Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. and data. which is also my sister's name. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. but only from this caller's memory space. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. It does not tell you whom they belong to. only that number will be deallocated. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. there will be no error. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. With a 1Gb address space. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. and DLLs. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. Now comes that easy part . All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. It's loaded into these initial pages. it will create a new PT. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. They are simply new jobs. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. System Services. nor do you even care. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. initial stack. If the physical memory exists. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). Each application (job) gets it own PD. If so. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. MMURTL V1. If it does. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). but the memory will not be available for later use. from a previous AllocPage() call. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). the caller passes in a linear address. you allocate physical memory from the top down. but no stack.Managing physical memory. It is not important. or will return an error if it's not available. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her).All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. along with the number of pages to deallocate. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. and whether or not it's currently in use. Device drivers. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). Device Drivers have code and data. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. The caller will never know. nor should it try to find out. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated.

There is no new allocation of physical memory. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. They are there to be used as shared code only. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. the second job has access to other job's data. But this gets away from memory management. They have only code. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. Of course. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. you should do it before you read this section. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. and no stack. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. no data. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. but that's trivial (a few instructions). Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. how could they be swapped?). Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. an error will occur.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. If it tries to deallocate them. With a page based system such as MMURTL. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). When an application requests a service. Instantly. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. They share physical memory. This will make more sense if you do. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space.

Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. it responds.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . Places the message on the caller's response exchange. How they see the interface is very important. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). When it's done its work. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. For MMURTL. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. use it. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. One or more PTs for the OS.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. MMURTL V1.

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or for specific timing requirements. there are drawbacks to this idea. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. It executes your instructions. jumps where you tell it. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). But there's always more than meets the eye. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it.Chapter 6. and it simply runs. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. The most common. MMURTL V1. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. The two that are obvious are code size. and the most significant at the lowest. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can port the operating system to almost any platform. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. but that doesn't mean that you won't. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. Therefore. As good as it sounds. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. in theory. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files.how it is accessed in memory. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. and speed. is the interrupt or trap. however. You provide a common. although I never thought so. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. to interoperability with other systems. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. aside from the instructions you give it. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface.

I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. ISA. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). This is handy. Multibus. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. Quite honestly. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. EISA. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. and some that are available now. in that case. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. and most useful.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. For instance. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. just to name a few. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. MMURTL V1.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . address. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). This is called the main bus. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. no matter which device you must code. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). internal bus. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them.some proposed. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. and especially the interface bus. or ISA Bus. Finally. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. They are actually very forgiving devices. The second is the address bus. I've tried both methods. such as those dealing with interrupts. There are many extensions to this bus . but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. PCI. On smaller systems. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. but in some of the processor documentation. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. but I found the most valuable. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. The first set is the data bus. I read many books about my target processor. On the PC-ISA platforms. or CPU bus. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. The most common is the relatively low-speed. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices.

to name a few. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. Unlike UART devices. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. or HDLC. in many cases. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. Another way is programmed I/O. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices.. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. the infamous Centronics interface). Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. network frame handlers. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. except for the hardware clock timing.Less commonly found. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. but still very important. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. but is really a device connected to the bus. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth).25 (an international link and network layer standard). and tape drives. Parallel buses can move data faster. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. or network card).0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. They work with frames or packets of data. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices.g. or even memory to memory. Quite often. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. SDLC. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. They have no way. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. and on some systems. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. MMURTL V1. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. Therefore. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. In fact. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay.

Many books have been written on control of video hardware. is worth more than I can indicate to you.g. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. this only consumes 4000 bytes. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. Quite often. On the PC-ISA platform.. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). and MMURTL V1. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. In most cases. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. If this is the case. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. All the output would be via a serial port. If you want 16 colors for each bit. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. this video memory will contain character codes (e. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . On an 80-column-by-25-line display. but you must realize the importance of this device. This consumes the least amount of your address space. However. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. Each bit array is on its own plane. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. This requires an interrupt service routine. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. In fact. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. or Unicode. Video Like the keyboard.On many systems. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. In character-based systems. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. This could consume a vast amount of memory. This is known as planar pixel access. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach.500 bytes of memory space.

In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. you'll have no problems. “Memory Management. The code for these two calls is shown below. and your tasking model. That equates to 600. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL..” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. multiple. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample).0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . “Video Code. In some cases. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. Chapter 26. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. and timing when you write to the video display area. MMURTL V1. This includes cursor positioning. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. however. this would be 16 planes at 37. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. non-overlapping video users. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization.g. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). I was interested in character-based. I did.000 bytes. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. In many cases. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. I took this into consideration also. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. and GetDMACount(). Your requirements will more than likely be different. and to query the status of the move. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware.allow you to switch between them. have to research hardware cursor control. This is known as packed pixel access. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. except maybe an embedded system board. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. interprocess communications. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. For a 256-color system. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem.

Ch 2 Word Count .DMA DACK0 Page register .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h .Ch 0 Word Count .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .) MMURTL V1.INCLUDE MOSEDF.========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= . DACK1 (etc.Ch 2 Address .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh . There really is no data segment for DMA.Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Ch 1 Address .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . DMA moves (channels 5-7). The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh . while 23-17 are put in the page register. Bit 16 is ignored by the page register. With word.Read/Write Mode register . etc.Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS .Ch 3 Word Count .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah . etc.Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h . .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device. Optimize it as you please.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .Ch 0 Address . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .CODE With 8-bit DMA.Ch 1 Word Count .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch .DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h .Read/Write DMA Rq Register .INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller. but the standard include file MOSEDF. the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA. This is called a cascaded device.Read Status/Write Command .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Read Command/Write Single bit mask .INC . .Ch 3 Address . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16). The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware.DATA . There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .

AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. AL XOR AL. so they always specify byte count for the setup call.Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. . AL MOV AL. AL XOR AL.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . AL MOV AL. dType. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware.All commands set to default (0) . DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. AL OUT DMA2Mode. AL RETN .CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . 04 . . This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. AL XOR AL. dChannel.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. 41h OUT DMA1Mode.CH 0 DMA 1 . . If they do. we do math) MMURTL V1. .0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . the segment is wrapped around. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers.6 and 7. or 128K boundaries for a word move. For channels 5. . AL OUT DMA2Clear. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. 0C0h DMA2Mode. .CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 .CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 .Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. 40h DMA1Mode. . DmaSetUp(dPhyMem.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. AL AL. which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. . 43h OUT DMA1Mode. as you might assume). AL OUT DMA2Mode. Out. . . . AL OUT DMA2Mode. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. even on word moves. AL OUT DMA1Clear. 42h OUT DMA1Mode. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. AL . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . Verify).CH 0 DMA 2 . I do this for the caller. sdMem.

Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX.ESP . (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . AL EAX. dPhyMem . 00001000b .. 04 . 3 Cascade . MOV EAX. Hi Byte . In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . AL AL.3. MMURTL V1. Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . 1 . 00000000b AL. dType . AL DMA1FF. [EBP+28] DMA10Add. Put it in BL MOV EAX. 0 . AL . 1 Single Cycle. [EBP+20] CMP EAX.0 = Verify. OR with MODE . 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. Yes CMP EAX. 6 .0 Demand Mode. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. AL . 0C0h . . PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . 2 = Out (Read memory) . BL DMA1Mode. Lo byte address .0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS .5. [EBP+12] . 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. AL EAX.7) . 1 = In (Write Mem). 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm.1. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. dMode . MOV EBP. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. . dChannel (0. 2 Block.6. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. get dType AND BL. [EBP+16] . OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. 00000100b . dMode CMP EAX.Jump table for channel selection . ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . 8 DMA10Add.2. Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL.

OR with MODE/TYPE . AL EAX. AL . 8 DMAPage2. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . EAX DMAEnd .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . dPhyMem . 00000010b AL. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL DMA1FF. EAX DMAEnd . Hi Byte . AL AL. AL DMA1FF. 8 DMA10Cnt.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. AL AL. sdMem . BL DMA1Mode. 00000001b AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . dPhyMem . Lo byte address . AL EAX. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. 8 DMA12Cnt. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. [EBP+28] DMA11Add. 8 DMA11Cnt. 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. OR with MODE . Highest byte (to page register) . Highest byte (to page register) . channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMAPage1. AL AL. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. 8 DMAPage0. AL AL. BL DMA1Mode. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. Lo byte address . AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. Hi Byte . sdMem . 8 DMA11Add. AL EAX. CH2 . 8 DMA12Add. 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. CH1 . [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. AL AL.

BL DMA2Mode. dPhyMem . AL EAX. 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. 00000001b AL. 8 DMA13Add. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . EAX DMAEnd . 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. Lo byte address . AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . . BL DMA1Mode. . AL EAX. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL EAX. 8 DMA21Cnt. OR with MODE . We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . sdMem . 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX.0 AL. Highest byte (to page register) . . AL AL. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . EBX EAX. AL AL. 1 DMA21Add. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . . MMURTL V1. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . EAX EAX. Hi Byte . . CH3 . AL DMA1FF. . . AL EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+28] DMA13Add. 8 DMA13Cnt. AL EAX. 0FFFFh EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . 8 DMA21Add. AL EAX. AL AL.XOR EAX. 8 DMAPage3. 15 DMAPage5. AL DMA2FF. EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. AL AL. AL EAX. . 00000011b AL. OR with MODE . [EBP+28] EBX. CH1 on DMA 2 .NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . Hi Byte . [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. . AL EAX. AL EAX.

EAX EAX. AL EAX. BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . EAX DMAEnd . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Rid of all but lower 16 . Rid of all but lower 16 . EBX EAX. AL EAX.0 AL. 15 DMAPage6. 8 DMA23Add. dPhyMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. Lo byte address . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. EAX EAX. CH3 on DMA 2 . [EBP+28] EBX. dPhyMem . AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. 15 DMAPage6.EBP MMURTL V1. EBX EAX. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. 0FFFFh EAX. 1 DMA22Add. 8 DMA22Cnt. AL AL. 1 DMA23Add. OR with MODE . CH2 on DMA 2 . DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. Lo byte address . OR with MODE . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . sdMem . 00000011b AL. BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. EAX . 8 DMA23Cnt. Hi Byte . 00000010b AL. AL DMA2FF. Hi Byte . sdMem .DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . [EBP+24] EAX. AL DMA2FF. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. 0FFFFh EAX. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL EAX. AL AL. 8 DMA22Add. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . 1 EAX DMA22Cnt.

In this case. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. . you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX.Return address for count . PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. . 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. .6. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes.Channel . . GetDMACount(dChannel. ..5. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where . this is bytes. this will be the number of words.535: . . For channels 5 through 7. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. . DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. dChannel (0. On some devices.3. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done.g. The count is number of WORDS-1 . DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. . 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX.2. pwCountRet) . GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. . . EBP+ 16 12 .POP EBP RETF 20 . To move 64K. [EBP+16] MOV ESI.7) . no error from the floppy controller). . you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX. you actually set the channel byte count 65. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX.1. . 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. 7 MMURTL V1. You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel.0 . the count will be returned.ESP MOV EAX. For channels 0 through 3. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made.

0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS .No such channel! . This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. The operating system may. however. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. Your job is to know how to program the PICU. As you can imagine (or will have realized). .JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. which determines the interrupt interval. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. . many devices interrupt the processor. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. MMURTL V1. A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt.DX MOV CH. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware.DX MOV CL. One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. and read as required. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. This is not very complicated. Quite often. . CX XOR EAX. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. be responsible to program these dedicated timers. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. or at set intervals. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly. . No Error . program. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. Usually. . . Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . . or even hours in some cases. Internally. 20 bytes of junk to dump . These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. . they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. In the process of an interrupt. but it is critical that it's done correctly. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR).AL IN AL. The PICU takes care of this for you. Therefore. . EAX MOV ESP.

You will need the hardware manual for code examples.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

then jumping to the first address of the sector. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. For this reason. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. This is known as a multistage boot. you'll have to do some research. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. In the PC world. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. then execute it. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. including hardware. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. This device will. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. MMURTL V1. To be honest. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. I've done all your homework. If this is true. where boot ROMs usually reside. be organized with a file system. and it's not exactly easy. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. and important structures." that's exactly what I mean. tasks. The question is. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. more complicated. no doubt. the boot sector code may load another. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. If you're using another platform. then go through each section of the basic initialization.Chapter 7. This can be done in more than one step if required.at least not as a file from the file system. In this chapter. In other words. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. we start with loading the operating system. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. it executes from a reset state. memory. When I say "just enough code. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know.

such as a whole track). 7. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. In my case. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. 2. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. then executed the next instruction at the new address. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. This was a double problem. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. This was the case with my system. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. the hardware commands. 3. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. MMURTL V1. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. 6. and the code segment loads at a fixed address.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. 5. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. In an ISA system. First. 8. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. Second. 5. then Drive C. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. 8. 1. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. 4. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. such as a fixed track or cylinder. then life is easy. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. which they store in a small work area in RAM. and where you stored it. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). 4. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. But it gets more complicated..0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . so you can begin execution. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector.g. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. This lead to two relocation efforts. Where your operating system will reside in memory. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). 6. 2. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. 3. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. because they provide the BIOS. 7. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed.

and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.disks. IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors.Drive boot sector came from . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single .The . . The boot sector code also .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) . (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .nSectors/track .LIMIT 768 slots . (worthless) .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk. DS:CSEG.needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible .nTotalSectors if > 32Mb .media desc.Resvd sectors .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . Why not? I do own it.Padding to make it 3 bytes .instructions.0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .nFATs . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.on this disk that the operating needs to know.386P directive is required because I use protected .stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) . . Examine the following code: . There's no operating system here now.This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .nSect in FAT .386P .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1. One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it. ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG .BASE (Linear) .11 bytes for volume name .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .Root Dir entries max .nBytes/Sector . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.nHeads .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots . This contains additional information about the file system .Sect/Cluster . The OS must .

The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . return address.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI.This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. Its pseudo jump . AX MOV DS. vector location. 8000h ..Segment for new location .Offset to new location (Next PUSH) . 0078h . Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . 09000h ES. 7C0h DS.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS .This is done by finding out where it is and writing . that I calculated after assembling it once. at the beginning of this code CLI .Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: . 6Fh PUSH AX RETF . Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. Push the . . AX SP.Clear interrupts .Destination segment . MOV AX. AX SI. MOV CX. table so it can read the disk for us. some of the parameters to it from the boot sector. nSectPerTrack . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. AX MOV BX. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. 512 MOVSB . 0Fh .Make DS correct again . AX DI. DI AX. then "return" to it.Source segment .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX. SI CX.9000h SS. . It works.Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX.Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter .Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.

really IS the OS.Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX.What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster .on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX. now let's read some stuff!! . nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) . FATS (1 or more) . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. We need the space for other code. AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot . POP DS . bBootDrive XOR AX. Additional Reserved sectors (optional) .Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot .Save in CX . AX MOV AL. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated .Bad boot goes here and displays a message then ..Must set interrupts for BIOS to work .0020h . .CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root .waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX. ADC DX. cluster because the first 2 are unused).The layout of the Disk is: . CX .. OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars . nOSSectors . MOV SI.The controller is reset.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file .Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) .Reset failed.Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . WORD PTR nHidden .stage one of the a two stage loader should be).Required for Disk System Reset . nBytesPerSect BX AX. nRsvdSect MOV CX.0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS .so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be.AX is at sector for cluster 0. but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist .logical sector order. Hidden Sectors (optional) .to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or . AX . MOV CX.STI MOV DL.

BYTE PTR ResvdByte .Number of sectors AH.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte.This is a single sector read loop .0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . It's slow. 0Eh MOV BX.Sector to read DX.BX will be zeroed at top of loop .Wait for keystroke . bBootDrive DL. CH .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH.Next Sector MMURTL V1. DH . 2 . AX . BX . OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX. 20h ES.Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . Cyl in AX DH. Read a . .Head to DH. BX AX .512 bytes for segment . BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX. 06000h MOV ES.Read 13h .I increment ES and leave BX 0 . Drive to DL CX. Hi 2 bits to CL CL.Cyl into CX CL. ES BX.AX 16h 19h .0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX.Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL. nSectPerTrack SI . MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC . before we move it down to 0000h . ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI. 1 . DX .AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH.This is segment where we load the OS. .OR with Sector number AL.Leaves Head in DL.Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL. but works well. DL .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads .XOR INT INT AX. 6 . AX has .

BX SI.DI CX. BX SI. . 8000h .64h TEST AL.AL XOR CX.AX DI.AL XOR CX. AX ES.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear. SI AX. 06000h DS.CX IBEmm0: IN AL. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.A20 line should be ON Now .CX IBEmm1: IN AL. 07000h DS.So move the OS MOV DX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 . DX MOVSW . move . DX XOR SI.WORD move . SI AX.CX IBEmm2: IN AL.1000h ES.64h TEST AL. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL.0 .0DFh OUT 60h.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section . turn on the A20 line.AX DI.0D1h OUT 64h.LOOP NextSector . Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.WORD move .the OS down to address 0.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS . SI MMURTL V1.Now we disable interrupts.64h TEST AL.DI CX. DX MOVSW . set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.

MS-DOS used this.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .DI CX.EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.BX FS. 00h 0Dh.'. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok. 'Bad Boot Disk!'. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector.lst).BX GS. It's worthless. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh.Set up segment registers . 10h DS.1 MOV CR0. 00h '.call JMP FAR 08h:10000h.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump . 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END .bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction.Load Processor GDT Pointer . 0Ah. 9000h MOV DS. DX MOVSB .CR0 OR AL.BX .Control Register . The first 512 bytes is the .We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually . and a map file from the link (Bootblok.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS . BX XOR EDX. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code. 'Loading MMURTL'. As you change and experiment with the boot sector. The segment and code size escape .AX DI. EDX MOV DL. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format.EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.BX ES. I left it in. 0Ah.map).BX SS.Load Processor ITD Pointer .BYTE move MOV BX. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.EXE header.2000h ES. such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).asm <Enter> This will make a .Clear prefetch queue with JMP .Set protected mode bit .

you can use Debug to load it as a . you can use the Dump command to display it. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. and number of sectors following it. This is easy to do. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. Write. From the MS-DOS prompt.bin in the root directory of drive C. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. logical sector number.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. you should not do this to your active development drive. Keep in mind.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. To read the boot sector from a disk. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. After you have assembled your boot sector. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. This will show you a segmented address. or after the fact. It's quite easy to do with the Load.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. The results can be disastrous. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. They may do this as they format the disk. and Name commands. C:\>Debug BootBlok. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. Register. To find where Debug loaded it. Then copy the operating system image to the disk.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. then write it to the disk.

I have provided a utility called MakeImg. It is called MMLoader. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. “The Hardware Interface. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. All of the hardware that is resident in the system . you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. I couldn't. This single source file program (MMLoader. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it.c) to properly build it. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79.asm on CD-ROM. It should help give you a picture of what's required. They must simply be initialized to their default states. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. With MMURTL. I'm happy. If so. the Direct Memory Access hardware. up to the point we jump the monitor program.C:\> Copy OS. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. Hopefully. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. At this point. “Initialization Code. and basic timers . the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. If it is in an executable format from a linker. but it's not necessary. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. It is all contained in the source file Main. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. Additionally. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series).IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format.00 loader. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. understands. Chapter 21. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . This includes setting up the OS stack. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). It does everything that the boot sector code does.” MMURTL V1. Good luck. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6.

Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. Either way. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. you've got your job cut out for you. I just left it alone. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. you just learn to live with it. on the Intel processors. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. It's not that big. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. and also some basic variables. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. The option is usually up to you. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. MMURTL V1. the A20 address line serves no purpose. Being a little conservative. If you want to eliminate it. setting up for multitasking. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. you can address above 1Mb. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). If you use one more bit. In all of the cases that were discussed. This leaves you with a few options . but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. is not trivial. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). as well as one to switch to. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. If you desire. “the Tasking Model. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. Chapter 3. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. but you may also be performing your own tasks management.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. For instance. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. While in real mode. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. This depends on the platform.

My goal was not to discover why it existed. but one I'm glad I didn't face. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. or is at least loaded. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. “Memory Management Code. some which didn't work on all machines. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. although some people may still have problems with it. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). where the address match will occur. You don't know how much you have. Meanwhile. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. I tried several methods. This piece of code may have a lot to do. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. back to the initialization (already in progress). This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. or any number of things. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. If your machine doesn't support this method. Chapter 19. and you can't manage or allocate it. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. otherwise. At this stage of the initialization. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. It's not that much of a headache. MMURTL V1. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. This seems to work on most machines. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. The following list is not all-inclusive.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . The point is. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). If you chose not to do this. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't).

Chapter 15. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. What could be easier? I can't imagine. and leave undocumented. Quite often though.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. what order are they in? If the stack is used. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). If the parameters are on the stack. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. an embedded system. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. If this happens to me. may be similar to another documented call on the system. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. No kidding! With UNIX. I'm still not entirely happy with it. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. The call is made. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it.Chapter 8. or your own consumption and enjoyment. life was easy in this respect. This may sound like a no-brainer. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. the function does its job and returns. In any and all of these cases. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call.” shows you how I documented my calls. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. they do. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. “API Specification. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. because the call they add. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. In the following sections. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. public distribution. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. that on occasion. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. I found. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. UNIX was written with C.

Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. but the stack is not used for parameters. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's.junkies). Execution speed. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). this is MMURTL V1. as if you couldn't guess). A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. Pascal . that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. or at least every time it's rebuilt. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. Your opinion may vary on this. code size. Some use registers. First.g. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). faster. the interrupt vector table). no doubt. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. There are two reasons this library may be required. some use both. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. This device is extremely hardware dependent.. Second. However. It's up to you. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. for example. I'm sure you know of several. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. has three or four calling conventions. In other words. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. OS/2. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. and it required a fixed number of parameters. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. especially when it comes to speed. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. Many systems use an intermediate library. some use the stack. support several conventions. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface.

If portability is near the top of your wish list. the procedural interface is the key.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. MMURTL V1. For application source code portability. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. This may be a personal issue for me. When you need to return data from the call. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. then execute the interrupt instruction. However. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. However. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call." Yeah. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. I really hope not. and the call gates are really not a problem. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. the hardware will be obsolete. For the operating system source. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. right. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces).not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. The intermediate library would fill in this value. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform.

Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. and certain memory-management functions. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. Suddenly. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. For instance. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. timers. If this is the case. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. and this wasn't my original plan. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. I set out to design the simplest. Do you see what I mean? Internally. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. that it's almost impossible to separate them. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. and Statusing the driver. You more than likely will. You need to consider these requirements in your design. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. They work with the hardware.

is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system.ESP SUB ESP. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). EBP+20 nDevices. pInitData. when one user is doing serial communications. This is a common requirement on many systems. nDevices MMURTL V1. “Systems Programming. The first call listed in this section. EBP+24 . You'll see certain validity checks. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. EAX MOV EAX. pStatRet. so I won't go over it here. . [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. When you look at the code. . this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice.ASM. InitDevDr(). . sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. For example. This will give you a good place to start in your design. pDCBs. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant.InitDevDr(dDevNum. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable).Set up local vars . Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. . InitDevDr(dDevNum. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). EAX MOV EAX. nDevices. In a multitasking system. . This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. dLBA. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX.0 . dOpNum. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. 16 MOV EAX. ndBlocks.

All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: .Decrement nDevices .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX. prgDevs .nDevices .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].pDCBx = 0 if not used yet .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX.dDevNum .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX. now move the DCB pointer(s) into array . 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.Set nDev to number of devices again . 0 . [EBP+24] EAX.Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX .Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .12 . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX].Next caller DCB . .Empty.Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs. rgpDCBs EAX. rgpDCBs MOV EAX. [EBP+16] nDevs.dDevNum MMURTL V1.NONE left .Now check to see if device is already installed . and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX. 2 ADD EBX. 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12]. we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX.All went OK so far.If we got here. 2 . dExchTmp . EAX EBX. 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . OK to use . [EBP+20] .error exit .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.Point EBX to rgpDCB . ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Yes . ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: . dDevX SHL EAX. 0 JNZ InitDev06 .OK to replace existing driver? . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].Not valid DCB number InitDev01: .Next devnum .No . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.

Set up for no error .Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX. PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . loop through each .Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. 4 EAX. [EBP+20] . .ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . The other two calls.Any more DCBs?? . [EAX] .ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for .also place Exchange into DCB. MOV EBX. nDevices . EAX and ECX are set up. are almost identical to DeviceInit(). and are not presented here.next p in rgp of DCBs .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. SHL EBX. 0 .Now that EBX. DeviceOp() and DeviceStat(). You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB. [EBP+20] .ADD EBX. ADD EAX.EBX now points to correct pointer . EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 .Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. MOV EBX. ECX [EBX]. MOV EBP. This is the same exchange . . DeviceInit(dDevNum.DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it. and . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . EAX .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .the first customer to use. -83- RICHARD A BURGESS . CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device.ESP . . or reset it after a failure. . 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX. 2 . sdInitData).for all devices that one driver controls.Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. EBX .device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . rgpDCBs MOV EBX.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. dExchTmp . ErcBadDevNum . PUSH EBP .EAX points to first DCB .If the device driver was NOT reentrant .next DCB . EAX EBX. EAX MOV EAX. MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch]. pInitData. [EBP+20] MOV ECX.0 . .

Push exchange number . but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments. It you use assembly language and provide code examples. CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. 0 DevInit02 EAX.All looks good with device number . If not we .Get device error back .Device IS reentrant .YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP. Send semaphore message to Exch .Bogus Message . The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.so we check to see if driver is reentrant. 0 .Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .Push all params for call to DD .save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Yes .save ptr to DCB .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 .Save ptr to DCB .Is there a physical device? DevInit02: ..call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.Ignore kernel error .Get semaphore ticket . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType]. ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd . adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Get DCB ptr back .NO driver! . MMURTL V1. This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design. . .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .Ptr to message area .No.Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX. 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX ..

It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. but alas. MS-DOS). you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. Argument . usually passed on the stack. “Interprocess Communications. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory.. or a Procedure in Pascal. and DWORD.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD.1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. Byte . It may even be entertaining. If I were a perfectionist. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. and a dword is also accessed at the same address.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word .0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables.1 . The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . “Memory Management.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE.g. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems.” and Chapter 5. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). I think you will find it useful.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence.Same as Procedure. Call . WORD. Before writing your first MMURTL program. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application. though.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using.A Function in C or Pascal. Function . or a Procedure in Assembler.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . Look at the table 9.Chapter 9.A value passed to a function or procedure. Terminology Throughout this section.

or dError. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). Most return a value that is a an error or status code. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. Pascal. But the address is really a call gate. All parameters are pushed from left to right. This will be done by the compiler. or simply convey information that may. Some do not. erc. It may indicate an error. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate).) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. MMURTL V1. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. even the assembler or processor itself. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. and assembly language. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. and in some cases. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. not the real address of the SetXY function. “API Specification. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . In some C compilers. and are expanded to 32-bit values. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates.

2: Table 9. She may pick up your dirty socks. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span.. but she would much rather that you did it. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor... 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . . MMURTL V1.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL is a Paged memory system. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. you should deallocate it. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. “Interprocess Communications. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory.g. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated)..” and Chapter 4. The operating system resides at address 0. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. If you need a 2Mb array. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9.. There are no far data pointers. Chapter 3. ... you allocate it.2 . They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. When you are done with it. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use.Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark.” describe this in great detail. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. malloc() in C). Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. you simply allocate it. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). “The Tasking Model. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem.. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space.. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. In fact.

This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). However. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. dRespExch.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. cbData2. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. npSend. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). MMURTL does NOT. You allocate 5 pages. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. This is not a problem. dMsg1. wSvcCode. Of course. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). cbData1. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. pData2. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. This means that in a multitasking environment. Address 40100000h is returned to you. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. protect programmers from themselves. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. dData0.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. dData1. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. Data. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. however. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. pData1. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. so long as you know it can't be addressed. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . Now you allocate 4 pages. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. pRqHndlRet.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. SendMsg (dExch. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). The operating system Code.

but you don't want that either.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. such as data communications. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables).Normally. /* User Name . accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. char sbJobName[14]. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. For instance. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. Messaging is very powerful. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. and user interaction. Other than that. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. only your program will be trashed. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . Prior to calling SpawnTask().LString */ MMURTL V1. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. This eats all of your link blocks. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. The pointer is read-only. printing. If you do. MMURTL is not a mind reader. you need to know your job number. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some.

dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. char fVidPause. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. long nLines. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. char *pVirtVid. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. long ExitError. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. char JcbCmdLine[80]. and special keys. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. unsigned char ScrlCnt. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. Chapter 13.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. char JcbSysOut[50].LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL.LString */ std output . char fCursType. To change data in the JCB. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). long NextJCB. The keyboard interface is a system service. char JcbSysIn[50]. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath.LString */ std input . pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet.char sbPath[70]. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. “Keyboard Service. MMURTL V1. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. with unused portions padded. char JcbExitRF[80]. long nCols. char *pVidMem. long CrntY. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. For most applications. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. editing. pPathRet. char fCursOn. long NormVid. long CrntX. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . }. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. long VidMode.

MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . The high bit of each. logically OR the Foreground. Foreground colors. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24.4096 bytes). the high nibble is the background. and cursor positioning.Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). In this byte. character placement. and low nibble is the foreground. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes). 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS .3. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79.4. and 9. is the intensity bit. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. only the least significant byte is used. PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. Background. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. The colors for TTYOut(). Tables 9. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. and Blink if desired to form a single value.4 . Background colors describe the attributes.3 . Table 9.

Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. 0. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. This is done with the SetExitJob() call.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. exchanges. This is done by calling the Chain() function. MMURTL V1. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. This includes any memory. or system calls. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). If no file is specified. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. BGBLUE|WHITE).0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS .". and other things allocated while you were running. Remember. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. 17. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. MMURTL has to hunt for them. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. "This is a test.

The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. and memory management operations. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. Additional exchanges.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. if needed. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. such as: Additional memory. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). as well as for other services. Service names are casesensitive. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. if required. service them. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. Additional tasks if required. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. Wait for messages. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. MMURTL V1. the service does the processing and Responds. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. Client programs make a Request.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. Pascal. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). or provide services to application programs. use messaging.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. and Assembly language programmers.Chapter 10. then Respond. It's not very useful.

char npRecv. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. long cbData2. }. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. long dData1. Message). OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). char *pData1.1. char *pRqHndlRet. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. Message[2]. char *pData2. MainExch. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. long cbData1. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). long ServiceRoute. MainExch). ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. long dData0. long RespExch. while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. long RQBRsvd3.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . long RqOwnerJob. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. ErrorToUser. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". long RQBRsvd1. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. int ServiceCode.Listing 10.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. NextNumber = 0. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. char npSend.pData1 = NextNumber++. long RQBRsvd2. long dData2. else if (pRqBlk. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError).

in the File System. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. For example. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. because the operating system does not alias them as such. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. and dData2. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. dData1. As a system service writer. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. In fact. In the simple example above. The complexity of your service. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. These items are dData0. you define the data items you need. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. They are 32-bit values. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. the service only defines one service code that it handles. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. The memory address of the Request Block. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. This is the number 1 (one). The service must never attempt to write to the request block. As a system service. and what service you provide. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. and how much information a program must pass to you. cbData1 and cbData2. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. or any data movement back to the caller. and another RenameFile. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. For all other values of the service code. one number represents OpenFile. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. another CloseFile. The operating MMURTL V1.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . when you receive a Request. For larger data movement to the service.The Request Block As you can see. This is called the service code.

The first is the request block handle. and moves it to another exchange. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. before responding to any other requests you are holding. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . If so. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. In each of these cases. Synchronous services wait. cbData1 and pData2. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. In the keyboard service. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service.system is “aware” of this. If so. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. If this happens. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. but carries it one step farther. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. Disk drives. you must respond to it immediately. then respond before waiting for the next request. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. until you respond. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. receive a request. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. the file may not exist. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. which is a valuable system resource. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. cbData2. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. MMURTL is built in layers. MMURTL uses this concept. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. RAM disks. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. When you write system services. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. However. This is the easiest way to handle requests. communications ports (serial and parallel). you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. tape drives.

keyboard. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. keyboard. or is included in the OS code at build time. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). or a processor protection violation will occur. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. RAM DISK). Block Size. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). to handling complex devices such as hard drives. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. the PICUs. powerful.and sequential-oriented. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. or network frame handlers (i.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. multitasking. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. SCSI ports..which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. multi-threaded environment.g. interrupt vectors. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. C and Pascal). as well as where the data is on the device. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. basic video.. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system.e.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. Sequential devices are things like communications ports. MMURTL V1. timer hardware. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. or any OS structures. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. hard disk. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. I have made it rather painless to build fast. For example. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). the file system is at user level (3). which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. With InitDevDr(). Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. Things like Device name. network link layer devices). This means message. If a device driver controls more than one device. The interface is non-specific. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it.g. It does not directly access hardware.

like any application in MMURTL. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. Call InitDevDr(). Allocate exchanges. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. The generic steps are described below. Do anything else you need before being called. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. InitDevDr() never returns to you. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. You can name them anything you want in your program. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. In C this would be main(). if needed. it's the main program block. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. At this point. if needed. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). if required. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. or in Pascal. just like any other program. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. and is programmed. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. Check or set up the device’s. The main entry point will never be called again. The device driver looks. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. This layer of code performs several functions for you. Set up interrupt service routines.

This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). If you use MMURTL V1. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. MMURTL uses paged memory. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0).”API Specification.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . Timer Facilities Quite often. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. direction. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. although it’s not a requirement. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. or how much was transferred. especially if the driver controls two devices. device drivers are very close to the hardware. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. In other operating systems. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. Two calls provide these functions. This is often called an interrupt vector. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. and size of a DMA move. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. mode. specifically DOS. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp().

Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt).Alarm().1-. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). but easy to figure out. Table 10. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . a structure in C. or assembler to construct the DCB. so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. you can use SendMsg(). and KillAlarm() functions.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. and how to implement them in your code. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. Table 10.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. If you use SendMsg(). IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. Alarm().) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. or you only need to send one message from the ISR.

In other words. sector zero. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. If it is another device. This reduces disk arm movement which.Each driver names the device it serves. usually an unexpected one. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. DevType . For devices that are not re-entrant. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. Each sector is considered a block. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. The Hard disk driver operates the same way. For example. and handle device conflicts internally.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address).OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName .Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. head zero. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . pDevInit. the SendMsg(). MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. not the next track. Each device name must be unique. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. and you read one sector past the end of that track.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port).This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. increases throughput. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. where several devices are controlled though one access point. and WaitMsg() primitives. If the device is sequential. RETN is the proper instruction.When a driver encounters an error. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. then this should contain a 2. fDevReent . the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. Disk drives are divided into sectors.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. sbDevName . DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. MMURTL V1.this indicates whether the device is addressable. but this is not much of a limitation. we then move to the next head. if you are on track zero. pDevOp. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. In assembler. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. dLastDevErc . If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. znBPB . ndDevBlocks . In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler).number of bytes per block. this is device dependent. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. For instance. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). it should set this variable with the last error code it received.

dnBlocks. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. They equate to standard device operations such as read. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. OSUseONLY1. write. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. pInitData. no job is currently assigned the device. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored.2. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. wJob .dOpNum.4. pStatRet.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. dLBA. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. this flag should be true (non-zero). verify.5. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved.fSingleUser . pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32).3.pData). The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time.dLBA. dOpNum. If this is zero. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller.If the fSingleUser is true.6 . ndBlocks. and format. Your function implementations must do the same. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1.

Not all devices will return status on demand.pStatRet.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified.pInitData.dInitData). For sequential devices. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice.dStatusMax. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. this will simply be the number of bytes. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe. and so on.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. parity.pdStatusRet).

It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. This is because one controller. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. If this is not the case. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. and so on. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. After the Device driver has been loaded. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. If the driver controls more than one device. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. pDCBs. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. This means the devices are number consecutively. and one DMA channel if applicable. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. fReplace If true. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. MMURTL V1. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. such as a disk or SCSI controller. nDevices. this is the first number of the devices. the second at pDCBs + 128. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64.

0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call. then use it. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status.

.

This is the initial jobs file. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. the job he is currently viewing. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up.Job file .to the run file. or terminate. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file. No parameters are passed .1. Even when a Job is not being displayed. The name must start in the first column of a line. (e. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name.1 shows a sample INITIAL.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon .no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. The format is very simple.system boot in this file. No spaces. . The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete.JOB file. When the user presses these global keys. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication.RUN) .Maximum line length is 80 characters total. a buffer in memory. as well as the video display. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. Listing 11. .the run file name are ignored. If you intend to write an operating system. .INITIAL. If it's displaying video data.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1. One run file name per line.after each entry.Chapter 11. is assigned to the new job or is terminated.JOB.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS .RUN <---.run C:\MMSYS\CLI. C:\MSamples\Service\Service.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . the keyboard. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line.g. In future versions of MMURTL. tabs or comments after . The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen.JOB .. The file name must contain the FULL . Listing 11.file name including path. Sample Initial. Drive:\DIR\NAME. Any spaces.

1. MMURTL V1. job display. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. and the parallel port (LPT) driver.RUN.1 describes the function of each assigned key. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . Table 11. RS-232 serial communications. Table 11. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. priority task.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI.This is the total count of task switches since boot up. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. During this process.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). any errors returned are displayed. and access to the built-in debugger. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization.. Task switches total . The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk.1. Once the initialization is complete. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. They are displayed as typed. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code.

This is the number of tasks currently queued to run.h" "MDevDrv. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor. If this number is greater than zero. There were no tasks ready to run. Listing 11. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks. even in the same job. See listing 11. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory.h" "MFiles.2. Each new task uses one of these. Free Task State Segments . Free Link Blocks .h" "MMemory.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ". Free Job Control Blocks . MMURTL V1.2. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase.These are task-management structures.h" "MKbd.A small structure used by all messages sent and received.h" "MJob.CPU idle ticks (no work) . These are static and the count is determined at OS build time.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . the C library code can be used.h" "MVid. but have a fixed count at OS build time. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel.h" "MData. the request block is returned for re-use. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. including requests. Free Exchanges .This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval.This is the number of free job control blocks left. that don't get picked up right away. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated. Response is made by the service.h" "MTimer. Each job uses one. Tasks Ready to Run . but the count is fixed at OS build time.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do. This number may seem a little high.

unsigned long KillExch. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. MngrMsg[2]. LastSeekErc0. MUltitasking. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. LastErcByte0. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". All Rights Reserved". LastSeekErc1.static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". static unsigned long GP1Hndl. U32 blocks_done. U8 type_now. 1990-1995. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. fIntOnReset. LastErcByte1. MngrHndl. LastRecalErc1. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. date. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. fKilled. LastStatByte0. gcode. U32 BlocksMax. KillError. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. Burgess. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. MngrExch. static unsigned long GP1Exch. KillJobNum. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc.A. static unsigned long GPHndl.Message based. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. LastStatByte1. tick. MMURTL V1. U8 fNewMedia. static long time.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . Real-Time kerneL". static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n".

coms_setup(void). xsprintf. fdisk_setup(void). nJCBLeft. static unsigned long nMemPages. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. nTSSLeft. lpt_setup(void).c */ HardIDE. extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet.c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. #asm MMURTL V1. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. /* out to 64 bytes */ }.asm */ Floppy. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. nSlices. nReady. nHalts. /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. InitFS(void). /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). char *pJCBRet). nSwitches. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. BootDrive. nLBLeft. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . U32 resvd1[2].c */ Parallel.c */ Fsys. /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus.c */ RS232.U8 ResetStatByte. nRQBLeft.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . char *ppJCBRet). nEXCHLeft. hdisk_setup(void). static long StatStack[256].

0 JL isdigit0 .0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX . unsigned long width. EAX MOV ESI. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0).MOV EAX. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. #asm XOR EAX. minus. zero. long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. chr = *fmt++.No CMP AL.[EBP+8] CMP AL. total = 0. 30h . JLE isdigit1 . width = value = i = 0. *ptr = justify = minus = 0. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . justify. char *fmt. chr. i. 39h . zero = ' '.[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. ptr = &numstk[32]. value. total. *ptr.

++argptr. break. break. break. case 'c' : *--ptr = value. case 'b' : i = 2. break. *--ptr = chr. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. ++total. case 's' : ptr = value.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . } value = *--argptr. ++minus. if(width) --width. } case 'u' : i = 10. case 'o' : i = 8. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. chr = *fmt++. default: *--ptr = chr. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. break.'0'). /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'.width = (width * 10) + (chr . } while(value /= i). break. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16.

strlen(buffer). ap). } /* move in data */ i = 0.) { va_list ap. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. va_start(ap. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. just move into string *outptr++ = chr. ++i. TTYOut(buffer. ++total.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . . } } *outptr = 0. ++total. char buffer[S_SIZE]. return total.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). } } } else { /* not format char. i < width. ++total. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. fmt). } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. long total. Color). } /************************************ MMURTL V1. ++i.. ++total. fmt. va_end(ap. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. return total. fmt).1. value = width ..

) { va_list ap. PutVidChars(27. PutVidChars(0. 26. return total. fmt). long total. fmt). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. SetXY(0.1.22). total = _ffmt(s. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor.0. . rgMonMenu1. MMURTL V1. 80. BLUE|BGWHITE).0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetXY(0. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. va_end(ap. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. 24. BLUE|BGWHITE). it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. PutVidChars(0.80.. fmt. "%d". va_start(ap. rgMonMenu2. rgMonMenu3. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc.Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. Msg[2]. PutVidChars(54. 26. iLine. WHITE|BGBLUE). rgStatLine. char *fmt. ap).. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated.1). } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). BLUE|BGWHITE). } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. 24. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. tick).1). 25. 24. Exch. When it gets one. i.23. return. &iLine). GetXY(&iCol.

/* year */ 0x0f). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. 0x0f).. rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date).. PutVidChars(0. /* sleep 0.50). pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. &pJCB). PutVidChars(0.5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). 80. KillError). for(. 80.0. WHITE|BGBLUE). KillMsg). /* Day */ 0x0f). *pVid. ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). 0x0f). TSSExch in it. The message has Error.5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). Error: %d\r\n". rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). /* sleep 0.0. Tone(440. Sleep(50). rgStatLine. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. "%d". /* month */ 0x0f). rgStatLine. KillJobNum.. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). Sleep(50). WHITE|BGBLUE).*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate. (time & 0x0f). tick). "%d". CheckScreen(). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). GetTimerTick(&tick). xprintf("Job number %d terminated. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. tick).U8 *pPD. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].

/* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". i. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). */ DeAllocPage(pPD. 0. 4.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* We're done (and so is he.. 0. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. char *pJCB. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]).) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. Msg). DeAllocPage(pVid. MngrExch. &MngrHndl. Also. We don't actually switch jobs. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). fDone. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. 1. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. 2). &gcode. DeAllocJCB(pJCB).. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. fKilled = 1. 0. j.. if the debugger has the video.GetVidOwner(&i). 0. 0. &i. MMURTL V1. 0). Exch. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot.. 0. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. 0. 2. 1).

0).0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 0. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). i. 0. #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. 0). fDone = 0. 0. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j).4. } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0. 0. MngrMsg). 0. 0. &MngrHndl. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). 0. &pJCB). 4. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. MngrMsg). 0. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. i = j. 0. else if (i>34) i = 1. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc = KillJob(j). 4.. erc = GetpJCB(i. &gcode. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . if (i==2) i = 3. MngrExch. MngrExch. 0. for(. 0. while (!fDone) { i++. 0). */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 2. 0.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. &MngrHndl. 0.

} . j.Read Status Byte into AL . fcli = 0. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. 20). char fdone.run and the last job loaded. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. sjobfile. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { .Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. job = 0.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL.check port up to 64K times . while (!fdone) { i = 0. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. sjobfile.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit .AL STI #endasm return.JOB\0". &fh). fcli. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. do MMURTL V1.first we clear interrupts . fh. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. char ajobfile[50]. 2=C etc. 1=B. /* 0=A.0FEh OUT 64h.64h TEST AL.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . i. job. &ajobfile[1]. cbrunfile. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. char arunfile[80].return.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. #asm CLI MOV ECX. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). unsigned char sdisk. 0. sdisk += 0x41. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. sdisk &= 0x7F. 1. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc.

/* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. MMURTL V1. job). xprintf("Loading: %s.. 0. &arunfile[i++]. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. &GP1Hndl. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. cbrunfile.{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. Sleep(50). &j). Sleep(50).\r\n".. CheckScreen(). 1. CheckScreen(). GP1Exch. "cli. else fcli = 0. &job). erc). arunfile). while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. } CloseFile(fh). 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. CheckScreen(). } } } else fdone = 1. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. 4. job = 0. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)).0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS .') continue. } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". erc = 0. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile.run". 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). assign the keyboard and video to it.

acli).0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . CheckScreen(). *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. CheckScreen(). iCol. 0. job). 1=B. GP1Exch. &GP1Hndl. MMURTL V1. unsigned char sdisk.. GP1Msg).JOB file not found in system directory. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. 0). } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. 0.RUN\0". 0. 4. acli[40]. Sleep(50). job. } return erc. SetVidOwner(job). 0. ccode1. erc = LoadNewJob(acli. 0).. unsigned char c. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. char text[70].0. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. 16). *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. */ acli[0] = sdisk. /* 0=A. &job). xprintf("Loading: %s. 0. iLine. i. job. 0. unsigned long ccode. 0. 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". k. 2=C etc.\r\n"). sdisk &= 0x7F. 0. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). &acli[1]. strlen(acli). InitScreen(). job. j. 0.". sdisk += 0x41. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. GP1Msg).

erc). erc). /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". erc). erc). 24. xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). MUltitasking. erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). erc). erc).. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". erc). c). erc).33). erc). i). xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n".. /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). erc = hdisk_setup(). Error: "). &StatStack[255]. erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch).. 1 ).Message based.0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS .Burgess. c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc = coms_setup(). erc = fdisk_setup(). erc = InitKBDService(). Error: "). i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). xprintf("Copyright (c) R.15).Tone(250.A. xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. 0. erc = lpt_setup(). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. xprintf("%d\r\n".. erc). xprintf("Init floppy device driver. Tone(1000. i).

pJCB->JobNum). if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". &ccode. j = 2. /* Line */ k = 0. SetXY(k+10.) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. /* Col offset */ for (i=1. break. i<nMaxJCBs.\r\n"). 13). erc = GetpJCB(i. MMURTL V1. j++. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). erc).. &GPHndl. &pJCB). /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch.. erc). */ LoadJobFile(). 1. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40.xprintf("Initializing file system. GPMsg).j). /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". GPExch.j). case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen(). 0). 0. 1. text. c = ccode & 0xff. */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 1 ). erc = InitFS(). for (. 10. erc). 0. xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". xprintf("File System. 0. 0. 4. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1].. Error: %d\r\n". Tell it to wait for a key. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0.0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". erc)... 0. text). &MngrStack[255]. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n".

xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". 1. "|". nRQBLeft). PutVidChars(29. nMemPages). 1.0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . "\\". xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". "\\". PutVidChars(29. if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). 1. any other key to cancel"). 1. case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). PutVidChars(29. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). "/".future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. 1. PutVidChars(29.. SetXY(0. GREEN|BGBLACK). PutVidChars(29.. xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. xprintf ("\r\n"). Sleep(9).. nReady). xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". break. Sleep(9). 1. case 0x12: /* F4 . xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. Sleep(9).. xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". \r\n"). "|". GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". "-". xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". nSlices). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. Sleep(9). 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. " ". while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. 1. case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). PutVidChars(29. nJCBLeft). 1.} } break. break. nSwitches). Sleep(9). Sleep(9).12). } SetXY(0. break. GREEN|BGBLACK). case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". nEXCHLeft). Sleep(12).Cancelled\r\n"). 1. "-". nLBLeft). nHalts). GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1). 1. 1. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). Sleep(12). nTSSLeft). 1.1). 1. PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. 1. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break.1).loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. PutVidChars(29. xprintf(". "/". GREEN|BGBLACK).

22). } } GetXY(&iCol.1). &iLine). WHITE|BGBLACK).1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.80. SetXY(0.23. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS .TTYOut (CRLF. WHITE|BGBLACK). 2. 1. else TTYOut (&c.

.

This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. will clear the screen for display. When this occurs. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. the debugger is entered. such as dumping data. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. the debugger is an assembly language. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. If the debugger was entered on a fault. along with the exception number that caused it. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). and why. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). See “Debugger Theory” for more information. function keys are across the bottom. Certain debugger display functions. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. and a red banner is displayed.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. It is not a separate run file. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. non-symbolic debugger.Chapter 12. MMURTL V1. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction.

Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. This is the address of the Monitor TSS. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. This is an array of 512-byte structures. This becomes the active address.Global Descriptor Table. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. The task number. TSS1 .Dump Bytes. F3 ClrBP .0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS . F10 . MMURTL V1. as most of them are. The address is displayed on the left. without executing them. JCBs . RQBs .Dump Dwords.Address Information. The abbreviations are given in the following list. You may move down through the instructions.Request Block Array. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. F2 SetBP . TSSs are numbered sequentially. F9 DumpB . a linear address. .Display Tasks. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. TSS3 . F5 Exch . This clears the single breakpoint.Interrupt Descriptor Table. F6 Tasks . F8 CrntAdd .First TSS. GDT . This returns to the application and executes one instruction.Single Step. the associated Job number.Clear Breakpoint. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . F4 CS:EIP . These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. The address is displayed on the left.Display Exchanges. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address.Link Blocks. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right.Ready Queue. that will be somewhere in this array.Services Array.Set Breakpoint.Change Current Address. This requests a linear address. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. This requests a linear address. low order). which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. IDT . This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued.Job Control Blocks. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. LBs . These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. with the down arrow key. This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction.Dynamic TSSs. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. Each TSS is 512 bytes. next. The GDT contains many items. the address of the TSS. These values are hard coded at system build. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. and then dumps the bytes located at that address. “Application Programming. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented.Goto CS:EIP. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. RdyQ . This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. next. the address of the task's JCB. F12 AddInfo . and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. This displays all active tasks on the system. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here.” SVCs .

locking up. it is the index of that exchange in the array. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. With near calls like you would make inside your program. Lots of code here MOV ESP. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. or at the beginning of any instruction. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. There are four debug address registers in the processor. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed.ASM files. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. MMURTL V1. but for right now. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. and also how local variables are accessed. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory.and displayed as an unsigned number. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. or for .0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . In some cases. Each exchange is 16 bytes. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing.Exch .Timer Blocks. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. its down and dirty troubleshooting. like the older processors. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. When it occurs. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. or whatever). actually a trap. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. listed in your ATF file. For applications. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. In MMURTL. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger.Exchanges. entering the debugger. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. This is the address of the array of timer blocks.START in an assembly language program. such as [EBP+12]. without having to fill in special registers. aTmr . You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. ESP . the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC].

The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction.. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. but not quite. called exceptions. It almost. is saved by the debugger.1. or faults. that can occur. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. When writing an operating system. The debugger cannot debug itself. you must be able to access all of its memory. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. the current pRunTSS. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). MMURTL V1. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. No other task operates at a priority that high. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. including allocated memory. The debugger becomes the active job.Processor exceptions. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). Instead. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. If you are going to debug a task. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. a page fault is fatal to a task.. Traps.1. When the debug interrupt activates. Table 12. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. a pointer to the currently running TSS. just like applications do. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. you will see that there are many interrupts. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. usually a blank screen and nothing else.

Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. MMURTL V1. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. While you are in the debugger. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. To do this. which is exactly what you want. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. These contain the address of the exception handler. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. you should kill the offending job and restart. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. When the debugger is entered. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. This makes the debugger transparent.

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I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. 0. 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . Available Services Table 13. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). but not as powerful.0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . &MyRqhandle.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. “system programming. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls.fWait for Key */ dData1 . this is true multitasking). If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 .Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface.Not used (0) */ dData2 . As described in chapter 10. 1. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. 1. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". It's easier to use. 0 0. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes.Chapter 13. 0). Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. &KeyCode 4.1 shows the services provided by the service code. MyExch.

Not used. Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 .Not used 0 . even if a key is not available. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter.Count of bytes in the code 0 . If you have an outstanding Notify request.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. This allows for "hot-key" operation. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS . A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3).Not used = 0 . Unlike regular keystrokes. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error).Return with error if no key waiting 1 . The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1. the error should be 0. In this case. described in detail later.Table 13.Wait for Key = 0 .1. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys. The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available.Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered. Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service.

Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C).0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts.3. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. If you have an outstanding Notify request. and Scroll). The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. Alt & Ctrl. shown in table 13. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service.). Num. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. as shown in table 13. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. etc. Locks.2. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. as shown in table 13. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. this cancels it. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. The low-order byte is the actual key code. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift.4.

you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned.3 shows how the bits are defined. Num or Scroll).Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. shows how the bits are defined. Alt or Shift). Table 13. This bit (Bit 0..0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 13.3 . Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code. Table 13.If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1. Table 13.2.2 .

main keyboard.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. A description is given only if required.4 . Table 13.. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . Key Codes Table 13. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key.1h to 7Fh). If a shift code is not shown. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. Ctrl. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. Alt. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned. or Locks). For example. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS .

/ Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1.5 shows the key code value returned. .Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . Table 13.5 . Table 13. Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS . comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. ' . bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.

7. (Period) Cursor. 13. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .7. Edit. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS .6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active.6 .Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1. Table 13.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. Caps lock does not affect these keys.

0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS .”Keyboard Code. as I have tried to do in this chapter. when all else fails. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. the programmer will read the documentation. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. or you may want more. if you desire. Remember. MMURTL V1.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. Chapter 25. Pieces of it may be useful for your system. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. such as international key translations.

A filename that is prefixed with a node name. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }.and finally the filename itself. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename.Chapter 14. the default name NETWORK is used. the network service receives the request from the file system. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. For example. This ties its hands so to speak. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. then up to three more characters. and optionally.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. will be routed to the service with the same name. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. but none as wide spread. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. filename.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. When a network file is opened. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". a period. The third part is the filename as described above. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. a network name. there isn't anything new about the format. and a node name is specified. MMURTL V1.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). just how we access it.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename.

File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. MMURTL V1. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. or just reading alone. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. When a file is opened in Read mode. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. This is a one page. Make no assumptions about this number.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. a number called a file handle is returned to you.File Handles When a file is opened. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). 4096 byte buffer. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. in any mode or type. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required.

This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA). This is called a file pointer in some systems. 11. 0).not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS .Size of a handle */ dData0 -. 1.size of name */ pData2 -.1 shows the service codes the file system supports. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service.1. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. &MyRqhandle. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware. Listing 14. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. &"AnyFile.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters.ModeRead */ dData1 -. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0.1 .may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. For Stream files. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ". Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA.Block Type Access */ dData2 -. All message-based services use the same request-based interface.doc". Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. &FileHandle 4. MyExch. The file system actually runs as a separate task. Listing 14. You can make a request. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. 0. Table 14.returned handle */ cbData2 -. no matter what Mode the file was opened in. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking). 1. It meets all the requirements. Table 14. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service.ptr to name */ cbData1 -.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -. 1. or file pointer.

Table 14. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. MMURTL V1. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. The Request interface will not allow device access.2 . you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS .ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. Table 14. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. KBD and VID devices only. The request is transparent to the caller. but only through the procedural interfaces.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL.

If a file is open in ModeRead. If stream access type was specified. dcbName . Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode .a dword that was returned from OpenFile().READ = 0. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available. dOpenMode. pdHandleRet . OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName. dcbname.pointer to the filename or full file specification. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. Procedural parameters: pName .pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. Stream = 1. Procedural parameters: dHandle .0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . all buffers are flushed and deallocated.Block = 0. dAccessType. Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1.

pDataRet. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. dLFA. nBytes . See the SetFilesize() section. SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size. Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. Procedural parameters: dHandle . This must always be a multiple of 512.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs. pData.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. nBytes.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file.DWord with number of bytes to write.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. pData . This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. nBytes. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512).Logical File Address to write to. This must be a multiple of the block size. pDataRet .Pointer to the data to write nBytes .wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. MMURTL V1. dLFA . pdnBlkRet . dLFA.DWord with number of bytes to read. dLFA . One Block = 512 bytes.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . This will always return a multiple of 512.Logical File Address to read from. Procedural parameters: dhandle .pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. pdnBytesRet .

pdnBytesRet . nBytes. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS .Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. pDataRet. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. The bytes are read from the current LFA.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). Parameters: dhandle . GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. pDataRet .Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file.Dword with number of bytes to read. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. nBytes. nBytes . Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. pData. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned.

The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C). pdnBytesRet . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet . dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files.Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF). pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. Procedural parameters: dhandle . nBytes . pData . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle.0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword with a valid file handle. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.Pointer to the data to write.Dword with a valid file handle.Dword with number of bytes to write. as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1.

The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically. Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword with a valid file handle.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle.a Dword with the LFA you want to set. and allocated space on the disk. as returned from OpenFile() dSize .a Dword with the new size of the file.dLFA . will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. The file length. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files. 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File.a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned. Procedural parameters: dhandle .Dword with a valid file handle.

dAttributes): dError This creates a new.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .pointer to the new filename or full file specification.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1. dcbNewName . pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. Procedural parameters: pName . and ready to be opened and accessed.A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden.pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. dcbName. empty file in the path specified. Procedural parameters: pName .Dword with length of the filename dAttributes . The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. dcbName .pointer to the current filename or full file specification.pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dcbname. dcbName . The file is closed after creation.

and the filename is available for re-use. Procedural parameters: pPath . The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). Procedural parameters: dHandle .pointer to the path (directory name) to create. dcbPath . If only the new directory name is specified.Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. the directory is created in your current path. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . No further access is possible. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. as opposed to a full path. empty directory for the path specified.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. specified in the Job Control Block. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element.

Procedural parameters: pPath . All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. or directory name to delete. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size.If set to non-zero. This call returns one sector from a directory. If only the existing directory name is specified. to read tj sector from dcbPath .DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. The directory must exist in the path specified.pointer to the path.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. If no path is specified.pointer to the path. dcbPath. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. dcbPath. Each sector contain 16 directory entries. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). or directory name.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. Procedural parameters: pPath . dcbPath . the path in your JCB will be used. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. pSectRet.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . The path must contain the directory name as the last element. all files in this directory. as opposed to a full path. all subdirectories. the name is appended to the path from your job control block.

Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. When it reaches 0. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the file is opened in Stream mode. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. Because it is a pointer. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table.pSectRet . File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. MMURTL V1. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. Some structures are dynamically allocated. the open mode. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. while others are part of the operating system data segment. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. it's not allocating files. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. The FUBs contain the file pointer. Each opened file is allocated an FCB. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. Quite a few of them use this same name. FCB. Each FCB is 128 bytes. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. buffer pointers. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB.

0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . A great number of files are read and written sequentially. because of the design of the FAT file system. and the sixth is marked as the last. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. The fourth entry points to the fifth. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. The file is open. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. If it's open in ModeWrite. and raster image files. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. source files for compilers. That's a lot of FAT (or file). Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. vector. allocate an FUB and attach it. you can usually do it quite rapidly. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. However. That's 128Kb. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. they use what is called a FAT16. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. The list could go on and on. the fifth points to the sixth. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). L = Last entry in your file. inside of a 400 Mb file. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. Load FAT buffer if required. From this.The disk is allocated in clusters. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. Directories are stored as files. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. X = not your file. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. Large database files are the major random users. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. In this example. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. the user will strike next. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. MMURTL V1. This is in itself is time-consuming. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. return an error ErcFileInUse. On most hard disks. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). which is cluster size. Run files being executed. If opened in Block mode. or three entries. Usually. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. If so.

On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . Close This is the easy part. attach them to the chain.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. then write the data. and depends on how the file was opened. MMURTL V1. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. If opened in block mode. but much overhead is involved. It sounds simple. Both copies must be updated. you must find unallocated clusters. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. If the file is being extended. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user.

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or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer.1 lists the prefixes. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. They are listed by functional group first.0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . An improperly. Table 15. I might add.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. Chapter 14. These are known as compound descriptions.2 . while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use.2 lists these additional prefix characters. Table 15. “File System Service”).1 . They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address.. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes .Chapter 15. If you are going to write your own operating system. Table 15. The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present.g. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. Table 15. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. The offset should be 0.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. The call address consists of a selector and an offset. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e.

Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. Pascal. Each compound set of prefixes . If a parameter is a byte.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data.accurately describes the provided or expected data types.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. Max means Maximum. dcbDataRetMax . Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. It is processor (hardware) enforced. The function name is followed by the parameters. Bytes and words (8. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. if a value is returned by the function. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. and finally. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. and Min means Minimum. dMsg1. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbFileName . The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. be returned. or Assembler. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. pdDataRet .Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function.3 . The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. Ret means Returned. the most common returned value shown. Table1 5.3.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. dMsg1. a colon with the returned value. grouped by type.and optionally suffixes . or should be. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. The dError.

pInitData. cBytes. dLBA. dESP. dExch. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. wSvcCode. dcbFileName.Request( pSvcName. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. pStatRet. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. dJobNum. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. dData0. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. dcbFileName. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. pRqHndlRet. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. dRespExch. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. pDCBs. npSend. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. nDevices. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. cbData1. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. ppMemRet. dnBlocks. pData2. pS2. dStatusMax. dOpNum. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. LinAdd. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. dBytes) MMURTL V1. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. dcbAliasBytes. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. fDebug. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dcbMem. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dPriority. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. wCodeSeg. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. pS2. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. dPriority. pData1. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. dfDebug. pStack. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. pDestination. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. pDestination. cbData2. dData1. pPathRet. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine.

nChars. dPort) OutWord(Word. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. dULline. dCrntLen. dLine. nChars. pbExitChar. pDataIn. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . pbCharRet. nCols. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. dMaxLen. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. Speaker.dPort) OutDWord(DWord.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. pbChars. nLines. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dChannel. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. pdLenRet. dPort) OutWords(dPort. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. dTextOut. sdMem. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. ddLine. dLine. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. pDataOut. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. fdRead. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard.

0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. and interrupts. Unlike most other operating system calls.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX .Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). or 0 if all went well. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. They are passed in registers.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX .Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. exceptions. dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate. EAX Returns Error. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. the parameters are not stack-based. the parameters are not stack based.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX .Returns an error. Parameters: AX . They are passed in registers. This must be zero (0) for task gates. Parameters: AX . This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. exception gates and interrupt gates. Unlike most other operating system calls. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).

Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). dcbMem .Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. do some other processing. Alarm() can be used for a number of things.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. The message that is sent is two dwords. Parameters: nPages . This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. dJobNum. except you provide the exchange. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. Each application has its own linear address space. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. If you do. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. Parameters: pMem . pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. etc. ppMemRet. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned.Dword (4 BYTES).). Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). dJobNum . In fact. even though it's very close. ppRet . AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. This means you can set an alarm. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. the more precise the timing. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. The larger dnTicks is.A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. The overhead included in entry.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdPhyMemRet . This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. This would be for the time-out function described above. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. Parameters: dnTicks . ppAliasRet . each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). MMURTL V1. It will always begin on a page boundary. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives.Job number from the other application. WaitMsg. dcbMem. except it can be used asynchronously.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. and don't get placed in a waiting condition. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. precise. and you call this often enough. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. Parameters: dIRQnum .0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). initial Task State Segment. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. pdJobNumRet .length of the run filename. dcbFileName . Page Descriptor. Parameters: pFilename . delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. so the time could be much longer. dcbFileName.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. Parameters: dn15us . but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. and the memory required to run code. and data pages. although longer periods will work.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. Virtual Video. stack. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small.Parameters: dAlarmExch . LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled.pointer to the filename to run. Interrupts are not disabled.

OutDWord OutDWord(DWord.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS .Which code segment. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS). DPort .0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. dESP. DPort .exchange where the Request is to be sent.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. Parameters: MMURTL V1. No error is returned. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. dfDebug.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution.Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP .The dword value to write to the port. Paramters: Dword . OS=8 or User=18 Priority . Exch . dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. it is made to run. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl . ESP . dCodeSeg. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address.The address of the port.The byte value to write to the port. dExch. dPriority.handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch . Parameters: JobNum . Parameters: Byte . OutWord OutWord(Word.Exchange for TSS. else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order.Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.The address of the port. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use.Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte.

color/attribute to use during display.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned. PdataOut . dnChars. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. DBytes . dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. DPort . dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort. pDataOut.The address of the port. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2).Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to. dAttr . “Application Programming. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS . It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values. OutWords OutWords(dPort. Parameters: DPort .A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port.number of characters pbChars is pointing to.The word value to write to the port.column to start on (0-79) dLine .Word . Parameters: dCol .column to start on (0-79) dLine . pbChars. This is the number of Words * 2. Each page of memory is 4096 byte. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9. dLine. or virtual screen.line (0-24) pbChars . Parameters: pdnPagesRet . nChars. if not displayed.The address of the port. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol.” describes all of the attribute values. dLine. PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. Parameters: dCol .line (0-24) dnChars .number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib .pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . MMURTL V1.The count of bytes to write to the port address.

the call will wait until a key is available before returning. If fWait is true (non-zero). the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. The string must be left justified. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . If no key was available. fWait . If fWait is false (0). error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. Service names are case sensitive. pData1. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. Parameters: BAddress .If true (non-zero). pData2.A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. or on what machine the request is being serviced. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. wSvcCode. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. npSend. cbData2. Parameters: pSvcName . pRqHndlRet. dData0. if forwarded across a network. Request Request( pSvcName. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. cbData1. and padded with spaces (20h).the exchange to be associated with the service name.a pointer to an 8-byte string. dData1.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. dRespExch. This call blocks your task until completion.

The service must be registered with the operating system. dMsgLo. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. are sending data to the service. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. Zero will be returned if all was well. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. Respond Respond(dRqHndl. With all kernel primitives. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). dData2 .a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. 1 and 2. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. of the message sent back to the requester of the service. dError.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. dRespExch . An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. dStatRet .dData0. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. dData0. With all kernel primitives. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. the value returned from the Request() call itself. 65534 (0FFFEh). The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. For example. npSend . It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. Parameters: dRqHndl . The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. MMURTL V1. then npSend would be 2. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. pData2 .0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS .the size of the data being sent to the service. pRqHndlRet . otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. The use of dData0. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used.a number (0. Always assume it will be network-routed. Parameters: pSvcName . otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. This may be data sent to the service.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. dData1.same as pData1. This error is not the error returned by the service.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. Function Codes 0. or received from the service. cbData1 .This is the operating system Request primitive. See Respond(). service name. is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. cbData2 .A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. space padded. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. dError. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. pData1 . 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. wSvcCode .

If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. the message is associated.80.dnLines. which is the first dword pushed. dMsgLo . dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. This is an agreed-upon convention.The count of lines to be scrolled.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . dcbCmdLine .The lower dword of the message. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange. MMURTL V1.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent.dULline.Points to an array of bytes. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0. SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. dMsgHi. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned.The number of columns to be scrolled. msg[0].The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine .0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . dMsgHi . Parameters: DULCol . and it is moved to the Ready queue. Parameters: pCmdLine . DfUp . it will be into an array of dwords. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. Parameters: dExch . DnLines . the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. msg[1]. In this case the top line is lost.The length of the command line string to store. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. and while Chaining to another application. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. linked with that task. and the bottom line would be blanked.25. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line. This call stores the command line in the JCB.The upper dword of the message.1). If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. If it were a Response from a service. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. the new command line string. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols .0. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. and is not enforced by the operating system. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine.a polite term for crashed. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi.dnCols.

Parameters: dIRQnum . This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. and its ExitJob is zero length.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS .4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. Built-in device drivers assume these values.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set.If installed.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. Parameters: pExitJob . This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. dcbExitJob . all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs).A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. The filename must not longer than 79 characters. Table 15. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. which will happen most often. When a job exits. After the interrupt vector is set. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. Initially. pVector . pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB).4 . Table 15. MMURTL V1. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur.

the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . The path is 79 characters maximum. SetPath SetPath(pPath. If no job name is set by the application.This is the new priority (0-31). Typically. dcbPath . dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. then call ClrScr(). The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. Parameters: pPath . If you SetNormVid() to Black On White.SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. and background colors may be changed by an application. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . The default foreground color. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. This is a maximum of 13 characters. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. Parameters: pJobName . This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. Parameters: bPriority . MMURTL V1. dcbJobName . A zero length. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. will clear the job name from the JCB. a text string. Longer values will be truncated. The maximum length is 13 bytes.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. Refer to the file System documentation). you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. the color of the characters themselves.

points to a text string. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). The default name. Parameters: pUsername . This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. Only ASCII data is returned from this call.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. if none is set by the application. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. dcbUsername . dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. is VID.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetXY SetXY(dNewX.SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. Parameters: DJobNum . Parameters: pFileName . dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. is KBD. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. The name is preserved across ExitJobs.The job number for new owner of the active screen. Parameters: pFileName . If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. if none is set.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. dcbFileName . The default name. If the SysIn name is set to KDB. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName.is the length of the string to store. Only ASCII data is saved to the file.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. WriteBytes(). which is the user's name. which is the one to be displayed. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes(). dcbFileName . The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. If the SysOut name is VID. and Chaining to another application.

If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. 1 is accepted. Parameters: DNewX . dPriority . which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. and may cause applications to appear sluggish.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . lower numbers. Parameters: pEntry . a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. should use priorities above 25. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. dPriority. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. fOSCode . Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. Certain system services are higher priority. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. fDebug . when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. it is made to run. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. DNewY . The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . The timer interrupt sends the message.This is a pointer to the function.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. Tone Tone(dHz. This applies to the virtual screen. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. such as the file system and keyboard. or the real video screen if currently assigned. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS).A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task.The new horizontal cursor position column. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry.The new vertical cursor position row. pStack. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. Parameters: dnTicks . or make it sleep. fDebug. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. and clears the block when it reaches zero.This is a number from 0 to 31. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. otherwise. Application programs should use priority 25. If your task is a high enough priority. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. but testing will be required to ensure harmony.

A pointer to an 8-byte string. Parameters: PTextOut . next active character placement. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . DTextOut . DAttrib . The service with that name will no longer be available to callers.The number of characters of text.The cursor.The attribute or color you want. Service names are case sensitive. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . The string must left justified. If already at column 0. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. dTicks10ms .The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed .The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. The backspace is non-destructive. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. Backspace will have no effect. Parameters: dHz . and padded with spaces (20h).The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. Parameters: pSvcName . The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. no characters are changed. 08 backspace . the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. They will receive an error.The cursor will be moved one column to the left. For character placement.A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. If this line is below the bottom of the screen. Parameters: dIRQnum . dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job. A value of 100 is one second. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().A near Pointer to the text. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. if the cursor is in the last column of a line. dTextOut. will be moved down one line. from 30 to 10000.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz.

Of course. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. less than 8000000h. At that time. so this would be obvious to you. Parameters: DError . This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. You've got to send mail to get mail. an array of two dwords. If no message is available. you would have had to make the request in the first place.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer.A pointer to where the message will be returned.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . the task will be placed on the exchange specified. dExch .Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive.

Hex dump of a file Exit .g. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me).Clear Screen Copy . is described in the following sections. MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.Rename a file (Current name New name) Run .Set file access path (New path e.Directory listing Debug . D:\DIR\) RD . The top line is the status line. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type .Enter Debugger Del .Display list of internal commands Monitor . time. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. It provides information such as date. “What's On the CD-ROM. see Appendix A. It has been expanded.Chapter 16. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. To see what has been included on the CDROM. but it's a good start. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter. job number for this CLI.Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD . and your current path.Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help .Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you.Delete a file Dump .Copy a file Dir . it does work and it's useful in its own right. MMURTL V1. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. CLI version. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM.Remove directory Rename . However. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. use. The internal commands are: Cls . most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter.RUN files).Make Directory Path .0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS .

For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. a period is displayed instead. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. or the same name in a different directory.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. >Copy THISFILE. If the character is not ASCII text. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. “The Debugger. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify.TXT THATFILE. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. Both names must be specified. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. MMURTL V1. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. If a file exists with the same name.

the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. The path must end with the Backslash. With any file-system operation (opening. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. the tree will only be extend one level. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. etc. In MMURTL. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty.).CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. listing. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). In other words. and . or external command that is executed for this CLI..) MMURTL V1. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. Unlike a single tasking operating system. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. renaming. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). This CLI will still be executing. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI.

MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. The contents of the file COMMANDS.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.run . The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below. The file must not be open by any other job. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit. The File COMMANDS.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix .cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS . Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk. pausing after each page.run New.CLI File The file COMMANDS.CLI Commands.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number).Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist). The first item on the line is the command name.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM. MMURTL V1. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.RUN).run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test.CLI follows: . An example of COMMANDS. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name.End of Command. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME. It is a simple text file with one command per line. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file.TXT Run (Execute a .

h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.0 of the Command Line Interpreter. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. CLI Source Code Listing .1. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.h> #include <string.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.Ver. Listing 16. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSOURCE\Status.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.h> #include <ctype.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor. In this case.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. 1. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions.CLI.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData. CTRL-ALT-DELETE . Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.CLI file.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.Terminates the currently displayed job. but other application might. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .

not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . char ExitChar. unsigned long GPHndl. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. /* "Cls". /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "".0 Job Path: ". unsigned long GPExch. hlppath[60]. char aCmd[80].0 { 0 external */ 1 . /* "Help". long cbCmd = 0. /* "RD". cmdpath[60]. long JobNum. unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* "MD". unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. char char char char sdisk. /* "Ren". /* MMURTL V1. /* "Exit". long cbPath. /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. syspath[50]. date.#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. /* "Dir". /* "Copy". /* "Monitor". /* "xxxxx". /* "Del". /* "Dump". clipath[60]. /* "Debug". unsigned long GPMsg[2]. char fUpdatePath. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. /* "Path". iLine. char text[70].

}.) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. U32 FileSize. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed."Run".0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . } dirent[16]. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. char *apParam[13]. U8 Attr. U16 Date. U8 Ext[3].. "Type". #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. U8 Rsvd[10]. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. U16 StartClstr. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. long acbParam[13]. U16 Time. It updates the status line which has the time and path.

break. break. break.0. case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". break. break. case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". (time & 0x0f). case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". break. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). FillData(&aStatLine[47]. break. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). case 201: pSt = "No such drive". break. STATVID). /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. 80. fUpdatePath = 0. switch (erc) { case 0: return. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). 40.cbPath = 30. break. ' '). break. MMURTL V1. case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". aStatLine. FillData(st. case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)".0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . char st[40]. 30. break. + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). break. break. 0x0f). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). break. /* year */ 0x0f). CopyData(aPath. case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". break. case 1: pSt = "End of file". 0x0f). case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. /* Day */ 0x0f). } GetCMOSDate(&date). /* month */ 0x0f). case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". Sleep(100). PutVidChars(0. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". 0). break. cbPath). case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". &aStatLine[47]. break. case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". case 208: pSt = "File in use".

default: sprintf(st. KeyCode. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . j. while (cb) { printf("%08x ". #asm INT 03 #endasm return. addr). return. 80. &iLine). erc = 0. &iLine). iLine = 2. pSt = st. ClrScr(). PutVidChars(0. pSt). } SetXY(iCol. GetXY(&iCol. iLine). *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). break. MMURTL V1. GetXY(&iCol. erc). aStatLine. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. STATVID). i.0. } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. "Error %05d on last command". unsigned char buff[17]. } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger).0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. long cb. } printf("%s\r\n".

} InitScreen(TRUE). 0). if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. fh. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page.1). dret. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. Buffer. i++) { printf("%02x ". /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh."). if (!erc) { j=0. erc = ReadBytes (fh.80. i<j. } buff[i+1] = 0. &dret). 512. else j = cb.if (cb > 15) j=16.23. &buff[0]). if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. addr+=j..0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS .*pb). ++iLine. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. any other key to continue. MMURTL V1. &k). erc = 0. SetXY(0. } return erc. 1. This expects to find the filename in param[1]. else cb=0. iLine =1. 512. k. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16.. printf("ESC to cancel.1).23). l.1. /* ReadKbd. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. SetXY(0. erc. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. for (i=0. 1). wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. buff[i] = *pb++. acbParam[1].23). printf("%s\r\n". &fh). ModeRead.

*********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. } for (j=0. 0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. erc = 0. 0). dret. SetXY(0. erc.1). j. } SetXY(0. KeyCode.1. long cbName) { long i. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. &lfa). } CloseFile (fh).80. SetFileLFA(fh. iLine. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. Buffer.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. NORMVID). i. j+=512. dret = 1. j). while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. iLine++. lfa. Buffer. j<=i. &dret). cbName. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). &fh). 78. fh. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. return erc. 1.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. else l=k-j.23.iLine). i = 1.23). } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. 512. } erc = OpenFile(pName. dret. lfa+i). MMURTL V1.

mo. pTimeRet.hr. da = date & 0x001F. CloseFile (fh). bytesGot. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11. 8).se). MMURTL V1. bytesWant. char st[15]. erc. CopyData(st. fhFrom.23). mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS .if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. Use block mode for speed.se. char *pTo. InitScreen(TRUE). sprintf(st. pDateRet. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking. return erc. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n".mi. U32 cbFrom. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. erc). } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS. 8). sprintf(st.hr. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. char *pTimeRet. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time.mi. iLine =1. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). This uses a conservative 4K buffer.mo. bytesLeft. "%02d-%02d-%02d".").1). } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n").da. printf("ESC to cancel. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. "%02d:%02d:%02d". CopyData(st. if (yr > 99) yr -=100. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. SetXY(0.yr). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. This is used by the directory listing. U16 date.. any other key to continue..1900.da. 1). /* ReadKbd.

} dLFA += bytesGot. cbTo. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096.bytesOut. &bytesGot). } return(erc). &fhFrom). 0. /* ReadKbd. ModeRead. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). bytesLeft = size. bytesWant. dLFA = 0. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. bigBuf. cbTo.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. erc = OpenFile(pFrom. KeyCode. size). wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. } MMURTL V1. cbFrom. size. 0. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. } CloseFile(fhTo). &bytesOut). if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. &fhTo). bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. dLFA. 1). &size). dLFA. 0). bytesGot. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. ModeModify. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). else bytesWant = bytesLeft. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. dLFA. bigBuf.

80. &dirent[0]. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.Ext. SectNum = 0. st). dirent[i]. } InitScreen(TRUE).0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS . SectNum). any other key to continue.Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st.StartClstr). dirent[i]. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. U32 SectNum. } if ((dirent[i]. SetXY(0. 512.Date. } } } MMURTL V1.23.1. printf("%s". *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. i<16. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. dirent[i]. acbParam[1]. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". dirent[i].1).Name[0]) { erc = 1. erc.Name[0]) && (dirent[i].Attr. &st[33].Name.FileSize..23). /* ReadKbd. &st[24]). printf("ESC to cancel.. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. SetXY(0. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]. dirent[i]. i.Time. if (!erc) { for (i=0. KeyCode. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. fDone = 1. iLine++.1). dirent[i]. fDone = TRUE.23)./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. 1). iLine =1. } fDone = 0."). char st[78].

**************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. k. rawline[90]. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. If it finds it. MMURTL V1.} else fDone = TRUE. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. } return(erc). while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. cmdline[90]. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. for (iPrm=0..CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. SectNum++.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. *f. iPrm<nParamsMax.. j. iCmd++. iPrm. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. fdone.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. The format for a line entry in Commands. i. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user.

f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. rawline. } } else printf("Commands. while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. f = fopen(cmdpath. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '.\r\n"). if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. cmdline[j] = 0. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1.') /* a comment line */ continue. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. return(1).CLI not found. acbParam[0]). /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. "r"). runfile[k] = 0. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. /* now move arguments if any. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). if (f) { fdone = 0. cmdline).0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS .cmdline[0] = 0. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. return(0). 89.

cbCmd). cbCmd). runfile. 0). strlen(clipath)).CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. &fh). long i. strlen(runfile). erc. SetCmdLine(aCmd. } MMURTL V1. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). we first look for a . syspath). strcat(runfile. ModeRead. ". if it's not there. erc = Chain(runfile.RUN"). &fh). cbCmd). SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(runfile). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). If we don't find one. strlen(runfile). SetCmdLine(aCmd. acbParam[0]). 1. acbParam[0]). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. SetCmdLine(aCmd. we then go to COMMANDS. } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. ModeRead.RUN"). 0). 0). 1. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. strlen(runfile). strlen(clipath)). } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). i = strlen(runfile). ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. strlen(runfile). strlen(clipath)). SetExitJob(clipath. ModeRead. erc = Chain(runfile. If so. erc = Chain(runfile. strlen(runfile). fh.When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. we go to the system directory. erc = OpenFile(runfile. /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. 1. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it.RUN file in the current path. SetExitJob(clipath. CopyData(apParam[0]. ". erc = OpenFile(runfile.0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . &runfile[i]. &fh).

/* 0=A. &StatStack[255]. syspath). sdisk += 0x41. MMURTL V1. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. strcat(hlppath. syspath). 0. */ cbPath = 0. syspath[1] = ':'. strcat(cmdpath. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. SetXY(0.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetJobName("CLI V1. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. strcat(syspath. SpawnTask(&StatTask. } else { strcpy (aPath. Note: No params to CLI. 0). command file. sdisk &= 0x7F. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. fh. strcpy(cmdpath. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. &iLine). strcat(clipath. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). strcpy(hlppath. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. syspath). "%02d". 24.0". aPath. j. i. 8). syspath)."COMMANDS. &cbPath). JobNum).CLI"). InitScreen(FALSE). "\\MMSYS\\")."HELP. erc = AllocExch(&StatExch)./********************************************** Main function entry point. iLine). GetPath(JobNum. if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol."CLI. GetJobNum(&JobNum). and help file.CLI"). sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. strcpy(clipath. 2=C etc. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). 1=B. syspath[2] = 0.RUN").

&cbCmd. CmdNum = 0. else erc = ErcBadParams. if (!erc) MMURTL V1. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). TTYOut ("\r\n". acbParam[1]. } i++. &fh). aCmd[79] = 0. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). ' '). if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. cbCmd = 0. 1. EDVID). apParam[0] = 0. strlen(clipath)). acbParam[2]). 1. &iLine). break. TTYOut (">". } fUpdatePath = 1. break. SetPath(syspath. 0. break. InitScreen(TRUE). case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). &ExitChar. SetXY(0.cbPath = strlen(syspath). if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. iLine). while (1) { FillData(aCmd. NORMVID). strlen(syspath)). SetExitJob(clipath. } erc = 0. 79.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . acbParam[1]. paCmds[i]. GetXY(&iCol. EditLine(aCmd. cbCmd. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. acbParam[0] = 0. NORMVID). 2. apParam[2]. 79. break.

acbParam[1]. MMURTL V1.\r\n"). break. break. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). ExitJob(0). 0. acbParam[2]). break. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. &cbPath). case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. SetVidOwner(1). acbParam[1]). break. break. if (!erc) printf("Done. SetExitJob(clipath. 0).erc = DeleteFile(fh). 1. break. 0). strlen(hlppath)). } break. GPExch. 0. break. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. fUpdatePath = 1. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). else erc = ErcBadParams. case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. apParam[2]. 0). 0. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. 4. acbParam[1]. 0. GPMsg). break. break. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. strlen(clipath)). case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. default: break. &GPHndl. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. acbParam[1]). acbParam[1]). aPath. break. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. 0. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". cbCmd-i). break. acbParam[1]). case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). erc = WaitMsg(GPExch.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. 0.

The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM.2. &iLine). What's On the CD-ROM.23).1). such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line). The last line is used for data entry. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb.1. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). The next 23 lines are the text editing area. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16.1. SetXY(0. Table 16. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . The top line provides continuous status information.23. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands.} CheckErc(erc). current filename. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. } GetXY(&iCol. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). status and error display. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.80. See Appendix A.

Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.h> #include <ctype.2. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions. Listing 16.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.h" MMURTL V1.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service. Listing 16. Editor Source Code /* Edit.2 is the editor source code.h> #include <string.4 .h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.

U32 iAttrMark. /* cursor. unsigned char filler[100].h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.sLine-1 */ U32 iLine.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. U32 iColMax. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. char aStat[80]. char aCmd[80]. void clearbuf(void). char fModified. U32 sLine. fh. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]. long cbFilename. char *pBuf1... /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. char *apParam[13]. b1. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. 0.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. U8 *pBufWork. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. U32 iRowMax.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. 0. U32 iTabNorm. /* cursor.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. /* sBuf . struct EditRecType EdRec. char aStat1[80]. long erc.1 */ U32 iColMin. *pBuf2. struct EditRecType *pEdit. U32 oBufBound.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. U8 fVisible. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. U32 iAttrNorm. }. unsigned char b.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. U8 bSpace.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . char fOvertype.

this will prompt you to save. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. STATVID). long i. 40. %05d occured on WriteBytes". If fPrompt is true. "Error break. erc). 24. "Error break. case 5: sprintf(st. 80. %05d occured on OpenFile". switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". %05d occured on CreateFile". If fClose. NORMVID). } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. %05d occured on SetFileSize". FillData(st. erc). erc). 39. 0). } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. erc). 80. case 3: sprintf(st. st. erc). "Error break. PutVidChars (40. i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. %05d occured on last command". "Error break.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . "Error break. Beep(). erc). case 2: sprintf(st. "Error break. case 4: sprintf(st. PutVidChars (0. i<40. st. "Error break. case 7: sprintf(st. erc). } for (i=0. *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. default: sprintf(st.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. erc). 24. %05d occured on ReadBytes". if (erc) { FillData(st. "Error break. %05d occured on ReadKbd". long erc) { char st[40]. case 6: sprintf(st. } return (erc). 0).

if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). i <=pEdit->iBufMax. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. ClearStatus(). } } MMURTL V1. SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh).and the buffer will be closed. 24. Sleep(150). 10. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. PutVidChars (0. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. ClearStatus()..0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0)). ReadKbd(&keycode. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". WriteBytes (fh. 1). int fClose) { U32 i. BLACK|BGCYAN). 43. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. STATVID). **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. fh = 0. TTYOut("This file has been modified. unsigned char *pBuff. "DONE. clearbuf(). pEdit->oBufLast)).. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. cbFilename = 0. ClearStatus(). keycode. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pEdit->oBufLast. ". 24). } fYes = 1. &i)). pBuf1. fModified = 0. SetXY(0. fYes. SetFileSize(fh.

cbFilename. &fh)). 13). BLACK|BGWHITE). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1.24). cbFilename. 0)). &cbFilename. filesize. } else { b1=0x0d.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!name) { SetXY(0. 0. Create?? (Y/N)". 10. erc = 0. 24). cbFilename = 0. SetXY(50. BLACK|BGCYAN). TTYOut("Doesn't exist.". 29. &b1. Beep()./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. BLACK|BGCYAN). pBuf1. EditLine(Filename. SetXY(10. it will prompts to create.0). "Filename: ". if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 60. strncpy(Filename. cbFilename = strlen(Filename).24). name. 26. /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). MMURTL V1. TTYOut("File is too large to edit. SetXY(50. erc). if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. 1. &fh). ModeModify. pEdit->oBufLast = dret. SetXY(0. keycode. PutVidChars (0. ReadKbd(&keycode. else erc = 0. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. fh = 0. dret. OpenFile(Filename. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). cbFilename. CreateFile(Filename. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2.24. 1). BLACK|BGCYAN). ReadKbd(&keycode. &filesize). 24). &dret). ModeModify. 1). If not. 1.

cbFilename = 0. iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. return(nEols). } } else { cbFilename = 0. ClearStatus().0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. } } else CheckErc(1.if (erc) { fh = 0. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). iEolMax. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. *pBuff. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. i = 0. nEols = 0. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. i. even though we word wrap always. unsigned char *pBuff.

iEol = iBuf. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1.1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. j... } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. } } return(iEol). while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. /* now find first non-space . /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. i = 0. char *pBuff.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . */ iEol = iEolMax.

} while (i < oBufStart).1. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. iBoundLoc. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound.iColFinish. PutVidAttrs (iColStart. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. iMarkLoc. iLn. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. iLn. pEdit->iAttrNorm).iColStart +1. if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. return(j). while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. pEdit->iColMax .pEdit->Line[iLn] .i--. iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. if (i) i++. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i.0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->iAttrNorm). iColFinish . if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. iLn. iColFinish. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] .pEdit->Line[iLn]. pEdit->iAttrMark).pEdit->Line[iLn]. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. MMURTL V1.

*pBuff. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. char fOvertype. CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. erc = 40400. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->oBufLast++. } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. pEdit->oBufInsert++. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. cb). pEdit->iAttrNorm). if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer.pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. } return (fOK). cb). fModified = 1. pEdit->sLine. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. char fOK. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->pBufWork.iLn. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . } } } else { fOK = 0. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. Beep().

pEdit->oBufInsert . i <= pEdit->oBufLast.1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.1. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. iMk.iBd . pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . char *pBuff. } } } else Beep(). iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. i<=iMk . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.pEdit->oBufInsert .iMk. i<=iBd-iMk. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd.void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. *pBuffWork. for (i=0. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. iBd. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . iBd. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. i <=iBd-iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk. for (i=0.1. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i].iBd + iMk . MMURTL V1. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i].

pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd .pEdit->oBufInsert+1). MMURTL V1. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.iMk + 1. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->iAttrNorm).iMk + 1. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. i. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufLast .0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLast+1). pBuffWork. iBd-iMk+1). } } } else Beep(). pEdit->sLine. } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin.iMk. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.char *pBuff. *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. (hides it). if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd.

pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.if it is. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. else fProb = FALSE. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). *pBuffWork. *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i.1. char *pBuff. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. j. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. i = pEdit->iRowMin.normAttr ().iBd + iMk. } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. iBd. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. } nullMarkBound (). iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. &pBuff[iMk]. char fProb. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert .might be off screen .iBd + iMk .

find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. i. /* get to potential insert . if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.i++. /* if bogus line. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->iLine = i . if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen.pEdit->iColMin.1. } i = pEdit->iLine.is. } } MMURTL V1. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. if prev char <> CR.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i].0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . j = pEdit->iLine. j = pEdit->iLine. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf.

i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. */ for (i = k. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). i<=k. iLn. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. else for (j=i+1. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). cb. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. j. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). k = pEdit->iRowMax. MMURTL V1. oBuf.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . j<NLINESMAX. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. k. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin.

pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pBuff+oBuf.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . char *pBuff. doMark (iLn). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. else i = pEdit->oBufLast.oBuf + 1. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. makeOnScreen (). if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. cb. pEdit->iAttrNorm). *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. 80. MMURTL V1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. iLn.char *pBuff. FillData(filler.1. /* oBufInsert on screen . pEdit->sLine-cb. 0x20).0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. pFiller. iLn. iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. i = pEdit->iRowMin. i<NLINESMAX. for (i=0. Called before use and after closure. pEdit->iAttrNorm). /* Make size. oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. cb = i . not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--.

*************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufLast = 0. fDone = FALSE.fModified = 0. FillData(aStat. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. nullMarkBound(). pEdit->iCol. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. unsigned char b. fScreen = TRUE.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . normAttr (). pEdit->oBufLast). 80. fScreen = FALSE. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. sprintf(aStat. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. key. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). 0x20). pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. char *pBuff. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. j. *pBuffWork. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. erc = AllocExch(&exch). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. fOvertype = FALSE. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. normAttr (). /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). pEdit->iLine)."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. k. char fSpecInsert. long exch. i. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. for (i=0.

Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. ReadKbd (&key.CopyData(Filename. break. fScreen = TRUE. break. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. STATVID). case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". break. fSpecInsert = FALSE. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1.CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. 1)). &aStat[40]. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. 3). if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. fScreen = TRUE.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. coordCursor_oBuf (). i = pEdit->iLine.Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. PutVidChars (0. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . 80.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. break. case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . cbFilename). TRUE). coordCursor_oBuf (). while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. &aStat[77]. fScreen = TRUE. break.Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. &aStat[77]. aStat. 3). case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . i = pEdit->iLine. break. 0. else CopyData("INS". b = key & 0xff.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.

fScreen = TRUE. break. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. default: break. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE.pEdit->Line[i]. break. } else { for (i=0. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . } fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iLine+1. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). OpenAFile(0).SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). case 0x51: /* ALT Q . } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. case 0x53: /* ALT S . pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. TRUE). if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. FALSE). } break. fDone = TRUE. } break. break. i<=pEdit->oBufLast.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i].Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. break.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS .

case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. pBuffWork. if (!(putInBuf (b. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. fOvertype. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff.1. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. break. if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. MMURTL V1. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. fSpecInsert))) Beep(). pEdit->oBufLast+1). fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .5) pEdit->iCol += 5.1. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1].0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . break.} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). findCursor (). default: break. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].

pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. fScreen = TRUE.1. fModified = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast . case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. } break. MMURTL V1. } break. break. FALSE).Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast .1.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). case 0x11: /* F3 -.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf ().1. FALSE. for (i=1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x17: /* F9 . i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark .(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). case 0x06: /* Home . if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert.Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x12: /* F4 -.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . } break. fScreen = TRUE. } break.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). break. fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iLine. j = pEdit->iTabNorm . case 0x10: /* F2 -. i <=j. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. moveData (). i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace.

pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. fScreen = TRUE. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i).COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). break. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). k--. } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). j--. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. k = pEdit->iLine.break. coordCursor_oBuf (). /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. j = pEdit->iRowMax . } } break.pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. i = pEdit->oBufLine0. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. fScreen = TRUE. } break. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. i = pEdit->iRowMax. CopyIt (). pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x18: /* F10 .

pEdit->iCol = i. coordCursor_oBuf (). CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. pBuffWork. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. break. } break. default: MMURTL V1. } } break. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. i = pEdit->iCol. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. else fOvertype = TRUE. fModified = TRUE. } break.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . fScreen = TRUE. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). pEdit->oBufLast--. pEdit->iLine = j. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. } fScreen = TRUE. } break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax.pEdit->iLine++. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLast+1). j = pEdit->iLine.

23. pEdit = &EdRec. fModified = 0. fh = 0. &pBuf2). i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. erc = AllocPage(32. ClrScr(). 79. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. /*sBuf . pEdit->sLine+1. pEdit->oBufLast. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. return. SetFileLFA(fh. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. 131071. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. U8 *argv[]) { long i. FALSE.pEdit->oBufLast)). i. erc = AllocPage(32. pBuf1. 1. 6).break.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetFileSize(fh. pBuf2. 80. } *pbExitRet = b. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. 0)). WriteBytes (fh. 0. and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. SetJobName("Editor". &i)).0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. } CloseFile(fh). i <=pEdit->iRowMax. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. &pBuf1). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. 0x20. 0). cbFilename = 0.

sLine-1 */ cursor. 0. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. for (i=0. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]).0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . fOvertype = FALSE.3.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID).. EMPTY. 0.. ExitJob(0).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. 0. MMURTL V1.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. struct statRecC com. EMPTY. i = pEdit->iRowMin.h> #include <ctype. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. 0. i. 0.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. 80. EDVID. 4. 0x20). DumbTerm source code #include <stdio.h> #include <string. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. fModified = 0. } Editor(&b). = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. 0. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. i<NLINESMAX. Listing 16.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob.

if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). if (erc) { MMURTL V1. printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". %d\r\n". %d\r\n". printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". ExitJob(erc). &com. com.XTimeOut). com. &i). } /* set the params in the block */ com.unsigned char b.IOBase). 0. %d\r\n". /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. /* View other params which we could set. 0. 64.RBufSize).RTimeOut). com.stopbits = 9600. SetNormVid(NORMVID). &com. %d\r\n".0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . dnBlocks. dLBA.databits com. but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. erc). */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". } /* If device init went OK. CmdOpenC. ClrScr().h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. = 1. com. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. com. = 8. ExitJob(erc). NO_PAR. char fOK. The structure is defined in commdrv. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID).parity = com. lastb. (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). com. dOpNum.Baudrate com. /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. we open the comms port */ /* device. &i). ClrScr(). %d\r\n". ClrScr().XBufSize).IRQNum). 64). erc).

default: break. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device.. dnBlocks. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. 1. fOK = 1. CmdWriteB. ExitJob(erc). lastb = b. ClrScr(). } } } } /* device. dLBA. &b).SetNormVid(CLIVID). 0. dnBlocks. 0. 0. CmdCloseC. dLBA.0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. 1.. if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. break. /* This is it. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. erc). 0.. 0. &b). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. erc = DeviceOp(6. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". NORMVID). dOpNum.. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". ExitJob(erc). } printf("Communications Port Initialized. erc). */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. CmdReadB. 0. dOpNum.\r\n"). } } else { /* device. dnBlocks. NORMVID). */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". 0. 0. else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. ClrScr(). &b). &i). SetNormVid(CLIVID). } } } MMURTL V1. CmdWriteB. dOpNum. dLBA. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6.

Send with no translations.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver. NoFF = 0. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device. char name[80].4 or 8) \D .4.h" "\OSSource\MTimer. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver. col = 0.h> <string.h> <ctype.4.Display the file while printing \F .h" "\OSSource\Parallel.h" "\OSSource\MKbd.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key.h> <stdio. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1. struct statRecL lpt. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. long long long long long tabstops = 4. Listing 16.h" "\OSSource\MVid.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv.h> <stdlib.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B . That's the intention of the design. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). fBinary = 0. In listing 16.2. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n . fDisplay = 0. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.Binary print.h" "\OSSource\MJob. FILE *f.

default: printf("Invalid switch"). } MMURTL V1. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. 8). i < argc.No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. exit(1). switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. 79). NO translation. case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. *ptr. char fdone. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). for(i=1.Tab stop translation value\r\n").0\r\n"). unsigned char b. printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . argv[i]. break. ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. break. printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). no FF\r\n\n").0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . lastb. name[0] = 0. case 'B' : /* BINARY . break. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). break. Version 1. printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). printf("/B Binary print. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. cl. i. unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. SetJobName("Printing". break. exit(1).0x30.void main(long argc. erck.

. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. cl = fgetc(f). 0. erc). &i). } printf("Printing %s . b = 0. "r"). while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. dOpNum. lastb = b. 64. ExitJob(erc). if (!f) { /* device. &i). CmdWriteB. */ erc = DeviceStat(3. CmdCloseLU. fdone = 0. CmdOpenL. dnBlocks. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". we open the printer port */ /* device. i = 0. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. erc). 0.. 0. The structure is defined in parallel. if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". b = (cl & 0xff). &lpt. name). -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". } else { MMURTL V1. &lastb). dLBA. dLBA./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver.0 1. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. } /* If device status went OK. ExitJob(erc).\r\n". dnBlocks. ExitJob(erc). */ f = fopen(name.h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. name). 0.. } col = 0. &i). } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. dOpNum.. /* This is it.

0 1. /* reset */ break. 0. 0. " "). 0). -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . col++. lastb). CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c".switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. erc = 4. } } &b). erc = DeviceOp(3. if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. } while (col % tabstops). 0. break. 0. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. CmdWriteB. dLBA. CmdWriteB. erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. %d\r\n". 0. &i). 1. break. col = 0. b). 1. CmdCloseL. } fclose(f). CmdWriteB. /* device. erc = DeviceOp(3. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. 0. } erc = DeviceOp(3. if (erc) MMURTL V1. "\f"). } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. dOpNum. &b). if (fDisplay) printf(" "). dnBlocks. 0. &b). 1. &lastb). 1. col++. CmdWriteB. 1. 0.

h> "\OSSource\MKernel. MMURTL V1. While this program is running.h" "\OSSource\MJob. Error: %d\r\n". } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service.RUN program to exercise the service. Listing 16. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. run the TestSvc. erc). It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. “Systems Programming. printf("Done\r\n").” It has been expanded some. ExitJob(erc).h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service.printf("Can't close LPT. Service. long *pDataRet.h" "\OSSource\MVid. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. keycode. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2]. ErrorToUser.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch).

) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. OSError). 0. 4. NextNumber-1). *pDataRet = NextNumber++. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. 0. } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode.if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). ErcNoSuchSvc).\r\n"). Message). Respond(pRqBlk. 0.. while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. &rqHndl. MainExch. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). MainExch).0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). ClrScr(). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). 1. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. } pRqBlk = Message[0]. 1.\r\n". 0. &keycode.\r\n"). } DeAllocExch(MainExch). /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". ErrorToUser). 0). /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". printf("NUMBERS Service Installed.. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0].

\r\n". void main(void) { unsigned long Error.h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel.6.\r\n". Message).C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. unsigned long Exch. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service.h" unsigned long Number. You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4. Listing 16. Error). unsigned long Message[2].C Listing The program in listing 16. Error). &rqhndl. } } DeAllocExch(Exch).6 exercises the sample system service listed previously. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. 0.\r\n". /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. Exch. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running. TestSvc.0). Error = Request("NUMBERS ". Also try it when the service is not running.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. Error). 0. 1.0. Message[1]).\r\n". if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1.\r\n". if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. 0. rqhndl. Number). else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. Error = AllocExch(&Exch). 0. if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg.

When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). I just expend the time up front instead of later. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. but it is not used by the processor.ASM . common variables. the human becomes a compiler of sorts. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code.ASM . This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. This is the first file in the source. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading.. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to.Chapter 17. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. Quite a few of them. and used by the processor. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. MPublics. and structures together. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. MOSIDT. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. You may find some of the source files rather large. MOSPDR. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. MAIN. In fact. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler.This is the first assembler file that contains code. This file should be left in the order I have it in. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth.This is also a table.. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. All source files are located in one directory. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. as you look through the code. There are also header files for the C source. The GDT is 6K in size. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. use the stack just as a compiler would. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically.ASM . The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor. By including the comments. Also some data is defined here. which means its data will be at the lowest address. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed).This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. In fact.). MOSGDT. The ordering for MMURTL V1.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). A brief description of each of the main source files follows. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it.ASM . I hope I’ve met this goal. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. It helps me think. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). however.ASM . some of the things that tie all of the source files together. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear.

This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. It's not very pretty.C are contained in this file. but it's effective and accurate.C . RQBCode.The simple parallel port driver is contained here.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need. Floppy. and the mode.In many systems.ASM . Debugging a debugger is even less fun.ASM . Debugger. MMURTL V1. SVCCode.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write.ASM .ASM . but can be modified for four. DevDrvr.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service.ASM . but only to enable the input buffer (which helps). JobCode. if needed. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. IntCode. but you never know where to put. Parallel. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. It think it still works with MFM drives. Device driver writers will appreciate this. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. You have to see what you're doing. undoubtedly.C .This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here.are in this file. TmrCode.This file is the debugger disassembler. you're on your own. I was surprised.ASM .C . how much to move.Request block management code is in this file. MiscCode.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver.C . Video.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file. It drives two channels.the remainder of the modules is not as important.C . It provides stream access as well as block access to files.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. as well as port I/O support. UASM. If you have MFM drives.C .Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file.ASM . It supports the 16550. when a device driver writers need DMA. but I don't have any more to test it.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . Keyboard.ASM . This is one complicated driver. DMACode. On the other hand. NumCnvrt.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() .ASM was one of the first files written. FSys.C . I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work.ASM . so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. they must handle it themselves. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file. HardIDE. is in this file. MemCode. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. even in the earliest stages of a project.ASM . The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled.ASM .Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. someday).ASM . and it works rather well.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. This file has routines that handle DMA for you. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. RS232. Keyboard. JobC. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions. You only need to know the channel.The code memory allocation.

Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.ASM .INCLUDE MOSIDT. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. specify /E on the command line after the name. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. This takes about 1. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. Keyboard ISR and Service .DATA .ASM .BAT) will build the entire operating system.5 Pages. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. Assembler Template File . OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) .” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. but it really isn't part of the operating system. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions.Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. It provides a lot of the OS functionality. Main OS code and some data & START address . You could replace quite easily. Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table .C .C After all the C source files are compiled. InitCode. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL.The monitor program is contained in this file. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL. Except. 6K) .ASM . Listing 17.Kernel. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF). .ASM . /L on the command line after the name.INCLUDE Video.0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS .All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file.INCLUDE MAIN. If you want an error file.ASM . An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor. DASM produces the operating system RUN file.1.ASM . If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. a C source file and must be compiled first with . Indirect calling address table .ASM . Video code and data MMURTL V1. CM32 (no switches needed).ASM . Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files.ATF It's truly that simple.INCLUDE MOSGDT.INCLUDE MPublics. Monitor. .These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! . The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. and the DASM assembler (also included).ASM .5 minutes on a 486/33. .INCLUDE Keyboard.INCLUDE MOSPDR.ASM . Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces).0 . An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.

The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language.ASM SVCCode.INCLUDE .ASM JobCode. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. As each piece of code is assembled.ASM RQBCode. This is because DASM doesn't support structures. .* .code and data.INCLUDE . For instance. you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments .INCLUDE .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc. you can take the file system code (FSYS.ASM InitCode. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.* :* . CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies. . The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files. . . you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier).INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . If your C compiler allows it. .ASM JOBC.INCLUDE .* .. CM32 packs all structure fields completely.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system.INCLUDE .C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort. . MMURTL V1. .ASM UASM. you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. code (string.INCLUDE .ASM Except. Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files.ASM DMACode. In fact.array.INCLUDE . I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way. You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures. .ASM Parallel. .END Debugger. and they will work fine.ASM RS232.INCLUDE .ASM NumCnvrt.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . .I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one. no doubt. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.ASM Floppy. The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.* .INCLUDE .ASM MemCode.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .* . it is placed into the code segment in that order.ASM Kernel. . The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location.ASM TmrCode.ASM IntCode.* .INCLUDE .ASM HardIDE.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM Monitor.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . This is one thing you should watch. You will.ASM .ASM DevDrvr.INCLUDE . Otherwise. use another compiler for your project.INCLUDE .ASM FSys.ASM MiscCode.

a single underscore will be prepended to the name. I think it will make more sense to you. and memory management tables. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. The actual message handling functions. Kernel data segment source .INC RQB. Being an old "structured" programmer. internal public functions. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running.INC JOB. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. and offsets into structures and tables. job control blocks. See listing 18. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. These all change with respect to the task that is running. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables. local helper functions. the scheduler. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). The bulk of them are in the file Main.INC DD 0 . The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF.INCLUDE . so I could get to them with the monitor program. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. Listing 18. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches).Chapter 18.INCLUDE .Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1.ASM. and kernel publics functions.1. two underscores will be prepended to the name. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. These are things such as the task state segments. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations.INCLUDE .DATA . The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady).INC TSS.1. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS .

This is important.EAX .EAX . This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. pExch => EAX. and if a task is waiting there. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. . is coded in-line.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. See listing 18. pointed to by the ESI register. This is strictly a speed issue. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue.FLAGS . The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. When a message is sent to an exchange. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used.ESI. Listing 18. JZ eqMsgDone . OR EAX.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. for example. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!).EAX . the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. INPUT : ESI. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . . XCHG ESI. pLBin^. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. It's not that the routines are called so often. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). and therefore. MODIFIES : EDX . we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. which means interrupts must be cleared. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. In MMURTL. OUTPUT : NONE .Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . link blocks. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns.2. if .2.Next <= NIL. and exchanges. 0 .EDX. . 0 . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. REGISTERS : EAX.

JZ deMsgDone .head and EBX . MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. 1 . You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. MOV EBX. MOV [EDX+NextLB]. .EBX. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX..ESI. deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there. REGISTERS : EAX. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX.MsgHead <= . pLBout <= . As stated before. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].MsgTail^.[EAX+NextLB] .ESI . if pLBout = NIL then Return.3. . This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the . De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: . OUTPUT : EAX . . MMURTL V1. MOV [ESI+EHead]. you return NIL (0). deMsgDone: RETN .msg.[ESI+fEMsg] . MOV EAX.Next. EAX . Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . Get Msg Flag OR EAX.ESI .MsgTail <= pLBin.ESI .MsgHead.MsgHead <= pLBin. but not both. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. then MOV [EAX+EHead]. See listing 18.3. INPUT : ESI .MsgHead^. Listing 18. If not.ESI .[ESI+EHead] . OR EAX. .. MOV [EAX+ETail]. EAX . MOV [EAX+ETail].NextLB <= pLBin. If not. See listing 18.. . deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there.EBX . . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register... If not.. If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it.MsgTail <= pLBin. . 1 ..4.FLAGS . Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.JNE eqMNotNIL . Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone .[EAX+ETail] .ESI . exchanges can hold messages or tasks. . No! (return 0) MOV EAX.ESI . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].

OUTPUT : NONE . 0 .Listing 18. .[ESI+fEMsg] .TSSHead <= . . pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX.EDX . pTSSout <= .. MODIFIES : EAX.EAX . XOR EAX. Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: .FLAGS .EDX. OR EAX. EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1.FLAGS .[ESI+EHead] .Next <= NIL.EBX .[EAX+NextTSS] . See listing 18. get the priority MOV BL.EBX.EAX .5. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI . This . head & tail per QUEUE). pTSSin^. . This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI . in EBX XCHG EAX. MODIFIES : EAX.TSSHead. Priority => EAX. . EBX JNZ deTSSDone . . INC _nReady . Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX..Next. register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX. MOV EBX.ESI. Listing 18. OUTPUT : EAX . Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX. algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority. 0 .EBX . This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue. JZ eqRdyDone . REGISTERS : EAX. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI].EBX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS]. deTSSDone: RETN .[EAX+Priority] . JZ deTSSDone . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers.TSSHead^. MOV [ESI+EHead]. 3 .0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . INPUT : EAX . EAX . OR EAX.5. REGISTERS : EAX. You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. INPUT : ESI . enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue.4..RdyQ . . . De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . XOR EBX.EBX. . one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL.EBX . . if pTSS = NIL then return.EDX . if pTSSout = NIL then Return.EBX . Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists.

.sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX.[EBX] OR EAX. and 31 is the lowest. .EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority.ECX.nPRI . . . queued on the RdyQ. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX. .. Keep in mind. deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. EAX is returned as NIL.ECX deRdyDone: RETN . .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . . The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list. De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . See listing 18. . IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ.FLAGS . MMURTL V1. that 0 is the highest priority.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX].EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX.Tail <= pTSSin. . OUTPUT : EAX .[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS].NextTSS <= pTSSin. If there was no task queued. .6. .EBX. . REGISTERS : EAX.. . Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ.Tail^.JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head]. else . then .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. MOV ECX. MODIFIES : RdyQ .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. . INPUT : NONE . this returns NIL (0). EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX.6. This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task .Tail <= pTSSin. If none is found. Listing 18. RETURN Otherwise.. Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX.RdyQ .Head <= pTSSin. . .. . . . . deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX .

ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. without actually removing it from the queue. It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue.FLAGS .ECX.sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . Listing 18. Point to the next Priority Queue .RdyQ . OUTPUT : EAX . When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. EAX is returned as NIL.8. . Removing a terminated task from the ready queue . INPUT : NONE .EBX. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . . RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. MOV ECX. They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation.[EBX] OR EAX.nPRI .7. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . Get pTSSout in EAX . If there was no task queued. . . This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . . They are located in Kernel. MODIFIES : RdyQ .7.ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. . RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. This why it's specified as PUBLIC. .8.0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . check the next priority. but someone's got to it. See listing 18. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. "It's a nasty job.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures. This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. Listing 18." See Listing 18. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. is queued to run. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . REGISTERS : EAX. . .

. . pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 .. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. EDI ADD EBX. . EDI PUSH EBX .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . Fix link in Queue list . .pFreeTSS .nPRI . POP EBX MOV EAX. EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . MOV ECX.sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX.Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. Make EAX point to new head TSS . No error . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . OUTPUT : NONE . .EBX .EAX . MODIFIES : RdyQ . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . Procedureal Interface : . .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. . PUSH EBP . EAX OR EAX. a job. pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. No MOV EDI.Next <= pFreeTSS. [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . INC _nTSSLeft .0 . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. deQueue the TSS . pTSSin^. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . MOV EBP. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . Point to the next Priority Queue . . Is it Zero? .ESP . 0 . .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. . Yes.RdyQ . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . EDI OR EAX. All done (clean stack) .

Jump the removed link . This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. SetExchOwner(). ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. This function is used with the next one. No. Yes. OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI. [EAX+NextTSS] . back to check next at head of list .0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX points to crnt TSS . char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1.Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. . Next Queue please .pFreeTSS . . See listing 18. 0 . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX.Next <= pFreeTSS.Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. . Listing 18. . These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). INC _nTSSLeft . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. Trash it.EAX . A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. Finding the owner of an exchange . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. ESI PUSH EBX . pTSSin^. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX.9. . .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Next TSS .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) .Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) .EBX . Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. . . deQueue the TSS . This is not so if it's for a new job.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified.EDI points to prev TSS . POP . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: .Yes.JMP RemRdy0 . .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.9.This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. . ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . . . .

. . No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch. MMURTL V1. EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . Valid Exch (Allocated) . EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. . EAX XOR EAX. [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. pJCBRet the exchange number. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch .nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. . continue Yes. . SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. . Changing the owner of an exchange . . . .prgExch ADD EDX. . char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. No. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS).ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX.10. . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . .0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+12] CMP EAX. .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . .. .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. Exch is . Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . mentioned previously.ESP MOV EAX. . . . See listing 18. Listing 18. pJCBRet . . . not allocated .10. ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. Exch . .

. If a program sent a request. . Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. See listing 18. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . . . . . EBX XOR EAX. EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications.OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. . Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . The error it returns is of no consequence. . . If a service is holding a request from the job that died. pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. . .ESP MOV ESI. [EBP+12] MOV EDX. The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing).nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. .EDX MOV EBX. . .11. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). . . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. telling them that a particular job has died. . other services. We ignore the kernel errors. SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. .prgExch ADD EAX. Listing 18. . Get the address of rgSVC .ESP MOV EAX. the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . .11. . .0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . Notifying services of a job’s demise . it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. or the operating system itself.. . . . Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . .

sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX.12.cbData1 MOV EAX.CMP DWORD PTR [ESI]. Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] .pName PUSH 0 .dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . . except this function requires several more parameters.pHandleRet PUSH 0 .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX .dData1 PUSH 0 . Listing 18. Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive. These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .cbData0 PUSH 0 . The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block. next service PUSH ESI . The function that searches the array is GetExchange(). Valid name? .npSend PUSH 0 . These are functions such as GetPriority(). 0 JE SAB05 .12.asm.pData1 PUSH 0 .dData0 PUSH 0 . A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. See listing 18.Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates. [EBP+12] . . Request kernel primitive code .Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI. wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.JobNum PUSH EAX . A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it.Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI . and code for it is in the file SVCCode.pData0 PUSH 0 .Next Service name . NO. .Abort Service Code MOV EAX. The procedural interface to Request looks like this: . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model. [EBP+8] . EAX MOV ESP.

Req04: . [EBP+48] CMP EDX.EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch]. [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2]. . AX MOV [EBX+RespExch]. EAX MMURTL V1.Get . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0]. JMP ReqEnd . continue Yes. dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP..Yes.Get . EAX MOV EAX.put .EBX . .pServiceName CALL GetExchange . ErcNoMoreRqBlks . .put . return error Req02: .Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 .ESI still has the exchange for the service .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX.Validate exchange MOV EDX. Sorry.Get .Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB .put . .Get .Put . . . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. Set up New FramePtr . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+56] .No.EDX still has the response exchange . .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- .0 .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.EAX .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX. . . .ESP .put . .Get .No JMP ReqEnd .. Save the Previous FramePtr ..Yes.Put . EAX MOV EAX.Put . .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. .Get . . EAX .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. Error in EAX register . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX.Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 . ESI MOV EAX.

sEXCH EDX EDX. . 0 . [EBP+44] MOV [EDI]. .Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX. This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. AL [EBX+npRecv].Ptr to return handle to . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].MOV EAX. EBX .EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX.Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. 2 CL.Get cbData1 .Data PUSH EAX .put in RqBlk . DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Next <= NIL. pLB^.The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it.Put npRecv in RqBlk . [EBP+40] CMP EAX.Number of Send PbCbs . .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. . . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch .EAX .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . 0 . .Give it to them .Next .EBX DEC _nLBLeft . .0 . EAX MOV EAX. .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.put in RqBlk . 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend].Leave in CL .Must be 2 or less . 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX..ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. .. CL .ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX. . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2]. Save pLB on the stack .EDX ESI.EDX .pFreeLB OR EAX. .ESI EDX.prgExch EAX. free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].REQLB . . No interruptions from here on . EBX MOV EDX.Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) .put in RqBlk .Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk . MOV [EAX+DataLo]. AL CL. . .Get cbData2 .[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB. EAX <= pFreeLB. EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2]. pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^. .Get pData2 . Store zero in upper half of pLB^.The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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. Procedureal Interface : . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. POP EBP . . Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 .18. MOV EDX. . in the EAX register.ChkExchange . Listing 18. Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return . MOV EBP. RETF 8 . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner].REQLB MMURTL V1. . 0 .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . . See listing 18. CheckMsg(exch.EBP .nExch .EDX .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . As with WaitMsg(). A result code is returned in the EAX register. .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX.EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX.sEXCH . . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. .0 -270- . in the EAX register.ESP . .ESI . . return to the caller with error MOV EAX. return with erc no msg . .18. the return to caller with error MOV EAX.EAX . . Chk01: MOV EAX. message should be sent.pdqMsg):ercType . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . CheckMsg kernel primitive code . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. MOV ESP. .prgExch . pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored.We can be interrupted again . . PUSH EBP . . . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories.ercOutOfRange .ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. .ercNoMsg MOV ESP. If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 .

. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.is cbData2 0? .dJobNum .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .Linear Address of pData1 .Restore ptr to Link Block .Set up params for AliasMem . . .dJobNum . dJobNum.Return Error.is pData2 NULL? . No. [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX.No.Offset to pData1 in RqBlk .DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX. EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP. pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.JNE Chk04 . ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX.0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS .Linear Address of PData1 . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP._AliasMem(pMem. [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX. ..Second Pointer (pData2) . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.Yes . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.. . . .Yes .. (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .Make stack right . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.No. Treat it as a data link block .is pData1 NULL? . MMURTL V1.pMem . Save ptr to Link Block .Error?? ..Offset to pData2 in RqBlk .Make stack right . continue .pLB. dcbMem.pMem . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX.Save again .[EAX+DataLo] . . Get pRqBlk into EBX .Yes .Error?? . .Set up params for AliasMem .is cbData1 0? .Yes . continue .cbMem . [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.cbMem . ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.Now we set up to alias the memory for the service .Return Error. Get pRqBlk into EBX .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX.

pLBin^.[EAX+DataHi] EDX. In future versions. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation. XOR EAX. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs. Exch. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection.19. . .ECX .TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.0 .pFreeLB . fDebug.Restore Ptr to Link Block . .Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] . For MMURTL version 1. See listing 18. CodeSeg. Priority. .Data in specified memory space (EDX) . 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] .Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. MOV pFreeLB. . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] . pFreeLB <= pLBin.19. Procedural interface: . NewTask kernel primitive code . . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1. MOV [EAX+NextLB]. . NewTask(JobNum.ESP MOV EDX. This creates a new task and schedules it for execution.EBX [EDX+4]. . The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] .EAX . INC _nLBLeft . STI . . . This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in.EAX MOV ESP. Listing 18.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.pCkMessage [EDX]. ESP.ErcOK! (0) .Next <= pFreeLB.x. . EIP): dErcRet . Get pLB^.Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . NTS_Pri CMP EDX.8 for OS. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive.[EAX+DataLo] ECX. .EBX . . or page fault.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX.

we can't be interrupted .pFreeTSS OR EAX.put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].DL .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].0 .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.EBX .Restore pNewTSS to EAX . [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX. ECX . NTS_CS .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX. 0 MMURTL V1.EBX EBX. ..CX .Set up to call GetpJCB .Put pJCB into TSS .Get Physical Address for PD into EAX . . . NTS_ESP . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 .Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch].Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . ECX.Save pNewTSS . . NTS_Exch ECX.EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].ercOutOfRange NTEnd .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP].EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP]. .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI .0202h .ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX. . nExch NT0001 EAX.mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS]. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.ECX MOV EBX. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return. ECX.JBE NT0000 MOV EAX.pNewTSS into EAX .Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.EAX now has pJCB . NTS_EIP .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.No.Next .ECX now has pJCB . NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.Set up to call LinToPhy .Save pNewTSS again .EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Exch in range? PUSH EAX .

EAX MOV BX.Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS . fDebug.Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority].ercOk JMP NTEnd . 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick. NTS_Pri .Jump to new TSS .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. .Save New TSS .JE NT0004 .EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space. .20.New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .New TSS -> EAX .CrntTSS -> EAX. . fOSCode). Procedural Interface: .Yes .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . New TSS -> EDX . SpawnTask(pEntry. See listing 18.Save time of this switch for scheduler .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. .EAX .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it.Get priority of new task CLI .20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX. dPriority. . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP. . .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX. .pRunTSS . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs. pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] .We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.ErcOk MMURTL V1. .BL . Listing 18. pStack. .Move new TSS into pRunTSS . As with NewTask().

JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX. nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.0202h . 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3]. pRunTSS MOV EDX.pFreeTSS OR EAX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].No.EDX . .mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX. .EBX MOV EBX.Priority OK? .Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX. 1 . .ercNoMoreTSSs .see if we got an error .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.Save new TSS EBX..mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. pStackST .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].ESP SUB ESP. . bad news .EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST.Allocate exchange . [EBX+TSS_CR3] .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.0 . NewExchST . . .two local DWORD vars . JobCodeSel .Yup.Next .. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX. .PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX JNZ STEnd .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.EDX MOV EDX. OSCodeSel . 8 CMP dPriST. 0 .pEntryST .we can't be interrupted . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.EBX MOV EBX. EAX . NewTSSST.

BL CLI MOV EDX.MOV EBX.ErcOk .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. It is property of a Job (not a task). dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority]. . . just put new guy on Q. .ercOk . New guy does (lowest num) .EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. . EBX <= ADR rgExch .pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority].21. . See listing 18.ESI MOV EBX. Allocate exchange code . .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() . AllocExch(pExchRet):dError .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . .prgExch MOV ECX.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP.we can't be interrupted . .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX. Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES).mov priority into BL . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.New TSS -> EAX . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange.CrntTSS -> EAX.put in TSS .0 . . Procedural Interface : . Zero the Exch Index .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.If crnt >. . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .21. . Get number of exchanges in ECX . Listing 18.Move new TSS into pRunTSS . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.Who got the highest Pri? .Place crnt TSS on Q .Get who's running . New TSS -> EDX . The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages. .ESP XOR ESI. .nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. 0 MMURTL V1.New TSS -> Stack . returned.Jump to new TSS .Return to caller .Old guy does. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .EAX MOV BX.Save time of this switch for scheduler .

.pRunTSS . MMURTL V1. . POP EBP . . PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead].22. Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. Procedural Interface : . Messages are deQueued.22.EAX . Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. TSSs. .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] .EBP . JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX. Stats XOR EAX. . however.EAX EDX.ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. . . it may have left over link blocks hanging on it.ercOK (0) MOV ESP. . Make the Exch owner the Job STI . . .sEXCH EDX EDX. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner].0 . . . Listing 18. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. Those link blocks may also contain requests. .EDX ECX. DEC _nEXCHLeft . Deallocate exchange code . If we found a Free Exch.0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.ESI . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. .ESI EDX. . . . .[EBP+0CH] EAX.[EAX+Owner] EBX. .sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX.EAX . . RETF 4 .pRunTSS EBX. . . .prgExch EAX. This function has a lot more to do.EDX .JE AE001 ADD EBX. DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). See listing 18.0 . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector. and link blocks. Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange. . and request blocks are freed up as necessary.[EBP+0CH] .

JMP DE000 . CLI . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. is this the OS??? . 0 . MOV [EAX+NextTSS].ercOK (0) MOV ESP.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. No. MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. 0 . . These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. Stats STI . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . yes . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: .Next <= pFreeLB. Get the TSS off of the Exchange .EBX . 0 . Go And Check for more.instructions or a service crashes! . if not owner. Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. . See listing 18.pFreeTSS . XOR EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. NIL = Empty. GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. POP EBP . RETF 4 . CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg].only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow .ercNotOwner MOV ESP. Go free the Exch.0 .Next <= pFreeTSS. .23. ECX . JMP DE001 . JUMP MOV ESI. INC _nTSSLeft . pTSSin^. OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. Nothing there. MOV [EAX+NextLB]. . Reset msg Flag. yes . Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . MMURTL V1.with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will .0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . Free up the exchange. ECX . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.pFreeLB .EBP . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond .EBX . pLBin^. MOV pFreeLB.EAX . INC _nLBLeft . INC _nEXCHLeft . EAX JZ DE002 . .JE DE000 CMP EBX.EAX . 0 . pFreeLB <= pLBin. Yes.EAX .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 . Go And Check for more.

[EBP+0CH] . RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. Set priority code . . the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. [EAX+TSS_Exch] .24. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . GetTSS exchange code . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI].pRunTSS .24 Listing 18.pRunTSS . Procedural Interface : . . Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. .This sets the priority of the task that called it . This doesn't really affect the kernel.[EBP+0CH] .Listing 18. RETF 4 . Procedural Interface : .EBX . BL . ErcOK POP EBP .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EBP . MMURTL V1. . Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. MOV EAX. POP EBP .Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . MOV EBP. SetPriority . EAX . . . to the priority specified in the single parameter.ESP . . GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . returned. . The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). bPriority is a byte with the new priority. PUSH EBP . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. 01Fh . MOV EAX. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. ErcOK . If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. SetPriority(bPriority):dError .ESP . EAX . . . See listing 18. . PUBLIC __SetPriority . MOV EBP. Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI.23.No error.

BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EAX. the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error. . SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . PUSH EBP . .This gets the priority of . DL . . . Get the MOV EBX. XOR EAX. MOV EBP. Listing 18. .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. Get priority code . See listing 18. Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. ErcOK POP EBP . GetPriority . PUBLIC __GetPriority . MMURTL V1. and passes it to bPriorityRet. Procedural Interface : .25. Get the MOV DL. bPriorityret is a pointer to a .25. RETF 4 . EAX .[EBP+0CH] . priority returned.pRunTSS .ESP .

We alloc the "next" page table .INC . Memory management constants and data .System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections. As with all assembler files for DASM.CODE command.INC .1. The task state segments are also used extensively. 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU . The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code. page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs).Number of free physical pages left .1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code.0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS .Default to 1 MB . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT . The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language.Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt . It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.User Readable (Code) .Max is 2048 (64Mb) . Listing 19. Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode. MMURTL V1. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM). I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.INCLUDE JOB.Chapter 19.INCLUDE TSS. the code section must start with the .Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .User Writable (Data) .DATA .ASM.2048 bytes = 64Mb . The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: . Listing 19.INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h .1 bit/4Kbytes .INCLUDE MOSEDF.User Writable .Page Allocation Map . I call these internal support code.

1 Mb of pages = 256 .Yes.IN: .USED: .ECX MOV EBX. Memory management initialization code .Set oMemMax . Continuation of memory management init.NO! . EAX . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used .Next Meg . Listing 19.See if we got it back OK . by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX. EAX .3 ADD EAX.ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX.Make it the last DWord again . 256 ADD sPAM. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM. . you have. . in megabytes. oMemMax must be last byte .Move in test string .Set it to zero intially .OUT: .EAX SUB EAX.Next table entry MMURTL V1.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].'mrtl' test string value for memory . See listing 19.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed. We assume 1MB to start. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EDX.InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX. Present MOV EBX.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].Yes! .EBX MOV ECX. OFFSET pTbl1 .top of 2 megs (for DWORD) .100000h ADD _nPagesFree. which was just loaded.3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data. EAX CALL MarkPage .3.Increase PAM by another meg .Another megs worth of pages . Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have. Its the law! Listing 19. .DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX. You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree. Now you must fill in bits used by OS. 32 CMP EAX.2. 256 MOV EAX.2. The code in listing 19.3 MOV _oMemMax. which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh). It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax.EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: . and makes PTEs. 4 . neither of which you consider free.1FFFFCh XOR EBX.0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].Read test string into EBX .Supervisor. 0001h .Are we above 64 megs . 0FFFFF000h .

0FFFFF000h . ANDing it with 8000000h. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM. OFFSET PDir1 .Make it index (SHR 12.5.EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: .Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . EAX . finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM. CR0 . 80000000h . nor can I provide instructions to everyone. 4096 EAX. such as the 82C30 C&T.Set paging bit ON CR0. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX .Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte. The routine in listing 19. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses.Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. Listing 19. Turning on paged memory management EAX. C0000h –FFFFFh. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . EAX . Listing 19.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX.6. 4096 . EAX .4.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. See listing 19.No. EAX .Next PTE entry ADD EAX. Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used. SHL 2) .Next page please CMP EAX. EBX. 0101b .Physical address of OS page directory CR3. and then writing it again.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX].ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX.Get Control Reg 0 EAX.5.Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage . EDX. 4 . Now we can go into paged memory mode. 100000h .Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 . EBX.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) . then reading CR0. EDX. . The initial page directory and the page table are static. See listing 19.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS .4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. EAX. Several chip sets on the market. but I can't be sure everyone can do it. Continuation of memory management init. go back for more . This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory.Store in Control Reg 3 EAX.

. 0 . OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX.All 8 pages used? FHP2 .8. PUSH 1 .USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.0FFh . Of course. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage . This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated.Where we are in PAM .8. See listing 19.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD. It also marks the page as used.No EAX. Allocation of memory management exchange . See listing 19.Page Allocation Map . this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it. LEA EAX.IN : .0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS . This reduces nPagesFree by one.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn . MemExch . or 0 if error EBX. Finishing memory management init.. OFFSET pNextPT .6. Find highest physical page code . 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX.EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].7.Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch .Done initializing memory managment . Listing 19.no memory left. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. sPAM DEC EAX . Listing 19.OUT : . FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. . MMURTL V1.Listing 19. assuming that you will allocate it.7. I'm afraid. Get 'em! RETN .

. EAX SHL EBX.Start at first byte in PAM . EBX FHPf EBX. or 0 if error EBX.0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Error (BAD CPU???) . This reduces nPagesFree by one. we must call UnMarkPage to release it. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].FOUND ONE! (goto found) .. .0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX. See listing 19.At the bottom of the Byte? . 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 .Add page number in byte .Test bits .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Set page in use .Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller.9. .Page Allocation Map .Are we past at TOP of PAM? .Get the byte with a whole in it. Once again.\ Listing 19.No . sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .IN : . Find lowest physical page code .One less available .Another Byte lower .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX.Back for next byte . 3 ADD EBX.DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX.9.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.. EDX MOV DL.. ..Set the bit indexed by EBX .OUT : .no memory left.All 8 pages used? .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .Next bit . It also marks the page as used. DL SHL EAX. assuming that you will allocate it. 7 XOR EDX. EAX .Another Byte lower .

15 .BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX].Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree .Add page number in byte .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX. Listing 19. EBX . 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX. 3 ADD EBX.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .End of the Byte? .IN : . EBX FLPf EBX EBX.0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS .Error (BAD CPU???) .One less available .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL. EBX XOR EDX.Get the byte with a whole in it. DL SHL EAX. 07h .Set the bit indexed by EBX .One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX.Test bits . Code to mark a physical page in use .. . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX.FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX.XOR EBX. [EAX+ECX] . DL .Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.10. 8 FLPn FLP3 . 0FFFFF000h .10.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX. This reduces nPagesFree by one.Set page in use .OUT : . See listing 19.Get the byte into DL BTS EDX. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. EAX SHL EBX. . MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. OFFSET rgPAM .Next bit . .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX. EDX MOV DL. EBX SHR ECX..Page Allocation Map AND EBX. 12 .

This call is used for things like aliasing for messages.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . See listing 19.11. INPUT: EAX -. OUTPUT: EAX -. [EAX] BTR EDX. .One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. USED: EAX.POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address.OUT : .11.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. EBX SHR ECX. EBX.12. etc. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. 12 AND EBX. ESI -. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1. Code to free a physical page for reuse .0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS .IN : . DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN . ESI. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. EFlags .ECX is now byte offset into PAM .Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing .BitReset instruction . ECX MOV DL. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM . . .Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. DMA operations. This function supports the similarly named public routine. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. 15 SHR EBX. . 07h ADD EAX. Listing 19. Listing 19. EBX MOV [EAX].Physical Address . EBX -. See listing 19. This increases nPagesFree by one. .Linear address .Round down to page modulo .Page Allocation Map .

. This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing. EBX MOV EAX.PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. 2 ADD EBX.Copy number of pages to ECX. 2 ADD EBX. 22 SHL EBX. 12 SHL EBX.Address of PD saved here . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1.Leaves pJCB in EAX . EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX.mask off lower 12 .Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . Save in EBX .Keeps count of how many free found so far .Save Linear .Get original linear back in EBX . or the 1Gb address mark for the user. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.get rid of lower 12 to make it an index . See listing 19. OUT: EAX . USED: EAX. [EBX] AND EAX. Listing 19. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX.Get rid of upper 10 bits .0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS. 2048 SHR EBX. in which case we return 0.*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow . Code to find a free run of linear memory .Save this address for caller . 00000FFFh OR EAX. 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.EBX/EAX now points to shadow .Physical base of page is in EAX . EBX MOV EDX. The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist.*4 makes it byte offset in PT . EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. EAX MOV ESI. IN : EAX . EBX RETN FindRun .Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset .13. 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables. .Index into shadow addresses from EAX . EBX .Get original linear . 003FFFFFh SHR EBX. . EAX MOV EAX.Move to shadow addresses in PD .EAX now has ptr to PD! .Index into PD for PT we are working on .13. This is either at address base 0 for the operating system. .Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . .ESI now has ptr to PD . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI.Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX.EBX now points to Page Table entry! .Save it again .EAX now has Linear of Page Table .

14. Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed.Not empty.Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI.Next PT! .Not done yet. go for it XOR EAX. . .Yes. 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system. This is the way FindRun left them.Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request.This is the linear address we ended at . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4]. keep testing .go INC MOV JMP FROK: .If . 22 SHL EAX. The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add.One more empty one! .Times size of page (* 4096) .EAX is next 10 bits of LA .Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 .PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . EAX. .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . . EDI .empty (available) . Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. . SHL EDX. . if the run spans two or more tables. . .MOV EDI. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX . while EAX was index into PT. See listing 19.EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .One less page (0 offset) .EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1.No.EDX was index into PD. FR1: XOR EAX.In use . EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. 12 SUB EAX.Zero means it's .We found enough entries goto OK .If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . EAX . or tables. 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: .EBX still has count of pages. The linear address of the run should be in EAX. and the count of pages should be in EBX. next PTE please ECX. . . EBX . Next PTE Please. [ESI+EDX*4] .The starting linear address is equal to number of the last . 12 OR EAX.We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .

EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.and OR in the appropriate control bits.14.LinAdd into EDX again . 4096 .See if it's a user page . EAX AND EDX. EDX.Offset to shadow address of PD . .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). EDX. 10 AR0: MOV EDI.Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 .Make it index to DWORDS . .then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].0 . [ESI] . ARDone: MMURTL V1. . OUT: . AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX.EDX .No. .Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS .Next PTE please.Restore linear address . 2048 ADD ESI.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .ESI now has ptr to PD! . . THEN store it in PT. . MEMSYS CMP EAX.EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) . . User ReadOnly . . EDI is pointing the next PT.Yes. .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX.SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. IN : .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . CMP EDX. EDX. . EBX . Adding a run of linear memory . EBX EAX 22 2 .Set PTE to present.LinAdd to EDX .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . go do next PTE ADD ESI.Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX. [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX.Get index into PD for first PT . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) . 4 . 4 . EDX MOV EDX. USED: .Listing 19.EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX .At this point.Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX.(save for caller) .

Adding an aliased run of linear memory .adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. and the count of pages should be in EBX.15. EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. EDX. . .This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.Get index into PD for first PT .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . EBX EAX 22 2 . .or tables. . . [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1.ESP SUB ESP. (from find run) .15. See listing 19. EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . EDX. . EDX. EBX Number of Pages to alias . IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries .POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun . Listing 19.Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).Make it index to DWORDS . Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EFlags .(save for caller) . . if the run spans two or more tables . ESI MOV AliasJob.0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . USED: EAX. The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. . .LinAdd to EDX . Once again. OUT: Nothing . . . ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) .we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX. AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table . this is the way FindRun left them. 8 MOV AliasLin.

0FFFFF000h OR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1. 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI. . . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . EDX MOV EDX. AND EAX.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . EAX AND EDX.Set system bits as ALIAS . . next PDE (to get next PT) .This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE.Offset to shadow addresses in PD .At this point.No. 10 ALR0: MOV EDI. 003FF000h SHR EDX. 4 CMP EDX. EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX. MOV ESP.Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum .Next PTE please.cut off system bits of PTE . .LinAdd into EDX again .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . . AliasJob MOV EBX. 4 XOR EDX.mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT.EAX now has physical address for this page . .Yes. ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX.Restore linear address . to get a physical address into EAX.ESI now points to first PT of interest .POP EAX ADD ESI. .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Job we are aliasing . [ESI] . .Address we are aliasing . . 2048 ADD ESI. .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS .Are we done?? . EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.Set up for next loop (post increment) .Start at the entry 0 of next PT .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI .EDX is index to exact entry .EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . MEMALIAS POP ESI . .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. go do next PTE .Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) . AliasLin ADD AliasLin. .

Linear add back into EBX .Move to shadow . No! (Try again) . USED: EAX. PUSH EDX . and sticks it in the user's page directory.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD . This will be in user address space above 1GB. EAX ESI. JcbPD ADD EDI.See if have enuf physical memory .Physical address in lower half . initializes it. IN : Nothing . AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .no free phy pages!) . Is it empty? .pJCB in EAX . because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. EBX . Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . [ESI] OR EBX. . EAX MOV ESI.Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. PUSH ESI .16. .ESI now points to PD .16. . 4 MOV EBX. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . MEMUSERD [ESI].Sorry.Set user bits (Read/Write) . 2048 EBX. .EDI points to UserPD Address . _nPagesFree OR EAX. Adding a page table for user memory .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. PUSH EDI . Listing 19. 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. pNextPT [ESI]. as shown in the following. EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX.Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. See listing 19.Offset to PcbPD in JCB . ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. out of physical mem .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is easier than AddOSPT. EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . [EDI] ADD ESI. 2048 MOV ECX.EAX will have Physical address . Next possible empty entry . . MOV EAX. EFlags . Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow).

. You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. 1 XOR EAX. Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .next time.. .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. EFlags .was there an error (0 means no mem) . . PUSH ESI .Sorry. . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. See listing 19. AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . PUSH EDI . EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. . in many cases.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .size of request . ESI points to OS Pdir .OS Job Number (Monitor) .17.See if have enuf physical memory . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running.EAX will have Physical address . Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS .save pNextPT (the linear address) . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . Listing 19. PUSH EDX . out of physical mem . _nPagesFree OR EAX.Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX. Find first empty slot MOV ESI. . Adding an operating system page table . . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. .no free phy pages!) . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX.0 . 1 MOV EBX. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow). USED: EAX. 511 MMURTL V1.17. MOV EAX. IN : Nothing .

2048 MOV EBX. Get back JCB number .Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1. .AOPT02: ADD ESI. pNextPT MOV [ESI]. The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) . . ESI EAX Get and . Is it empty? .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . # of dynamic JCBs .Next JCB .Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX. . EBX .Set present bit . Not a valid JCB (unused) . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX.Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB . 4 MOV EBX. Next possible empty entry .Linear add back into EBX .Physical address in lower half . . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX. JcbPD MOV EBX.Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX.Save values on stack MOV EDX. No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI].Source of Copy .No.Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX. [ESI] OR EBX.Get values from stack ADD EBX. OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX . 2048 .0 . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. .Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .Source EAX .Move to shadow .Save nJCB we are on .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) . EAX ADD ESI. . 2048 . .Destination 1024 . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX.

IN: AX . .18. Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. 1 XOR EAX. See listing 19. Adding a call gate to the GDT .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . .Set ErcOK (0) . This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. EBX. EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined.18.size of request . The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined.AddRun . . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. EFLAGS MMURTL V1. ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . . . DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) .was there an error (0 means no mem) . Listing 19.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . ESI.save pNextPT (the linear address) . allowing access to OS procedures. DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.next time.0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS . . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. ECX. else 0 if all's well . . EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . . . EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX.At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . USES: EAX. OUT: EAX Returns Errors. DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT.We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for ..

CX . CX SUB EBX.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .Put Offset 15:00 into gate . SI . 3 .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].No.not too low. . . GDTBase . for a task gate. or task gate.make index vice selector CMP EBX.sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].Yes.Put Offset 31:16 into gate .Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4].Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. . the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. EDX.Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) . EAX . AX SHR EAX. 40h . EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX.Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . IN: . 8 . . The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX.Extend INT Num into EDX . ercBadGateNum . AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2].Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . . 16 . nCallGates .19. USES: AX . . . ESI. 40 . . CX SHL EDX. AX MOV EAX. EBX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. Adding entries to the IDT .Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. MOV EAX. . 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. ECX. . .see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . interrupt. RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX.Put Gate ID into gate .call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX. 3 ADD EDX. BX MMURTL V1.0 . AX .0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. SI . See listing 19.19. ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX].0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. MOV EAX. .EDX now points to gate . Listing 19.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX.

ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit .More than 0? . .RETF .ppMemRet): dError . . This allows runs to span table entries. See listing 19.n4KPages XOR EAX. . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above. Procedureal Interface : .Kernel Error?? .0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .Yes . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.20.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. .Can't be zero! .Yes . we're maxed out EAX. placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS .size of request .Sorry boss. Allocate each physical page. The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage. Allocating a page of linear memory .20. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. A result code is returned in the EAX register. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit .Yes! Serious problem.EAX ALOSP00 EAX. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] . pRunTSS ADD EAX.size of request . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate. .See if have enuf physical memory . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory. Listing 19.No Error! EAX.(0 = No Runs big enuf) . _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg . EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .n4KPages EAX.These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . but not close enough to easily combine their code.

Does not return error . . Code to alias memory . dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. See if they are available.Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. ppAliasRet): dError . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed. No alias is needed. ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. RETF 8 .Add a new page table (we need it!) . Exit. Procedureal Interface : . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . ppMemRet . MMURTL V1. Even if the address is only two bytes.ERROR!! . . dcbMem. . .EAX now has linear address . EAX . POP EBP . . AliasMem(pMem. This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around.Go back & try again . . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. Listing 19. The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. pMem is the address to alias.EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX.pMem EQU [EBP+24] . .No error ALOSPExit: .EBP . .Only an entry in a table. If so.Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX].CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. . dJobNum.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. . This wastes no physical memory. you need two pages.See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Save last error PUSH MemExch . POP EAX . .0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS .21. .EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . EAX . PUSH EAX .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . however . if it crosses page boundaries.ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] .dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD.

.Kernel Error?? .Yes.Yes . 0 for OS .Add to dcbMem 12 . . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. EAX.EAX is nPages-1 . . . pRunTSS ADD EAX.No.0h JNE ALSPDone .See if it is OS based service .Yes .Are they the same Page Directory?? .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.Puts Current Job Num in EAX . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX. We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX.Yes .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . we're done ALSPBegin: .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Now wait our turn with memory management .OS Job? . EAX. EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX. [EBP+24] . 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1. [EBP+16] CMP EAX.EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough . EAX ECX. No Error .EBX still has count of pages OR EAX.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.0 . .No.Set up for OS memory space .Get Job number for pMem .EAX is 256 for user space.Was there enough PTEs? . EAX JMP ALSPDone . alias it . . .Number of pages we need into EBX . EAX. .Yes! Serious problem. EAX. EBX.Save nPages in ECX . 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.See if it is OS based service . . ECX CALL FindRun . PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.pMem into EAX 0FFFh . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . .Exit.No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . User memory .OS Job? .PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.dcbMem EBX .EAX has 0 or 256 .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .

This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines.ERROR!! . JobNum):ercType . . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun . .pAliasRet . EAX MOV ESI. you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address . .EBX .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedureal Interface : .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call. .Returned address to caller! . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1.and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. .EAX . [EBP+24] EAX.22. .0 = NO Error .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .Save alias page address base . PUSH EAX . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .Set to 0 (no error) .Now.Save last error .22.Job number . [EBP+24] MOV EDX.Go back & try again . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP.Set . EDI EAX.No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. [EBP+12] [ESI].Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: .Address to alias .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. Code to remove alias PTEs .Get remaining bits .We are done ALSPExit: . pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" . EAX . See listing 19. Listing 19. 0FFFh EDI. .Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing . .original pMem . dcbAliasBytes. PUSH MemExch . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . . DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. EAX ESI.

if so just ZERO PTE. . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 . 0FFFh . .dcbAliasBytes .None at all! .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .Add the remainder of address EAX.dcbMem EAX. . .0 . EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.Get PTE into EBX . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX. . [ESI] TEST EBX.NO .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .EAX is nPages-1 EAX . EAX MOV [ESI]. 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP.ECX .DO not zero it! ..AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .but less than you asked for! ECX. EDI DALM011 EAX. EAX .Add to dcbMem EAX.Address of next page to deallocate .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX. . EDX MOV EAX.Yes.ZERO PTE entry .pMem into EAX EBX. PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Next linear page .pAliasMem .We dealiased what we could.If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias .EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.NO! (did we do any at all) .Is page present (valid)??? . .and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS). [EBP+20] . [EBP+16] .ESP .See if PTE is an alias. DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) .Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX.Is page an ALIAS? .so we zero out the page.Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI. ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit . 12 .Linear Mem to DeAlias . it's page is present . [EBP+20] . . EBX . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS . XOR EAX.EBP MMURTL V1. [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy .We did some.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX.

Wait at the MemExch for Msg .Yes.Now we have Physical Address in EAX . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX. n4KPages):ercType .23. if so just ZERO PTE. . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. . because we deallocate 4K pages.23. This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias.Number of pages to deallocate . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem. Even if you specify more pages than are valid. . . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy .POP EBP RETF 12 . pRunTSS ADD EAX. .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . deallocate. DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls.and pointer to PTE in ESI.Address of next page to deallocate . . It will always free linear memory. Listing 19. Procedureal Interface : . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored .Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX.Error?? . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1.0 . its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS .Yes! . providing it is valid. [ESI] TEST EBX. Deallocating linear memory . .Get PTE into EBX . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.See if PTE is an alias. See listing 19. n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .Linear Mem to deallocate . . . pOrigMem AND EDX.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. .Is page present (valid)??? . .

EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. AND EBX.We did some. it's an Alias . . Procedureal Interface : . EAX MOV [ESI].get Memory error back . ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . .but less than you asked for! . .Kernel error has priority .ZERO PTE entry .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .Send a dummy message to pick up .save Memory error . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX. EAX ADD EDX. 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP. . .NO! (did we do any at all) . Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left.so we must unmark (release) the physical page. You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system.None at all! MOV EAX.CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. . Code to find number of free pages .We deallocated what we could. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.get rid of OS bits . . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit . . so next guy can get in .Yes. 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. Listing 19. .Next linear page .24.24.0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . over memory error . See listing 19.Is page an ALIAS? .. ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX. QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias . pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1. .

25. No Error . [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. MOV ESP. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will .25. .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . EAX . . . . [EBP+16] MOV EAX.pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . .. EAX XOR EAX. pPhyRet . GetPhyAdd(JobNum.0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . . Procedureal Interface : . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI].No Error . This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes.ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. See listing 19.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .END OF CODE MMURTL V1. Linear Address . . left available returned . _nPagesFree [ESI].JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . pPhyRet):ercType . EAX MOV ESP. . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ESP MOV EBX. LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . .LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . Job Number . pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . be returned . Public for linear to physical conversion . Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. EAX EAX. Listing 19. GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. pMemLeft EAX. . . LinAdd. .

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certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions.2 percent. I ended up with 10ms. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. actually the scheduler. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. The average really depends on program loading. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. memory wait-states. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly. Somewhere between these two was the average. It was 0. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing. It's at the end of the timer ISR. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. As you well know. I experimented with several different intervals.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 20. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. along with a piece of the kernel. however. which works out to about 1. Even more important than total bandwidth.6 percent for the worst case. In a 10ms period we have 200. or 3000 clocks. preemptive multitasking. Back when I started this project.1. which is very conservative. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. was the effect on interrupt latency.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. divided by the total clocks for the same period. But even with these calculations. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth.. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. Two of them will come in at 260us.2 percent of available bandwidth. as well as the fastest one possible. my worries were unfounded. A single communications channel running at 19. a slow machine. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. Listing 20. MMURTL is no exception.1. See listing 20. especially synchronous.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. I was consuming less than 0. The average is was far less. etc. with 100-MHz machines around.

DATA . But. A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386.Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). the exchange number of a task that is sleeping.ALIGN DWORD . plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine.2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt.INC . PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. The odds of this are truly astronomical.2. or one that has requested an alarm. . Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16. or 20us. This I could live with.320 clocks.INC . TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. See listing 20. This doesn't cause a problem at all. and finally with test programs.DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 .DD 00000000h . and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long . Listing 20. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium.FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. including the 10 percent overhead.INCLUDE MOSEDF. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time. . Data and constants for timer code .2.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. The Timer Block is a structure that contains . The real worst case would probably be more like 150us.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 . Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . These are the offsets into the structure .INCLUDE TSS.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop.0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS .

The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require. yet very important part. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. The three external near calls.Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 .is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 . priority than the task that is now running. If so.4. At all times on the system.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.3. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task. It is a small.Timer Tick. The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.No. The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. You have now interrupted that task.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it.3.Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].ECX has count of Timer Blocks .ASM.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown].No . The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX.0h . They may have been placed there by other ISRs.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX .0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS .INTS are disabled automatically . Listing 20. or higher.ISend Message MOV EAX. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] .EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . The timer interrupt service routine . Listing 20. See listing 20. It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. the first things defined in this code segment. See listing 20. External functions for timer code .. -1 . PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. you switch to it. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more. which is the one you interrupted.goto decrement it PUSH EAX . allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel.Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.FALSE . Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do..ASM. INT 20 . and they may be of an equal.4. only one task is actually executing.nTmrBlks CLD . You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches.Yes! .CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR .Yes .Yes .No . If it is the same or higher.

skip decrement . That means . MOV ESI.PUSH EAX . Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ . Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX.or Equal.keep going .[EDI+Tid] ..Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 .Is there one at all?? . SUB EAX. EAX ..YES. [ESI+Priority] CMP DL. Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.Change this to change the "time slice" . .We will now check to see if this guy has been running . JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone .if we got a CARRY on the subtract. and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS.tell him his times up! POP ECX .current pri.Compare current pri to highest queued . If the Queued Pri is LOWER . we want to Switch. EAX MOV EAX.get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel.EDI . pRunTSS MOV DL.BX .If current is higher(lower num). his .number was higher and we DON'T ..Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ . CMP EAX. Put current one in EAX ..sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 .FALSE .Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX. MMURTL V1. MOV EBX.is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX.empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI. ESI CALL enQueueRdy .0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS .switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri . and save in EDI ..get count back POP EAX .bogus msg PUSH EAX . PUSH 0 . TimerTick .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . If so. no need to check tasks . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .for more then 30ms (3 ticks). we will .DL is pri of current .unless were done .10ms more gone.Is this from a HALTed state? .Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .next block please! . EAX JZ TaskCheckDone . Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .No. dfHalted OR EAX.bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg . Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick.Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed . EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX.

Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.ErcOk .sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .ESP .EBX .5. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .5.DelayCnt . MOV EAX. RETF 4 .goto next block MOV EBX. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero. TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD . IRETD .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX. PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .No .EBX . The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .Count of timer blocks CLD .all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.Sorry.EBP . out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP.unless were done MOV EAX.clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . 0 .Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. .TRUE . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .Empty block? JNE Delay02 . Listing 20.can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV EBP.FAR return from publics MMURTL V1.rgTmrBlks .Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown]. See listing 20. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. POP EBP .ErcNoMoreTBs .TSS_Msg . The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.Must do this before we switch! .FALSE .pRunTSS . This requires an exchange. Sleep() .[ECX+TSS_Exch] .nTmrBlks .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX. DelayCnt CMP EAX.

Code for the Alarm function .ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP. DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Get delay count [EAX+CountDown].No . which means the message has already been sent.unless were done .FALSE .0 .all is well Alarm03 .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Alarm(nAlarmExch. AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].It's OK to interrupt now .6.ESP .Up the blocksInUse count EBX. . PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP .It's OK to interrupt now EAX. AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .ErcOk . . MOV EAX.Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .rgTmrBlks .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.EBX . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.put it in timer block! . It must be set up each time. The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each. Procedural Interface: .EBX .clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.Empty block? Alarm02 . out of timer blocks . Listing 20. KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. AlarmCnt CMP EAX. MMURTL V1.TRUE . -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .AlarmCnt .Sorry. nothing will stop it.goto next block EBX. 0 .nTmrBlks .Count of timer blocks CLD .6. . See listing 20.sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX.7.Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero. AlarmCnt):dErc . The message is not repeatable. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel. MOV EBP. See listing 20.

Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX. Code for the MicrDelay function .sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX.8. 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX. .FALSE .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . .unless were done . KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] .nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .Listing 20. KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc . .Block in use? KAlarm02 . But it's still very much needed. . The task is actually not suspended at all.7.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch].EBX .EAX MOV ESP.ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed. This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . The count is in 15us increments. This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds).No .ALl done -. Code for the KillAlarm function .TRUE . The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled. .No blocks in use . . which drives the processor clock. The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator.clear direction flag .KAlarmExch LEA EAX.EAX points to timer blocks . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS .ErcOk .8.0 . Listing 20. MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.Get exchange for killing alarms to .It's OK to interrupt now .Count of timer blocks . PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. so we get out! .Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1. See listing 20. Procedural Interface: .

pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI]. EBX MMURTL V1. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. .ESP XOR EBX.71h MOV BL.Toggle! Move to AH for next compare .No toggle yet . Listing 20. .AL IN AL. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).9. and the high order byte is 0.Clear time return .00h OUT 70h. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.71h MOV BL. Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . the next byte is the Hours in BCD.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . Code to read the CMOS time .MOV EBP. . See listing 20.check refrest bit . 8 MOV EAX.ESP MOV ECX. MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally.AL MOV ESI. . AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX. EBX MOV EAX. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL. 8 MOV EAX.9. AL SHL EBX.Get delay count . 61h AND AL.04h OUT 70h. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.Hours .AL SHL EBX.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX. EAX MOV ESP. .0 .Get system status port . 10h CMP AH.71h MOV BL.02h OUT 70h.Check toggle of bit .AL IN AL. the next byte is the minutes in BCD.get out if they came in with 0! .Minutes .AL IN AL.Seconds .

AL MOV ESI. 8 MOV EAX. Listing 20. 8 MOV EAX. 0-6 0=Sunday). EBX .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . 8 MOV EAX. XOR EBX. the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12). AL SHL EBX.10.AL IN AL.AL IN AL. GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.AL SHL EBX. MMURTL V1.06h OUT 70h.Give 'em the time . pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. EBX XOR EAX. AL SHL EBX. pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP .XOR EAX.71h MOV BL. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD.Clear date return MOV EAX. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99).Day of week . Procedural Interface: . .71h MOV BL.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV ESP. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). .Year .Month .ESP . No Error . GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .AL IN AL. .09h OUT 70h.08h OUT 70h. .10. Code to read the CMOS date . MOV EBP. .71h MOV BL.Day of month . .71h MOV BL. No Error .AL IN AL. See listing 20. EAX MOV ESP. .07h OUT 70h.

This does all work for BEEP and TONE .0 . . LSB. The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. . .GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller.12. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs.193182Mhz .11.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() . MSB.800. The procedural interface: . MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS . pTickRet MOV EAX.193182Mhz by Desired Freq.To find the divisor of the clock.DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . this amounts to 262. .Timer 2. . The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. With a 10ms interval. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months.193182 Mhz . The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . AL IN AL. 61h MMURTL V1. is used to generate tones.1. Binary . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep().No Error . GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror . . EAX XOR EAX. divide 1. 10110110b OUT 43h. EDX MOV EAX. Hardware timer number 2. TimerTick MOV [ESI].ESP MOV ESI.000 ticks per month. . AL MOV AL. Code to return the timer tick . AL XOR EDX. Listing 20.11. Because it is a dword.12. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h. Listing 20. . AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h. which is connected to the system internal speaker. See listing 20. See listing 20.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1.

Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq. . Listing 20. 11111100b OUT 61h. . Code to produce a tone .13. MMURTL V1.14. if it had. Listing 20. 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h. This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. . See listing 20.Freq .ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. 800 MOV ECX. . .0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS . (Sorry.13.350ms .) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. See listing 20. I would have called it Beep_Beep(). AL PUSH ECX . Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. Code to produce a beep .ESP MOV EBX. I couldn't resist. . . Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . AL RETN Beep() . .OR AL.14. This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. .

.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . ToneFreq MOV ECX. ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 .ESP MOV EBX. MMURTL V1. .PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

the first instruction executed after boot up. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 . Initial OS Page Directory (PD). and I don't worry about the rest of it.INC for structure details. The second file is InitCode. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin. Global Descriptor table (GDT). access to the data is faster if it is. It is the entry point in the operating system. Kernel Structures . Initial OS Page Table (PT).INCLUDE MOSEDF.0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) . Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) . The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary.INC .DATA . The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system.INCLUDE JOB. The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical. Listing 21.======================================================= .ASM which is presented later in this chapter. OS Global Data Listing 21. .ALIGN command. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . and Public Call Gate table.ALIGN DWORD . For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1.ASM. Main Operating System Data . Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process.See MOSEDF. I generally try to align data that is accessed often. It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL . Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files. The assembler does no alignment on its own. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 .1. “OS Initialization. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files. The first file is Main. a workhorse for Main.Chapter 21.ASM.INC . Periodically you will see the .INCLUDE TSS.INC . In chapter 7.ASM.

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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. Used : ALL registers and flags .DPL 3. MOV ESI. 08F00h . 08F00h . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 8 . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX.call DPL & ndParams RETN .Overflow 08F00h . GDTBase . SI . 3 .This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. 255 .DPL 3. 0 .SUB EBX. OSCodeSel .Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. software and hardware interrupt handlers.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . . IN : Nothing . OSCodeSel .========================================================================= . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . AX . Second. 4 . First. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector. adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . SI . Out : Nothing . PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX.0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS . ESI. . Trap gate MOV EBX. 08E00h .DPL 3.Single Step MOV EAX.Breakpoint MOV EAX.DPL 3. Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . InitIDT . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. 16 .Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. 3 .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04].sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. MOV ESI.DPL 3.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. 08F00h . 1 .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. EBX. .Divide By Zero MOV EAX. 40 . EAX. CX .make index vice selector MOVZX EBX.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX.

OSCodeSel .Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX.Int TIMER MOV EAX. IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . 08F00h . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 6 .Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX.DPL 3. 08F00h . 08F00h . 0Bh . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3.Int Page Fault MOV EAX. MOV ESI. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Ah . 20h .DPL 3. MOV ESI. 08F00h . OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h . MOV ESI. 0Ch .Double Exception MOV EAX.DPL 3. 0Eh . INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. ESI. MOV ESI. 08F00h . MOV ESI.Seg Not Present MOV EAX.DPL 3.DPL 3. 8 .DPL 3. 08F00h . MOV ESI. OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. EAX. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel .Invalid OPcode MOV EAX.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h . OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Invalid TSS MOV EAX.GP fault MOV EAX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h . OSCodeSel . 21h . 0Dh . MOV ESI. MOV ESI. EBX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1.

OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ . MOV ESI.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int COM1 MOV EAX... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. MOV ESI.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. MOV ESI.. MOV ESI..DPL 3.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX....DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. 08E00h ... MOV EAX.FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 23h ... 26h .. MOV ESI.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . EBX. OSCodeSel . MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE .DPL 3. MOV ESI. 25h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 24h ..0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS ..Int .. 08E00h ...DPL 3. 08E00h .Int .. MOV ESI. 08E00h . OSCodeSel . 27h ..Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX. 08E00h . ESI..DPL 3..Int .. EAX. 2Ah ..Int .Int LPT2 MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 28h . 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ .. 2Bh .Int . OSCodeSel ..... OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .. MOV ESI.DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV EAX... 08E00h .Int COM2 MOV EAX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... OSCodeSel .. . 29h .DPL 3. IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1. OSCodeSel ...DPL 3.IntLPT1 MOV EAX..

INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h .. Out : Nothing .Int . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 . DPL 3 MOV ECX..========================================================================== . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 08C03h . . Used : ALL registers and flags . MOV EAX. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX...1Dword param.0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS .. 40h MOV DX. 48h MOV DX. MOV EAX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI...DPL 3. IN : Nothing . OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! . DPL 3 MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX.DPL 3.. before initcallgates. This can't . 2Dh .. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1.WaitMsg -. 0EC03h . 0EC01h . MOV ESI. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int ... MOV ESI. but MUST be called before the first far call to any .ISendMsg -. InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates. 50h MOV DX. MOV EAX.... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 0EC02h . 58h MOV DX... 2Eh . 08E00h .Int .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..SendMsg -.2 DWord Params. DPL 3 MOV ECX. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! . OSCodeSel ..3 DWord params. DPL 0 MOV ECX.3 DWord Params. 2Fh . MOV ESI......Set Priority ... OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.

The rest of the call gate set ups go here. RETN MMURTL V1.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS ..

For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . See listing 22. It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. request blocks. When things don't work right. are used by almost every module in the operating system. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: . and finally the operating system memory. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. it is usually quite a mess. Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. Ptr to free Job Control Blocks .INCLUDE JOB. These calls.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management. Job Management Subroutines . and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation.INC . making sure that each was correctly set and filled out.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs .Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1.INCLUDE MOSEDF.Begin Code ================== .1. Pieces of related code in the kernel. exchanges.Chapter 22. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in .CODE . In the functions ExitJob() and Chain().0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . this is the where you'll end up. the monitor.======= End data. TSSs. EBX -. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. many of them public functions.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two .================================================================ . and finally starting the new task.INC . JCBs are in allocated memory . INPUT : EAX -. The program loader is in this chapter. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources.INCLUDE TSS. can be a complicated scenario. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD .asm . From Main.DATA . I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) .1 Listing 22. link blocks. The process of allocating all the resources. the JCB. Before I wrote this code.

.Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX.ESI EFLAGS . pJCBs . EBX. . . 3 . . . ECX is count of JCBs. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI]. others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated.pbJobName ECX -. EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols].Move it in .EAX . OUTPUT : NONE .EAX . . EAX ADD EDI.Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. EAX points to the first JCB.size is filled in . EBX .Make last one NIL RETN . [EAX+JobNum] RETN .EDX .EAX . while . 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr].0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information.Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop .EBX MOV EDI. 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. EDX . . .first byte of name . This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). .. . InitFreeJCB . . ESI. . .ECX. ECX.cbJobName EDX -. MOV [EAX+JcbPD].1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. . EDX. MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. 7 MOV EAX. The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs.Video number is in JCB .Address of JCBs to be initialized .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. ESI -. USED: EAX. The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL).EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB]. PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. .EBX. .============================================================================= . . . EAX . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs. ECX . This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run.Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. 0 .Put Ptr to PD into JCB .Count of JCBs .Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. INPUT : EAX .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX.Now to JobName . . in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). EDX is size of each JCB. .EDI points to JCB . We can't use its position .Size of JCBs . MMURTL V1.EDX. EDI. .

[EAX+NextJCB] . INPUT : NONE . NewJCBDone: RETN . . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB .Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. JE DispJCBDone .0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . . MOV EBX. Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX.Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX. sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). . REGISTERS : EAX. . . REGISTERS : EBX. pJCBs STOSD . This routine will also . the free pool.DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . .0 . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) .EBX. Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). EAX ECX.============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . Get 'em! . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. .Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . . . . nJCBs MOV EDX. . 4096 EDI.IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. . If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. MOV EAX. .Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. INPUT : EAX .================================================================ . . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in .EBX . pJCBs MOV ECX. Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . JE NewJCBDone . then EAX will contain NIL (0). pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. CMP EAX..FLAGS . . This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb.pFreeJCB . 0 . .FLAGS . 0 . OUTPUT : EAX . OUTPUT : NONE . If none exists.

PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. .Current Task State Segment MOV EAX.Current Job Number . assigned to a Job. [EAX+JobNum] . . INPUT: EAX -.Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . 2 MMURTL V1. . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. . All TSSs are . OUTPUT: EAX -.Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . OUTPUT: EAX -. . assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task.Linear Address of current JCB . in EAX.pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB].============================================================ . . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. EFlags . GetCrntJobNum .MOV EBX. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . INPUT: Nothing .EBX MOV pFreeJCB. . USED: EAX. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. The Job number . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . OUTPUT: EAX -. 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX. A Job may have more than one Task. This is based on which Task is executing. USED: EAX. Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX.Job Number of desired pJCB . EFlags . .EBX has OS ptr to free list . .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Current JCB RETN .============================================================ . . GetpCrntJCB . . All TSSs are . pRunTSS . EFlags . . GetpJCB .Pointer to JCB RETN .EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN .Move it into newly freed JCB . USED: EAX. INPUT: Nothing . All TSSs are assigned to a Job. . This is based on which Task is executing. PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX.============================================================ . is a field in the JCB structure.

. pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB. call to support the public job management calls in high level . EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX.Add in two static JCBs .============================================================ .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . . We got one! .Within range of JCBs . The Job number . Sorry. ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. .JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. AllocJCB (NEAR) . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pJCBs POP EDX RETN . INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. . . Get a new JCB . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. . [EAX+JobNum] .Current Job Number . 3 MOV EDX. . .0 .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). GetJobNum . EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. . This is a NEAR . EFlags . . ppJCBRet):ercType .Current JCB RETN .Now points to desired JCB . . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. .Times size of JCB . OUTPUT: EAX -. is a field in the JCB structure. Procedureal Interface : .============================================================ . . . USED: EAX. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. . . languages.

. . . .MOV ESP. [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. languages in the OS code. GetpJCB . . Get a new JCB .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . EAX MOV ESI. Procedureal Interface : . GetpJCB(dJobNum. . .============================================================ . pJCBRet):ercType . pJCB .============================================================ . . .ESP MOV EAX. . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . EAX MOV ESP. MMURTL V1.Job Num . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . .pJCBRet . . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated.===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. This is a NEAR . . . . call to support the public job management calls in high level .No error . .============================================================ . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). . . you specifiy. . Procedureal Interface : .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. . . . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. . . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . EAX XOR EAX. . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. . EAX MOV ESP. . . . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .

0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . RETF 8 . . . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. . POP EBP . dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] .EBP . . .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP.ESP . [EBP+16] . MOV ESP. RETF 8 . . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .EBP .Leave jobnum in EAX . EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . MMURTL V1.puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. the job that the task that called this belongs to. . RETF 8 . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . 0 . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 . or 0 will be returned with the data. This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job.. EAX XOR EAX.0 is invalid CMP EAX.pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. GetJobNum . nJCBs + 2. pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP . . .No Error . . . . MOV EAX.============================================================ . . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . POP EBP .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. ErcBadJobNum .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. .pJobNumRet . POP EBP .Job Num OR EAX. EAX MOV ESP. ErcInvalidJCB . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. [EBP+12] . Procedureal Interface : . This is . . . .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX.

PUSH EBP .No Error POP EBP . the number representing the system disk is returned.get rid of high bits MOV ESI. [EBP+12] . . .ESP . . _BootDrive AND EAX. ending jobs. Functions for starting new jobs. RETF 4 . This code is here for lack of a better place.c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. 7Fh . And will . contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. XOR EAX..================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. GetSystemDisk . . Procedureal Interface : . . disk that the system booted from. MOV EAX. EAX . This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . This is from the public .0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. It's really not a filesystem function either. . AL . pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk .============================================================ . variable _BootDrive defined in Main. . Listing 22. .asm. Jobc. pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where . MOV EBP. and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. Jobc. . . It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType .c.2.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS .

h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS .Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel.h" "MJob. char *pNewJCB)..h" "MTimer. . /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it.h" #include "runfile.h" "MVid.h" "MFiles.). MMURTL V1. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. GetExchOwner(long Exch.h" "MData.. */ static long TmpStack[128]. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. SetExchOwner(long Exch. SendAbort(long JobNum. long cb). char *ppJCBRet). long Exch).h" "MMemory. /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB.ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet.h" "MKbd. char *pJCBRet). RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB).

0.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. char *pMem. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. When all PTs have been cleaned. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. *pPDE. static long sCode. static long offCode = 0. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. static struct tagtype tag. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. i<1024. ExchE. BogusMsg[2]. job_fhE. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. offData = 0. oData. filetype. 0. static unsigned long oCode. 0. unsigned long *pPT. ercE. we eliminate the user PDEs.static long JobNum. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. sData. 0. sStack. k. 0. static long cbFileE. iE. extern unsigned long KillExch. static char aFileE[80]. *pStack. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. j. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. i++) { MMURTL V1. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. 0. *pData. erc. for (i=768.

dret. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. 0. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. switch (tag. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. fh.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). If all is well. long cbFileName. j<1024. oCCFIX = 0. char fDone. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. junk. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. erc = ReadBytes (fh. oDCFIX = 0. reads and validates the run file. nDDFIX = 0. 1. &tag. nCDFIX = 0. cbFileName. offData = 0. oCDFIX = 0. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. nCCFIX = 0. &dret). nDCFIX = 0. MMURTL V1. 5. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. 1. oDDFIX = 0. i. &dret). while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. &fh). *pfhRet = 0. offCode = 0. for (j=0.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. &filetype.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000.id = 0. long *pfhRet) { long erc. k). The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName.

oCDFIX+tag. 4.len). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. MMURTL V1. /* skip it break. i+tag. &dret).len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len). break. nCDFIX = tag. nDDFIX = tag. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. break. &oDDFIX). nCCFIX = tag.len). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. &sData.len). &oDCFIX).len/4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). 4. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). oCCFIX+tag. &offData. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.len/4.0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . oCode+tag. &pStart. 4. &sStack. /* skip it break. &sCode. &oData). oDDFIX+tag. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &dret). oData+tag. &oCDFIX).len/4. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. break. if (tag. 4. nDCFIX = tag. break. case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len). &offCode. &i).len).len). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). /* skip it break. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &oCode). /* skip it break. oDCFIX+tag. &oCCFIX).len/4.break.

else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. i. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). erc). if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". else { CopyData(pRunFile. GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). pRunRet. MMURTL V1. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. return (erc). return(0). i). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. &pTmpJCB). dcbRunFile). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pdcbRunRet = i. long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum.break.0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbPath) { long JobNum.

&pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. long dcbUser) { long JobNum. long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. } return(erc). } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. else { CopyData(pCmd. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. *pdcbCmdRet = i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. *pdcbPathRet = i. dcbPath). else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. erc. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. pPathRet. } return(0). else { CopyData(pPath. GetpJCB(JobNum. char *pPathRet. pCmdRet. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum.0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. &pTmpJCB). MMURTL V1. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). i.else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). i). i). &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. dcbCmd).

dcbUser). &pTmpJCB). long dcbName) MMURTL V1. else { CopyData(pUser. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. GetpJCB(JobNum. return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). pUserRet. pFileRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. long dcbName) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). *pdcbFileRet = i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). i. GetJobNum(&JobNum).0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. &pTmpJCB).GetJobNum(&JobNum). i). return(0). &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. &pTmpJCB). i. pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. *pdcbUserRet = i. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. else { CopyData(pName. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. dcbName). GetpJCB(JobNum. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. i). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. } return(0). } return(0).

0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . pFileRet. *pPT. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1.{ long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. dret. GetJobNum(&JobNum). i. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. dcbName). U32 PhyAdd. unsigned long *pPD. &pTmpJCB). else { CopyData(pName. *pVid. i. } return(0). i). *pdcbFileRet = i. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. long *pFix. long dcbName) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. &fh). dcbName). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. long cbFileName. pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. cbFileName. return(0). return(0). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). nPages. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pOSPD. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. fh. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. GetpJCB(JobNum.

&pCode). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages.0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . PhyAdd). xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". pPD = 0. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). erc = AllocPage(nPages. /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. 0). pPT = 0. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. 4096. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. sStack = nPages * 4096. 4096. /* Job's PD. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". pPT = pPD + 4096. &pData). if (sCode%4096) nPages++. &pPD). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. nPages = sData/4096. 1). PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. &pNewJCB). ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. nPages = sCode/4096. MMURTL V1. pPT. pPT). pNewJCB = 0. 0). pVid = pPD + 8192. if (sData%4096) nPages++. &pTmpJCB). FillData(pVid. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". &pStack). /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. GetpJCB(1. pVid = 0. pOSPD[768] = pPT. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. &PhyAdd). pPD).

oCCFIX). &dret). pFix = pData + i. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4.offData + pData. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i. sCode. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pData + i. sData. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. pPD. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. */ CopyData(pOSPD. oCode). pData. &i. &dret). } MMURTL V1. &i. &i.offCode + pCode. &dret)./* Right now. pFix = pCode + i. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. &dret). the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. oDDFIX). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. pFix = pCode + i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oDCFIX). oData). pCode. 4. oCDFIX).offData + pData. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offCode + pCode. &dret). 4096).

/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). 25. 1024. pStart+pCode-offCode). pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* Size */ CopyData("VID".0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. pNewJCB). pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. i. 0. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. 3). 1024. 0x18. 0). /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. pNewJCB->nCols = 80. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. 0). /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. 3). pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pStack+sStack-4.

pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. &dret). This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). oCode). ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. i. &pStack). Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . nPages. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. dret. erc = AllocPage(nPages. long *pFix. nPages = sData/4096. return(erc). sData. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. pData. &pData). if (sData%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. erc = AllocPage(nPages. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. sCode. &pCode). if (sCode%4096) nPages++. sStack = nPages * 4096. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. pCode. long fh) { long erc. oCDFIX). &dret). oData). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. /* All Job memory is now allocated. nPages = sCode/4096. pNewJCB = pJCB. The PD.

4. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . MMURTL V1. pFix = pCode + i. &i. &i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oDCFIX).offCode + pCode.offData + pData. &dret).PT and video. oCCFIX). /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. &i. 4. This task. pFix = pData + i. pFix = pData + i. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. return(erc). &dret). /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. pFix = pCode + i. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. &i. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). &dret). and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD.offCode + pCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). oDDFIX). /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . its exchange. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret).offData + pData. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS .

GetpJCB(JobNumE. Debugger or the current job. /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. This is used to kill run-away jobs. */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. if (erc) return(erc). It results in a violent death for the job specified. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all.0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. ercE = 0. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. ErcOpCancel). A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. &pTmpJCB). ISendMsg(KillExch. CleanUserPD(pPDE). ExchE. if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. &pTmpJCB). */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). BogusMsg). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). GetTSSExch(&ExchE). SetPriority(31). BogusMsg). while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. WaitMsg(ExchE.

This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. iE = 0. ExchE. } ercE = 0. pTmpJCB). Exch. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. &pCrntJCB). ESP. /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ExchE). &pExchJCBE). &TmpStack[127]. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. fDebug. 0.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. CodeSeg. Priority. return(erc). pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). 0x08. We send "Abort" messages to all services. EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. &_KillTask). If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. iE++.ercE = 0. 3. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. GetpJCB(JobNumE. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE).

0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercE = 0. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange)./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. EBP. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. ESP. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. Send Abort messages to all services. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). ercE = 0. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). ExchE). ercE = 0. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. If no exit run file. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). EAX. iE = 0. &cbFileE). iE++. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. &pExchJCBE). CleanUserPD(pPDE).

ercE). */ #asm MOV EAX. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. ADD EAX. BogusMsg). SetPriority(31). MOV EBP. cbFileE.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. MOV EBX. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . SUB EAX. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. WaitMsg(ExchE. Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. ExchE. &job_fhE). job_fhE). MOV ESP.

if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. Send Abort messages to all services. aFileE. iE = 0. ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. &pCrntJCB). */ MMURTL V1. cbFileName. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). long cbFileName. &job_fhE). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. cbFileE = cbFileName. ercE = 0. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). iE++. GetpJCB(JobNumE. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. In other words. ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. } CloseFile(job_fhE). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE).error loading the Job. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). &pExchJCBE). cbFileName).

*/ GetExitJob(aFileE. CleanUserPD(pPDE). if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). ESP. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. cbFileE.SendAbort(JobNumE. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. */ MMURTL V1. ercE = 0. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. EBP. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. &job_fhE). EAX. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. The original user's job is destroyed. job_fhE). &job_fhE). If no exit run file. cbFileE. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. job_fhE). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. &cbFileE). The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . ExchE). ercE = 0. /* Try to load the Chain file.

ADD EAX. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. MOV EBX. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). ercE). SUB EAX. BogusMsg). PUSH 18h MOV EAX. ExchE. MOV EBP.#asm MOV EAX. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . WaitMsg(ExchE.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. MOV ESP.

Enter debugger . are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS).Chapter 23. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger .1. Breakpoints. Get EIP of offender for debugger . Listing 23. code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). Get CS . . small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. All of the debugger's . Next. Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. task (without going through the kernel). but is still very immature. . debugger operate in the current tasks memory space.0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 23. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. which are all debug exceptions. register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. Get EIP of offender for debugger . . This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. .EnterDebug . on which exception is was. Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. The debugger is a separate task. They are made to match those of the interrupted task. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger .1. I have left them as individual procedures. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. then copy the CR3 . . If we get here.===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . It has grown substantially. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually.Enter debugger .===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. Get Flags . . This makes the . . First we copy the Page Dir .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. While writing the operating system. You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. entry from the current job into the debuggers job. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted.

CR3 -> DebuggerTSS .. BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . . OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3]. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. EAX This switches tasks.INC .make his registers right! . and restore PUSH EDX .INC JOB.pRunTSS -> EAX . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. then jump to the debugger's selector.2 presents the debugger code in its entirety.INC RQB.Switch tasks to debugger .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS. task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. .current CR3 -> EBX .INCLUDE . You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.Install Debugger's as current . EBX EAX. we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .INCLUDE MOSEDF. caller's registers them before the into the debugger . .Save the current pRunTSS .ALIGN DWORD .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX. [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX. [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.2. EnterDebug: PUSH EAX .CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX . pRunTSS EBX.Put the stack back the way it was . Debugger Data and Code .INCLUDE .pCrntJCB -> EAX .DATA .INCLUDE .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].we MUST save PUSH EBX . EBX EAX. EAX EAX.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX .When the debugger exits.Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code. pRunTSS.INC TSS.Set up debugger selector . Listing 23.Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23. with the exception of the disassembler.External near Variables MMURTL V1.

0B3h.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .Has Dbg Video been initialized? . .'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue. 0Ah DB 0 .Boolean.To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' ..'ClrBP'. 0 = Exch .'Tasks'. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .' '.TO save the TSS we interrupted . .Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .flag 1 = Msg.'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.For ReadDbgKbd .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .0B3h.Address we are setting as next .Address of instructions we are displaying .' ' ' .'DumpD'.Address we are dumping .0B3h.0B3h.'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.0B3h..For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.0B3h.40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .0B3h. . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .General purpose DDs (used all over) . dbgExchMsg .For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .CR LF for Dump etc.0B3h. .are we dumping DWORDS? .' '.General use buffers DB '0000000000' .'SetBP'.Active bytes in buf2 . ESC to quit.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .0B3h.

'ESI: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.'TSS: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .' ES: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.'EIP: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'EAX: 0B3h.==================== End Data.'ECX: 0B3h. OFFSET DbgVidSave .' GS: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .'ESP: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h. Begin Code ========================== .'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .'EFL: 0B3h.'EBX: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.

[EAX+TSS_EFlags] .EBX .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS].dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX. .0 .When a fault or debug exception occurs. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.dbgOldEflgs .NO .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. .PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit. .REF . so we shouldn't have to reset it. DbgpTSSSave . MOV EBX.We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .EBX .Dbgr is Job 2 .See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX. when the handler is entered. The debugger .way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the . I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. is always entered as a procedure.interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. .the Instruction Pointer.BX MOV EBX. EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. Code Seg. MOV EBX. and flags are not the .the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS.0 .Display fault message and .NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .procedure was entered. the handler is a procedure (NOT a task).. 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX. This only applies if .Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 . (we chanage the tasks) . the values of .EBX . But we do. and number at 0 . 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.dbgOldEIP .0FFh .We make them the same by putting the values we got from . .dbgOldCS .Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]..

EAX .Color White on black . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd . 0FFh .CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid .Set TF in flags for single step .reset fault indicator .dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .Set BP (Current Address .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX. 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Display menu PUSH dbgX .=========================================================== . 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.1 .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .ESCAPE (Exit) . MOV EAX.Reset X & Y to 0.Fall through to keyboard loop .Get USER pUserTSS .DbgpTSSSave . . 0FFh LEA EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX.Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX. EAX MOV dbgX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.0 . 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Single Step (F1) . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP. EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.

Display Exchanges (F5) .F3) .Clear BP (Current Address . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS .Set Disassembly Address (F8) . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX.Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 .Task array display (F6) . . 00 MMURTL V1. . 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. 00000002h DR7. EBX DR0. .This puts the instruction on the line .See if we need to scroll up .Save it so we know where BP is . EAX dbg00 EAX.0 .Full display . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX.BP0 Set global . .DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. 11h dbg04 EAX. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. .Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX.Not used yet . EAX dbgBPAdd. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX.This puts the instruction on the line . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL.Address displayed . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.See if we need to scroll up . . EBX EAX.Sets NextEIP .Back to where we were . EAX DR7. EAX dbg00 . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd.Clear BP saved address .Return to CS:EIP (F4) . EAX EAX. 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. EAX DR6.

EAX must be preserved MOV EBX. DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS. .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask .Back to begining . If they are the same. EAX BX. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL.This puts the instruction on the line .we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.MOV dbgfDumpD.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) .GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner .This compares the current breakpoint the address .Info Address dump (F12) .Query XY .0 .Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1. BX . . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX. 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL. .============================================================== dbgShowBP: .we are about to display.Return saved pRunTSS . . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL.

[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.Number of this TSS .This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.MOV ECX.TSS Display .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.04 MOV ESI.EDX Display .============================================================== .07 MOV ESI.05 MOV ESI. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.EBX Display .03 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.00 MOV ESI.01 MOV ESI.BP Address .information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.06 MOV ESI.EDI Display .3 params to TTYOut .EAX Display .EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .Save EAX across call .02 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ECX Display .OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.EBP Display MMURTL V1.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX. ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.ESI Display .

[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ESP Display .MOV ECX.GS Display .CS Display .CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.FS Display .20 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.09 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR3 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.EIP Display .OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.19 MOV ESI.17 MOV ESI.10 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.SS Display .08 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.0 .11 MOV ESI.18 MOV ESI.ES Display .13 MOV ESI.14 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.CR2 Display .Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.16 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.15 MOV ESI.12 MOV ESI.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR0 Display .EFlags Display .EAX MOV AX.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.DS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.

.CALL DispRegs RETN .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1.dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is for Debugger Register display .============================================== . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 .========================================================================== .

dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX. dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Ignore error if any MOV AL.Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.ptr to string . PUSH EAX .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . .. DbgBuf2 . cbBufLen2 .ptr to destination DD . PUSH EAX .0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.=========================== .Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1. EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . PUSH EAX . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone .Go home.=========================== . dbgChar .Goto Query Line . 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX. .Convert String to DD ..pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .Max size LEA EAX.length of string . dbgChar CMP AL.PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.did they exit with CR? . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.

dbgChar ..line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. 6 LEA EAX. 24 .byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .ptr to string .Goto Query Line .did they exit with CR? . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX.ptr to destination DD . DbgBuf2 . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.Ignore error if any MOV AL.Crnt size PUSH 8 . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. PUSH EAX . cbBufLen2 .Convert String to DD . dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.length of string . 0 JNE DumpDone .ptr to size returned LEA EAX. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd . dbgSpace MMURTL V1. PUSH EAX . 4 . .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! ..Max size LEA EAX.0 .convert address to text LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. dbgChar CMP AL. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . PUSH EAX .Go home. LEA EAX. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.

dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.ignore error . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd .0 .Display First byte . dbgBuf ADD EAX.Display 1 spaces . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.ignore error .point to second 2 bytes .Dumping DWORDS CMP AL. dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL. display 1 space . 0 JE DumpB . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. [EBX] .go to display bytes LEA EAX. dbgBuf . dbgfDumpD .NO .Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX .get dump address MOV EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 2st byte .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS .

done with 4 quads?? .ignore error .go back for next 4 bytes . dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .NO .Yes . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 . DEC dbgGPdd1 .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Query XY PUSH dbgX .size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.NO . dbgCont .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.a space .ignore error .Display 2 spaces LEA EAX."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 . 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgCRLF .display 4th byte .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. LEA EAX.ignore error LEA EAX.Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.

. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Exch# we are on . sEXCH EDX EDX. dbgGPdd2 EDX.Convert Exch number for display . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 0 RETN . Exch number . 1Bh .line we are one . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX. dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX.0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . .=========================== . PUSH 54 .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX. DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. 1 .Col PUSH 0 . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .prgExch . 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .Do CR/LF 0 .MOV EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 . 0FFh .

Go check for tasks .No. [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. . . EAX MOV EAX.pMsg -> EBX 20 . [EAX+EHead] .Yes. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX. EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) . but would be confusing later.Get dMsg2 .Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save dMsg2 .Flag to indicate we are doing messages .MsgFlag -> EBX .pMsg -> EBX . [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .. [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . EAX OR EBX. 0 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . . . .Convert dMsg1 .Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.See if there is a first message MOV EAX.For next msg in chain (if it exists) . MOV EAX.Could have left it on stack.Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert Job Number 10 .Is is 1 (a message)? . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .ADD EAX.Is is NIL (no msg or task)? . [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.EDX MOV dbgGPdd3.Save for loop .0 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. .Get dMsg2 back POP EDX . .. Go to next Exch . [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX. EAX MOV EBX. .Get dMsg1 . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.pExch -> EAX .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5.

23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 .0 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Col .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. [EBX+TSSNum] . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.Line .Lop off key status bytes . EAX AX. 31 . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . MOV EAX.Col 24 .Save ptr to next task if it exists . 0FFh CMP EAX.Clear pNextTask . 23 . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .No .Is is 0 (no TSS)? .Next line please . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone .Col dbgGPdd1 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert Task Number 1 . EAX EAX.Line OFFSET dbgCont . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .pTSS -> EBX .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.pExch -> EAX . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EAX.Get Number of Task at exch .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. nDynEXCH . INC dbgGPdd1 . . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. 1Bh JE dbgDEDone .

EAX.Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 1 . Task number . we increment TSS number and go back . dbgGPdd2 EAX.Displays Tasks that are active along with .Tasks .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS . . 0 RETN .If not.Set up to loop for next msg/task . nDynEXCH .line. Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX.If so.We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX. Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 1 dbgDT02 EBX.Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .Another pointer in the link? . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX.=========================== . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . . . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Line for labels .Length of message .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . PUSH 54 .Col PUSH 0 . OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX.No .for the next one dbgDT01: .line we are one .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . 1 . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.First we get pTSS and see if it is valid .Col . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 . MMURTL V1. Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.NonZero if we are doing tasks . 2 dbgDT03 EBX. We are on line 1 again . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX.

EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4.TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . MOV CL. EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . EBX .Col dbgGPdd1 . ECX MOV EAX. EAX MOV EBX. [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .back for next one dbgDT05: .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd2 . dbgGPdd3 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 . 8 .Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 . nTSS . EAX .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: . 8 .Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf . [EBX+Priority] .Not used. go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS . DDtoHex 10 .Save pJCB for display .of TSSs . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX. EAX . JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. 512 ECX EBX.EAX has pJCB OR EAX. .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX.Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6. dbgGPdd4 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1.EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5. ECX .Col dbgGPdd1 . DDtoHex 20 .

go for next Task number .Line OFFSET dbgCont . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . This is for Debugger Address Info display .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .Col dbgGPdd1 .Save number to display MMURTL V1.Col 24 .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.No. Call with: . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display . 0 RETN . 23 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.====================================================================== .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. 8 .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . MOV EAX. 1Bh . continue prompt dbgDT01 .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX. 0FFh . go back for next 0 .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't . . 31 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . DDtoHex 30 .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 8 .Col dbgGPdd1 .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf .Save it for the top MOV EAX. DDtoHex 40 . dbgGPdd6 .Yes. EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . .

GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .OFFSET DbgM0 . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.RQBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM7 . rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Do it .OFFSET DbgM2 .OFFSET DbgPA .OFFSET DbgM1 .OFFSET DbgM4 .IDT LEA EAX.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.pTSS3 MOV EAX.ptr to line .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM5 .Exchs MOV EAX. rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1.RdyQ LEA EAX.DbgInfo .OFFSET DbgM6 . prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM9 . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.GDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM8 . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.SVCs LEA EAX.=============================================== .Vid Attribute .PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.LBs LEA EAX.JCBs MOV EAX. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Length of line .OFFSET DbgM3 .MonTSS MOV EAX.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .

and line 0 to 24. dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. The other .fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .Clear the query line (Line 23.ignore error RETN . .Columns 0-65 24 . query line.Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . Scroll test area (Col 0-64.OFFSET DbgMB .======================================================= . 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1.Yes. . Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. we scroll up the text area by one line. .MOV ESI. 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 .All of the debugger text is displayed in a window . .No.Query XY (See what line and Col) . Line 0-24) 0 66 .======================================================= .areas are resrved for the menu.and the register display.0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS . go back for next key 0 . rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .Timer Blocks LEA EAX.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.If so. Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Lines 0-23 1 .between colums 0 and 66.Got to Column 0.Col 0.

.

In fact. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. this device driver should work with MFM drives. See listing 24. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. Listing 24. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. but I try not to.1. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). This seems to be the best. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. Comments. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. They were designed that way. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have.. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. unsigned long int). though I would rather have done them in assembler.g. If you have MFM drives. you're on your own. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. All of the hardware commands are well documented. Time was the deciding factor. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e.Chapter 24. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. There are no include files.1. many device drivers are written in C. but I think you're OK. in addition to those in the code itself. U32 nDevices. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. S8 *pDCBs. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dfReplace). This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS).

U32 msg2). /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U16 wPort). U16 wPort). U32 dnBlocks. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). It's called xprintf(). static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U8 InByte(U16 wPort). OutWords(U32 dPort. U32 dOpNum. U8 *pDataRet). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch).0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . S8 *pIRQ). static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U8 *pDataIn). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. U32 dLBA. U32 dBytes). U32 *pMsgRet). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U32 dBytes). static U32 check_busy(void). static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). Listing 24. I needed a method to get data to the screen. static void hd_reset(void). U32 dnBlocks. U8 *pDataOut. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. InWords(U32 dPort.. U32 count). . U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 msg2). U32 dnBlocks). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDestination.. MMURTL V1. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataOut). void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 HdSect. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver.2. void OutWord(U16 Word. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataIn. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. While writing the operating system. U32 nBlks). U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). U16 InWord(U16 wPort).2. See listing 24. static U32 hd_wait (void).). U32 dBytes). void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). U32 msg1. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 *pMsgRet). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. U32 msg1. static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. static U32 send_command(U8 parm). Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). U32 dnBlocks. static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch.

U8 static U32 *pData). S8 *pInitData.. bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. S8 * pStatRet. U32 sdInitData). static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set.0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dStatusMax. hddev_stat(U32 dDevice.. U32 *pdSatusRet).

Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 .command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 .sector number (1F3h) 4 .read data (1F0h .16 bit) 1 .Set. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives.low cyl (1F4h) 5 .error register (1F1h) 2 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .high cyl (1F5h) 6 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy. head and Sector number.write data (1F0h .sector count (1F2h) 3 . Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit ..size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. wait 50us. and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.16 bit) 1 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .sector number (1F3h) 4 . Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1.

Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8].n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Current Physical Drive. */ /* Current number of heads. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment.3. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. hd0_heads. cylinders. hd0_cyls.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS .#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. hd1_secpertrk. fDataReq. /* Calculated from LBA . hd0_secpertrk.which head */ hd_nsectors. hd1_heads. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. hd_control. hd1_type. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command. See listing 24. /* Calculated from LBA . If I did one member.3. statbyte. Listing 24.

LastErcByte1. S8 *pDevOp. ResetStatByte. U8 type_now. S16 wJob. 32 bytes out to here. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. LastStatByte1. U32 OS5. S16 nBPB. LastSeekErc1. S8 *pDevInit. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12].0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 nBlocks. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. LastSeekErc0. S8 sbName. }. MMURTL V1. LastRecalErc1.static U16 hd1_cyls. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. U8 fDevReent. U32 OS3. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. U32 blocks_done. U8 fNewMedia. S8 type. }. U32 OS4.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. fIntOnReset. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. U32 OS6. filler1. LastStatByte0. /* Number of bytes per sect. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. U32 BlocksMax. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. S8 *pDevSt. U32 OS2. U32 OS1. U8 fSingleUser. U32 last_erc. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. LastErcByte0.

Name[0] hdcb[1].pDevInit hdcb[1]. &hddev_init.4.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'.nBPB hdcb[1].sbName hdcb[0]. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0]. /* Random */ 512.pDevSt hdcb[1].Name[2] hdcb[1]. 1. '1'. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A). /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read. 'H'. MMURTL V1. 524288. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16. See listing 24.Name[1] hdcb[1]. hd1_secpertrk = 17.nBlocks hdcb[0].type hdcb[0].nBPB hdcb[0]. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc. this would be the main() section of the C source file. static U32 hd_msg.Name[1] hdcb[0]. static long HDDInt.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . 3. In a loadable driver. &hddev_stat. '0'. &hddev_init. hd1_cyls = 1024./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch.pDevInit hdcb[0]. 3.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19).pDevOp hdcb[1]. /* Random */ 512. 524288. 'D'. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17. /* largest device handled . &hddev_stat.sbName hdcb[1].pDevOp hdcb[0].Name[0] hdcb[0]. /* largest disk handled . /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. Listing 24.type hdcb[1]. 'D'.nBlocks hdcb[1]. static U32 hd_msg2. 1.Name[2] hdcb[0].4. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver. hd1_heads = 16.

MMURTL V1. but they don't. */ hd_reset(). /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). erc = hd_recal(0). UnMaskIRQ(14).erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). */ hd_reset(). The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. SetIRQVector(14. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. */ /* Reset the HDC . /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. It seems like a lot of work. some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. hd0_type = 0. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. then try both physical drives. } } /* if we got here. We have to do it once. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). &hdisk_isr).0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. We have to make this sucker work the hard way. hd1_type = 0. */ erc = hd_recal(0).last_erc = erc. If the second drive is not there. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. They vary from BIOS to BIOS. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). We don't actually read them because they are not dependable.last_erc = erc.

Sleep(20). UnMaskIRQ(14). /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1.seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. HD_REG_PORT). and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. The caller should call check_busy and check the error. MicroDelay(4). 1)). *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i.fIntOnReset = 0. HD_REG_PORT). gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . &hdcb. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. 0xfffffff0. ISendMsg(hd_exch.last_erc = erc.ResetStatByte = statbyte. if (i) hdstatus. EndOfIRQ(14). } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. /* 200ms . 0xfffffff0). This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. OutByte(4. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. It just waits for an interrupt. &hd_msg). 2.erc = hd_recal(0).fIntOnReset = 1. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). HDDInt = 1. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. hdcb[0]. else hdstatus.

****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. hd_Cmd[3] = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS).3 seconds. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. See listing 24. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. check_busy(void) count = 0. return(erc).5. etc.). Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. /* set max heads. /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. Sleep(5). while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).5. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. erc = hd_wait(). /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. nSectors. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. Listing 24. hd_Cmd[4] = 0.0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS .

if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. &hd_msg). /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. return(erc). 300). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). KillAlarm(hd_exch). if (drive) hdstatus.LastRecalErc0 = erc. *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait().Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1.0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. else hdstatus. hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). KillAlarm(hd_exch). Time-out and return if no interrupt.LastRecalErc1 = erc. return(ok).

if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. HD_REG_PORT). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. HD_PORT+4). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. HD_PORT+5). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). MMURTL V1. verify. setupseek(U32 dLBA. *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. hd_nsectors = nBlks. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. OutByte(hd_control. return(erc). format. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. &msg) == 0). HD_PORT+7). head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. msg[2]. HD_PORT+6). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). seek). HD_PORT+1). nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. U16 cyl.0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. if (!erc) erc = check_busy().alarm or int messages before we send a command. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). write. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. } erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+3). HD_PORT+2). } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk).

if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. /* hd_sector. } = = = = = nBlks. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS .LastSeekErc0 = erc. hdstatus. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder./* we now know what cylinder. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). return(erc). 1). /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder).. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore. j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). /* cyl & 0xff. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors..

After all. errbyte. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. */ erc = check_busy(). if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. else return(erc).0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). he interrupted us with status. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark.LastErcByte0 = errbyte. else return(erc). /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). MMURTL V1. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault.U8 statbyte. if (hd_drive) hdstatus.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. else hdstatus. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. } else { erc = check_busy(). } return(erc). /* We shouldn't see the controller busy.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. default: break. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. else hdstatus. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC.LastStatByte0 = statbyte.

} /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. nBPS). dnBlocks). pDataRet+=nBPS. nSoFar++. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc.else erc = ErcBadHDC. nBPS. } } return(erc). nBPS). while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait().nBPB. hd_sector. hd_sector. erc = check_busy(). /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. U32 dnBlocks.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. erc = setupseek(dLBA. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. pDataOut. U32 dnBlocks. pDataOut+=nBPS. nSoFar. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. pDataRet. --nleft. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. nBPS.nBPB. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). nleft. dnBlocks). } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT.

return(erc). pDataOut. hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. SEC %d\r\n". hd_head. nBPS). dnBlocks). return(erc). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. HD %d. cyl. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. erc = setupseek(dLBA. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. /* cyl & 0xff. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait().0 -404- . RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. /* hd_sector. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. head and Sector number. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U16 cyl. Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. pDataOut+=nBPS. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. U32 HdSect. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). erc = hd_wait(). hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. cyl = Cylinder. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. nSoFar++. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. hd_sector).erc = hd_wait().

“Programming Interfaces.6. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. MMURTL V1. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. } Chapter 8. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). For Hard disk. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. Listing 24. U32 dLBA. erc = hd_wait().blocks_done = 0. U32 dOpNum. return(erc). /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. See listing 24. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . 12=0 and 13=1. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. 512).6. erc = 0. else hd_drive = 1. pDataRet.” discussed device driver interfaces. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. &hd_msg). U32 dnBlocks.

break. erc = 0. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. dnBlocks. */ break.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. return(erc). case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. pData). break. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). break. pData). dnBlocks). pData). dnBlocks. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. break. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). break. dnBlocks.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. /* Null Command */ break. break. S8 * pStatRet. U32 dStatusMax. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. pData). } } hdcb[hd_drive]. default: erc = ErcBadOp. dnBlocks. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA.last_erc = erc. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. break. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok.

nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. *pdStatusRet = i. hdstatus.type_now = hd0_type. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS . hdstatus. return ok.nHead = hd0_heads. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat).erc = hdcb[0]. hdstatus. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded.erc = hdcb[1]. hdstatus.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.{ U32 i.last_erc. hdstatus. hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[0].nBPB. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. S8 *pInitData. } else { hdstatus. i).nCyl = hd1_cyls. CopyData(&hdstatus. hdstatus. The DCB values are updated if this is successful.nBPB. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect. hdstatus. else i = sStatus. } /* Calculate size of status to return. hdstatus.nHead = hd1_heads. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters.last_erc. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status.type_now = hd1_type.nBPS = hdcb[1].). hdstatus. pStatRet.nCyl = hd0_cyls.

type_now. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nCyl. i.nSectors * HDStatTmp. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus. hdcb[hd_drive].nSectors. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS .nSectors.nHead. else hd_drive = 1. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive]. else i = sdInitData. /* If no error. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0.nHead.last_erc = 0. &HDStatTmp.type_now. return(erc).nBPB = HDStatTmp.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive).nBPS. } hdcb[hd_drive]. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp.{ U32 erc.last_erc = erc. CopyData(pInitData. erc = 0. i). hdcb[hd_drive]. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive).nCyl * HDStatTmp. } /* If no error.nHead.nCyl. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp.

The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open.. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. or 16550 UARTs. 1=even. and this driver. other than that. 0=none. unsigned long Baudrate. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is a sequential byte-oriented device. */ 150-38400 */ 0.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file.. 16450.7. unsigned char databits. but. unsigned long resvd[6]. unsigned long RTimeOut. unsigned char parity. unsigned char IRQNum. unsigned long LastTotal. */ It's opened by someone else. See listing 24.. unsigned char stopbits. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. RS-232.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. unsigned long XBufSize. “MMURTL Sample Software. it is a fully functional driver. unsigned long XTimeOut. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port.. which is a block oriented random device.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. unsigned long LastErc. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port. as well as by the driver itself. */ It's already open. unsigned long RBufSize. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16.38400 */ Parity for this port. the driver. It needs more work. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. MMURTL V1. unsigned long IOBase. Listing 24.. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. as well as status.. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS.7. 150 .

extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. RICHARD A BURGESS -410- .0 *pIRQ). extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. See listing 24.8. S8 MMURTL V1. you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2).}. Listing 24.8. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. U32 nPages). U32 nDevices. All other command are specific to this driver.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). U32 dfReplace). extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. U8 **ppMemRet). extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. S8 *pDCBs.

U32 msg2). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. /* local prototypes. U32 msg2). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U16 wPort). U32 msg1. U8 *pData). U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 dnBlocks. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). set and reset signal line condition and functions. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. U32 count). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U8 *pDestination. S8 *pInitData. These will be called form the device driver interface. #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. U32 dOpNum. U32 *pdStatusRet). S8 *pStatRet. U32 sdInitData). U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 dStatusMax. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 msg1. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 dBytes). U32 dLBA. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). S8 *pMsgRet).

MSR[2]. LSR[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. LCR[2]. int_id[2]. sRecvBuf[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. fExpectInt[2]. cSendBuf[2]. tail_send[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. tail_recv[2]. head_recv[2]. head_send[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. mstat_byte[2]. MCR[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . FCR[2]. IER[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. IIR[2]. stat_byte[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. sSendBuf[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0.

0.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char. I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS .8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0. RX data.TX data.Interrupt Enable. Listing 24. MMURTL V1.9.2 chars 10 . \___________ = 0. Divisor Latch LSB IER -. \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -. FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 .1 char 01 . 1 = Multichar 0.4 chars 11 .I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -.

MMURTL V1. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232. See listing 24. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -.10. static struct statRecC *pCS. Listing 24.10.Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS .Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.H. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2].

Note that there are two of DCB’s.Name[0] comdcb[0].12. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc. See listing 24. Listing 24. S8 fSingleUser. 8N1. See listing 24. U32 OS6. S8 *pDevOp. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. U32 last_erc. U32 nBlocks. U32 OS2. U32 OS4. }. = 'O'. S16 nBPB. S8 type. Listing 24. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver.12. S8 sbName. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts.Name[1] comdcb[0].Name[2] MMURTL V1. S8 *pDevInit. U32 OS5. static void interrupt comISR1(void). /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void). One for each channel. = 'M'. and they are contiguously defined. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0].11. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS .0 = 'C'. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. as is required by MMURTL.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. U32 OS3.11. This means it's ready for business. U32 OS1. S8 *pDevSt. S16 wJob. S8 fDevReent. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600.

1)). &comISR1).IOBase = comstat[0].XBufSize comstat[0].pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'.XBufSize comstat[1]. 2. &comdcb.pDevOp comdcb[0].databits comstat[1]. = 4096.Name[0] comdcb[1]. 'C'.pDevSt comdcb[1].Name[1] comdcb[1].parity comstat[0]. = 100. 4.RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. comstat[1].pDevInit comdcb[1].nBlocks comdcb[1]. = 1. 4.RBufSize sSendBuf[1] = 4096.comdcb[0]. '2'. /* none */ = 8.nBPB comdcb[0]. = 2. = 2. 0x2F8. 3.Name[2] comdcb[1]. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. 4. = 4096.sbName comdcb[0].RTimeOut comstat[0]. = 4096. return(erc = InitDevDr(5.0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS .stopbits comstat[1].RTimeOut comstat[1]. 'O'. SetIRQVector(3.pDevOp comdcb[1]. = 9600.XTimeOut comstat[1].type comdcb[0].Baudrate comstat[1]. &comdev_init. /* none */ = 8. /* 1 byte per block */ 0.nBPB comdcb[1].databits comstat[0