MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
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RICHARD A BURGESS

.........................................................................307 INTRODUCTION ...................................................312 Listing 20................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25.............................................................................16......................316 Beep_Work() ...............................................................15....................................................................................................307 TIMER DATA .............................14.........................................................................................................9.............316 Beep()................................................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory....................................................23.22.7..................................................................... Code to read the CMOS date .......................317 Listing 20.3......................................................................................................................................................................................................308 TIMER CODE ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Code for the Alarm function .................................. Code for the MicrDelay function ...........................303 Listing 19...................................................................305 Listing 19...............................................................................................................316 Listing 20.............................20..................................................................................................................................................... Adding a run of linear memory..............314 GetCMOSDate() ...................12........13...18......................................14........................................... Data and constants for timer code.....................303 QueryMemPages...........293 AddOSPT .....315 Listing 20.............................................................................................................................309 The Timer Interrupt ........298 Listing 19.................305 CHAPTER 20.................................... Adding a call gate to the GDT ......................................................................288 AddRun ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL .........................299 Listing 19......................................... Adding an operating system page table ........................311 Alarm()................................. Code to remove alias PTEs............................................................................................313 MicroDelay() ...................................................................................................................................................... Code to find number of free pages...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................4.............................................................................................................................................17.............................................296 AddIDTGate.................................................................................... Adding a page table for user memory.............................FindRun ..........................................304 GetPhyAdd ......................294 Listing 19............... The timer interrupt service routine ...........................293 Listing 19...................................................................................................................................................................312 Listing 20.............................313 Listing 20.... Loop in timer ISR .......................................................................................................................................................297 AllocOSPage.296 Listing 19................................................................................................................................................................................... Adding entries to the IDT ..................................317 MMURTL V1.............................................. Code for the KillAlarm function.314 Listing 20..........................................................................................................................................311 Listing 20................11.............................................6......................313 GetCMOSTime() .................................................................1...........309 Listing 20................................................................2...........................13.............................................21......................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ................................................288 Listing 19..........................290 AddAliasRun .......309 Sleep() .........................................................................304 Listing 19....................................................................................297 Listing 19................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Code to read the CMOS time.........................309 Listing 20..............................................301 Listing 19........................................................................................................................................................................................ Allocating a page of linear memory.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ....................................................... TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ............................................ Code for the Sleep function ........................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ................................................... Code to find a free run of linear memory.............................289 Listing 19......................................299 DeAliasMem..................................................................8..........................................................308 Listing 20..........................................................................................................................307 Listing 20................................................................................ Deallocating linear memory...... Code to return the timer tick ............................................................................................................................................................................................. Code to produce a tone .......................................................................................... Code to alias memory ..................................................................................................................................................................... Public for linear to physical conversion...............................301 DeAllocPage .................291 AddUserPT ..........5...........................................10........317 Tone().........................24....................................................................................................317 Listing 20................................316 Listing 20....................................................................................................................................................312 KillAlarm()............................. External functions for timer code ..........................................................................................19............................................................................................................................................................................. Code to produce a beep........291 Listing 19...............................................................315 GetTimerTick()...........................298 AliasMem ...............................................................................296 AddGDTCallGate ........................................................................................................

.................... 436 Listing 25........................................ Keyboard Translation Code. 389 Listing 24.......................13................................................................... 429 INTRODUCTION ..... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ....................................................................................CHAPTER 21.................................................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) .................................................................. 319 OS GLOBAL DATA .......................................................................................................................................................................................... Debugger Data and Code.............................................................................................................. Keyboard Data and Tables ..... 442 MMURTL V1.................................14.......... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ... End of Initialization Code............................ Jobc........ Initialize call gates amd the IDT.......... 429 Listing 25............................................................................................1.....................................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ..................... 319 INTRODUCTION .................................. Keyboard ISR Code.......................................................................................................... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) .........................................................................................2...............2.................................................2........................................ 321 Listing 21..................................................................................................................................................h Header File ..........................................................................................1................................1........................................................................... Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger.......... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) .....................................1..... 436 Keyboard ISR......................................7...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.......................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) .. 409 Listing 24.......4...................... 390 Listing 24.................................................................................2.... INITIALIZATION CODE ........................... 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ..... 424 CHAPTER 25...................8.................... 325 Listing 21.............................................................................5........... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ................ 436 Keyboard Translation..... RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) .. RS-232.................. 365 Listing 23........3................. 413 Listing 24... Read Keyboard Buffer Code .............................................................. 410 Listing 24... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ...................... Continuation of OS initialization................................... Continuation of OS initialization............................................................................................................. DEBUGGER CODE .................................................................. 331 CHAPTER 22................................................................................................................. 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ..........3........... 442 Listing 25............................................................................................................................................................. 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ...........................c source code...........................12............................................... 327 Listing 21................................................................................................................... 415 Listing 24....................................... 389 INTRODUCTION .................... 438 Reading the Final Buffer ........................ 365 INTRODUCTION ......... 337 Listing 22...................................................................................................9................................. 389 Listing 24.......................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ................... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ......................... 414 Listing 24........ 417 Listing 24............................. SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE................. 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ..................................................................................... 344 Listing 22....................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ........................................................................2.......................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init).......... KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE......... JOB MANAGEMENT CODE .............................. Initialization Subroutines...................................................................... 328 Listing 21................... 321 Listing 21............................................................................ Job Management Subroutines.................................................................................................................................. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ......4.............................................................................................................................5.............................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ..................................... 337 INTRODUCTION ....................................................... OS Initialization Code and Entry Point................................11............................... 398 Listing 24........................................................................................................................... 438 Listing 25............................................................ 415 Listing 24................6..................................................... 393 Listing 24...4...................................1..................................................................................7.................................................. 366 Listing 23........................................................................................................... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ....................... 344 CHAPTER 23................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 326 Listing 21................... 429 KEYBOARD CODE .................................... 319 Listing 21..................... 366 CHAPTER 24..............................................................................................................10............................................................................................................................................... 409 Listing 24....................................................................................................................................................... 429 KEYBOARD DATA.......6.......................... 395 Listing 24.......................................... Main Operating System Data ..............................................................................................................

......................452 Hardware Helpers ..................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ......................................................................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ............................................................. Code to Get the Current Video Owner..........................................473 INTRODUCTION ...................................542 Dynamic Link Libraries ......473 Logical Block Address (LBA).............................................................7................................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING .......472 CHAPTER 27....7.............................................................. Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call ..0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS .......................................... Code to Edit a Line on the Screen......................................................................................................... Code to Set Cursor Position...............457 Listing 26..................................................................................................459 Listing 26..............452 Listing 25....................................................................451 Listing 25.........................457 THE VIDEO CODE .............................................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ...............540 Application Template File................539 INTRODUCTION ....................................................8......................................................................................................458 Listing 26.........540 Listing 28........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT .......................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers..................................................................... FILE SYSTEM CODE...............................461 Listing 26.................................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ................474 File System Initialization ...450 Listing 25.................................................................................................................... Keyboard system service code... A More Complicated Template File ......................................... Code to Get a Character and Attribute.......................................1......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to Screen Video Attributes .... Video constants and data .................................................... DASM.............................448 Debugger Keyboard...9..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector .............................................................541 Command Line Options ................1..............539 DASM CONCEPTS ......12.......................................................457 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................453 Listing 25...................................................................................................................................................................... Simple Application Template File .............................................................460 Listing 26..............................................................................................................542 MMURTL V1..........................................................................................541 List File Option .................................................................... Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen..................8..........................................................................................................................474 Listing 27....................................6............................................................................................10...........................................464 Listing 26...................................................................................................................................................................................540 Listing 28.........................................................465 Listing 26..............................................................................541 Errors Only Option .....................468 Listing 26.....................16.........................................................................................5....................................................461 Listing 26...............................................................13........................................................................................................................ Code to Initialize Video .................................................................................................................................................................... Code to Clear the Screen .......................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code ..............................................................................................468 Listing 26.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................462 Listing 26. A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER ......................451 Keyboard Service Initialization ..460 Listing 26..........................................................................................................448 Listing 25.............................................................................................................................3....11...........................................542 Device Drivers ..450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up..................................................10.................................................................................458 Listing 26.............................................................................................. Low-level Keyboard Control Code.............................................. Code to Return Current Cursor Position ................................................4......................................... Keyboard Service Initialization ..........................................................14....................................................................... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ............................................. Code to Set the Video Owner .......2......... Code to set Normal Video Attribute ....9.................................................................................................................................466 Listing 26...................................... Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ........................................................................1.......................................................5......................443 Listing 25............469 Listing 26... Code to get the Normal Video Attribute...........................................................473 Hidden Sectors........................15.....................................................................................539 USING DASM....................................... VIDEO CODE .............................. MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ......2.................................................................The Keyboard Service ...........................474 CHAPTER 28............453 CHAPTER 26.......464 Listing 26......................................................................

........................................................3....................................................................................................................2 ................................................................................................................................................. Alternating data and code in a template file ..............................................................................................................................................................................Specifying Memory Operands.................................................................................................................. 556 Tag Descriptions.............................................................................................................................................................................3 ............................ 579 INDEX ...................................................................................... 581 MMURTL V1........................................................ 565 Type Conversion and Pointers................ 559 CHAPTER 29..................................................... CM32................................. 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ............................ 542 DASM Program Structure ............. 548 EXTRN Declarations.......................................................................................................... 555 Table 28..............................................2.................................1......... 543 Listing 28........................................................................................................................................................................... A 32-BIT C COMPILER ......3............................................................................................................................................................... 543 DOT Commands ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 552 Table 28......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 FAR Calls ............................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations .............. 561 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 545 Storage Declarations............................................................................................................................... 558 Your Own Assembler? ............................................................................................................................ 548 PUBLIC Declarations.. 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ................................................................................ Standard String Functions for MMURTL ...................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ............................................................................................................................. 569 Library Code Examples ........................................ 545 Table 28.................................................................................................................................................. 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 563 Library Header File Access..... 545 DASM Addressing Modes ....................Supported Instructions ............................................................................................. 562 Interrupt Functions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................DASM Source Files ...........................................................................................................................................................................................1 ............. 570 Listing 29................................................................................................. 547 DD (Define Double Word) ............................................................................................................. 542 Memory Model...............................................Tag Usage ..................................................................... 547 DB (Define Byte)..................................................................CD-ROM CONTENTS ............. 570 Listing 29...... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ............. 569 Listing 29.............. 562 Variable Length Argument Lists ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 575 APPENDIX A -.... 547 DW (Define Word) ............................................................................................................................. 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ............................................................................................................ 568 USING CM32..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ........................................................................................... 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ............................................................................................ 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ................................................................................. 568 Command Line Options ........................................................................................................................................................................ 565 Structure Limitations ............................................................................. 547 DF (Define Far Word) ...................................................... 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ............................................ 566 Initialization of Static Variables ............................................................................... Standard file I/O for MMURTL ............................ 565 Far External Functions ..... Supported Library Functions ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax .. 548 Labels and Address.......................................................................................................... 568 Library Functions ....................................................................................................................................... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ..................................................................................................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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If you write something that no one can use. I decided what stayed and what went. I've learned a lot from all that I've read." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. I have documented what it takes to really write one. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. In the case of my own operating system. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. I determined the specifications for the final product. As coding began. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. Unfortunately. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. portability issues size and speed. or Sun. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. but very light on specifics. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. do some research on each of the desirables. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. It's up to you. MMURTL V1. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. they work with them. NOT SO FAST THERE. not his IQ. are the tasking model. and begin coding. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. You. code. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. Realizing this. it's a complete system. When OS/2 was first developed. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. I set the ground rules. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. You don't need to design your own. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. The most obvious of these. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. In the early days. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. When I started out. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. and the programming interface. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . That was part of my wish list. it's unlikely they'll use it. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke.Chapter 1. however. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. memory model. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. as viewed by the outside programmer. If you're an experienced programmer. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. They use them. IBM. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. I would just make a list. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. But I wanted a small API. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use.

programming interfaces. a few more instructions. But that's not what this book is about. For this reason. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. hardware interface. message based. so I've removed the mystique. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. ideas from it. You may or may not want to do this for your system. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. In my opinion. You can use pieces of it. which I felt. change it to suit your needs. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. Once again. MMURTL V1. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). the memory model. size and speed. but it was a "must" for me. The source code. 80486 (486). Throughout this book. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. Serial and Parallel Ports. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. or all of it if you wish to write your own. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors.to 32-bit jump.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. Even though they have added speed. Hardware Timers. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. I'm sure it won't. or write your own. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. redesign it to meet your requirements. they are effectively super-386 processors. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. In fact. It clouds far too many real issues these days. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. your goals may be different. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. would help me write better application software for it. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. For instance. modify. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. portability issues. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). This was completely intentional. This was the 16. and some serious "turbo" modifications. real-time. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. along with all the tools necessary to build. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. multitasking. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386).

many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). or start one from scratch. I also wanted to maintain a small.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you're going to write your own. General Discussion and Background.Not just task switching between programs. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel.Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. are outside events. “Programming Interfaces. Message agents could be added to any platform. is with a procedural interface. “The Hardware Interface. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. YOURMOTHERSMEM. Chapter 5 covers memory management. Power without BLOAT. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. yet powerful enough to get the job done. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8.. HIMEM. You may start with my list and modify it. but I don't recommend it. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. I discuss this in chapter 6.The ability to react to outside events in real time. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. If it is another processor. and for a very good reason. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. and what my end result was. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking .the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. I didn't want to do this.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. LIM.” and chapter 8. the right mix of capability and simplicity. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. hardware paging. or maybe a little less? Of course. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. calling conventions.. Real-time operation . or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications).” Simplicity . MMURTL V1. Extended. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). such as C or Pascal. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. “Programming Interfaces. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. I'll discuss some of your options. if we knew how.Keep the system as simple as possible. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. We. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. I use the stack. you may have a different platform in mind. We want the system to react to us. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. and most of them are grossly under used. “The Hardware Interface.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . but real multi-threading . LOMEM. If you don't have this requirement. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed .My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. UMBs. Client/Server design . in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. and also what I decided on.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements. Easy programming . I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions.But not the programmer. the humans.” Protection from other programs . Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. but not all the options. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems.

this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. and the initialization entry point jumped to. Real-Time. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. x86/Pentium processors. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. If you don't like my acronym. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . expand it to your heart's desire. In the educational field. If you're not worried about memory consumption. MMURTL V1. I'm sure. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. And of course. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. make up your own! But. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. nor is it intended to directly replace them. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. and 64K of data). or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). If you don't want to start from scratch. Multitasking. the tools. If you intend to run MMURTL. I put together my own operating system. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). Then again. but only a distant cousin. no doubt. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. Message based. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. or for general reference. Dedicated. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. the code. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. kerneL. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. Yes. Real-Time. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). be of value in your other programming projects as well. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. or use any of the tools I included. Sections of the source code will. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit.

Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. IDE is preferred. and more importantly. also – 2000).5" are supported. 80486. but a few are not).x (IBM). The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture).25" and 3. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. 2 MB (or more) is recommended.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. Hence. The processor must be an Intel 80386. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). IBM and other clone processors. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. Note: PCI bus designs work well. but only out of convenience. If yours isn't. 8250. eases the development burden. This includes Cyrix. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. AMD. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). you can change the code as needed. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. but still. (or even MS-DOS). One Megabyte of RAM is required. Both 5. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). not at all the same. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. EISA (Ed. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. that is. MMURTL V1. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. Pentium. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. you can ignore this section. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. If you want to run DOS. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats.

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My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. I might add). take away.Chapter 2. add. That worked out just about right. It does. In fact. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. has had an effect. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20.000. MMURTL V1. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. As you can see. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. In Chapter 1. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. my schooling. Far too often. etc. my reading of various publications and periodicals. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. Every little thing you've run across will. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. “Overview. make a lot of sense. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. as well what may influence your design. here it is. write your own operating system. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys.” I covered what my final design goals were. however. affect its design. you might not want to). simplified memory management. Five years later. client server designs. It was a 32-bit system. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. merged). for no apparent reason). Burroughs and Sperry. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. Borrow from mine.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . It whet my whistle. improve. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. a. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. and borrowed with great respect. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. I would not let this happen. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware.). and just make it better if you have the desire. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers.k.a. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. no doubt. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. That was 1989.

I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. There was no turning back. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's.all but ancient history now. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first.. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. In fact. Memory access was limited. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age.x assembler and 2. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. As you may be aware. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). Of course. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. or even OS/2.1. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. but as you well know. but the tools just worked better. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. Operating system developers. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. I thought about other processors.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . however. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. MS-DOS was everywhere. Message-based. and a few others. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. I really had no choice. was a must. there was no such thing. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. popular platform. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS.0) and later moved to 5. however. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. I'm not a Borland salesman. Then those were the 2. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. or ported to a system. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. in the process of using these other tools. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. a lure that could not be suppressed. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. at times it was quite difficult. It was limited to the small memory model. and utilities . The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. like a bad virus. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. Once again. but it worked nonetheless. but the tools worked. The next major decision was the software development environment.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors.. maybe.including assembler. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. compiler. Again.After I got involved with the IBM PC. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments.x linker. It is just now becoming popular. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. It's the place to start.

and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. The C compiler produces assembly language. IBM published theirs. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. or may not.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. There is no linker. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. but I pretty much built from scratch. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. discreet devices in the IBM AT system.” Assembly language has its place in the world. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. Developing this assembler was. Many different books. in itself. Parameters are passed left to right. at least. documents. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers.). DMA. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. I plead the "Fifth" on this. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. and a few other minor utilities. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. I think many people started there. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. in which case. including most of the digital logic families (ECL.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. It is tied to the internal bus. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. articles. etc. I do so because its bus. as well as the software control of these devices.. no linker. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. It's simply not needed. To fully understand this. In fact. want or need. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). a major task. but another port is in the works. such as Chips & Technologies. which is 32 bits for the most part." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. Needless to say. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. a disassembler. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. you will need to read chapter 28.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS .. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. That set me back four months. That's right. Computer chip manufacturers. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. Communications controllers. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. interface design. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. Besides. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. and the called function cleans the stack. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). etc.some tools from the major software vendors. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. SX MMURTL V1. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. DC. These documents are usually free.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. as you may understand. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. which is fed to the assembler. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. or even port MMURTL to it. TTL.

you'll be ahead of the game. all based on their own selectors. aliasing is also required. MMURTL V1.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. etc. This easily consumed the first six months. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity.x. Memory Management. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. The thought was rather sickening. But as you may be aware. "Thunking" was out of the question. but this is transparent to the programmer. I touched on what I wanted in the overview.). MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). It has turned out very nicely. This simple model could allocate and manage memory. anyway (e. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. no way to get test programs into the system. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. If you write your own system. powerful. even the operating system writer. anyway. This was timeconsuming. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). all implementations of UNIX). as well as the stack storage. but not a fully segmented model . It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. of course.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . Windows version 3. as you will see. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. timers..x. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. All of the early test programs were in assembler. If you use Intel-based platforms. from a 16-bit code segment. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies.). The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. I discuss several options you have. etc. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. There was no loader. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. OS/2 version 2. but it's not at as complicated. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). During this time. In chapter 5. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation.two segments per program and two for the OS. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). In a paged system. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. It was a "kinder. this is a year you won’t have to go through. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. but instead a lean. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. EISA. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. [Thunking is when you interface 32. I had to meet my design goals. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. but it presented several serious complications. gentler" environment I was after. The segmented memory idea was canned. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches.g. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions.and 16-bit code and data.

study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. I was really interested in communications. hints are about all I CAN give you. I say this from experience. Or at least when you get it working. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). the rest is real work. Know your desired application. "You start here. garbage collection. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model." It is difficult for me to do this also. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. MMURTL V1. but there wasn’t. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. There are so many platforms out there. Of course. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. If this has never happened to you. but whatever you decide on. I'll tell you the easiest. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. it may be CISC. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. Document the problems. I have provided such an operating system with this book. Decide on your basic models. compilers and utilities.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. memory model and basic programming interface. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. But. you will no doubt find bugs. For example. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. will depend on the memory model you choose. or how much time you really have to invest. Investigate your tools. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. This includes the tasking model. but I'm very serious. The Critical Path Along your journey. It may be RISC. It will be worth the time spent. of course. you know that it can be a very daunting task. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. Go for the kernel. But I'll try. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. you know that certain items in a project must work. the discoveries . and there will also be background noise. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. I envy you.anything that you think you'll need to remember. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. you'll NEVER really be done with it. and overall program management – as you see fit. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. The level of complexity. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. get to know it very well. This may sound a little humorous. do it. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. how much knowledge you have. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. but they just didn't say. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. This is called the critical path. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. Memory management is next.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. the actual application may not be so important. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. Get to know your assemblers. Select your hardware platform. You can then “port” the prototype. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities.

I lay out my notes for what I want. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. Sounds backwards? It is.Working Attitude Set your goals.” Once satisfied. compilers. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. As I mentioned above. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. I had my wish list well in advance. Work with small. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. sweat and maybe some tears. all the way. I write the documentation. But really. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. and then I write the code. MMURTL V1. dependable pickup truck. it won't be luck. It will be blood. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. These tools include documentation for the hardware. it's worth the time. But don't set them too high. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. Document as you go. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. I moved on from there.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. Good luck. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. easily digestible chunks. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work.

How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model.” while others call it a “thread. I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. CPU utilization. however. or at least coming to agreement on them. at least temporarily. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. But this is not cast in stone either. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. MS-DOS TSRs . One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts.. TASK . I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . coffee and soda spilled on them.Chapter 3. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. I admit some guilt here too).A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution.This term is not disputed very much. Generally. and more specifically. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. This makes it a very small kernel. You may not agree with the definitions. be specific about it. In its executable form. In other words. Hence. Tell the programmers what you mean. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. save its state. It shouldn't be. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. but it is. then start another task running. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising.g. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. MMURTL V1. Some operating systems call a task a “process. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. and most people refer to." which means communications between tasks. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. it’s PREEMPTIVE. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. KERNEL . A single computer program can have one or more tasks. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. If you write your own.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). When a task is suspended from execution.” In most instances I call it a TASK. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. but I hope you will accept them. Some documentation. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. After all. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. and I'm not talking about programming languages. but doesn't expect the interrupt.

You may MMURTL V1. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. Single vs. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. but it may not be so easy for you. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment.In other words. it didn't sit too well with me." but needless to say. DMA. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. disk. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user).0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . Quite obviously. Input/Output (I/O) devices. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). Some are communications programs (FAX software. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. How tasks are handled.). each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. This is its only real purpose in life. In each case. etc. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. good old Albert). comms programs). then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. Tasks end. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. In other words. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). My operating system is designed for microcomputers. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. Tasks crash. and why. Task Management Tasks begin. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. One of my friends suggested the motto. or the user was done. and hardware (Timers. including video. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. But in almost all of these systems. On the other hand. These are the real resources. I deal with one user at a time. Nor did I want it to be. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. execute programs as the new users desire. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). "simple software for simple minds. When I wrote these programs. Multitasking.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. Single User. when the mission was accomplished. memory management. Managing these resources in a simple. or even network connections for logons. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. It may have memory assigned to it. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. "Everything should be as simple as possible. and some are user-oriented software. keyboard. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. Interrupt Controller Units. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination.

You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. I had my very own processor. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. it would seem to return at its leisure. The software state can consist of almost nothing. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. "It's 11:00PM. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. it was a breeze. We were each getting a piece of the pie. Yet. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. It's actually easier than it sounds. If you must do it yourself. The CPU takes care of it for you. MMURTL V1. This will be the heart and brains of the system. Microcomputers spoiled me. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. When you restore a task. My first programs were written with that attitude. When you change tasks. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. It was crude. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. albeit not a very big piece it seemed.want to deal with many. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. This is where the hardware-state is saved. In the case of hardware interrupts. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. In a multitasking operating system. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. Then I asked. this is usually a no-brainer. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. but an important one. but effective. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing.

and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. In fact.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS .Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. With these calls. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. And yes. and basic input/output. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. the ability to cut a task off at the knees.I'm done with the CPU for now. It may not always be obvious when it happens. MMURTL V1. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. if necessary. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. interrupt servicing. Cooperative and Preemptive. do an adequate job in many cases. the screen and everything else looks frozen. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. you are cooperating with the operating system. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). and in some cases." From there. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. or a combination of the two. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. This may be in milliseconds. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. you basically have a hardware manager. They can. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. a single threaded system may be the best solution. however. In a single tasking operating system. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. however. "Hey . This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. For instance. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. A task that has the processor gives it up. In many single tasking systems. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. he then monopolizes the CPU. or to pause when it has nothing to do. In this case. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. management of CPU time is easy. which I cover in this chapter. This can be for a number of reasons. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. Meanwhile.

I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . As I also mentioned earlier. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. In a preemptive system. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. It does nothing to prepare for it. the entire "state" of your task is not saved.g.communicating. communications device. after the interrupt is finished. When do we switch tasks. it doesn't expect it. or even a requirement. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). outside events. we must now decide which task runs next. The next section is the tricky part. connected to the outside world . However. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. Generally. is a preemptive system. or the operating system from an external device (e. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. hardware timer. the scheduler. They are also. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. or after a set period of time. To expand on that definition. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. or a few other hardware-related things.). In fully cooperative systems. For the preemptive system. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). MMURTL V1.. controlling. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. As you can see. and how long does that task get to run? Who.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. to which task do we switch. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. quite often. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. or it may be for something extremely critical. or monitoring. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). The currently running task is preempted. disk drive. the scheduler simply determines who's next. the task that's running. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. this adds the requirement of timing. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. Most of the time. These parties include the programmer. etc. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. Also. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. a program. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. and maybe memory context. The timer can help determine when to preempt. there is going to be a desire. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. when a task is preempted. On most platforms. When.

and the next task in line is restored and executed. When a task's time is up. Who determines which task gets more time. "a slice of time. This is usually not very effective. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. But it has some major drawbacks. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. In some systems. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. The others may see a slow down. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). the one with the highest priority will be executed. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. but it won't be on their terminals. each task will get a fixed amount of time . For example. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system.all tasks will get the same slice . In a time sliced preemptive system. only the very highest would ever get to run. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer.000 burgers. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS .) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. Time slicing is an old technique. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. it can serve admirably. otherwise.and they will be executed in the order they were created. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. and if a user interface is involved. Not quite that simple." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. This gives the scheduler something to work with. In the simplest time sliced systems. each task gets 25 milliseconds. In a cooperative system. (the others will be flipping 8. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. For example. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. its complete hardware and software state is saved. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. A simple queuing system suffices.

If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. but one channel is handling five times the data. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. but it's not dramatic enough. These are communications and user interface issues. Thus. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. clean communications. come do something with this data before I lose it"). The buffer will overflow. For instance. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. Now. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. or the user. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. Therefore. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. In a message based system. dependable. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. computers are everywhere. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system.. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. things are never as simple as they seem. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. but it makes the point. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. We want good. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. But I opted to "get real" instead. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. and we want our machines responsive to us. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not.g. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler.to go around on the system. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. This IS real-time stuff. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs).

based on the number of tasks scheduled. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. To be honest. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). Time Sliced. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. however. Primarily Cooperative. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. Users on a larger. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. I can't picture a system without it. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. MMURTL V1. But even when the task has nothing to do.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. A very simple. See what works for your applications. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. all tasks will get to run. although such systems exist. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. No doubt. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. it would still be scheduled to execute. In this type of system. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. and even help define the tasking model. A task may. even though these methods are very important. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). all tasks will be scheduled for execution. In addition. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. Fully Time Sliced. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. Some Cooperation In this type of model. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). you have a few ideas of your own.

Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. In such a system. This is a speed issue. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. The task based ISR is slower. Keep them short. and limit the functionality if at all possible. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. The timer-interrupt routine. This could have presented some protection problems. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. For instance.Primarily Cooperative. and the next task with the highest priority executes. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. After all. To briefly explain my tasking model. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. file access. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. if you have 256 priorities. I wanted a priority based. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch.PERIOD. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. multitasking. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. goes into a "waiting" state. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. and in reality. It's faster – actually. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. Other processors may offer similar options. The less time the better. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. or whatever. much faster. Go for the fastest option . Limited Time Slicing category. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. timer services. To me. monitors the current task priority." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. preemptive. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. I never wanted to miss outside events.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. "Experience is a wonderful thing. and no. real-time operating system. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task.

MMURTL V1.only the user knows. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. who's to say when Mr.management headaches. After a period of time has elapsed. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. or Ms. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). and they are surely out of your control most of the time. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . the problems didn't surface. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). you switch tasks. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a cooperative environment. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. For instance. or even possibly the users. On systems that are primarily time sliced. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. I discuss memory management in chapter 5.

Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. if it's being allocated). perform operations on the semaphore structures. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. where it waits. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. However. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. it could cause some serious problems. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. nor should they have to. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. As I described in earlier chapters. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. In other words. In operating systems that use semaphores. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. As you will see in this chapter. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). what operation you want to perform. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). only one task can execute at a time. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. portions of the code will not be reentrant." MMURTL V1. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. or is suspended when it can't run. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. On a single CPU. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. Of course. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. As the name implies.Chapter 4.

OpenPipe(). The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. In fact. such as MMURTL. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). This is much more efficient. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). or schedule tasks for execution. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. etc. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. I didn't. ClosePipe(). I have added a second. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. which will consist of one or more tasks. you should study how they are used on other systems. more powerful. public pipes are very handy. He or she will make a system call for some resource. OS/2.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . or similar ones. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. In fact. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. on most real-time operating systems. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. But once again. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. As you can see. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. and WritePipe(). OS/2 is one such system.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. In my humble opinion. If you intend to implement semaphores. a program is made up of one or more tasks. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes.In most cases. In my system. tasks are not wholly independent. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system.). I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. I refer to a program as a “job. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. In a message-based system. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). such as those procedures that create new tasks. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. ReadPipe(). With the send() and wait() types of messaging. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. destroy tasks. but I used a second form of messaging instead. You will see these commands. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program.

Consider the phone again. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. MMURTL V1. You point to a piece of code. the answering machine is the exchange. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). You also need a way to send the message. WaitMsg(). the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). char *pMsgRet). or just about any other name you like.not in detail yet. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. SendMsg(). char *pMsgRet). If there is no task waiting at that exchange. dExch is the destination exchange. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. CheckMsg(). In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. It returns 0 if all goes well. If you're lucky. In an operating system's case. long dMsgPart2). In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. but enough that we can talk about them. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. a bin. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). You tell it what exchange. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. his offer is the pits. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system.it sends a message. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. or whatever you call it. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. SpawnTask(). Now I have some very important terms and functions . It does just what it says . In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. The task is the human." This is an example of a one way message. Zork to forget it. only one task is actually executing instructions. give it the message and away it goes. "Tell Mr. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). for which you expect no response. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. request() and respond().0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . Not too large to move around. and VIOLA. provide some other pieces of information. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. the message is received right away. I called it an Exchange. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. You can send one way messages to a person. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting.functions. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. Yes. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. In MMURTL's case. Now. such as. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). it's a little more complicated than that. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. but large enough for a couple of pointers. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). an exchange point. long dMsgPart1. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. a task is born. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox.

time is passing. Task2 is higher. Table 4. As we move down the table in our example. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. What it's doing isn't important. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. None found. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Just kidding. You start with a single task executing. In this example. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. None are waiting.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. very small. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue.. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. It's still task 2..). Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. Table 4.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Task2 is still running. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. Task2 allocates Exch2. it's not called the kernel zone.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. Kernel makes Task1 run. Task1 is ready to run. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. I'll try to liven it up some later on.

They are ideal for things like file systems. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. but the name will always be the same.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. This can simplify the scheduler. FAX services. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. A fully loaded system may have 5. only the service name. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. This way. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). When the service is first installed. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). each service installed is given a name. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. they must be waiting for something. They are dedicated types. the list could go on and on. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service.. MMURTL V1. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. Each time an interrupt occurs. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. This may not work on all types of processors.. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. e-mail services. In some systems. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. From the simple example in table 4. I didn't do this with MMURTL. printing services. 10 or even 15 system services. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. If there is one. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. The name must be unique on the machine. queued file management.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services.. keyboard input. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. unsigned int wSvcCode. It gives task2 the message. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. If there is a task at the exchange. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. it will be made to run.. In fact. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. BBS systems. the receiving task is made to run. . The processing is carried out by the service.1. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. With MMURTL. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. Each service can provide up to 65. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue.

Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. wSvcCode . This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. These are documented independently by each service. if the request was serviced (with no errors). all capitals. dData0.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill. char *pData2SR. dnpSend . Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). If this is the response. This will be explained later in memory management. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. The service name is eight characters. Two questions arise: 1.Pointer to the service name you are requesting. If it is 80000000h or above. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. *pData1 . the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. Where is the response data and status code? First. Second. dRespExch . The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. you'll need to know which one is responding. or pData2 to send data to the service. long dStatRet).This is the same as dcbData1. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. There's still a little work to do. Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. They are described below: dRqHndl .Number of the specific function you are requesting. long dData2 ). and dData2 . pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service).is the number (0. long dcbData1SR.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . Using the Open File() example. in the file system OpenFile() function. The service already knows this. dData1. For instance. These can never be pointers to data. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. If you remember. *pData2 . But. *pdRqHndlRet . then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. long dcbData2SR. but network transport mechanisms do not.long dRespExch.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. If you made more than one request.Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. Zero (0) usually indicates no error. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. this would be the size (length) of the filename. dStatRet . and spacepadded on the right. dnpSend would be 1. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). dcbData2 . In many functions you will not even use pData1. At first glance.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. long *pdRqHndlRet.the status or error code returned to the requester. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). long dData0. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. long dnpSend char *pData1SR.the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). long dData1. it is NOT a response. Second. dcbData1 .

it's a mess. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). Also. Each task that enters the code. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. When each task is done with the allocation routine. and WHAMO . pointers are off the ends of arrays. To really understand this issue. Semaphores are used on many systems. but this would slow things down a bit. As you know. Not as difficult as you expect. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. The buffer is gone. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. As you can see. MMURTL V1. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. So the code goes in. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. but still very important. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. Not very big. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. task1 gets to run again. It's really quite simple. checks the semaphore. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. even in a multitasking system. Now. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. lets look at an example. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. there was only one buffer left. right? But let me guess .0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . only one task can really be running at a time. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. So. Now. or pauses in the middle of them.to read or write data. An exchange is a small structure in memory. But when it reaches PointX. For the sake of understanding this. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer.it's crash time. and show you what can happen. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. it is preempted. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem().

It will be the only way. You will lose data. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38.task switches.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. but my testing shows I did OK. You didn't disable interrupts. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. Don't blame Windows though.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. “Memory Management.000. let's look at a real-world example. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. it will simplify IPC greatly . You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. The next sections discuss this. This is 1/38. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5.x? You will lose data. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough.” MMURTL V1. Also.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. I started with one and abandoned it early on. In the kernel code. In theory. and also "the biggie" . You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem.000 * 3). you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. WHOA THERE . Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. and maybe even not often enough. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs.200 baud in Windows 3.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused.If the instruction sequence is short enough.

I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing.Chapter 5. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. Instead. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. Basic Terms Once again. if available. Some do it with internal paging hardware. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. Address 0 is the first. it's all basically the same. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. I do make some assumptions about your processor. so does an operating system. With the Intel processors. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. The memory model you choose. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. or another complicated applications. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. For instance. Whether or not you use paging hardware. Either way. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. MMURTL V1. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. This greatly affects the next three items. There are some major differences though. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU).

Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. etc.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . As programs are loaded. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. MMURTL V1. Figure 5. and bad. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. bottom up. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. No address translations take place in hardware. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. In this type of system. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. This can be good. As programs are loaded. Figure 5. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. With this scheme. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory.). They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. chunks of physical memory called pages. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. You may be restricted from using some of these options.1. and possible partitioning for each program. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. different memory allocation schemes (top down.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). at least for the operating system. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used.

the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. Figure 5. With paged memory. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. direct access storage device. or even 64 MB). more than likely a hard disk drive. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. For example. MMURTL V1. Figure 5. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . For instance.2 . Figure 5.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. With demand-paged memory. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory.Figure 5. With this scheme.

MMURTL V1. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system. The minute you apply this term to memory management. With paging hardware. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. and indeed you are. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces.3 . you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS .Figure 5. it means that you're lying to your programs.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). but it sure looks like it is. all the programs still use the same linear space. as in virtual reality." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. and the hardware allows it. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL. Look at Figure 5.

and implement some of your own. The options here are almost mind boggling. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. which is the idea. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. A way around this to use a shared memory area. In order to allow multiple. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program.Figure 5. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. different data or code). Once again. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. you will think of. No doubt. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. memory is NOT flat. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. Note also the disadvantages. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. Note the advantages here. there are many possible variations. the memory management hardware must support it.4 . but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. yet. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. In Figure 5. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. parallel linear spaces. MMURTL V1.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat.

All of the Intel products are very well documented." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. 80186. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. 8088. When this was a 16-bit world.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . so I won't go into further detail. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. they needed to identify and manage those segments. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. To make this work. we had some pretty limited address spaces. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. They used something called a segment register. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. and 80286). It is really a form of virtual memory itself. When a page has been written to. When you use a selector. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. This is a very handy feature. and generally the most efficient. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. they added a very important concept called Protected mode.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. In fact. They are not limited to 64K. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. and you need to understand the implications. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. and the popular Zilog Z80). or even an 8-bit one.g. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. What they came up with is called Segmentation. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. one for code and several for data access. The LRU schemes have many variations. This was actually several registers. 20 to be exact. This means you can save the time rewriting it. The most common. it is usually termed as "dirty. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. When the 80286 came on the scene. MMURTL V1. Likewise. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. OS/2 or Windows). The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. They allowed multiple sequential. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. It's just what it sounds like. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes.. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. However. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task.

0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. if your hardware supports it. the type of applications you cater to. If you do. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. I'll discuss each of these things. you ARE the operating system. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. You'll have to make a decision. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. Tracking client linear memory allocations. Allocating memory for applications. This can be a real hassle. Allocating memory to load applications and services. But in many systems. and Handling protection violations. when one application crashes. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. it usually takes the whole system down. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. They are “linked lists” and “tables. but not in the order I listed them. You make the rules. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. Remember. How you store the links in this list can vary. With this scheme.” Before you decide which method to use. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. which will be defined by the paging hardware. This way. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. MMURTL V1. I learned this the hard way. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. one person). you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. and it will be based on many factors. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. when one application crashes. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. I will give you a good idea what it's like. Other factors include how much memory you have. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. each block holds its own link. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup.With a 32-bit system. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. this makes a far pointer 48 bits.

pPrev = 0. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. pFree. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. } When a client asks for memory. which means you can't honor the request. char *pPrev.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. /* " " */ long Client = 0. MMURTL V1. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. or you reach a link where pNext is null. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse).owner = 0. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink.pNext = 0x100000. you must remember that pLink. long owner.size = 0. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. pMemInUse. struct MemLinkType *pLink.pNext until pLink. you would set up the two base link structures.pPrev = 0. pLink->size = 0xf00000 .size is large enough. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. These are the first links in your list. pFree. This is another topic entirely. but I'll touch on it some. This is done by following pLink. You now have an idea where they went. pLink->owner = 0. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. pMemInUse.16. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). In the following simple linked list scheme. pLink->pNext = 0. I haven't disassembled their code. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. For my description. struct MemLinkType pFree. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory.pNext = 0. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. In the process of memory management initialization.owner = 0.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. Of course.size = 0. }. pMemInUse. pMemInUse. No next link yet. pFree. pFree and pMemInUse.

The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. pLink->size = WantSize. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS .no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language.WantSize . pNewLink->owner = 0.16.pNext. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. } /* Sorry . but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. WantSize is the size the client has requested. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16).The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. And believe me. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . Client is the owner of the new block. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link..pNext = &pLink. Granted. The function returns the address of the new memory. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. it WILL get fragmented. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. If you use this code. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. } } return(0). pLink->pNext = &pNewLink..

and you insert it there. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. which returns memory to the free pool. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. But you can't depend on this. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. but cleanup will be a snap.pNext. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. if at all possible. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. This provides instant cleanup. change its owner. depending on the order of deallocation. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. This will add time to deallocation routines. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. In other words. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . This will be useful in the following routine. or you can do it all after the fact. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. There are several thoughts on cleanup. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. You have the linear address. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. /* scan till we find out where we go. then move it to the pFree list. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it.deallocate. validate the link. But we can't add our size to pFree.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. This makes the most sense to me. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order.16. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. This is where the fragmentation comes it. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes).

Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. In the case of the paging hardware. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. } } /* If we got here. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. If you don't use the paging hardware. there are physical pages assigned to it. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. */ /* In this case. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. MMURTL V1. You can expand on them if needed. you can decide how you want them setup. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. we couldn't be combined with the previous. you will have two memory spaces to track. pNewLink->owner = 0. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. It should give you a great number of ideas. return(0). Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. The two must be synchronized. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier.

Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. Batteries fail. add the translations you need and are already using. Wherever you load it. You must set up tables. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. you will have independent tables for each application.When you work with paging hardware. This can get complicated. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. If you use paging. In some cases. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset.” but once the operating system is loaded. You must consider where the operating system loads. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. It will be the page’s size. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. You will be allocated these up front. “the Hardware Interface. trap. If your processor gives you these types of options. and turn on the paging hardware. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. MMURTL V1. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. From there. But it's up to you. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. it will generally be in a block of addresses. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. For instance. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. and you should take that into consideration. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. you will have to move it all. “OS Initialization. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. it becomes allocated memory right away.

but nice to have. The common data segment is 10h. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. and even larger with demand page memory. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. and one or more code segments. the concept of program segments is an old one. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. and many others. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. you know that with MS-DOS. and one data segment for all programs and applications. Small. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. If you are familiar with segmented programming. If you have no desire to use them. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. but will have no effect on applications. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. uninitialized data segment. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. This could change in future versions.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. the application code segment. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. Medium. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. I wanted only one program memory model. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. This greatly simplifies every program we write. The user code segment is 18h. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. This was too complicated for me. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. and I even use the Intel segment registers. Large. Compact. the initialized data segment. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. For instance. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. I use almost no segmentation. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. but in a very limited fashion. set them all to one value and forget them. 32-bit offset). The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. The operating system code segment is 08h. It can be very complicated to use on any system. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed.

Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. because I haven't explained it yet.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). MMURTL V1. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. Each of the PDEs points to a PT. What you don't see. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. but it’s close. Each PDE is also four bytes long.1. Besides. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. For instance. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. which can have 1024 entries. No. but most of the operating system code – specifically. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. Sure. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. is that you really do need most of this capability. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. The operating system itself is technically not a job.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon.294. Right? Wrong. it has code and data and a task or two. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it.967. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). and each application the same thing. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS ." huh?). but you need it in pieces. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing.runs in the task of the job that called it. If you want just a few bytes. Every Job gets its own PD. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages.memory. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. its not magic. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. Each PTE is four bytes long. If you get our calculator out. Because of this. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. the kernel . The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space.

but it wasn't needed. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). Likewise. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. Now that it knows where the PD is. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. but when you start talking 10. Now it's got the PTE. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. Code. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. the secret is out. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. But it was for a good cause (No. 20. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. However. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. When I started the application. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. and it needs it fast. Besides. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. I could have built a separate table and managed it. In the scheme of things. MMURTL V1.Table 5. Of course. Well. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. but it does this with very little overhead. possibly several for each application. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. Sounds like a lot of work. in a word.1 . This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. I wanted to keep the overhead down. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. each PDE has the physical address of each PT.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . certainly less overhead than this explanation). This is fine for one address per job. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. Read on and see what I did. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. If you remember. yes. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. Sure. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. Finding the PD for an application is no problem.

all the shadow entries are marked not present. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA.. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB.. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. That would really be a waste.. in Table 5. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. it would be transparent to applications anyway. MMURTL V1. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum). 512 513 . AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS.. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. 768 769 .. 256 257 .2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 .1. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write.. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. If I desired. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory.. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. in fact. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present.2. AllocPage(). I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. but you get the idea. AllocOSPage(). If I decided to do it. This is 0 to 1Gb. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. Table 5. As shown. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind.0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS ..

Now comes that easy part . They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. the caller passes in a linear address. and DLLs. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. With a 1Gb address space. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. from a previous AllocPage() call. Device Drivers have code and data. Device drivers. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. nor do you even care. If it does. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). but only from this caller's memory space. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. nor should it try to find out. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code.Managing physical memory. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. only that number will be deallocated. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. and data. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). along with the number of pages to deallocate. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers).All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. there will be no error. or will return an error if it's not available. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. The caller will never know. System Services. but the memory will not be available for later use. It's loaded into these initial pages. but no stack. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. It is not important. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). and whether or not it's currently in use. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). MMURTL V1. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). If so. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. which is also my sister's name. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. If the physical memory exists. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. It does not tell you whom they belong to. Each application (job) gets it own PD. you allocate physical memory from the top down. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). it will create a new PT. initial stack. If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. They are simply new jobs. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request.

Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. an error will occur. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. But this gets away from memory management. Of course. With a page based system such as MMURTL. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. If it tries to deallocate them. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. and no stack. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. how could they be swapped?). Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. you should do it before you read this section. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. There is no new allocation of physical memory. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. the second job has access to other job's data. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. This will make more sense if you do. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. but that's trivial (a few instructions). Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications).Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. Instantly. no data. They have only code. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. When an application requests a service. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. They share physical memory. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. They are there to be used as shared code only.

Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. For MMURTL. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. One or more PTs for the OS. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. use it. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. How they see the interface is very important. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. it responds. When it's done its work. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. MMURTL V1.

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Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. aside from the instructions you give it. The two that are obvious are code size. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. As good as it sounds. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). is the interrupt or trap. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation.how it is accessed in memory. to interoperability with other systems. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. although I never thought so. however. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. and speed. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. Hardware Interface As a resource manager.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . but that doesn't mean that you won't. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. But there's always more than meets the eye. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . It executes your instructions. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. You provide a common. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. MMURTL V1. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. jumps where you tell it. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. and it simply runs. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. The most common. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. Therefore. there are drawbacks to this idea. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. or for specific timing requirements. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor.Chapter 6. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. in theory. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. and the most significant at the lowest.

You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. The second is the address bus. I read many books about my target processor. but in some of the processor documentation. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. Multibus. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. For instance. and most useful. or ISA Bus. There are many extensions to this bus . The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. no matter which device you must code. in that case. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. Finally. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). The most common is the relatively low-speed. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. ISA. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. but I found the most valuable. They are actually very forgiving devices. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. internal bus. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . such as those dealing with interrupts. I've tried both methods. Quite honestly. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. PCI. On the PC-ISA platforms. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. or CPU bus. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. On smaller systems. MMURTL V1. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. This is called the main bus. This is handy. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. The first set is the data bus. address.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. EISA. just to name a few. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696.some proposed. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. and some that are available now. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. and especially the interface bus. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion.

These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. Unlike UART devices. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. or even memory to memory. Another way is programmed I/O.g. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. network frame handlers. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives.Less commonly found. Parallel buses can move data faster. Quite often. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. They work with frames or packets of data. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. Therefore. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. but is really a device connected to the bus. but still very important. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system.25 (an international link and network layer standard).0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. in many cases. They have no way. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). the infamous Centronics interface). MMURTL V1. or network card). This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. except for the hardware clock timing. or HDLC. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. SDLC. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. and tape drives. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. and on some systems. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte.. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). to name a few. In fact. If you intend to design a true multitasking system.

On an 80-column-by-25-line display. this only consumes 4000 bytes. On the PC-ISA platform. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. and MMURTL V1. This consumes the least amount of your address space. Video Like the keyboard. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. If you want 16 colors for each bit. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. If this is the case. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. However. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes.. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). and can consume a much larger area of your address space.g. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. this video memory will contain character codes (e. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. In most cases. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . Video hardware manufacturers realize this. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. All the output would be via a serial port. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. This requires an interrupt service routine. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. or Unicode. but you must realize the importance of this device. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space.500 bytes of memory space. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. Each bit array is on its own plane. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. In character-based systems. is worth more than I can indicate to you.On many systems. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. Quite often. This could consume a vast amount of memory. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. In fact. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. This is known as planar pixel access. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor.

The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. Your requirements will more than likely be different. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. The code for these two calls is shown below. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). In many cases. however.g. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. non-overlapping video users. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. and your tasking model. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . and GetDMACount(). This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move.allow you to switch between them. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. I did.. I took this into consideration also. Chapter 26. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. In some cases. have to research hardware cursor control. multiple.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). “Video Code. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. MMURTL V1. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. you'll have no problems. This includes cursor positioning. For a 256-color system. “Memory Management. except maybe an embedded system board.000 bytes. That equates to 600. interprocess communications. I was interested in character-based. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. and timing when you write to the video display area. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. and to query the status of the move. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. this would be 16 planes at 37. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. This is known as packed pixel access. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware.

Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch . DACK1 (etc. One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device. but the standard include file MOSEDF.Ch 0 Word Count .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h .Ch 2 Word Count .Read Command/Write Single bit mask .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h .DMA DACK0 Page register .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h .Read/Write Mode register .INCLUDE MOSEDF. This is called a cascaded device. and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop . Bit 16 is ignored by the page register. while 23-17 are put in the page register.INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller.DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.Ch 3 Word Count .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) . etc. There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Ch 0 Address . etc.DATA .Read/Write DMA Rq Register .) MMURTL V1.Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .Ch 3 Address . DMA moves (channels 5-7). . the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA. DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware.========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Ch 1 Word Count .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.CODE With 8-bit DMA. There really is no data segment for DMA. Optimize it as you please.Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh .Ch 1 Address .Read Status/Write Command .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .INC .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah . .Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .Ch 2 Address .0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS . With word.

. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. . AL OUT DMA1Clear. dChannel. which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2.Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL MOV AL. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . AL OUT DMA2Mode. . the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. . . dType.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. Out. This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. . AL XOR AL. 42h OUT DMA1Mode.6 and 7. even on word moves. .Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . Verify).MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . the segment is wrapped around. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers.CH 0 DMA 1 . AL XOR AL. If they do. . AL MOV AL. sdMem. . AL OUT DMA2Mode.Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. . so they always specify byte count for the setup call. AL . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. AL RETN . AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. as you might assume).All commands set to default (0) . 40h DMA1Mode.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule.CH 0 DMA 2 . I do this for the caller. 0C0h DMA2Mode.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL AL. 04 . For channels 5. AL OUT DMA2Clear. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. AL OUT DMA2Mode. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. or 128K boundaries for a word move.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . 41h OUT DMA1Mode.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. we do math) MMURTL V1. AL XOR AL.

7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. dMode . 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. 0 . Put it in BL MOV EAX. PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . dChannel (0. 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. [EBP+20] CMP EAX. Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. MMURTL V1. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. 8 DMA10Add. Yes CMP EAX.0 Demand Mode. . ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. 04 . ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . MOV EAX. Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect .1.7) . Lo byte address . In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . AL . . [EBP+12] . dPhyMem . CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) .ESP . (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. get dType AND BL. BL DMA1Mode. 00000100b . 00001000b . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX.3. [EBP+16] . 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. Hi Byte . 0C0h . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. 1 . OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . dMode CMP EAX. OR with MODE . 2 Block.2. AL DMA1FF. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. AL EAX..Jump table for channel selection . 1 = In (Write Mem). AL . AL EAX. AL AL. 00000000b AL. 1 Single Cycle. 2 = Out (Read memory) . dType .5. 3 Cascade . MOV EBP.0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . 6 . 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX.6.0 = Verify. [EBP+28] DMA10Add.

AL AL. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. 8 DMAPage2. AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. dPhyMem . Highest byte (to page register) . sdMem . EAX DMAEnd . EAX DMAEnd . dPhyMem . channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA12Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL AL. Highest byte (to page register) . 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. AL EAX. 8 DMA12Cnt. Lo byte address . [EBP+28] DMA11Add. AL . [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. AL EAX. 8 DMA10Cnt. AL EAX. AL EAX. Lo byte address . OR with MODE . sdMem . BL DMA1Mode. 00000010b AL. 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. 8 DMA11Cnt. OR with MODE/TYPE . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Hi Byte . Highest byte (to page register) . 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. CH2 . 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Hi Byte .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. 8 DMA11Add. BL DMA1Mode. AL EAX. CH1 . 00000001b AL. 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. 8 DMAPage0. AL AL. AL EAX. 8 DMAPage1. AL EAX. AL AL.

.XOR EAX. 15 DMAPage5. 00000001b AL. AL EAX. AL AL. MMURTL V1. We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . [EBP+28] EBX. . AL AL. BL DMA1Mode. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL DMA1FF. AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. AL EAX. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. . . AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . 8 DMA21Cnt. BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . . [EBP+24] EAX. . OR with MODE . 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. 0FFFFh EAX. 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . CH1 on DMA 2 . . [EBP+28] DMA13Add. Lo byte address . AL DMA2FF.0 AL. OR with MODE . AL AL.NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . CH3 . 8 DMA13Cnt. 8 DMA13Add. AL EAX. AL AL. . Hi Byte . Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. 8 DMAPage3. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . sdMem . 8 DMA21Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. dPhyMem . EAX DMAEnd . Hi Byte . EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. EBX EAX. 1 DMA21Add. AL EAX. AL EAX. EAX EAX. 00000011b AL. .

EBX EAX. EAX EAX. AL EAX. EAX EAX. 1 DMA23Add. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. 15 DMAPage6. 8 DMA23Add. [EBP+28] EBX. sdMem .DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . BL DMA2Mode. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . [EBP+28] EBX. 0FFFFh EAX. 0FFFFh EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. AL EAX. Hi Byte . AL EAX. AL EAX. sdMem . 8 DMA23Cnt. Lo byte address . EAX . CH2 on DMA 2 . AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . OR with MODE . EAX DMAEnd . 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm.0 AL. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . dPhyMem . OR with MODE . AL AL. AL EAX. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Lo byte address . 00000010b AL. 8 DMA22Cnt. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL AL. 8 DMA22Add. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. Hi Byte . Rid of all but lower 16 . 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. AL DMA2FF. [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. 1 DMA22Add. AL AL. Rid of all but lower 16 . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. 00000011b AL. AL DMA2FF. EBX EAX. 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. 15 DMAPage6. CH3 on DMA 2 .EBP MMURTL V1. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . dPhyMem . BL DMA2Mode. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP.

dChannel (0. you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. .535: .POP EBP RETF 20 . You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. . -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. EBP+ 16 12 . 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. . 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where .Return address for count . . .5.g. this will be the number of words. no error from the floppy controller). . [EBP+16] MOV ESI.. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX.6.7) . DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. .2.1. For channels 5 through 7. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. On some devices. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. pwCountRet) . . DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX.Channel . 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX. In this case. . . GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. this is bytes.0 . GetDMACount(dChannel. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . you actually set the channel byte count 65. you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX.ESP MOV EAX. . To move 64K. For channels 0 through 3. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. the count will be returned. The count is number of WORDS-1 . 7 MMURTL V1.3.

There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU.DX MOV CH.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . . or at set intervals. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. but it is critical that it's done correctly. these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. however. The PICU takes care of this for you.AL IN AL. . many devices interrupt the processor. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. . . This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. EAX MOV ESP. Your job is to know how to program the PICU. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. As you can imagine (or will have realized). hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. and read as required. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. The operating system may. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. No Error . . A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. or even hours in some cases. MMURTL V1. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. be responsible to program these dedicated timers. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. Therefore.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. . 20 bytes of junk to dump . .DX MOV CL. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. In the process of an interrupt. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. This is not very complicated. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. Internally. which determines the interrupt interval. CX XOR EAX. .No such channel! . Quite often. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. Usually.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. program.JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. .

You will need the hardware manual for code examples.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. because this address is executed by a boot ROM." that's exactly what I mean. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. more complicated. then go through each section of the basic initialization. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. To be honest. When I say "just enough code. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. and important structures. This device will. where boot ROMs usually reside. In other words. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. including hardware. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. If this is true. you'll have to do some research.at least not as a file from the file system. This is known as a multistage boot. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. The question is. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. This can be done in more than one step if required. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. it executes from a reset state. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. then jumping to the first address of the sector.Chapter 7. If you're using another platform. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. and it's not exactly easy. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. I've done all your homework. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . For this reason.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . we start with loading the operating system. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. be organized with a file system. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. In the PC world. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. the boot sector code may load another. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. tasks. then execute it. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. no doubt. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. MMURTL V1. In this chapter. memory. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers.

it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. so you can begin execution. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. which they store in a small work area in RAM. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. First. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). MMURTL V1. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled.g. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. This was the case with my system. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. 4. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. such as a fixed track or cylinder. 8. 5. 2. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. 7. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). 5. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. 2. In an ISA system. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. 7. Where your operating system will reside in memory. In my case. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. then Drive C. 3. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). such as a whole track). I moved the boot sector code way up in memory.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). 1. But it gets more complicated. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. and where you stored it. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. 6. 3..If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. Second. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. then life is easy. 8. 6. 4. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. the hardware commands. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). because they provide the BIOS. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. This lead to two relocation efforts. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. This was a double problem. then executed the next instruction at the new address. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed.

media desc.Padding to make it 3 bytes . .on this disk that the operating needs to know.This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .Root Dir entries max . (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .Sect/Cluster . IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads .386P directive is required because I use protected .11 bytes for volume name .instructions. I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire. CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .nHeads .LIMIT 768 slots .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .Resvd sectors . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) . The OS must .Drive boot sector came from .This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG .The . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . This contains additional information about the file system . (worthless) .disks.0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS . The boot sector code also . Examine the following code: .nFATs .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors.BASE (Linear) .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk. and are not part of the above boot sector data structure. Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) .and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible .386P . .nSect in FAT .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk. DS:CSEG. It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.8 bytes for FAT name (Type) . Why not? I do own it.LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .nSectors/track .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system. There's no operating system here now.nTotalSectors if > 32Mb .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.nBytes/Sector .

This is done by finding out where it is and writing . 0Fh .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. DI AX. It works. then "return" to it. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF . vector location.Source segment .0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS . Push the . Its pseudo jump .Clear interrupts . AX SP.This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . CL BYTE PTR [SI+9].Make DS correct again . 8000h . table so it can read the disk for us.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) .The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt .Segment for new location . return address..Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. AX SI. MOV AX.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. that I calculated after assembling it once.Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. MOV CX. nSectPerTrack . at the beginning of this code CLI .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX.9000h SS. AX MOV BX. . AX DI. AX MOV DS.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: . 09000h ES. 0078h . some of the parameters to it from the boot sector. DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. .Destination segment . Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . 7C0h DS. 512 MOVSB .Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. SI CX.

0020h .. cluster because the first 2 are unused). OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. . CX .Save in CX . nBytesPerSect BX AX. nOSSectors .to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or . FATS (1 or more) . We need the space for other code.Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot .CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) .AX is at sector for cluster 0. now let's read some stuff!! .The layout of the Disk is: . nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX. WORD PTR nHidden . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX.The controller is reset.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file . but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist .Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) . nRsvdSect MOV CX. Hidden Sectors (optional) .0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS .so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated .waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI. AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX.really IS the OS. OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars ..Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . bBootDrive XOR AX. ADC DX.What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster .Must set interrupts for BIOS to work .stage one of the a two stage loader should be).Required for Disk System Reset .Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . MOV CX.Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX.logical sector order. AX MOV AL. POP DS .Reset failed. MOV SI. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) .STI MOV DL.on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in . AX .

This is a single sector read loop .512 bytes for segment . CH .Leaves Head in DL.0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX. BX .This is segment where we load the OS. BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX. 2 . before we move it down to 0000h .Wait for keystroke .Read 13h .OR with Sector number AL. AX . ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI. BX AX . 06000h MOV ES. 0Eh MOV BX.Number of sectors AH. 1 . nSectPerTrack SI .0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . . OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX.Cyl into CX CL. .Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte. DH . 6 .Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI. Drive to DL CX.Head to DH. DX .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH.XOR INT INT AX.BX will be zeroed at top of loop . Hi 2 bits to CL CL.Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . but works well. MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC . It's slow. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL.Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads .Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL.Next Sector MMURTL V1. AX has . 20h ES. Cyl in AX DH. Read a .AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH. bBootDrive DL. ES BX.AX 16h 19h .Sector to read DX. BYTE PTR ResvdByte .I increment ES and leave BX 0 . DL .

0DFh OUT 60h. 07000h DS.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .the OS down to address 0. BX SI.AX DI. . AX ES. BX SI. DX MOVSW . DX XOR SI.0 . SI AX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL.DI CX. move .64h TEST AL.WORD move . SI MMURTL V1.A20 line should be ON Now .DI CX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL.CX IBEmm1: IN AL. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.AX DI.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 .0D1h OUT 64h.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear.So move the OS MOV DX. Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.Now we disable interrupts.AL XOR CX.AL XOR CX.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.WORD move .64h TEST AL. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX.LOOP NextSector . turn on the A20 line.1000h ES. DX MOVSW . SI AX. 8000h .DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS . set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX. 06000h DS.64h TEST AL.CX IBEmm2: IN AL.

MS-DOS used this. DX MOVSB .BX ES.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction. 10h DS.BX . 'Bad Boot Disk!'. 0Ah.call JMP FAR 08h:10000h.'.BX SS.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .2000h ES. 00h 0Dh.Set protected mode bit .bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .Set up segment registers . and a map file from the link (Bootblok. 9000h MOV DS.BX GS.AX DI.BX FS. 'Loading MMURTL'.We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually . I left it in.EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.map).Clear prefetch queue with JMP . such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).DI CX. The first 512 bytes is the .0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS .MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.BYTE move MOV BX. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.CR0 OR AL.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump . BX XOR EDX. The segment and code size escape . DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. EDX MOV DL.lst). bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END . you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code. It's worthless.Load Processor GDT Pointer .1 MOV CR0. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format.asm <Enter> This will make a .Control Register . As you change and experiment with the boot sector. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1. 00h '.EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX. 0Ah. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok.EXE header.Load Processor ITD Pointer . To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector.

It's quite easy to do with the Load. Write. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. This is easy to do. C:\>Debug BootBlok. The results can be disastrous. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). and Name commands. you can use Debug to load it as a . Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. you can use the Dump command to display it. To read the boot sector from a disk. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. They may do this as they format the disk. you should not do this to your active development drive. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms.bin in the root directory of drive C. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. To find where Debug loaded it. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. logical sector number. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. After you have assembled your boot sector. From the MS-DOS prompt.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS .) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. then write it to the disk. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. and number of sectors following it. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. Then copy the operating system image to the disk. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. or after the fact.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. This will show you a segmented address. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. Register. Keep in mind.

Additionally. I'm happy. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. It is all contained in the source file Main. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format.” MMURTL V1.c) to properly build it. At this point. “Initialization Code. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. It does everything that the boot sector code does. Chapter 21.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. If it is in an executable format from a linker. If so. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. the Direct Memory Access hardware. All of the hardware that is resident in the system . With MMURTL. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. understands. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time.asm on CD-ROM. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. Hopefully. They must simply be initialized to their default states. Good luck. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. This single source file program (MMLoader. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. It should help give you a picture of what's required. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. up to the point we jump the monitor program. “The Hardware Interface.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). I couldn't. and basic timers . and loads the image into RAM then executes it. It is called MMLoader. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector.C:\> Copy OS. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. but it's not necessary. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6.00 loader. This includes setting up the OS stack. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk.

The option is usually up to you. Chapter 3. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. If you use one more bit. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. In all of the cases that were discussed. “the Tasking Model. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. If you desire. you've got your job cut out for you. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). setting up for multitasking. While in real mode. This depends on the platform. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. on the Intel processors. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. Either way. Being a little conservative. If you want to eliminate it. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. For instance. as well as one to switch to. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. and also some basic variables. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. MMURTL V1. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). you can address above 1Mb. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. It's not that big.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. you just learn to live with it. I just left it alone. the A20 address line serves no purpose. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. is not trivial. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. This leaves you with a few options . One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte.

but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. If your machine doesn't support this method. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. and you can't manage or allocate it. MMURTL V1. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. but one I'm glad I didn't face. otherwise. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. If you chose not to do this. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. back to the initialization (already in progress). I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. Meanwhile. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. or any number of things. It's not that much of a headache.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). This piece of code may have a lot to do. Chapter 19. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. although some people may still have problems with it. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. You don't know how much you have. At this stage of the initialization. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. some which didn't work on all machines. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. The following list is not all-inclusive. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. This seems to work on most machines.My goal was not to discover why it existed. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC).0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. I tried several methods. The point is. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. or is at least loaded. where the address match will occur. “Memory Management Code.

Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. an embedded system. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. what order are they in? If the stack is used. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. In the following sections. Quite often though. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. “API Specification. may be similar to another documented call on the system. that on occasion. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. What could be easier? I can't imagine. life was easy in this respect. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version).Chapter 8. Chapter 15. UNIX was written with C. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. I'm still not entirely happy with it. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. No kidding! With UNIX.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. In any and all of these cases. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). This may sound like a no-brainer. The call is made. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. public distribution. If this happens to me. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path.” shows you how I documented my calls. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. they do. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. I found. and leave undocumented. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. or your own consumption and enjoyment. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. because the call they add. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. If the parameters are on the stack. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. the function does its job and returns.

When a high-level language has its own calling convention. There are two reasons this library may be required. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. this is MMURTL V1.g. It's up to you. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. code size. or at least every time it's rebuilt. In other words. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions.. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. the interrupt vector table). Your opinion may vary on this.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS .Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. some use both. Execution speed. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. support several conventions. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. faster. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. Some use registers. Many systems use an intermediate library. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). for example. First. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. but the stack is not used for parameters. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. This device is extremely hardware dependent. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. especially when it comes to speed. I'm sure you know of several. Second. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed.junkies). and it required a fixed number of parameters. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. as if you couldn't guess). An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. some use the stack. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. Pascal . no doubt. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. has three or four calling conventions. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. However. OS/2. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table.

I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. I really hope not. For application source code portability. MMURTL V1. then execute the interrupt instruction. the procedural interface is the key. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. However." Yeah. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. However. and the call gates are really not a problem.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. the hardware will be obsolete. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. When you need to return data from the call. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. right. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. If portability is near the top of your wish list. For the operating system source. This may be a personal issue for me. The intermediate library would fill in this value.

but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. and this wasn't my original plan. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. If this is the case. You need to consider these requirements in your design. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. You more than likely will. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. For instance. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. and Statusing the driver. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. timers. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. and certain memory-management functions. Do you see what I mean? Internally. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. Suddenly. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. that it's almost impossible to separate them. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. I set out to design the simplest. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. They work with the hardware. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver.

pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable).Set up local vars . EAX MOV EAX. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB).0 . This will give you a good place to start in your design. pInitData. You'll see certain validity checks. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX. For example. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. EBP+24 . this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. “Systems Programming.ESP SUB ESP. dLBA. pStatRet. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. pDCBs. .Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. EAX MOV EAX.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. nDevices. In a multitasking system. The first call listed in this section. EBP+20 nDevices. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). when one user is doing serial communications. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. InitDevDr(dDevNum. This is a common requirement on many systems. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant.InitDevDr(dDevNum. ndBlocks. so I won't go over it here. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. When you look at the code. . . . is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system.ASM. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . dOpNum. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. 16 MOV EAX. . InitDevDr(). nDevices MMURTL V1. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant.

and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX. dExchTmp .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Next caller DCB .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX. [EBP+24] EAX. 0 JNZ InitDev06 . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX. OK to use .OK to replace existing driver? . 2 ADD EBX. [EBP+20] .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: . dDevX SHL EAX. rgpDCBs MOV EAX.Point EBX to rgpDCB . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array .Yes .Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .Empty.and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.Next devnum . 0 .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX. we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX.Now check to see if device is already installed .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX.Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs.EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].No .error exit . 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12].pDCBx = 0 if not used yet . 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: . 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 .NONE left . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX].dDevNum MMURTL V1.dDevNum .Set nDev to number of devices again . ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS . .All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: . rgpDCBs EAX. [EBP+16] nDevs.device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.All went OK so far.Decrement nDevices . prgDevs .nDevices .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.12 . 2 .If we got here. EAX EBX.Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].

. pInitData.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .next p in rgp of DCBs . 2 . EAX and ECX are set up. loop through each .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . EAX . and are not presented here. [EBP+20] MOV ECX. rgpDCBs MOV EBX.ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . [EAX] .now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. sdInitData). MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch]. are almost identical to DeviceInit(). EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . MOV EBP. ADD EAX.ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: . dExchTmp . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . EAX EBX.Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX.Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. . . 0 . . MOV EBX.ESP .Set up for no error . ECX [EBX]. -83- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX .DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it.Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. DeviceOp() and DeviceStat(). MOV EBX. SHL EBX.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .Now that EBX. EAX MOV EAX. or reset it after a failure. 4 EAX.0 . [EBP+20] .for all devices that one driver controls.next DCB .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1.EAX points to first DCB .device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . ErcBadDevNum . DeviceInit(dDevNum.also place Exchange into DCB.EBX now points to correct pointer . You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB. [EBP+20] . The other two calls. and . This is the same exchange .ADD EBX. PUSH EBP .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. .the first customer to use. 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Any more DCBs?? . 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX. nDevices .If the device driver was NOT reentrant .

Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .NO driver! .dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] . CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.All looks good with device number .call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.save ptr to DCB .Get device error back . Send semaphore message to Exch . This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.Get semaphore ticket .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX..YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP.No. 0 DevInit02 EAX. . MMURTL V1.Bogus Message .Yes .Push exchange number .Push all params for call to DD .Ignore kernel error . It you use assembly language and provide code examples.Save ptr to DCB ..so we check to see if driver is reentrant.Is there a physical device? DevInit02: . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 . . If not we . .0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get DCB ptr back . but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments. adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.Ptr to message area .Device IS reentrant . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType]. ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd . 0 .

WORD. “Memory Management. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. Terminology Throughout this section.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. Function .” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS .Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e. Before writing your first MMURTL program. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. “Interprocess Communications. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . usually passed on the stack. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment.A Function in C or Pascal. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . It may even be entertaining.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word .1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . but alas. Look at the table 9.A value passed to a function or procedure. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. If I were a perfectionist. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. Call . I think you will find it useful.g.. Byte . This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. and a dword is also accessed at the same address. or a Procedure in Assembler. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL.Chapter 9. Argument . MS-DOS).Same as Procedure. or a Procedure in Pascal.” and Chapter 5. the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. and DWORD. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. though. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes).1 .

A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. and in some cases. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. This will be done by the compiler. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. “API Specification. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. and assembly language. All parameters are pushed from left to right. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. In some C compilers. But the address is really a call gate. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). and are expanded to 32-bit values. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. or simply convey information that may.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. It may indicate an error. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). Some do not. MMURTL V1. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. even the assembler or processor itself. not the real address of the SetXY function. or dError. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. Pascal. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates.

The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language.. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. . The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. “The Tasking Model. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management.2 . Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. There are no far data pointers. you should deallocate it. MMURTL is a Paged memory system.. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). malloc() in C). Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. MMURTL V1..Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span.Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . you allocate it. Chapter 3. In fact...” and Chapter 4. “Interprocess Communications. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. She may pick up your dirty socks. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use. If you need a 2Mb array.. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e.. When you are done with it.2: Table 9.” describe this in great detail. The operating system resides at address 0. MMURTL is kind of like your mother.g. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like.. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system.. but she would much rather that you did it. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. . you simply allocate it. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark.

this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. dRespExch. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. cbData2. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. protect programmers from themselves. dData1. SendMsg (dExch. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. Data. cbData1. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. dMsg1. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. or you will need to know of one you send messages to.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. However. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. Of course. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. pRqHndlRet. Now you allocate 4 pages. This means that in a multitasking environment. wSvcCode. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. npSend. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). This is not a problem. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. The operating system Code. so long as you know it can't be addressed. Address 40100000h is returned to you. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. pData2.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. pData1. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. You allocate 5 pages. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). MMURTL does NOT. dData0. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks).0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. however. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address).

You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. but you don't want that either. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. Messaging is very powerful. you need to know your job number. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. The pointer is read-only. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation.LString */ MMURTL V1. If you do. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). MMURTL is not a mind reader. only your program will be trashed. such as data communications. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. /* User Name . but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). and user interaction. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . printing. This eats all of your link blocks.Normally. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. For instance. char sbJobName[14]. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). Other than that. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables).

/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . char fCursType. unsigned char ScrlCnt. MMURTL V1. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. pPathRet. To change data in the JCB. with unused portions padded. char *pVirtVid. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications.LString */ std input . pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. editing. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. long CrntX. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. long NextJCB. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. char JcbCmdLine[80]. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. and special keys. long ExitError. }. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . char JcbSysOut[50].char sbPath[70]. char JcbSysIn[50]. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. char JcbExitRF[80]. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. For most applications. long CrntY. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent.LString */ std output . long nLines. long VidMode. char fVidPause. The keyboard interface is a system service. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. “Keyboard Service. Chapter 13. long nCols. char *pVidMem. long NormVid. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. char fCursOn. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. They include: SetJobName(pJobName.

Tables 9.3 . Background. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes). MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24. Foreground colors.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. The colors for TTYOut(). PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. character placement.3.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. Background colors describe the attributes. and 9. only the least significant byte is used.4 . logically OR the Foreground.4. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . is the intensity bit. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. the high nibble is the background. and Blink if desired to form a single value. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. The high bit of each. and cursor positioning.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 9. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs.4096 bytes). and low nibble is the foreground. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down).Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. In this byte. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking.

You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. MMURTL V1.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. MMURTL has to hunt for them. "This is a test. This includes any memory. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. exchanges. and other things allocated while you were running. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. or system calls. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. This is done by calling the Chain() function. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. BGBLUE|WHITE). 17. 0.". such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. If no file is specified. Remember.

Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. if required. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. Additional tasks if required. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. Service names are casesensitive. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. then Respond. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. the service does the processing and Responds. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. Additional exchanges.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. and memory management operations. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. as well as for other services. It's not very useful. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. and Assembly language programmers. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. or provide services to application programs. such as: Additional memory. MMURTL V1. service them. Client programs make a Request. if needed. Wait for messages. Pascal. use messaging.Chapter 10. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer.

}. char *pData2. long cbData2. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. NextNumber = 0.1. char npRecv. long cbData1. long RespExch. char *pRqHndlRet. long RQBRsvd2. long dData0. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ".ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. long RqOwnerJob.pData1 = NextNumber++. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. Message). if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). char npSend.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. else if (pRqBlk. char *pData1. ErrorToUser. MainExch). long dData2. long RQBRsvd1.Listing 10. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). MainExch. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. long dData1. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. Message[2]. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. long RQBRsvd3. long ServiceRoute. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. int ServiceCode.

and how much information a program must pass to you. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. This is called the service code. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. The memory address of the Request Block. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. cbData1 and cbData2. the service only defines one service code that it handles. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. because the operating system does not alias them as such. For example. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. and dData2. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. For all other values of the service code. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. The operating MMURTL V1.The Request Block As you can see. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. As a system service writer. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. They are 32-bit values. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). As a system service. in the File System. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. when you receive a Request. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. The complexity of your service. This is the number 1 (one). you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. you define the data items you need. In the simple example above. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. For larger data movement to the service. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. These items are dData0. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. or any data movement back to the caller. and another RenameFile. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. another CloseFile. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. In fact. one number represents OpenFile. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. dData1. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. and what service you provide.

An example of this is how the file system handles errors. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. the file may not exist. but carries it one step farther. cbData2. In the keyboard service. MMURTL is built in layers. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. Disk drives. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. tape drives. then respond before waiting for the next request. If so. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong.system is “aware” of this. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. However. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. you must respond to it immediately. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. and moves it to another exchange. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. If so. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . In each of these cases. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. cbData1 and pData2. which is a valuable system resource. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. before responding to any other requests you are holding. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. until you respond. communications ports (serial and parallel). it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. Synchronous services wait. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. receive a request. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. If this happens. This is the easiest way to handle requests. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. The first is the request block handle. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. RAM disks. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. MMURTL uses this concept. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. When you write system services.

or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. or any OS structures. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). keyboard. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. network link layer devices). I have made it rather painless to build fast. powerful. If a device driver controls more than one device. With InitDevDr(). MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. to handling complex devices such as hard drives. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. For example. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). Sequential devices are things like communications ports. SCSI ports.g. the PICUs. hard disk. MMURTL V1.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. C and Pascal). Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. It does not directly access hardware. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. timer hardware.and sequential-oriented. Things like Device name. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. This means message. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. basic video. or network frame handlers (i. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. Block Size. RAM DISK). or a processor protection violation will occur.. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB).g. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. The interface is non-specific. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. multitasking. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. the file system is at user level (3). which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. keyboard. interrupt vectors. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. as well as where the data is on the device. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader.e. multi-threaded environment. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system.. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. or is included in the OS code at build time.

When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. This layer of code performs several functions for you. InitDevDr() never returns to you. if required. or in Pascal. The main entry point will never be called again. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. if needed. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. like any application in MMURTL. Set up interrupt service routines. and is programmed. The device driver looks. Call InitDevDr(). Check or set up the device’s. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. The generic steps are described below. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. At this point. Do anything else you need before being called. just like any other program. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. if needed. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. In C this would be main(). MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. it's the main program block. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. Allocate exchanges. You can name them anything you want in your program. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS.

especially if the driver controls two devices. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0).driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. Timer Facilities Quite often. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. device drivers are very close to the hardware. and size of a DMA move. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. In other operating systems. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. or how much was transferred. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). If you use MMURTL V1. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. Two calls provide these functions. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. direction. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. MMURTL uses paged memory. mode.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . specifically DOS. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur.”API Specification. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). This is often called an interrupt vector. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. although it’s not a requirement. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions.

so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. or assembler to construct the DCB. and KillAlarm() functions. but easy to figure out. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true.1-. you can use SendMsg(). and how to implement them in your code. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you.Alarm(). See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). each of the three PUBLIC device calls. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. If you use SendMsg(). If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). Table 10. a structure in C. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. Table 10. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB).) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. Alarm().

but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. RETN is the proper instruction.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device.When a driver encounters an error. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. this is device dependent. but this is not much of a limitation. the SendMsg(). If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. fDevReent . An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. and WaitMsg() primitives. znBPB . The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it.Each driver names the device it serves. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0.This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. usually an unexpected one. If the device is sequential. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. In other words.this indicates whether the device is addressable. we then move to the next head. MMURTL V1. pDevOp. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. where several devices are controlled though one access point. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. For devices that are not re-entrant. For example. This reduces disk arm movement which. head zero. sbDevName .Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. DevType . and handle device conflicts internally. The Hard disk driver operates the same way. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. then this should contain a 2.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. pDevInit. not the next track.number of bytes per block. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. If it is another device. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . For instance. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). sector zero. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. Each sector is considered a block. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). if you are on track zero. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. dLastDevErc . If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). ndDevBlocks .Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. Disk drives are divided into sectors. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). In assembler. increases throughput. defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. and you read one sector past the end of that track. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. Each device name must be unique.

Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller.dOpNum. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. no job is currently assigned the device. OSUseONLY1. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. write. pStatRet.If the fSingleUser is true.4.dLBA.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL.5. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32). where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. dOpNum.2.3. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. and format. If this is zero. ndBlocks. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. verify. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. pInitData. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time. They equate to standard device operations such as read. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. wJob .fSingleUser . Your function implementations must do the same. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr.dnBlocks. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on.6 . this flag should be true (non-zero). The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1.pData). dLBA. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr.

pStatRet. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe. this will simply be the number of bytes. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. and so on. Not all devices will return status on demand.pdStatusRet).5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation.dStatusMax. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate.dInitData). DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices. parity.pInitData. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS .

This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . This means the devices are number consecutively. If this is not the case. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. pDCBs. such as a disk or SCSI controller. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. If more than one device is controlled. fReplace If true. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. this is the first number of the devices. and so on. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. After the Device driver has been loaded. This is because one controller. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. nDevices. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. the second at pDCBs + 128. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. and one DMA channel if applicable. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. MMURTL V1. and a very good knowledge of the hardware.

0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status. MMURTL V1.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. then use it.

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Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. Sample Initial.This is the initial jobs file.system boot in this file. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file.the run file name are ignored. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. the keyboard. If you intend to write an operating system.Chapter 11. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. No parameters are passed . it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen.Job file . (e. tabs or comments after .no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication.RUN) . tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL.JOB . When the user presses these global keys. The format is very simple.Maximum line length is 80 characters total. The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. C:\MSamples\Service\Service. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. Listing 11. . or terminate.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . Even when a Job is not being displayed. .. One run file name per line. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon .INITIAL. The name must start in the first column of a line. If it's displaying video data. is assigned to the new job or is terminated.1.after each entry.file name including path. In future versions of MMURTL. as well as the video display. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. No spaces. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. the job he is currently viewing. a buffer in memory. .run C:\MMSYS\CLI. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing.RUN <---.to the run file. The file name must contain the FULL . Any spaces. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL.1 shows a sample INITIAL.JOB. Drive:\DIR\NAME.g. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input.JOB file.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. Listing 11.

A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. During this process. Once the initialization is complete. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. any errors returned are displayed.1. RS-232 serial communications. Task switches total .End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. and the parallel port (LPT) driver.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display.This is the total count of task switches since boot up.RUN. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations).1. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. MMURTL V1. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . Table 11.. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. They are displayed as typed. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. and access to the built-in debugger. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code.1 describes the function of each assigned key. Table 11. job display. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. priority task.

MMURTL V1. There were no tasks ready to run. See listing 11. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase.2.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".2.A small structure used by all messages sent and received.h" "MData.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks.h" "MTimer.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated. the C library code can be used. even in the same job.These are task-management structures. Each job uses one. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. Response is made by the service. Tasks Ready to Run .This is the number of free job control blocks left. including requests.h" "MVid.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. Free Link Blocks . Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel.h" "MDevDrv.h" "MJob.h" "MKbd. This number may seem a little high.h" "MFiles. that don't get picked up right away. Listing 11.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.h" "MMemory. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time. the request block is returned for re-use.CPU idle ticks (no work) . Each new task uses one of these. Free Task State Segments . but have a fixed count at OS build time. Free Exchanges . but the count is fixed at OS build time. Free Job Control Blocks . If this number is greater than zero. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory.

LastRecalErc1. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. LastStatByte0.Message based. unsigned long KillExch. date. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. U32 BlocksMax. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. U8 type_now. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". All Rights Reserved". KillError.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . tick. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0.static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". static unsigned long GPHndl. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. MUltitasking. LastSeekErc0. LastErcByte0. LastSeekErc1. MngrMsg[2]. LastStatByte1. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". U32 blocks_done. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. KillJobNum. static long time. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. fIntOnReset. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. Burgess. Real-Time kerneL". static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. fKilled. MMURTL V1. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2].A. MngrHndl. LastErcByte1. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. static unsigned long GP1Exch. gcode. U8 fNewMedia. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. MngrExch. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. 1990-1995.

0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . nEXCHLeft.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf.c */ RS232. nSlices. BootDrive.c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. static unsigned long nMemPages. char *ppJCBRet). #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. char *pJCBRet). /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. InitFS(void). /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void).U8 ResetStatByte. coms_setup(void). nRQBLeft. /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. nLBLeft.c */ Parallel.asm */ Floppy. static long StatStack[256]. U32 resvd1[2].c */ Fsys. nJCBLeft. nSwitches. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. nReady. lpt_setup(void). #asm MMURTL V1. fdisk_setup(void). extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. nHalts. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. /* out to 64 bytes */ }. nTSSLeft. hdisk_setup(void).c */ HardIDE. xsprintf. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg.

chr. i.0 JL isdigit0 .No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. zero.[EBP+8] CMP AL. long *argptr) { char numstk[33].EAX . zero = ' '. value. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr.[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI].0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { .MOV EAX. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. minus. 30h . EAX MOV ESI. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. total = 0. #asm XOR EAX. 39h . justify. total. width = value = i = 0. *ptr. ptr = &numstk[32]. char *fmt. JLE isdigit1 . unsigned long width. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). chr = *fmt++. *ptr = justify = minus = 0.No CMP AL.

++total. case 's' : ptr = value. } while(value /= i).width = (width * 10) + (chr . generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. default: *--ptr = chr. break. break. break. chr = *fmt++. break. } case 'u' : i = 10. } value = *--argptr. break.'0'). case 'b' : i = 2. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. break. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. case 'o' : i = 8. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 'c' : *--ptr = value. if(width) --width. ++argptr. *--ptr = chr. ++minus. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value.

1. ++i. va_end(ap. } } } else { /* not format char. ++total. va_start(ap.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS .{ for(i = strlen(ptr).) { va_list ap. ++total. ++total. strlen(buffer). } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. . just move into string *outptr++ = chr. i < width. value = width . } /* move in data */ i = 0. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. ++total. Color). } /************************************ MMURTL V1. long total. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. ap). fmt. } } *outptr = 0. return total. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. fmt). ++i. TTYOut(buffer.. char buffer[S_SIZE].. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. fmt). return total.

fmt.0. PutVidChars(27..1). BLUE|BGWHITE).22). Exch. fmt). **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol.. . tick). it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. va_start(ap. long total. PutVidChars(0. rgMonMenu3.) { va_list ap. PutVidChars(0. SetXY(0. total = _ffmt(s. 26.1. 25. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. i. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. return total. va_end(ap.23. 80. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. GetXY(&iCol. BLUE|BGWHITE). When it gets one. SetXY(0.80. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. rgStatLine. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. WHITE|BGBLUE). MMURTL V1.Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. rgMonMenu2. 24. &iLine).1). 24. return. fmt). BLUE|BGWHITE). *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). char *fmt. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. rgMonMenu1. iLine. ap). "%d". 24. PutVidChars(54. Msg[2]. 26.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS .

0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. KillJobNum. /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f).*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. /* sleep 0. /* year */ 0x0f). rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date).5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). Sleep(50). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. WHITE|BGBLUE). Error: %d\r\n". TSSExch in it. 0x0f). 80. &pJCB).0. 0x0f). PutVidChars(0. "%d". /* sleep 0. "%d". rgStatLine. rgStatLine. Tone(440.U8 *pPD. if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate.0. KillError). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). 80. /* Day */ 0x0f)..50).5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). PutVidChars(0. WHITE|BGBLUE). tick). pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). Sleep(50). (time & 0x0f). KillMsg).. CheckScreen(). pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD.. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. /* month */ 0x0f). GetTimerTick(&tick). for(. *pVid.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). tick). xprintf("Job number %d terminated. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. The message has Error. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f).

. DeAllocJCB(pJCB). fDone. 0. i. 1. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. Also. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. We don't actually switch jobs. 0. 2). if the debugger has the video. 0). It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc.. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). j. 0. 0. /* We're done (and so is he. */ DeAllocPage(pPD. MngrExch. &MngrHndl. 1). Msg). 0.. DeAllocPage(pVid.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD".GetVidOwner(&i). 2. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. char *pJCB. 0. &gcode. MMURTL V1. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). fKilled = 1..) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). &i. 0. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. Exch. 4.

*/ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 0. erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. &MngrHndl. 0.0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . MngrExch. if (i==2) i = 3.. 0. else if (i>34) i = 1. erc = GetpJCB(i. &gcode. } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". i = j. i. 0. 0. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 4. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). erc = KillJob(j). *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { .) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0.4. 0. 0. 0. 4. 0. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. fDone = 0. &MngrHndl. MngrMsg). 0. MngrExch. 0. 0. 0). 0. 0. for(. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 2. &pJCB). } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). MngrMsg). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. 0). while (!fDone) { i++. 0). #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1.

AL STI #endasm return. job. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. } . *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . fcli = 0.Read Status Byte into AL .run and the last job loaded.JOB\0". fcli. 0. &fh). 1. sdisk &= 0x7F. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1=B. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. 20). sdisk += 0x41. job = 0. char arunfile[80].02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). /* 0=A.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. j.return. fh. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL.first we clear interrupts . cbrunfile.64h TEST AL.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . if (!erc) { fdone = 0. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). do MMURTL V1. unsigned char sdisk. #asm CLI MOV ECX. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command.check port up to 64K times . i.0FEh OUT 64h. char fdone. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. sjobfile. 2=C etc. while (!fdone) { i = 0. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. &ajobfile[1]. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. sjobfile. char ajobfile[50].

/* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. else fcli = 0. } } } else fdone = 1. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. assign the keyboard and video to it. CheckScreen(). Sleep(50). 4.{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. "cli. &job). CheckScreen(). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 1.\r\n". */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). } CloseFile(fh). &j). &arunfile[i++]. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. MMURTL V1. job = 0. erc = 0. erc). } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. cbrunfile. xprintf("Loading: %s. 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. &GP1Hndl. GP1Exch..0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. job). if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n".run".. Sleep(50). if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. CheckScreen(). } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). 0. arunfile).') continue.

0. } return erc. k.". /* 0=A. unsigned char sdisk. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. MMURTL V1. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. erc = LoadNewJob(acli. CheckScreen(). 4. job. ccode1. 16). *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. 0).JOB file not found in system directory.\r\n"). 0. 0. SetVidOwner(job). 0). &GP1Hndl. sdisk &= 0x7F. sdisk += 0x41. 0. InitScreen(). GetSystemDisk(&sdisk)... j. 2=C etc. unsigned char c. GP1Msg).RUN\0". job). GP1Exch. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". 0. xprintf("Loading: %s. job. 0. strlen(acli). CheckScreen(). 1=B. 0. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI.0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . job. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. iCol. Sleep(50). 0. acli[40]. char text[70]. 0. &job). unsigned long ccode. i. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. */ acli[0] = sdisk. 0. acli). if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. 0. iLine. GP1Msg). &acli[1]. erc = Request("KEYBOARD".

if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n".Burgess.0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS .. c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). c). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). 24. /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. 0. erc). xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc = fdisk_setup(). xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n".. erc = lpt_setup().A. i).Tone(250.33). erc = coms_setup(). xprintf("%d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". erc). erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). erc). xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". Error: "). xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. erc).. Error: "). xprintf("Copyright (c) R. erc). /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch)..Message based. Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. erc = InitKBDService(). i). 1 ). erc). MUltitasking. erc).15). erc). xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". erc). erc). Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. erc = hdisk_setup(). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). &StatStack[255]. Tone(1000. xprintf("Init floppy device driver. /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch).

&GPHndl.. /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. j = 2. break. if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". &pJCB). text. text). */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". GPExch. 0. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. 0. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). 1.. /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. 0. */ LoadJobFile().j).j). 10. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40. Error: %d\r\n". 0). i<nMaxJCBs. erc = InitFS(). erc). MMURTL V1.0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n". erc). if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n".. /* Col offset */ for (i=1.\r\n"). pJCB->JobNum). j++. c = ccode & 0xff. erc). 4.. &MngrStack[255].. 1 ). GPMsg). Tell it to wait for a key. &ccode. erc = GetpJCB(i. case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen().xprintf("Initializing file system. 0. /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. erc). xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. for (.) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. xprintf("File System. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". SetXY(k+10. 0. /* Line */ k = 0. 13).

GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". "-".. xprintf ("\r\n"). "/". case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. xprintf(". PutVidChars(29. 1. nSwitches). PutVidChars(29. 1.Cancelled\r\n"). xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1.. PutVidChars(29. 1. 1. xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". 1. 1). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. "-". "/". PutVidChars(29. break. case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . 1. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages).0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetXY(0. 1. nHalts). GREEN|BGBLACK). PutVidChars(29. case 0x12: /* F4 . erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. Sleep(9). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK).loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). break. 1. 1. PutVidChars(29. Sleep(9). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). nLBLeft). if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). nEXCHLeft). nJCBLeft). 1. xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". Sleep(9). xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. 1. Sleep(12).12). Sleep(12). xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". break. 1. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). Sleep(9). Sleep(9). "|". xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". 1. nTSSLeft). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0..1). } SetXY(0. 1. case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug().. GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). "|". 1. 1. "\\". default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. " ". GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". nReady). 1. "\\".} } break. PutVidChars(29. \r\n"). nSlices).future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break.1). xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". any other key to cancel"). Sleep(9). nRQBLeft). nMemPages).

1). 1.TTYOut (CRLF. SetXY(0. 2. } } GetXY(&iCol. &iLine).22).0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS .80. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.1. WHITE|BGBLACK).23. else TTYOut (&c. WHITE|BGBLACK).

.

such as dumping data.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). non-symbolic debugger. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. the debugger is an assembly language. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. will clear the screen for display. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. the debugger is entered. Certain debugger display functions.Chapter 12. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. It is not a separate run file. along with the exception number that caused it. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. If the debugger was entered on a fault. When this occurs. function keys are across the bottom. and why. and a red banner is displayed. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. MMURTL V1. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system.

Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. This displays all active tasks on the system. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed.Change Current Address. This requests a linear address. RQBs . The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. TSS1 . JCBs . This is the address of the Monitor TSS.Single Step. The address is displayed on the left. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. as most of them are.Address Information. F12 AddInfo . This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. low order).0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS .First TSS. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling).Ready Queue. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. Each TSS is 512 bytes. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. This clears the single breakpoint.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. without executing them. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint.Clear Breakpoint. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. that will be somewhere in this array.Global Descriptor Table.Set Breakpoint. . This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. IDT .Dump Bytes. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. This requests a linear address. MMURTL V1. F3 ClrBP . Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. The task number. the associated Job number. and then dumps the bytes located at that address.Dump Dwords. These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. The address is displayed on the left.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. next. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer.Goto CS:EIP.Dynamic TSSs.Request Block Array. This becomes the active address. The GDT contains many items.Services Array. F5 Exch . The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. GDT . F8 CrntAdd . This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. F4 CS:EIP . F9 DumpB . with the down arrow key. next. You may move down through the instructions. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. This returns to the application and executes one instruction. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. The abbreviations are given in the following list. LBs . “Application Programming. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address.Display Tasks. The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. F6 Tasks . the address of the task's JCB.Interrupt Descriptor Table. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging.Link Blocks. the address of the TSS. RdyQ . This is an array of 512-byte structures.” SVCs . TSS3 . TSSs are numbered sequentially. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task.Display Exchanges.Job Control Blocks. F10 . a linear address. These values are hard coded at system build. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. F2 SetBP .

every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. but for right now. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space.START in an assembly language program. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. Lots of code here MOV ESP. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . There are four debug address registers in the processor. or for . locking up. and also how local variables are accessed. aTmr . MMURTL V1. or whatever). When it occurs. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code.Timer Blocks. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). and placing an INT 03 instruction there. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. listed in your ATF file. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task.Exchanges. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. actually a trap. In MMURTL. ESP . The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. such as [EBP+12]. its down and dirty troubleshooting. This is the address of the array of timer blocks. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. or at the beginning of any instruction.Exch . They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. like the older processors. Each exchange is 16 bytes.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS .and displayed as an unsigned number. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. entering the debugger. With near calls like you would make inside your program. it is the index of that exchange in the array. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. For applications. In some cases. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. without having to fill in special registers. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers.ASM files.

it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. including allocated memory. MMURTL V1. When writing an operating system. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. It almost. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. the current pRunTSS. just like applications do. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. that can occur.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. Instead. The debugger cannot debug itself. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. called exceptions. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. The debugger becomes the active job.Processor exceptions. Table 12. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. a page fault is fatal to a task. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. a pointer to the currently running TSS. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. If you are going to debug a task..1. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. or faults.1. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). No other task operates at a priority that high. you must be able to access all of its memory. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. usually a blank screen and nothing else.. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. When the debug interrupt activates. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. you will see that there are many interrupts. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. Traps. but not quite. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). is saved by the debugger. becomes a task in the job it interrupted.

it displays the registers from the interrupted task. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. which is exactly what you want. MMURTL V1. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. To do this. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. This makes the debugger transparent. While you are in the debugger. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. If the debugger was entered because of a fault.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . These contain the address of the exception handler. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. When the debugger is entered. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. you should kill the offending job and restart.

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not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . Available Services Table 13.Chapter 13. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 .0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . but not as powerful.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. this is true multitasking). 0.Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time.Not used (0) */ dData2 . 0). You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. As described in chapter 10. “system programming. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. &KeyCode 4. It's easier to use. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. &MyRqhandle. 1.1 shows the services provided by the service code. 1. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.fWait for Key */ dData1 . 0. MyExch. 0 0.

1. the error should be 0.Return with error if no key waiting 1 .Table 13.Not used = 0 .0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS .Not used 0 .Not used. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys.Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. even if a key is not available. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately.Wait for Key = 0 . Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 . Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). In this case. Unlike regular keystrokes.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1.Count of bytes in the code 0 . The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. described in detail later. The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. If you have an outstanding Notify request. This allows for "hot-key" operation. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available.

This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. as shown in table 13. and Scroll).2. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. etc. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. If you have an outstanding Notify request. Locks. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. Alt & Ctrl. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C). while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. shown in table 13. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps.4. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. as shown in table 13.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request.3.). this cancels it. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. Num. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . The low-order byte is the actual key code.

Table 13. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. Table 13. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps.2 . Alt or Shift).3 shows how the bits are defined.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control.Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1.. shows how the bits are defined. Table 13. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code.3 . Table 13.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . Num or Scroll).If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl.2. This bit (Bit 0. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned.

Zero and values above 127 will not be returned.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc.main keyboard. Key Codes Table 13.1h to 7Fh). The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. If a shift code is not shown.4 . A description is given only if required. Alt.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS .4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1. Table 13. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. For example. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column.. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . Ctrl. or Locks).

/ Space accent Enter semicolon apostr. comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality.5 . .Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1.Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . Table 13. ' . Table 13.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS .5 shows the key code value returned. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.

The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13. Table 13.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13.7.7.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS . (Period) Cursor. Edit.6 . Caps lock does not affect these keys. 13.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .

”Keyboard Code. if you desire. Chapter 25.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. the programmer will read the documentation.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. MMURTL V1. or you may want more. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. Remember.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS . as I have tried to do in this chapter. such as international key translations. when all else fails. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. Pieces of it may be useful for your system.

there isn't anything new about the format. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). will be routed to the service with the same name. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. filename. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. a period. This ties its hands so to speak. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. the default name NETWORK is used.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon.and finally the filename itself. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". When a network file is opened. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. MMURTL V1. just how we access it. the network service receives the request from the file system. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. but none as wide spread. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . and a node name is specified. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . and optionally. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. For example. then up to three more characters. a network name.Chapter 14. The third part is the filename as described above. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded.

File Handles When a file is opened. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. Make no assumptions about this number. 4096 byte buffer. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . This number is how you refer to that file until closed. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. in any mode or type. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. When a file is opened in Read mode. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. MMURTL V1. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. This is a one page. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). a number called a file handle is returned to you. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. or just reading alone. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file.

then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking). For Stream files. 11.1 shows the service codes the file system supports. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. 0. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -. Table 14. The file system actually runs as a separate task. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. Listing 14. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. All message-based services use the same request-based interface.Size of a handle */ dData0 -.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. 1. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ". MyExch. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA). Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. &"AnyFile. This is called a file pointer in some systems.1 .ptr to name */ cbData1 -. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. It meets all the requirements.Block Type Access */ dData2 -. Table 14.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. 1. Listing 14. &MyRqhandle. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). You can make a request.doc". 1.size of name */ pData2 -.ModeRead */ dData1 -. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . no matter what Mode the file was opened in.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. 0). The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. or file pointer.1.returned handle */ cbData2 -. &FileHandle 4.

0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. MMURTL V1.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. but only through the procedural interfaces. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. The Request interface will not allow device access. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. Table 14. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access. Table 14. The request is transparent to the caller. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. KBD and VID devices only.2 .

Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. Procedural parameters: dHandle . dAccessType.a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). dcbname. Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . Procedural parameters: pName . dcbName . If stream access type was specified.pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you.pointer to the filename or full file specification.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode .0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. pdHandleRet . dOpenMode.Block = 0.READ = 0. pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. all buffers are flushed and deallocated. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users. Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available. Stream = 1. If a file is open in ModeRead. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName.

pdnBlkRet . Procedural parameters: dHandle . dLFA. pDataRet. pDataRet .Pointer to the data to write nBytes . This must always be a multiple of 512.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. One Block = 512 bytes. nBytes.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs.Logical File Address to write to. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file.DWord with number of bytes to write. nBytes. dLFA . SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size. See the SetFilesize() section.Logical File Address to read from. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512).wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. pdnBytesRet . MMURTL V1. This will always return a multiple of 512.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. pData.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. pData . This must be a multiple of the block size.DWord with number of bytes to read.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. dLFA. dLFA . nBytes . pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. Procedural parameters: dhandle .pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle.

Dword with number of bytes to read. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData. Parameters: dhandle . GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. nBytes. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. nBytes . pdnBytesRet . GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. The bytes are read from the current LFA. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. pDataRet. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. nBytes. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. pDataRet . The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File.

pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword with a valid file handle. Procedural parameters: dhandle . nBytes . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle. as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle.Procedural parameters: dHandle . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF).0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData . pdnBytesRet .Pointer to the data to write. as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.Dword with a valid file handle. The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C).Dword with number of bytes to write.

a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned.a Dword with the new size of the file. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. Procedural parameters: dHandle . pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. Procedural parameters: dhandle .dLFA . as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. as returned from OpenFile() dSize . Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files.Dword with a valid file handle. and allocated space on the disk. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS .a Dword with the LFA you want to set. 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File.Dword with a valid file handle. The file length.

The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dcbName. dcbName . Procedural parameters: pName .pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file.Dword with length of the current filename pNewName . Procedural parameters: pName . dAttributes): dError This creates a new. dcbName .pointer to the current filename or full file specification. The file is closed after creation. and ready to be opened and accessed. dcbNewName .A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden.Dword with length of the filename dAttributes .0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.pointer to the new filename or full file specification. empty file in the path specified. dcbname.

Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. as opposed to a full path. Procedural parameters: pPath . No further access is possible. specified in the Job Control Block.Dword that was returned from OpenFile.pointer to the path (directory name) to create.Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. empty directory for the path specified. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access).0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . If only the new directory name is specified. dcbPath . the directory is created in your current path. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. and the filename is available for re-use. Procedural parameters: dHandle .pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system.

The directory must exist in the path specified. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. If only the existing directory name is specified. Procedural parameters: pPath . or directory name to delete. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. or directory name. dcbPath . all files in this directory.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. Procedural parameters: pPath . all subdirectories.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . The path must contain the directory name as the last element.pointer to the path. pSectRet. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. If no path is specified.If set to non-zero. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. This call returns one sector from a directory. to read tj sector from dcbPath . the path in your JCB will be used. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. as opposed to a full path.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . the name is appended to the path from your job control block. dcbPath.pointer to the path. Each sector contain 16 directory entries. dcbPath.

the open mode. MMURTL V1. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. it's not allocating files. Because it is a pointer. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. while others are part of the operating system data segment. Each opened file is allocated an FCB.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. Each FCB is 128 bytes. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk.pSectRet . extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. When it reaches 0. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. If the file is opened in Stream mode. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. Quite a few of them use this same name. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. Some structures are dynamically allocated. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . FAT Buffers In the FAT file system.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. The FUBs contain the file pointer. buffer pointers. FCB.

inside of a 400 Mb file. If opened in Block mode. which is cluster size. and raster image files. Run files being executed. you can usually do it quite rapidly.The disk is allocated in clusters. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. they use what is called a FAT16. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. Directories are stored as files. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. L = Last entry in your file. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. However. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. The fourth entry points to the fifth. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. On most hard disks. That's 128Kb. or three entries. If it's open in ModeWrite. source files for compilers. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. From this. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. vector. That's a lot of FAT (or file). The file is open. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. Large database files are the major random users. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). allocate an FUB and attach it. the user will strike next. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). Load FAT buffer if required. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. MMURTL V1. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. This is in itself is time-consuming. X = not your file. return an error ErcFileInUse. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. because of the design of the FAT file system. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. In this example. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. The list could go on and on. If so. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. and the sixth is marked as the last. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. Usually. the fifth points to the sixth. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where.

but much overhead is involved. If the file is being extended. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . Close This is the easy part. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. Both copies must be updated. If opened in block mode. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. It sounds simple.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. and depends on how the file was opened. MMURTL V1. attach them to the chain. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. you must find unallocated clusters. then write the data.

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then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. Chapter 14. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names. They are listed by functional group first. I might add.2 lists these additional prefix characters. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. The call address consists of a selector and an offset.. Table 15. An improperly. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected.1 lists the prefixes. “File System Service”).1 . Table 15. The offset should be 0. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address.g.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1.2 . The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. Table 15. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT).0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 15. These are known as compound descriptions.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. If you are going to write your own operating system.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword .Chapter 15. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes . or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer.

Table1 5. dMsg1.and optionally suffixes . The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. If a parameter is a byte. dcbDataRetMax . Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. Pascal. Bytes and words (8. or should be. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier.3 . This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. pdDataRet .3. and finally. Ret means Returned.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. or Assembler. a colon with the returned value. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each compound set of prefixes . pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch. dcbFileName .Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. be returned.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. dMsg1. the most common returned value shown. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. and Min means Minimum. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. The dError.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. The function name is followed by the parameters. grouped by type. Max means Maximum. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. It is processor (hardware) enforced. if a value is returned by the function. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored.

wCodeSeg. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. pPathRet. cbData2. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. dcbFileName. ppMemRet. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. wSvcCode. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. dOpNum. nDevices. pDestination. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. dExch. pS2. dcbAliasBytes. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. dJobNum. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. dcbFileName. dStatusMax. pRqHndlRet. dLBA. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. pStack. dESP. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. pStatRet. dnBlocks. dPriority. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. pData2. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dPriority. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. dData1. npSend. dfDebug.Request( pSvcName. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. pDestination. dBytes) MMURTL V1. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. pInitData. pDCBs. cbData1. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. dData0. dcbMem.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . LinAdd. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dRespExch. fDebug. pData1. pS2. cBytes. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName.

dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. fdRead. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. dLine. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. dPort) OutWords(dPort. pDataIn. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut.dPort) OutDWord(DWord.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. dTextOut. Speaker. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. dLine.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. pbChars. nCols. dChannel. pbExitChar. dPort) OutWord(Word. pDataOut. nLines. pdLenRet. dMaxLen. nChars.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. dULline. dCrntLen. ddLine. pbCharRet. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. nChars. sdMem. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX.

Unlike most other operating system calls.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. EAX Returns Error. or 0 if all went well. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number).Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps.0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. exception gates and interrupt gates.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . the parameters are not stack based.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . This must be zero (0) for task gates. and interrupts. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. exceptions. the parameters are not stack-based. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). Parameters: AX . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. Parameters: AX . They are passed in registers. Unlike most other operating system calls.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . They are passed in registers.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX .Returns an error.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers.

Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. pdPhyMemRet . dcbMem.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. This would be for the time-out function described above.Dword (4 BYTES). ppMemRet. dcbMem . No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. The message that is sent is two dwords.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). except you provide the exchange. except it can be used asynchronously. Parameters: nPages . The overhead included in entry. etc. dJobNum.Job number from the other application. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. ppRet . If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). Parameters: dnTicks . ppAliasRet .0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. Parameters: pMem . Alarm() can be used for a number of things. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. This means you can set an alarm. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. MMURTL V1. The larger dnTicks is. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. and don't get placed in a waiting condition. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use).A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. Each application has its own linear address space. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. dJobNum . and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. If you do. In fact. do some other processing.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. even though it's very close. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. the more precise the timing. It will always begin on a page boundary. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. WaitMsg.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned.).a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. and data pages. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. precise. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. Parameters: pFilename . and the memory required to run code. dcbFileName .Parameters: dAlarmExch . For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().pointer to the filename to run. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. dcbFileName. Parameters: dn15us . but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. Parameters: dIRQnum . It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. stack. Interrupts are not disabled. and you call this often enough. MMURTL V1. pdJobNumRet . It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. initial Task State Segment. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. although longer periods will work. so the time could be much longer.length of the run filename. Virtual Video. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. Page Descriptor. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware.

Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order.exchange where the Request is to be sent.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: dRqBlkHndl . OS=8 or User=18 Priority . dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address. ESP . DPort . Parameters: MMURTL V1.The dword value to write to the port.The address of the port. OutWord OutWord(Word.The byte value to write to the port.Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. Parameters: JobNum .Which code segment.handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch .This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord. Paramters: Dword . dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. No error is returned. dCodeSeg. dPriority. Exch . Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. dfDebug. dESP. Parameters: Byte . dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. it is made to run.Exchange for TSS. NewTask NewTask(dJobNum.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . DPort . dExch.Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS).The address of the port. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task.

It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. or virtual screen. DBytes . This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.color/attribute to use during display.Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned. Parameters: DPort . The Basic Video section in Chapter 9.line (0-24) dnChars . pbChars.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. pDataOut. You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2). Parameters: dCol . nChars.number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . DPort .The address of the port. dnChars.The word value to write to the port.number of characters pbChars is pointing to. Each page of memory is 4096 byte. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol. PdataOut .0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS .pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort.line (0-24) pbChars . OutWords OutWords(dPort. dLine. dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. if not displayed. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values.The count of bytes to write to the port address. dLine.” describes all of the attribute values. Parameters: dCol .column to start on (0-79) dLine . Parameters: pdnPagesRet .Word . PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. dAttr . This is the number of Words * 2.column to start on (0-79) dLine . “Application Programming. MMURTL V1.The address of the port.

dData1. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned.the exchange to be associated with the service name. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. pRqHndlRet. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. Parameters: BAddress .ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. Service names are case sensitive. if forwarded across a network. This call blocks your task until completion. wSvcCode. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . dRespExch. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. dData0. and padded with spaces (20h). RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. cbData1. npSend.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. or on what machine the request is being serviced. If no key was available. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. Parameters: pSvcName .A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. Request Request( pSvcName. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives.If true (non-zero). If fWait is false (0). If fWait is true (non-zero). pData1. cbData2. The string must be left justified.a pointer to an 8-byte string. fWait . This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. pData2. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch .

dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. With all kernel primitives. dMsgLo. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. dData1.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. Parameters: dRqHndl . The service must be registered with the operating system. pRqHndlRet . A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. then npSend would be 2. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. Respond Respond(dRqHndl.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. Function Codes 0. pData2 . or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. dError. npSend . These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. Parameters: pSvcName . wSvcCode . An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. See Respond(). 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. cbData1 .the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used.This is the operating system Request primitive. pData1 . This may be data sent to the service.same as pData1. MMURTL V1. dError. This error is not the error returned by the service. dData2 .the size of the data being sent to the service.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. For example. 1 and 2. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. 65534 (0FFFEh). of the message sent back to the requester of the service. are sending data to the service. dData0. the value returned from the Request() call itself. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. With all kernel primitives. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. dRespExch . Always assume it will be network-routed. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. The use of dData0. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. dStatRet . Zero will be returned if all was well. service name. or received from the service. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in.dData0. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. cbData2 .a number (0. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. space padded. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '.

The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. In this case the top line is lost. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. msg[0]. Parameters: pCmdLine . linked with that task.80. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address.The number of columns to be scrolled. MMURTL V1. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. dMsgHi . and it is moved to the Ready queue. DnLines . the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line.The upper dword of the message.Points to an array of bytes. dcbCmdLine . The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. If it were a Response from a service. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . dMsgLo .dnCols. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. and the bottom line would be blanked. it will be into an array of dwords. DfUp .a polite term for crashed.The lower dword of the message. msg[1].dnLines.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS .1).This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. This is an agreed-upon convention. the message is associated.The length of the command line string to store. If there was a task waiting at that exchange.0. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. which is the first dword pushed.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned.The count of lines to be scrolled. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. and is not enforced by the operating system. Parameters: DULCol . Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. dMsgHi.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . and while Chaining to another application.25. Parameters: dExch .dULline. If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. the new command line string. This call stores the command line in the JCB.

SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet. When a job exits.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS .The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. dcbExitJob .Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. Table 15. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. and its ExitJob is zero length.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * .If installed. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Table 15. Built-in device drivers assume these values. The filename must not longer than 79 characters.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. pVector .4 . pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Parameters: dIRQnum .A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. Parameters: pExitJob . This is typically used by a command line interpreter. the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. MMURTL V1. This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. After the interrupt vector is set. which will happen most often. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. Initially.

MMURTL V1. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. dcbPath . This is a maximum of 13 characters.This is the new priority (0-31).SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . the color of the characters themselves.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. will clear the job name from the JCB.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. Parameters: pPath .Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. Refer to the file System documentation). See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. The default foreground color. A zero length.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. The maximum length is 13 bytes. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. The path is 79 characters maximum. Parameters: pJobName . It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. SetPath SetPath(pPath. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. The path is interpreted and used by the File System.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. then call ClrScr(). you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. a text string. Longer values will be truncated. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. and background colors may be changed by an application. If no job name is set by the application. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . Parameters: bPriority . The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. dcbJobName . The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. Typically.

SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName.The job number for new owner of the active screen.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. WriteBytes(). Parameters: pUsername . If the SysIn name is set to KDB. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. is VID.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes().SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. Parameters: DJobNum . dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. which is the one to be displayed. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). dcbFileName . dcbFileName . which is the user's name. The default name. The default name. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. is KBD. If the SysOut name is VID. and Chaining to another application. dcbUsername . Parameters: pFileName . Only ASCII data is saved to the file. Only ASCII data is returned from this call. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. if none is set. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. Parameters: pFileName .A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call.is the length of the string to store.points to a text string.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. if none is set by the application. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. The name is preserved across ExitJobs.

Certain system services are higher priority. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. The timer interrupt sends the message.This is a pointer to the function. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. dPriority. but testing will be required to ensure harmony. Parameters: pEntry . Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. dPriority .A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. Parameters: DNewX . The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. Parameters: dnTicks . then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. and clears the block when it reaches zero. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. Tone Tone(dHz. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. 1 is accepted. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. or the real video screen if currently assigned. lower numbers.The new horizontal cursor position column.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. pStack. fOSCode .If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. otherwise. it is made to run. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. Application programs should use priority 25. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. such as the file system and keyboard. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. If your task is a high enough priority. fDebug. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do.The new vertical cursor position row.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. DNewY . This applies to the virtual screen. should use priorities above 25.This is a number from 0 to 31. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. or make it sleep. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . fDebug .

pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). Parameters: PTextOut . dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job. dTextOut. next active character placement.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. The string must left justified. DTextOut . Examples: "KEYBOARD" .A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. For character placement. 08 backspace . dTicks10ms . TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. Parameters: pSvcName . Parameters: dHz . Service names are case sensitive.A near Pointer to the text.A pointer to an 8-byte string.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. If already at column 0. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. and padded with spaces (20h). no characters are changed. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered.The number of characters of text. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . The backspace is non-destructive. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . A value of 100 is one second.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone.The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. will be moved down one line. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. They will receive an error. DAttrib .0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. if the cursor is in the last column of a line.The attribute or color you want. Parameters: dIRQnum . UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. Backspace will have no effect. from 30 to 10000. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line. If this line is below the bottom of the screen.The cursor.The cursor will be moved one column to the left.

The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. At that time. Of course. less than 8000000h.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive.A pointer to where the message will be returned. MMURTL V1. the task will be placed on the exchange specified. Parameters: DError . This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. dExch . You've got to send mail to get mail. so this would be obvious to you. an array of two dwords. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . you would have had to make the request in the first place. If no message is available.

Chapter 16. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. “What's On the CD-ROM.Directory listing Debug .Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD .Rename a file (Current name New name) Run . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. It has been expanded. The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. To see what has been included on the CDROM. The top line is the status line. CLI version. is described in the following sections. MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. The internal commands are: Cls .Make Directory Path .Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help . However. D:\DIR\) RD . It provides information such as date.g. job number for this CLI.Delete a file Dump . but it's a good start.RUN files). MMURTL V1.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter.Enter Debugger Del .Hex dump of a file Exit . time.Clear Screen Copy . Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me). and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. and your current path. see Appendix A. it does work and it's useful in its own right. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter.Copy a file Dir .0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section.Remove directory Rename .Set file access path (New path e. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. use.Display list of internal commands Monitor .

Both names must be specified. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. If the character is not ASCII text. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. If a file exists with the same name.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. or the same name in a different directory. To exit the Debugger press the Esc.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. “The Debugger. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. MMURTL V1. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. >Copy THISFILE.TXT THATFILE. a period is displayed instead.

0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . listing. Unlike a single tasking operating system. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. This CLI will still be executing. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. The path must end with the Backslash. In MMURTL. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen.) MMURTL V1. With any file-system operation (opening.). This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. In other words. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. renaming. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. or external command that is executed for this CLI. the tree will only be extend one level. etc.. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. and .

pausing after each page. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number). Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.TXT Run (Execute a .End of Command. MMURTL V1.CLI follows: . The file must not be open by any other job.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME.run . Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time.run New. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk. The File COMMANDS.CLI File The file COMMANDS. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM.RUN). The contents of the file COMMANDS. The first item on the line is the command name. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below. An example of COMMANDS.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix .cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS .Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.CLI Commands. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist). It is a simple text file with one command per line.

h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h> #include <string. Listing 16.CLI file.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. In this case.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.CLI.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. CLI Source Code Listing .1. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData. 1. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.Terminates the currently displayed job. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions.Ver.h> #include <ctype. CTRL-ALT-DELETE . but other application might.0 of the Command Line Interpreter.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.

#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. /* "Debug". /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* "Dir". /* "Copy". clipath[60]. iLine. long cbPath. unsigned long GPExch. /* "Exit". /* MMURTL V1. /* "Dump". /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. /* "Ren". unsigned long GPHndl. long JobNum. date. /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. hlppath[60]. char text[70]. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "".0 Job Path: ". /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. /* "Cls". /* "Monitor". /* "Del".not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* "RD". char fUpdatePath. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. /* "Help". /* "MD".0 { 0 external */ 1 . long cbCmd = 0. cmdpath[60]. /* "Path". unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. char char char char sdisk. char ExitChar. /* "xxxxx". syspath[50]. char aCmd[80].

}. U8 Ext[3]. U32 FileSize. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. U8 Rsvd[10]. It updates the status line which has the time and path. long acbParam[13]. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8].0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS .) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. "Type".. U8 Attr. U16 Time. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. } dirent[16]. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. U16 StartClstr. char *apParam[13]. U16 Date. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records."Run".

Sleep(100). PutVidChars(0. case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". break. break. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". break. aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). aStatLine. case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". break. switch (erc) { case 0: return. 30. case 201: pSt = "No such drive". /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). 0x0f). break. MMURTL V1. break. break. break. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). break. FillData(st. case 208: pSt = "File in use". /* month */ 0x0f). (time & 0x0f). case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". break. /* year */ 0x0f). } GetCMOSDate(&date). case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". break. ' ').0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. fUpdatePath = 0. char st[40]. case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". CopyData(aPath. STATVID). &aStatLine[47]. cbPath). 80. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). 0). + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). 0x0f). /* Day */ 0x0f). case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)".0. 40. *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. break. case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly".cbPath = 30. break. break. case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". break. case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". FillData(&aStatLine[47]. case 1: pSt = "End of file". break. case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories".

} SetXY(iCol.0. while (cb) { printf("%08x ". } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . MMURTL V1. "Error %05d on last command". PutVidChars(0. #asm INT 03 #endasm return. unsigned char buff[17]. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. pSt). erc). } printf("%s\r\n". long cb. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. aStatLine. GetXY(&iCol. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. return. erc = 0. STATVID). j.0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . addr). pSt = st. &iLine). } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. 80. iLine = 2. KeyCode. &iLine). *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. GetXY(&iCol. i. break. iLine). ClrScr().default: sprintf(st.

if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. &dret).. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. k. erc. buff[i] = *pb++. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j.1). else j = cb. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. 1).1. addr+=j. SetXY(0. if (!erc) { j=0. iLine =1. &fh). i<j. } return erc. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. 512. i++) { printf("%02x ". SetXY(0. fh.23. for (i=0.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . } InitScreen(TRUE). acbParam[1]. MMURTL V1. 0). while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. 512. } buff[i+1] = 0.. erc = 0.23). if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. /* ReadKbd.1).80. &k). l. This expects to find the filename in param[1]. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4.*pb). else cb=0. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. ModeRead."). printf("ESC to cancel. ++iLine. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. &buff[0]). Buffer.23).if (cb > 15) j=16. erc = ReadBytes (fh. 1. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. any other key to continue. printf("%s\r\n". dret. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0.

} for (j=0.if (k-j > 512) l = 512.1. SetFileLFA(fh. cbName. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. &fh). 512. iLine. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). i. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. i = 1. erc. } erc = OpenFile(pName. Buffer. 78. NORMVID).23. dret = 1. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. lfa+i). if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.80. else l=k-j. dret. } SetXY(0.23). fh. j). } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. lfa. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. j. Buffer. } CloseFile (fh).0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . long cbName) { long i. 1. erc = ReadBytes (fh. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. dret. erc = 0. 0. iLine++. return erc. &dret).1).iLine). KeyCode. SetXY(0. 0). } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. &lfa). j+=512. MMURTL V1. j<=i.

} } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). 1). CloseFile (fh).mo. pTimeRet.da.se). pDateRet.mo. This is used by the directory listing. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11.. /* ReadKbd. return erc. bytesWant. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. erc. CopyData(st. 8). "%02d:%02d:%02d". if (yr > 99) yr -=100. bytesLeft.1). char *pTimeRet. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.hr. da = date & 0x001F. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4).23). iLine =1. U32 cbFrom. This uses a conservative 4K buffer. } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.1900. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo.mi.se. InitScreen(TRUE). } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking.mi. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom.. MMURTL V1. fhFrom. any other key to continue. 8). CopyData(st. sprintf(st.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . Use block mode for speed. erc). yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 .if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. U16 date.yr). sprintf(st."). printf("ESC to cancel. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time. bytesGot. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n".da.hr. char st[15]. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. char *pTo. SetXY(0. "%02d-%02d-%02d".

ModeRead. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. } MMURTL V1. erc = OpenFile(pFrom. KeyCode. &bytesGot). ModeModify. cbTo. bytesWant. } CloseFile(fhTo). 0. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. cbFrom. if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. } return(erc). dLFA. 0). else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. 1). bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. &fhFrom). dLFA = 0. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. 0. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. dLFA. &size). &fhTo). if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. bigBuf. size). dLFA.bytesOut. bytesGot. cbTo. bytesLeft = size. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. &bytesOut). if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. else bytesWant = bytesLeft. /* ReadKbd.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. } dLFA += bytesGot. bigBuf. size. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n").

dirent[i]. } if ((dirent[i].1). SectNum = 0.FileSize. char st[78]. 512.23..Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. iLine++. dirent[i].Name. } } } MMURTL V1. dirent[i]. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". } InitScreen(TRUE). &dirent[0]. SetXY(0.80. fDone = TRUE.StartClstr).Name[0]) { erc = 1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. SectNum).0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS . iLine =1.Time. i. erc. st). printf("ESC to cancel.Ext. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. acbParam[1].Date.. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. printf("%s".23).Attr. dirent[i]. SetXY(0. /* ReadKbd. *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. fDone = 1. if (!erc) { for (i=0. } fDone = 0.1. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i].1).Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st. U32 SectNum. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. dirent[i]. KeyCode./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. i<16. &st[33].23). dirent[i]. any other key to continue. &st[24]). 1).").

The format for a line entry in Commands.. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. } return(erc).. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. iPrm. cmdline[90].CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. SectNum++. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. fdone. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. *f. for (iPrm=0. iCmd++. j. If it finds it. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. i. rawline[90]. MMURTL V1.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. k.} else fDone = TRUE. iPrm<nParamsMax. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++].

if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. runfile[k] = 0. if (f) { fdone = 0. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. rawline. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. 89.') /* a comment line */ continue.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . f = fopen(cmdpath. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. cmdline[j] = 0. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. acbParam[0]). /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. "r"). /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++.CLI not found. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. return(0). } } else printf("Commands. cmdline). /* now move arguments if any.\r\n"). /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline.cmdline[0] = 0. return(1).

&fh).RUN file in the current path. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80].CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. ModeRead. SetExitJob(clipath. erc = OpenFile(runfile. strlen(runfile). acbParam[0]). i = strlen(runfile). } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). If we don't find one. } MMURTL V1. syspath). strlen(runfile). SetExitJob(clipath. erc. SetCmdLine(aCmd. we first look for a . SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(clipath)). ModeRead. erc = Chain(runfile. cbCmd). &fh). cbCmd). erc = Chain(runfile. If so. long i. runfile. 1. fh. erc = Chain(runfile. erc = OpenFile(runfile. 0). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). 1. SetCmdLine(aCmd. ". if it's not there. &fh). strlen(clipath)). ". 1. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. CopyData(apParam[0]. strcat(runfile. strlen(runfile). we then go to COMMANDS. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh).0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). SetCmdLine(aCmd.RUN"). we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. we go to the system directory. 0). 0). cbCmd). &runfile[i].RUN"). acbParam[0]). strlen(runfile). /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. strlen(clipath)). strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile.When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. ModeRead.

2=C etc. fh. aPath. strcpy(clipath. strcpy(hlppath. SetXY(0. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. strcat(cmdpath. strcat(syspath. 0.0". 1=B. 8). GetJobNum(&JobNum). SpawnTask(&StatTask. } else { strcpy (aPath. &StatStack[255]./********************************************** Main function entry point. "%02d". "\\MMSYS\\"). command file. &cbPath). syspath[1] = ':'. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. 0). sdisk &= 0x7F. j. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. JobNum). syspath). syspath). syspath[2] = 0. strcat(clipath. erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). GetPath(JobNum. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. 24. SetJobName("CLI V1. syspath). syspath).CLI").CLI")."COMMANDS. InitScreen(FALSE). sprintf(&aStatLine[37].0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). strcat(hlppath."CLI. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1.RUN"). erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. sdisk += 0x41. &iLine). iLine). */ cbPath = 0. MMURTL V1. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. strcpy(cmdpath."HELP. and help file. Note: No params to CLI. i. /* 0=A.

while (1) { FillData(aCmd.cbPath = strlen(syspath). paCmds[i]. TTYOut (">". 79. 0. NORMVID). if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). apParam[2]. &iLine). case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). 2. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). else erc = ErcBadParams. acbParam[0] = 0. EditLine(aCmd. 1. SetPath(syspath. &ExitChar. j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. &cbCmd. 79. break. cbCmd = 0. acbParam[1]. break. aCmd[79] = 0. apParam[0] = 0. } i++. &fh). iLine). acbParam[1]. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). } fUpdatePath = 1. break.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDVID). } erc = 0. NORMVID). if (!erc) MMURTL V1. cbCmd. strlen(clipath)). GetXY(&iCol. 1. if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. acbParam[2]). break. SetXY(0. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. strlen(syspath)). InitScreen(TRUE). case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. SetExitJob(clipath. ' '). CmdNum = 0. TTYOut ("\r\n".

case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". break. 0. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("".\r\n").erc = DeleteFile(fh). 0. 0). fUpdatePath = 1. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. 4. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. &cbPath). case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). } break. case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. GPExch. SetVidOwner(1). default: break. break. break. ExitJob(0). GPMsg). case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). strlen(clipath)). 0). erc = Chain(apParam[1]. 0). acbParam[1]. acbParam[2]). break. 0.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. break. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). break. break. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. acbParam[1]. 0. if (!erc) printf("Done. case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. break. MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. break. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. acbParam[1]). acbParam[1]). 0. break. strlen(hlppath)). erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. acbParam[1]). break. 0. acbParam[1]). &GPHndl. break. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. apParam[2]. else erc = ErcBadParams. SetExitJob(clipath. cbCmd-i). aPath.

0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb.23). Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1.1). The next 23 lines are the text editing area.1. status and error display. The top line provides continuous status information. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. What's On the CD-ROM. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). SetXY(0. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections.2. current filename. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. The last line is used for data entry. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM.23.80. &iLine).1. } GetXY(&iCol. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. Table 16. See Appendix A. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line).} CheckErc(erc).

4 . Listing 16.h" MMURTL V1.h> #include <ctype.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.h> #include <string. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.2 is the editor source code. Listing 16.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .2. Editor Source Code /* Edit.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.

U32 iAttrMark. /* cursor.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. b1. U8 *pBufWork. char aStat1[80]. U32 iTabNorm. 0. 0.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. U32 iColMax. U32 sLine. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. fh. char aStat[80].1 */ U32 iColMin. }.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. U32 oBufBound. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]... unsigned char filler[100]. char *pBuf1. U32 iAttrNorm. void clearbuf(void). *pBuf2. /* cursor. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. U8 fVisible.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60].#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. struct EditRecType *pEdit. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. /* sBuf . long cbFilename. U32 iRowMax. unsigned char b. char *apParam[13]. U8 bSpace.sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. struct EditRecType EdRec. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. char fOvertype. char fModified. long erc.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. char aCmd[80].

default: sprintf(st. i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. erc). i<40. } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. 80. erc). switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. %05d occured on CreateFile". case 6: sprintf(st. *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. "Error break. case 5: sprintf(st. 0). case 2: sprintf(st. "Error break. 24. 40. "Error break. erc). PutVidChars (40. NORMVID). st. %05d occured on ReadBytes". this will prompt you to save. "Error break. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. erc). If fClose. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. %05d occured on ReadKbd". 80. PutVidChars (0.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. "Error break. STATVID). } for (i=0. st. 39. 24. erc). if (erc) { FillData(st. %05d occured on OpenFile". %05d occured on SetFileLFA".0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 4: sprintf(st. If fPrompt is true. long i. "Error break. "Error break. %05d occured on SetFileSize". case 7: sprintf(st. "Error break. erc). erc). %05d occured on WriteBytes". } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. erc). case 3: sprintf(st. long erc) { char st[40]. Beep(). 0). FillData(st. } return (erc). %05d occured on last command".

&i)). BLACK|BGCYAN). i <=pEdit->iBufMax. ReadKbd(&keycode. 43. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh).0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuf1. PutVidChars (0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. fYes. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". fh = 0. 0)). fModified = 0.. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. 1). clearbuf(). 24). SetFileSize(fh.and the buffer will be closed. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. TTYOut("This file has been modified. unsigned char *pBuff. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. "DONE. int fClose) { U32 i. WriteBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. ClearStatus(). SetXY(0. keycode. Sleep(150).. ClearStatus(). } fYes = 1. **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. 24. 10. SetFileLFA(fh. ClearStatus(). pEdit->oBufLast)). STATVID). if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). pEdit->oBufLast. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. ". cbFilename = 0. } } MMURTL V1.

ReadKbd(&keycode. ModeModify. OpenFile(Filename. cbFilename = 0.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc). /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh).0). TTYOut("Doesn't exist. else erc = 0. ModeModify. 1. If not. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. 1). 24). "Filename: ". BLACK|BGCYAN). dret. BLACK|BGCYAN). 24). &cbFilename. MMURTL V1. 1). pBuf1. keycode.24). strncpy(Filename. &b1. cbFilename. BLACK|BGCYAN). 10. 1.". cbFilename = strlen(Filename). name. erc = 0. EditLine(Filename. 13). &fh). } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. } else { b1=0x0d.24). Beep(). SetXY(50. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 0)). &dret). PutVidChars (0. SetXY(10. 29. TTYOut("File is too large to edit. fh = 0. &fh)). BLACK|BGWHITE). &filesize). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. 0. CreateFile(Filename. it will prompts to create. SetXY(0. 60. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. ReadKbd(&keycode. if (!name) { SetXY(0. 26. if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. cbFilename.24./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. filesize. pEdit->oBufLast = dret. Create?? (Y/N)". SetXY(50. cbFilename. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep().

pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. cbFilename = 0. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. } } else { cbFilename = 0. iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. erc). nEols = 0. unsigned char *pBuff. i = 0. } } else CheckErc(1. iEolMax. return(nEols). *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). even though we word wrap always. ClearStatus(). /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. *pBuff. i. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol.if (erc) { fh = 0.

iEol = iBuf. char *pBuff. i = 0.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. } } return(iEol). if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i..1.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ iEol = iEolMax. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart .iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. /* now find first non-space . if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.. j. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.

iColStart +1. pEdit->iColMax . iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->iAttrNorm).iColFinish. iLn. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. iLn. iColFinish . iBoundLoc. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. iColFinish. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. if (i) i++.pEdit->Line[iLn]. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. PutVidAttrs (iColStart.i--. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . iMarkLoc. pEdit->iAttrNorm). if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.pEdit->Line[iLn]. } while (i < oBufStart).0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . iLn.pEdit->Line[iLn] . } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. pEdit->iAttrMark). else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin.1. MMURTL V1. return(j). iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound.

if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufInsert++. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. cb). } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. pEdit->oBufLast++.pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. Beep(). *pBuff. } } } else { fOK = 0. } return (fOK). char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb.iLn. char fOvertype. } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->pBufWork. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. char fOK. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. erc = 40400. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. cb). CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->sLine.

pEdit->oBufInsert . i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i]. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. for (i=0. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. char *pBuff. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. MMURTL V1. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. for (i=0. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. i<=iMk .iBd .iBd + iMk . i <=iBd-iMk.1.0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS .1. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. iMk.1. iBd. pEdit->oBufInsert . pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. *pBuffWork. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd.iMk. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. } } } else Beep(). if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. iBd. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. i<=iBd-iMk. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i].

iMk + 1. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. pEdit->sLine.iMk + 1. pBuffWork. *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufLast . } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .pEdit->oBufInsert+1). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->iAttrNorm). } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd .iMk. iBd-iMk+1).char *pBuff. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. pEdit->oBufLast+1). i. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. (hides it). } } } else Beep(). if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. MMURTL V1. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block.0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .

iMk. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert .normAttr (). char fProb. j. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. char *pBuff. else fProb = FALSE. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1.1.if it is.might be off screen . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. i = pEdit->iRowMin. &pBuff[iMk].iBd + iMk . if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. iBd. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS .iBd + iMk. } nullMarkBound (). if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. *pBuffWork. *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i.

i. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i].0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. j = pEdit->iLine.pEdit->iColMin. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. } } MMURTL V1. if prev char <> CR. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. /* if bogus line.is. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf.i++.1. i = pEdit->iLine. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. pEdit->iLine = i . if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. } i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. /* get to potential insert . j = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol .

This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. MMURTL V1. oBuf. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. i<=k. */ for (i = k. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). j. else for (j=i+1. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. k = pEdit->iRowMax. k. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. cb. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. iLn. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. j<NLINESMAX. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). i <= pEdit->iRowMax.

Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. for (i=0. cb = i . char *pBuff. 80. iLn. pEdit->iAttrNorm). } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. iLn. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--.oBuf + 1. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. FillData(filler. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. i = pEdit->iRowMin. cb. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax.char *pBuff. Called before use and after closure. pEdit->sLine-cb. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. MMURTL V1.1. pBuff+oBuf.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . i<NLINESMAX. makeOnScreen (). 0x20). /* oBufInsert on screen . pFiller. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. doMark (iLn). if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . /* Make size.

It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). char fSpecInsert. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. char *pBuff. j. unsigned char b. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. erc = AllocExch(&exch).fModified = 0. normAttr (). } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. for (i=0. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. fScreen = FALSE. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). nullMarkBound(). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". i. 0x20). pEdit->iLine). fOvertype = FALSE. fScreen = TRUE.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . 80. fDone = FALSE. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. sprintf(aStat. *pBuffWork. pEdit->iCol. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. normAttr (). FillData(aStat. key. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pEdit->oBufLast). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. k. long exch. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pEdit->oBufLast = 0.

coordCursor_oBuf (). fScreen = TRUE. break. fSpecInsert = FALSE. i = pEdit->iLine. break. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. 3). b = key & 0xff. break. break.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. TRUE). case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow .Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. 80. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . 0. &aStat[40].0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . fScreen = TRUE. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". PutVidChars (0.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.CopyData(Filename. fScreen = TRUE. break. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . break. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. &aStat[77]. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . STATVID). cbFilename). /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. &aStat[77].Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE.Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. else CopyData("INS". aStat. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. 3). ReadKbd (&key. 1)).

case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0.SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast .pEdit->Line[i]. TRUE). if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. OpenAFile(0). case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). i <= pEdit->oBufLast. fScreen = TRUE. default: break. fScreen = TRUE.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . } break. fScreen = TRUE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. } break. } fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. fDone = TRUE. break. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. case 0x53: /* ALT S . break.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. break. i = pEdit->iLine+1. FALSE). } else { for (i=0. break. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. case 0x51: /* ALT Q .

pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (!(putInBuf (b. if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. MMURTL V1.} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLast+1). pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. default: break. break. /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf ().1. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. fScreen = TRUE. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. findCursor (). if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. pBuffWork. break. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . fSpecInsert))) Beep(). fOvertype.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast .0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1].1. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++.

End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast . } break. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . break.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). fModified = TRUE. case 0x11: /* F3 -. for (i=1. case 0x10: /* F2 -. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark .1.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). fScreen = TRUE.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). j = pEdit->iTabNorm . break. FALSE. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. i <=j. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast . fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iLine. } break. case 0x12: /* F4 -.(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). moveData (). case 0x06: /* Home . FALSE). if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--.1. case 0x17: /* F9 . MMURTL V1.1. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. } break.

j--. CopyIt (). break.break. coordCursor_oBuf (). break. k = pEdit->iLine. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). k--. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. i = pEdit->iRowMax.pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. j = pEdit->iRowMax . } break. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x18: /* F10 . if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). i = pEdit->oBufLine0. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. } } break. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i].COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf ().

if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. else fOvertype = TRUE. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. pEdit->oBufLast+1). } fScreen = TRUE. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pBuffWork. break. } break. } break. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. i = pEdit->iCol.pEdit->iLine++. default: MMURTL V1.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . fModified = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. } } break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->iCol = i. pEdit->oBufLast--. } break. pEdit->iLine = j. j = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++.

} *pbExitRet = b. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. i. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. U8 *argv[]) { long i. return. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. cbFilename = 0. pBuf2. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. 0)). 23. SetJobName("Editor". } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. SetFileLFA(fh. } CloseFile(fh). &pBuf2).break. pEdit->sLine+1. ClrScr(). 79.0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. SetFileSize(fh. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). 1. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. &i)). 0x20. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. 80. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. fModified = 0. 131071.pEdit->oBufLast)). erc = AllocPage(32. fh = 0. 0). i <=pEdit->iRowMax. 6). WriteBytes (fh. &pBuf1). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. FALSE. pEdit = &EdRec. pEdit->oBufLast.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuf1. /*sBuf . and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. 0. erc = AllocPage(32.

4. i<NLINESMAX.h> #include <ctype. struct statRecC com. i.sLine-1 */ cursor. MMURTL V1.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232..h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. 0. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. 0. 0. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob. } Editor(&b). 80. 0. 0. EMPTY.h> #include <string. fOvertype = FALSE.. 0. EDVID.3. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. i = pEdit->iRowMin.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). for (i=0. 0. fModified = 0. Listing 16. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. ExitJob(0). EMPTY. 0x20).

dLBA. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. erc).RTimeOut). %d\r\n". com. dOpNum. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID).0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. %d\r\n". } /* If device init went OK. com. = 8.XTimeOut).databits com. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB.parity = com. ClrScr().XBufSize). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. /* View other params which we could set.IOBase). NO_PAR. ClrScr(). we open the comms port */ /* device. com. printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n".RBufSize). dnBlocks. if (erc) { MMURTL V1. &i).IRQNum). lastb. ClrScr(). com. char fOK. } /* set the params in the block */ com. &com.h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. 0. com. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). %d\r\n". SetNormVid(NORMVID). 64). The structure is defined in commdrv. */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". erc). 64.Baudrate com. %d\r\n".stopbits = 9600. 0. = 1.unsigned char b. %d\r\n". com. CmdOpenC. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. &i). &com. ExitJob(erc). ExitJob(erc).

printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". CmdCloseC.\r\n"). dOpNum. } } } } /* device. NORMVID). SetNormVid(CLIVID). } } } MMURTL V1. dOpNum. &b). dOpNum. &b). CmdWriteB. 1. 0. dnBlocks. /* This is it... dLBA. dLBA. default: break. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". 0. &b). ClrScr(). ClrScr()... 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0. 0. fOK = 1. erc). 1. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. CmdReadB. lastb = b. ExitJob(erc). dnBlocks. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6.SetNormVid(CLIVID). ExitJob(erc). if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. erc = DeviceOp(6. CmdWriteB. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. dnBlocks. erc). /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. 0. 0. 0. &i). else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. dLBA. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key.0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } else { /* device. NORMVID). break.

struct statRecL lpt.h" "\OSSource\MVid. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). long long long long long tabstops = 4. FILE *f.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver. col = 0. That's the intention of the design. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1. char name[80].h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv. Listing 16.4.Display the file while printing \F .h> <ctype. fDisplay = 0. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device.h> <stdlib.2.h> <string.h" "\OSSource\MTimer. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . fBinary = 0.Binary print.h" "\OSSource\MKbd.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B .h> <stdio. NoFF = 0.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1. Send with no translations. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.h" "\OSSource\MJob.4. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n .h" "\OSSource\Parallel. In listing 16. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No.4 or 8) \D .

*ptr. case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. cl. break. ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. no FF\r\n\n"). unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. char fdone. Version 1. } MMURTL V1. i. erck. break.No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. lastb. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). argv[i]. for(i=1. 8).Tab stop translation value\r\n"). SetJobName("Printing". break. exit(1). 79). printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). unsigned char b. printf("/B Binary print.0x30. exit(1). NO translation. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. default: printf("Invalid switch").void main(long argc.0\r\n"). break. printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. i < argc.0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). name[0] = 0. break. case 'B' : /* BINARY .

. ExitJob(erc).. -236- RICHARD A BURGESS ./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. } else { MMURTL V1. erc). 64. ExitJob(erc). ExitJob(erc). if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. fdone = 0. } col = 0. 0. &i). */ erc = DeviceStat(3. name). dnBlocks. i = 0. dLBA. dOpNum. &lpt. "r"). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. b = 0. /* This is it. dLBA.0 1. The structure is defined in parallel. 0. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. &lastb).. CmdCloseLU. &i). if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n".. lastb = b. dnBlocks. name). dOpNum. 0. } /* If device status went OK. } printf("Printing %s . CmdWriteB.\r\n". CmdOpenL. cl = fgetc(f). erc).h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. if (!f) { /* device. 0. */ f = fopen(name. b = (cl & 0xff). we open the printer port */ /* device. 0. &i).

if (fDisplay) printf(" "). 0. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. } erc = DeviceOp(3. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". /* reset */ break. 0. 1. erc = DeviceOp(3. dnBlocks. erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. break. lastb). 0. 0. 1. &b). CmdCloseL. col++. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. CmdWriteB. /* device. } } &b). CmdWriteB. %d\r\n". 0. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break.0 1. dOpNum. 1. break. &i). &b).switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. col++. 1. " "). erc = 4. 0. 0). default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. CmdWriteB. &lastb). if (erc) MMURTL V1. 0. 1. dLBA. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. } while (col % tabstops). b). CmdWriteB. col = 0. } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. } fclose(f). erc). case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. "\f"). -237- RICHARD A BURGESS .

h> "\OSSource\MKernel.h" "\OSSource\MJob.h" "\OSSource\MVid. ExitJob(erc). /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. erc).C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. Error: %d\r\n". “Systems Programming. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2]. ErrorToUser. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. run the TestSvc. While this program is running. long *pDataRet. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. MMURTL V1.printf("Can't close LPT. Service. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. Listing 16. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch).5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service. keycode. printf("Done\r\n").” It has been expanded some. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service.RUN program to exercise the service.

ErcNoSuchSvc). OSError). if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError).. /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. 0). /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). 0. } DeAllocExch(MainExch). while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. 1. MainExch. 1. Respond(pRqBlk.if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS .\r\n". *pDataRet = NextNumber++. &keycode. SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). MainExch). /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n".\r\n"). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. 0. 0. /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ErrorToUser). /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. 4. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0].\r\n"). 0. /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. NextNumber-1).. } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. } pRqBlk = Message[0]. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". Message). &rqHndl. ClrScr().

Exch. You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.\r\n". Number).} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. 0. Message[1]).\r\n". Error). } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1.6. Also try it when the service is not running.\r\n". /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. Error). /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. Listing 16.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS . Error = Request("NUMBERS ". 0. 0. 4.C Listing The program in listing 16.\r\n".0. &rqhndl. Message). Error = AllocExch(&Exch).\r\n".h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. 1. unsigned long Message[2]. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service. unsigned long Exch. TestSvc.6 exercises the sample system service listed previously. 0. rqhndl. Error).h" unsigned long Number.C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service.0). void main(void) { unsigned long Error. } } DeAllocExch(Exch). if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg.

When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). I hope I’ve met this goal. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. MOSPDR. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. as you look through the code. I just expend the time up front instead of later. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. This file should be left in the order I have it in. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. There are also header files for the C source.ASM . By including the comments. It helps me think.. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. This is the first file in the source. Quite a few of them. common variables. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. and used by the processor. and structures together. MPublics. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files).This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. it ends up at physical and linear address 0.This is the first assembler file that contains code.. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. The ordering for MMURTL V1.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM.).0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. MOSIDT. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler.ASM .ASM . Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. You may find some of the source files rather large. MAIN. which means its data will be at the lowest address.ASM . use the stack just as a compiler would. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor.This is also a table.ASM . MOSGDT. In fact. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment.Chapter 17. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. In fact. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. the human becomes a compiler of sorts. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. The GDT is 6K in size. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. All source files are located in one directory. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). but it is not used by the processor. however. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. Also some data is defined here.

It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here. RQBCode. NumCnvrt. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain.the remainder of the modules is not as important. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either. is in this file. On the other hand. Video. UASM.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa. someday). Keyboard. if needed. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. but you never know where to put.C . Parallel.C are contained in this file. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. how much to move.are in this file. DMACode. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions. Debugging a debugger is even less fun. JobC. as well as port I/O support.C .ASM was one of the first files written.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. It supports the 16550.This file is the debugger disassembler. but I don't have any more to test it.ASM . It's not very pretty. even in the earliest stages of a project. but can be modified for four. TmrCode.C . FSys. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work. HardIDE.ASM .ASM .C . so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. I was surprised. undoubtedly. This file has routines that handle DMA for you.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. MemCode. MiscCode.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() . It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. IntCode.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. Keyboard.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC.This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic.Request block management code is in this file. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps).The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer . DevDrvr.C .This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system. You only need to know the channel.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. Floppy. This is one complicated driver.In many systems.ASM .C .The simple parallel port driver is contained here.ASM .ASM . you're on your own.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level.The code memory allocation. Device driver writers will appreciate this. and the mode. You have to see what you're doing.ASM . RS232. and it works rather well. It drives two channels. If you have MFM drives. MMURTL V1.ASM .ASM . It think it still works with MFM drives. but it's effective and accurate. Debugger.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file.C . SVCCode.ASM .ASM . JobCode. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service. they must handle it themselves.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need.ASM . when a device driver writers need DMA.

1.ATF It's truly that simple.DATA .INCLUDE Keyboard. /L on the command line after the name.ASM . “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler.0 . Listing 17. . Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. Video code and data MMURTL V1.INCLUDE MAIN. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. Indirect calling address table . . but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM. and the DASM assembler (also included).INCLUDE Video. but it really isn't part of the operating system.INCLUDE MOSPDR.0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM .INCLUDE MOSGDT. Keyboard ISR and Service . Monitor.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions.ASM . specify /E on the command line after the name. Main OS code and some data & START address . This takes about 1.BAT) will build the entire operating system.ASM . Assembler Template File .5 Pages.ASM . The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF). Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files. a C source file and must be compiled first with . 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1.ASM .The monitor program is contained in this file. You could replace quite easily. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) . you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL. 6K) .Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM. DASM produces the operating system RUN file. It provides a lot of the OS functionality.Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! .” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor. . Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces).5 minutes on a 486/33.INCLUDE MOSIDT. Except. If you want an error file. An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . CM32 (no switches needed). The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.ASM .C After all the C source files are compiled.ASM . InitCode. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL.ASM .All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file.C .Kernel.ASM . Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table . If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses.INCLUDE MPublics. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.

ASM HardIDE.INCLUDE . CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding.END Debugger.ASM DMACode. you can take the file system code (FSYS. I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way.ASM JOBC.I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one. . but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.. . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular. .* . CM32 packs all structure fields completely.ASM Except.* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc. As each piece of code is assembled.INCLUDE . The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location.ASM RQBCode. and they will work fine. .ASM JobCode.* . code (string.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM InitCode.* .INCLUDE . . The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies.ASM Monitor. .ASM MiscCode. If your C compiler allows it. use another compiler for your project. The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.* .INCLUDE . . . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system.INCLUDE . . you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments . .INCLUDE . .INCLUDE . For instance.INCLUDE .ASM NumCnvrt.ASM FSys.INCLUDE . you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code. Otherwise. it is placed into the code segment in that order.* .INCLUDE .ASM Floppy. This is because DASM doesn't support structures.ASM SVCCode.ASM TmrCode. In fact.ASM .INCLUDE .ASM RS232.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .array.C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort. Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files. MMURTL V1.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . This is one thing you should watch.INCLUDE . You will.ASM UASM.* :* . the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.INCLUDE . You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention.INCLUDE .ASM IntCode. no doubt. .code and data. .INCLUDE .ASM DevDrvr. . you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier). The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language.ASM Kernel.INCLUDE .ASM Parallel. You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures.INCLUDE .ASM MemCode.

The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables.INC JOB. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. and offsets into structures and tables.INCLUDE .INC TSS. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). internal public functions. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . See listing 18. job control blocks. and memory management tables. I think it will make more sense to you.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them.INC DD 0 .Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1.INC RQB.1. These are things such as the task state segments. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.1. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. The bulk of them are in the file Main. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). two underscores will be prepended to the name. The actual message handling functions. the scheduler. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. Kernel data segment source .Chapter 18. a single underscore will be prepended to the name. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). local helper functions. Listing 18. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations. so I could get to them with the monitor program.ASM. Being an old "structured" programmer.DATA . These all change with respect to the task that is running. and kernel publics functions.

Next <= NIL. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. which means interrupts must be cleared. if . from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). XCHG ESI. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. OUTPUT : NONE . Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: .. . If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. and therefore. for example. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. pointed to by the ESI register. pLBin^. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs.FLAGS . This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . and exchanges. 0 .EAX . an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers.ESI. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken.2. . link blocks. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. OR EAX. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. pExch => EAX. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). is coded in-line. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. 0 . it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. In MMURTL.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1.EDX. and if a task is waiting there. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. REGISTERS : EAX.2. When a message is sent to an exchange. . JZ eqMsgDone . It's not that the routines are called so often.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. Listing 18. This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.EAX . See listing 18. and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . MODIFIES : EDX . Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. This is strictly a speed issue.EAX . INPUT : ESI.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. This is important.

De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: . .[ESI+EHead] . MOV EAX.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS .MsgHead. You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it. . MOV [EAX+ETail].MsgTail <= pLBin.. EAX .ESI .. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. 1 . OUTPUT : EAX . .MsgHead <= pLBin. No! (return 0) MOV EAX.4.EBX.Next. See listing 18. MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. If not.[ESI+fEMsg] . . .NextLB <= pLBin.MsgHead^. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone . 1 . but not both. REGISTERS : EAX. pLBout <= .[EAX+ETail] .ESI . exchanges can hold messages or tasks. Get Msg Flag OR EAX. if pLBout = NIL then Return. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .head and EBX . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. you return NIL (0). EAX .ESI. . MOV [EDX+NextLB].MsgTail^.msg.. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. deMsgDone: RETN . MOV EBX.FLAGS .ESI .ESI . If not.EBX .ESI . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . MOV [EAX+ETail].[EAX+NextLB] . INPUT : ESI .MsgTail <= pLBin.JNE eqMNotNIL . OR EAX. Listing 18. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN .. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. JZ deMsgDone . then MOV [EAX+EHead]. deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there. See listing 18. .MsgHead <= .ESI . . If not. MMURTL V1. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].3. MOV [ESI+EHead]. As stated before.3...

Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: . Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. . algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority.ESI. head & tail per QUEUE). You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. . De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: .EBX . Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX.EDX .4. if pTSS = NIL then return. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI .[EAX+NextTSS] .5. pTSSout <= .EDX . 0 . JZ deTSSDone . Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. OR EAX. INC _nReady . MODIFIES : EAX. . if pTSSout = NIL then Return.0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . MODIFIES : EAX. MOV EBX. INPUT : EAX .TSSHead. XOR EAX.Next <= NIL. This . OR EAX. The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists.. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1.. in EBX XCHG EAX. deTSSDone: RETN . OUTPUT : NONE .EBX. JZ eqRdyDone . . OUTPUT : EAX . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers.EAX .[EAX+Priority] .RdyQ . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. Listing 18. get the priority MOV BL. This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue. 3 .EAX .EBX. . Priority => EAX. .EBX . REGISTERS : EAX. pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL.[ESI+EHead] .FLAGS . . pTSSin^. This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI .5.Listing 18. EBX JNZ deTSSDone . It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX.FLAGS .EDX.TSSHead <= . See listing 18. REGISTERS : EAX.EBX .. Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX. register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. . MOV [ESI+EHead]. .[ESI+fEMsg] .TSSHead^.EBX . INPUT : ESI . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS].Next. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. EAX .EBX. 0 . XOR EBX.

If none is found. MOV ECX. . else . . .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . . INPUT : NONE .Head <= pTSSin. deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. . This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . REGISTERS : EAX..ECX..EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. .[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS].6. OUTPUT : EAX . .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX].EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].Tail <= pTSSin.6. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. MMURTL V1.Tail <= pTSSin. then . . .. this returns NIL (0).sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. that 0 is the highest priority.Tail^. .[EBX] OR EAX. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX.EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . . . The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list. Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. . EAX is returned as NIL. . . . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX. IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ. queued on the RdyQ.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head].. deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . See listing 18.ECX deRdyDone: RETN . and 31 is the lowest. Keep in mind. . If there was no task queued.NextTSS <= pTSSin. . Listing 18.nPRI . RETURN Otherwise.FLAGS . . .RdyQ . EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX. MODIFIES : RdyQ . De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: .EBX. .

When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up.FLAGS . RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. without actually removing it from the queue. EAX is returned as NIL. They are located in Kernel. "It's a nasty job. . MOV ECX. .RdyQ . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. This why it's specified as PUBLIC.8. This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. Listing 18. . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. .7.nPRI . . MODIFIES : RdyQ . either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . . check the next priority. Listing 18. INPUT : NONE . Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. If there was no task queued. .ECX. This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. Get pTSSout in EAX .EBX. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue .ASM because they work closely with kernel structures. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX.7. Point to the next Priority Queue . . ." See Listing 18.ASM) that provides preemptive task switching.8.sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN .[EBX] OR EAX. See listing 18. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. REGISTERS : EAX. is queued to run. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: .0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . OUTPUT : EAX . but someone's got to it. They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation.

pFreeTSS <= pTSSin.Next <= pFreeTSS. . Procedureal Interface : . MODIFIES : RdyQ .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX.EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. POP EBX MOV EAX. INC _nTSSLeft . EDI PUSH EBX . Yes. Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .nPRI . . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . EDI ADD EBX. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . 0 . .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. No error .EBX . . a job. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. MOV EBP. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType .. Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . No MOV EDI.sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. pTSSin^.pFreeTSS . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX.Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.RdyQ . .0 . Fix link in Queue list . . pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. All done (clean stack) . Make EAX point to new head TSS . Is it Zero? . MOV ECX. Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . Point to the next Priority Queue . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . EDI OR EAX. REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . . [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. .EAX . PUSH EBP . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. OUTPUT : NONE . deQueue the TSS . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . EAX OR EAX. .ESP .

Trash it. . . [EAX+NextTSS] . The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange.EAX points to crnt TSS . pTSSin^.pFreeTSS . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. Yes. A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. back to check next at head of list .0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. Listing 18.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.Yes.Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . . deQueue the TSS . GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. . Finding the owner of an exchange . SetExchOwner().Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. . char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. .9. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. POP . .JMP RemRdy0 . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX. These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. Next TSS .9. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. . .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . ESI PUSH EBX . 0 . .Jump the removed link . This function is used with the next one. ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) .Next <= pFreeTSS.EAX . This is not so if it's for a new job.Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. Next Queue please .EDI points to prev TSS . [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. .EBX . No. . . INC _nTSSLeft . See listing 18. ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 .

. . . . ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . pJCBRet the exchange number. . . .0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . . .ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). pJCBRet . EAX XOR EAX. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. not allocated . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch.. .EAX MOV EAX. . No.nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX.10. Exch . . Listing 18. Exch is .prgExch ADD EDX. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). . . See listing 18.10.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. . . EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. . MMURTL V1. . EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. . . [EBP+12] CMP EAX. Valid Exch (Allocated) . .ESP MOV EAX. mentioned previously. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . Changing the owner of an exchange . . . continue Yes.

.prgExch ADD EAX. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). If a service is holding a request from the job that died. . . . then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. . . .ESP MOV ESI. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . . . . .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . . . We ignore the kernel errors. .11. . If a program sent a request. EBX XOR EAX. . Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EDX MOV EBX. . telling them that a particular job has died. SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job.0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. . pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The error it returns is of no consequence. System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing).ESP MOV EAX. If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself.OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. . the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. Listing 18. . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] .nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. . . . Get the address of rgSVC . other services. or the operating system itself. . See listing 18. . [EBP+12] MOV EDX.11. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. . Notifying services of a job’s demise . ..

The function that searches the array is GetExchange().pData1 PUSH 0 .asm.pHandleRet PUSH 0 . Valid name? . sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX. See listing 18. NO.pName PUSH 0 . . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.cbData0 PUSH 0 .Next Service name .dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . [EBP+12] . These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate.Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . Listing 18. Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates. The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block. These are functions such as GetPriority().pData0 PUSH 0 . [EBP+8] .npSend PUSH 0 . . They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel.12. Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model. next service PUSH ESI . EAX MOV ESP.dData1 PUSH 0 . 0 JE SAB05 . A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it. Request kernel primitive code . except this function requires several more parameters.cbData1 MOV EAX. and code for it is in the file SVCCode.Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX .12. . A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.Abort Service Code MOV EAX.dData0 PUSH 0 .JobNum PUSH EAX .Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI .Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS .CMP DWORD PTR [ESI]. The procedural interface to Request looks like this: . Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive.

. . . . Save the Previous FramePtr .0 ..Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB . EAX MOV EAX. EAX MMURTL V1. .Validate exchange MOV EDX. return error Req02: .pServiceName CALL GetExchange . EAX MOV EAX. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.put . . JMP ReqEnd .Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 . . .Get ..EAX .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX.put . Req04: . . [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. . [EBP+48] CMP EDX. ESI MOV EAX. . EAX . EAX MOV EAX.Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.Get . Sorry.Put .EDX still has the response exchange .Put .Get . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. continue Yes.Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch]. EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX.Get . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1].EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX.Yes.Get .EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.Yes.EBX . ErcNoMoreRqBlks .. .Put .No JMP ReqEnd . Set up New FramePtr . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2].put . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0].put . .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: .No. AX MOV [EBX+RespExch]. EAX MOV EAX. Error in EAX register .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX.ESP .Get . [EBP+56] .ESI still has the exchange for the service . .

pLB^. . . [EBP+44] MOV [EDI]. Save pLB on the stack .Must be 2 or less . RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) . . EAX MOV EAX..ESI EDX. No interruptions from here on . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2].EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX. .EBX DEC _nLBLeft .The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .Next .. sEXCH EDX EDX. AL CL. [EBP+40] CMP EAX.ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.Get cbData1 . .put in RqBlk .Get cbData2 .Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.Leave in CL .Put npRecv in RqBlk . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB].EAX .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. MOV [EAX+DataLo]. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX.Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk .Next <= NIL.put in RqBlk . EAX MOV EAX.pFreeLB OR EAX.Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI.prgExch EAX. . 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend]. Store zero in upper half of pLB^. MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX.EDX ESI. . CL . free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. . EAX <= pFreeLB. 0 . EAX MOV EAX.Ptr to return handle to . pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it. Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO.REQLB .ESI still has the exchange Number for the service. .MOV EAX. 0 .put in RqBlk . . 2 CL.0 .Give it to them . . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].EDX . . EBX . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . .Get pData2 . EBX MOV EDX.[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB.Number of Send PbCbs . . DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Data PUSH EAX . AL [EBX+npRecv].

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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RETF 8 . .18. . MOV ESP. . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . POP EBP . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories. Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner].ESP . . CheckMsg(exch.REQLB MMURTL V1. . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . See listing 18. If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . in the EAX register.ercOutOfRange .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. A result code is returned in the EAX register.ercNoMsg MOV ESP. . . As with WaitMsg().ChkExchange . PUSH EBP . Listing 18. . MOV ESI. CheckMsg kernel primitive code .EBP .prgExch . in the EAX register. the return to caller with error MOV EAX. .sEXCH . . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. MOV ESI.ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. .EAX . pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. . .pdqMsg):ercType . return to the caller with error MOV EAX. Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. .We can be interrupted again . CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].18. return with erc no msg . Procedureal Interface : . . .EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. . MOV EDX. Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return .ESI .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI .0 -270- .nExch . Chk01: MOV EAX. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 . MOV EBP.EDX . message should be sent.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. 0 . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS .

Error?? .Linear Address of PData1 .Make stack right .cbMem .pLB.pMem . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.[EAX+DataLo] . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP. . pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.Return Error. (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .is cbData2 0? .Yes .DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX. EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. .Make stack right .0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .JNE Chk04 .. Save ptr to Link Block .Save again . Get pRqBlk into EBX .Offset to pData1 in RqBlk . . MMURTL V1.is pData1 NULL? . [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX.Yes ...is cbData1 0? ._AliasMem(pMem.No. dJobNum. continue . .No.Set up params for AliasMem .Yes . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. Get pRqBlk into EBX .dJobNum . .Yes .cbMem . [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX. .pMem .Return Error. ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. dcbMem. Treat it as a data link block . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.Offset to pData2 in RqBlk .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. . . continue .Now we set up to alias the memory for the service . No.Restore ptr to Link Block .is pData2 NULL? .[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX. ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX..Second Pointer (pData2) .dJobNum .Set up params for AliasMem .Linear Address of pData1 .Error?? .

Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.pFreeLB . Procedural interface: . MOV pFreeLB. STI .Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] .TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . CodeSeg. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection. . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1.Next <= pFreeLB.EAX . NewTask(JobNum. pLBin^. . Priority.Data in specified memory space (EDX) . .EAX MOV ESP. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX. NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter. MOV [EAX+NextLB].[EAX+DataLo] ECX.ErcOK! (0) . . NewTask kernel primitive code . .Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] . . pFreeLB <= pLBin. Exch.Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX.19.EBX . In future versions.Restore Ptr to Link Block .x. XOR EAX. Listing 18. .Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] . EIP): dErcRet . NTS_Pri CMP EDX. .EBX [EDX+4].[EAX+DataHi] EDX.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . ESP. .ESP MOV EDX. This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. . stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. . . and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation.19.pCkMessage [EDX]. INC _nLBLeft .0 .8 for OS.ECX .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . . NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. fDebug.Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . . For MMURTL version 1. or page fault. Get pLB^. See listing 18. The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs.

.ercOutOfRange NTEnd .ECX now has pJCB .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP].mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP]. NTS_Exch ECX.put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].JBE NT0000 MOV EAX.Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get Physical Address for PD into EAX . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return. ECX .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].Save pNewTSS again .DL .we can't be interrupted .Exch in range? PUSH EAX . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Restore pNewTSS to EAX . NTS_EIP . .get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX..No.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.EBX EBX.Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 .ECX MOV EBX.CX .EAX now has pJCB .Set up to call GetpJCB .EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg. [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX. ECX.ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.0 . nExch NT0001 EAX.Next .EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX. 0 MMURTL V1. . ECX. NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI . EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].Save pNewTSS .0202h .Put pJCB into TSS .ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX. NTS_ESP . EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].pFreeTSS OR EAX. .Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS].Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch]. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. .pNewTSS into EAX . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.. NTS_CS .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.EBX .Set up to call LinToPhy . .

0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX.We can't be interrupted MOV EDX. 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. .BL . . . . Listing 18. fOSCode). NTS_Pri .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority].ercOk JMP NTEnd . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. . .JE NT0004 . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs. See listing 18. dPriority.EAX MOV BX. .New TSS -> EAX . .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. fDebug. Procedural Interface: . pStack. pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] .New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . New TSS -> EDX . SpawnTask kernel primitive code . As with NewTask().20.EAX .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX.EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it.Save time of this switch for scheduler . .Move new TSS into pRunTSS .Jump to new TSS .Yes .CrntTSS -> EAX.Save New TSS .Get priority of new task CLI .ErcOk MMURTL V1.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.pRunTSS . SpawnTask(pEntry. .20.Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .

. .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].EBX MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 .EBX MOV EBX. NewTSSST.Priority OK? .ercNoMoreTSSs .EDX . nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS . pStackST .Allocate exchange .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.two local DWORD vars .Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].0 . bad news .pEntryST .EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. NewExchST ..we can't be interrupted .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. EAX JNZ STEnd .ESP SUB ESP. . .Yup.Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST. . EAX .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1. JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.No. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].see if we got an error . pRunTSS MOV EDX.EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0]. 0 . [EBX+TSS_CR3] .Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX..mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch].EDX MOV EDX.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.0202h .ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX. JobCodeSel . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.pFreeTSS OR EAX.Save new TSS EBX. . 1 .PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .Next . 8 CMP dPriST.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS. .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.

BL CLI MOV EDX.New TSS -> EAX .EAX MOV BX. . . Zero the Exch Index . .mov priority into BL .Jump to new TSS . New TSS -> EDX . 0 MMURTL V1.CrntTSS -> EAX.Save time of this switch for scheduler . .Return to caller .Old guy does.Who got the highest Pri? .0 .If crnt >. EBX <= ADR rgExch . . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.21. Get number of exchanges in ECX .EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ESP XOR ESI. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. Listing 18. .Get who's running .ercOk .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.Place crnt TSS on Q . It is property of a Job (not a task). just put new guy on Q.prgExch MOV ECX.we can't be interrupted .ESI MOV EBX.New TSS -> Stack . The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages. .ErcOk . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . Allocate exchange code . .MOV EBX. See listing 18.Move new TSS into pRunTSS .nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. AllocExch(pExchRet):dError . . dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority].21. The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES).pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority]. returned.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. . . New guy does (lowest num) .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange. .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .put in TSS . Procedural Interface : .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .

ESI EDX.22.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.[EBP+0CH] . .EBP . .EAX .sEXCH EDX EDX. . . Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail].pRunTSS EBX. JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX. .prgExch EAX. . Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges.EAX EDX.0 . POP EBP . .0 .EDX ECX. and request blocks are freed up as necessary.0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . Make the Exch owner the Job STI . PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .[EBP+0CH] EAX. .sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX.ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner]. . Those link blocks may also contain requests. Procedural Interface : .ercOK (0) MOV ESP.22. . .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. . . Deallocate exchange code . and link blocks. Messages are deQueued. Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange. See listing 18. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX.ESI . .pRunTSS . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType .EAX . . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead].[EAX+Owner] EBX. If we found a Free Exch. . . Stats XOR EAX.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] . . it may have left over link blocks hanging on it.JE AE001 ADD EBX. TSSs. however. RETF 4 . . . MMURTL V1. .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: .EDX . This function has a lot more to do. This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX. . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. . Listing 18. DEC _nEXCHLeft .

. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 .Next <= pFreeLB. Reset msg Flag. This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. Go free the Exch. OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. POP EBP . MMURTL V1. These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. pLBin^.EAX .pFreeTSS .23.ercOK (0) MOV ESP. JMP DE001 . Get the TSS off of the Exchange . INC _nTSSLeft . yes .EAX . Stats STI . INC _nLBLeft . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. Go And Check for more. Nothing there. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . 0 . RETF 4 .0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS .only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow . Yes. 0 . MOV pFreeLB. . Free up the exchange. NIL = Empty. pFreeLB <= pLBin. MOV [EAX+NextLB]. yes . is this the OS??? . ECX .0 . INC _nEXCHLeft . DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner].EBX . JMP DE000 . .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. ECX . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. . See listing 18. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . EAX JZ DE002 .instructions or a service crashes! . No. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. 0 . if not owner.EBP .with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will .EBX . CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg].pFreeLB .EAX . If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller.JE DE000 CMP EBX. Go And Check for more.ercNotOwner MOV ESP. MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg].Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. pTSSin^. CLI . XOR EAX.Next <= pFreeTSS. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . JUMP MOV ESI. Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. 0 . MOV [EAX+NextTSS].

Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX.Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). BL . EAX .This sets the priority of the task that called it . . Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. .[EBP+0CH] . to the priority specified in the single parameter. . GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . PUBLIC __SetPriority . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .24. PUSH EBP . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. MOV EBP. PUSH EBP . bPriority is a byte with the new priority. RETF 4 . MOV EAX.ESP .pRunTSS . .23. returned. MMURTL V1. See listing 18.0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX.[EBP+0CH] . . SetPriority . If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX.pRunTSS . GetTSS exchange code . 01Fh . . SetPriority(bPriority):dError .ESP .No error.Listing 18. Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. . Procedural Interface : . This doesn't really affect the kernel. . MOV EBP. Procedural Interface : . EAX . the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. . POP EBP . Set priority code . [EAX+TSS_Exch] .24 Listing 18. . ErcOK POP EBP . MOV EAX. ErcOK . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. .EBX .

ErcOK POP EBP . . . MOV EAX. SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. PUBLIC __GetPriority .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. Get the MOV EBX.ESP . PUSH EBP .25. priority returned. EAX . Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. XOR EAX. bPriorityret is a pointer to a . MMURTL V1. . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error.[EBP+0CH] . and passes it to bPriorityRet. GetPriority . DL .pRunTSS . Get the MOV DL. RETF 4 . . Listing 18. MOV EBP. . .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedural Interface : . See listing 18.25.This gets the priority of . Get priority code .

INC .1.User Writable (Data) . The task state segments are also used extensively.Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt .CODE command.2048 bytes = 64Mb . Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode. Memory management constants and data .Chapter 19.Number of free physical pages left .Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .We alloc the "next" page table . The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code. MMURTL V1.User Writable . the code section must start with the .ASM.INCLUDE TSS. MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .INCLUDE MOSEDF.Default to 1 MB .DATA . As with all assembler files for DASM.Page Allocation Map .System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections. I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.INCLUDE JOB.INC . Listing 19.in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language. The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.User Readable (Code) . I call these internal support code.1 bit/4Kbytes .Max is 2048 (64Mb) . Listing 19. The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: . Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS . page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs). 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h .1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code. It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.

256 MOV EAX.3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data. and makes PTEs.NO! . Listing 19. Memory management initialization code .Make it the last DWord again .ECX MOV EBX.3 ADD EAX.2.Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed.IN: .0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. We assume 1MB to start.'mrtl' test string value for memory .Are we above 64 megs . . EAX .Move in test string . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree.1FFFFCh XOR EBX.OUT: .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: . which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh).Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX.3 MOV _oMemMax. . by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree. 0001h .See if we got it back OK . 256 ADD sPAM.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM. See listing 19. MOV EDX.Another megs worth of pages .EAX SUB EAX. 4 . . Continuation of memory management init.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax.Supervisor.Set oMemMax . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used .3.100000h ADD _nPagesFree. in megabytes. The code in listing 19. Its the law! Listing 19.EBX MOV ECX. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.USED: .top of 2 megs (for DWORD) .Yes. you have.Yes! . EAX . PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED. OFFSET pTbl1 . which was just loaded.Increase PAM by another meg .Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].Next table entry MMURTL V1.ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX. Now you must fill in bits used by OS.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. neither of which you consider free. 0FFFFF000h . EAX CALL MarkPage . Present MOV EBX.1 Mb of pages = 256 .Next Meg .DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. oMemMax must be last byte .Read test string into EBX .2. 32 CMP EAX.Set it to zero intially .

OFFSET PDir1 . Now we can go into paged memory mode.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX.Next page please CMP EAX. ANDing it with 8000000h. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX .EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: .Store in Control Reg 3 EAX.Make it index (SHR 12. nor can I provide instructions to everyone.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte. See listing 19. This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. and then writing it again. EAX. such as the 82C30 C&T. SHL 2) . EAX . EAX . EBX. EDX. CR0 .No. then reading CR0.Physical address of OS page directory CR3. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM. 4096 EAX. EAX . IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX].4.Next PTE entry ADD EAX. .4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. go back for more .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0101b .5. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses. 80000000h . but I can't be sure everyone can do it. EBX. The routine in listing 19. 4096 .6. EDX. C0000h –FFFFFh.1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX.Set paging bit ON CR0. 100000h . Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. Listing 19.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) . allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM. Listing 19. Several chip sets on the market. 0FFFFF000h .Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. See listing 19.Get Control Reg 0 EAX. EAX .Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . The initial page directory and the page table are static.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 .Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 .Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage . 4 . Turning on paged memory management EAX.5. Continuation of memory management init.

assuming that you will allocate it. or 0 if error EBX.. OFFSET pNextPT . Allocation of memory management exchange .EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]..0FFh . LEA EAX.8. Listing 19. I'm afraid. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage .Listing 19.Where we are in PAM . See listing 19. It also marks the page as used.6. Listing 19.no memory left. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn .0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .7. See listing 19. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD.7. FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller.Page Allocation Map . 0 . PUSH 1 .Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch . sPAM DEC EAX . OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX. Find highest physical page code . MMURTL V1. This reduces nPagesFree by one. Get 'em! RETN . this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it. Of course.8.IN : . 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. MemExch . .All 8 pages used? FHP2 .OUT : . Finishing memory management init.No EAX.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.Done initializing memory managment .

Are we past at TOP of PAM? .Back for next byte . 3 ADD EBX.IN : .OUT : .DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX. .\ Listing 19. EAX SHL EBX.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . EDX MOV DL.Error (BAD CPU???) . sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].no memory left.Another Byte lower . This reduces nPagesFree by one. Find lowest physical page code . . . or 0 if error EBX.9.All 8 pages used? .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1. assuming that you will allocate it. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX. .Test bits . EBX FHPf EBX.Page Allocation Map .USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page..At the bottom of the Byte? .Get the byte with a whole in it. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX.Set page in use ..Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . we must call UnMarkPage to release it.. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it. Once again.Add page number in byte . DL SHL EAX.. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX.Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller.Start at first byte in PAM .Next bit .One less available . EAX .FOUND ONE! (goto found) . 7 XOR EDX. It also marks the page as used. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.9.No .Set the bit indexed by EBX .0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 .Another Byte lower . See listing 19.

See listing 19. .Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .Get the byte into DL BTS EDX. 0FFFFF000h . EBX .Add page number in byte . 3 ADD EBX.0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDX MOV DL.BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX]. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX.10. [EAX+ECX] .OUT : . EBX XOR EDX. MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. OFFSET rgPAM .One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.Test bits .IN : .Error (BAD CPU???) .End of the Byte? .ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX.Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address. 15 . Code to mark a physical page in use . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.10... EBX SHR ECX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . EAX SHL EBX.Set the bit indexed by EBX . This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function. EBX FLPf EBX EBX.One less available .Set page in use .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX.Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. This reduces nPagesFree by one. 8 FLPn FLP3 . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX. .Get the byte with a whole in it. DL SHL EAX. Listing 19.Page Allocation Map AND EBX. 12 . . 07h .Next bit .FOUND ONE! (goto found) .XOR EBX. DL .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX.

Code to convert linear to physical addresses . This call is used for things like aliasing for messages. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX.BitReset instruction . The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.12. EBX MOV [EAX]. Code to free a physical page for reuse .Physical Address . EBX -. etc. INPUT: EAX -. This increases nPagesFree by one.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . EBX SHR ECX. See listing 19.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM .Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . 15 SHR EBX.0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS . EFlags . ESI -.Round down to page modulo .OUT : .11. ESI. See listing 19. ECX MOV DL.IN : .Page Allocation Map . . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again.Linear address . This function supports the similarly named public routine.12. . . DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN .One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. EBX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM . This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. Listing 19. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. USED: EAX.POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address. Listing 19. OUTPUT: EAX -. . DMA operations.11. 07h ADD EAX. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1. 12 AND EBX. [EAX] BTR EDX.

mask off lower 12 .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . OUT: EAX . Code to find a free run of linear memory .Save Linear .Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .13.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . EBX MOV EDX.EBX/EAX now points to shadow . . This is either at address base 0 for the operating system. Listing 19. 2 ADD EBX. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. Save in EBX .ESI now has ptr to PD . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX.Save this address for caller . EBX . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI. 00000FFFh OR EAX.EAX now has ptr to PD! .*4 makes it byte offset in PT . See listing 19.Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX.Physical base of page is in EAX . The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists. EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS. EAX MOV ESI.Get original linear . 12 SHL EBX. The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist. 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX.get rid of lower 12 to make it an index . .Get rid of upper 10 bits . EAX MOV EAX. EBX . 003FFFFFh SHR EBX.EBX now points to Page Table entry! .Keeps count of how many free found so far . . The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.Address of PD saved here .Index into shadow addresses from EAX . 2048 SHR EBX. EBX MOV EAX. or the 1Gb address mark for the user.*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow .Get original linear back in EBX . 2 ADD EBX.PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX. IN : EAX .13.Copy number of pages to ECX. EBX RETN FindRun .Leaves pJCB in EAX . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. USED: EAX. [EBX] AND EAX.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables.Index into PD for PT we are working on .Move to shadow addresses in PD . 22 SHL EBX. EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing.EAX now has Linear of Page Table . in which case we return 0. 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1.Save it again .Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset . .0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .

EBX still has count of pages.Next PT! . Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. FR1: XOR EAX.If .The starting linear address is equal to number of the last . 12 OR EAX. If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system.EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. 12 SUB EAX. . The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX . . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . .14.In use . EBX .MOV EDI.go INC MOV JMP FROK: .empty (available) .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS .No. .Not empty.EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. This is the way FindRun left them. . keep testing .Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 .PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) .One less page (0 offset) .Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. next PTE please ECX.Times size of page (* 4096) . .One more empty one! .Not done yet. . if the run spans two or more tables. See listing 19. Next PTE Please. EAX .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 .Yes.EDX was index into PD. EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. . or tables. EDI . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4]. .Zero means it's . while EAX was index into PT. go for it XOR EAX. EAX.This is the linear address we ended at .We found enough entries goto OK .EAX is next 10 bits of LA . [ESI+EDX*4] . 22 SHL EAX. . 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 . SHL EDX. The linear address of the run should be in EAX. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. and the count of pages should be in EBX.If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and .

Restore linear address . EDI is pointing the next PT.At this point. . EBX EAX 22 2 . 4 . THEN store it in PT. . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .LinAdd to EDX .EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . EDX. CMP EDX. . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX. [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. EBX . User ReadOnly .and OR in the appropriate control bits.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX.Set PTE to present. OUT: . ARDone: MMURTL V1. . AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX. EDX MOV EDX. go do next PTE ADD ESI.Listing 19. 4096 .0 .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX. 003FF000h SHR EDX. 4 .Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 .ESI now has ptr to PD! .Offset to shadow address of PD .SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. .No. AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. EAX AND EDX. Adding a run of linear memory . [ESI] .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX.EDX .Yes. IN : .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . . next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.LinAdd into EDX again .Make it index to DWORDS .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . . MEMSYS CMP EAX.Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . 10 AR0: MOV EDI. .Next PTE please.14. 2048 ADD ESI. . USED: .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) .then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) .See if it's a user page . EDX.(save for caller) .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. EDX.Get index into PD for first PT .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). .

USED: EAX. ESI MOV AliasJob. Listing 19.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . See listing 19. . . EDX.15.ESP SUB ESP. .we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX. AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .15. .LinAdd to EDX . Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. .POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun . EFlags . [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. . (from find run) . EBX EAX 22 2 .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. Once again. EDX. . EDX. EBX Number of Pages to alias . IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . OUT: Nothing . .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get index into PD for first PT . .This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . .or tables. and the count of pages should be in EBX. .(save for caller) . if the run spans two or more tables . . this is the way FindRun left them. ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . 8 MOV AliasLin.Make it index to DWORDS .

Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . go do next PTE .Are we done?? .LinAdd into EDX again . 10 ALR0: MOV EDI.This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE.Next PTE please. 4 CMP EDX.Address we are aliasing .POP EAX ADD ESI. 4 XOR EDX. [ESI] . . next PDE (to get next PT) . .At this point. AliasJob MOV EBX.Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) . .mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT.Yes. .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . . 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI.Start at the entry 0 of next PT .cut off system bits of PTE . .ESI now points to first PT of interest .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1. 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . AliasLin ADD AliasLin.Restore linear address . MOV ESP. EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX. to get a physical address into EAX. EDX MOV EDX. .EAX now has physical address for this page .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .No.Set system bits as ALIAS . MEMALIAS POP ESI . 003FF000h SHR EDX.EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX .Set up for next loop (post increment) .Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum . 0FFFFF000h OR EAX. 2048 ADD ESI. EDI is pointing to the PT we are in. . .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) . AND EAX. . EAX AND EDX.Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].EDX is index to exact entry .Job we are aliasing . .Offset to shadow addresses in PD .

Listing 19.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . .EDI points to UserPD Address . initializes it. Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. [EDI] ADD ESI. PUSH EDI . EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 .pJCB in EAX . . _nPagesFree OR EAX. This will be in user address space above 1GB.16. PUSH ESI . ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. [ESI] OR EBX. This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. MEMUSERD [ESI]. because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs.no free phy pages!) . Adding a page table for user memory .16. This is easier than AddOSPT.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) .Sorry.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1.See if have enuf physical memory .Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. . 2048 MOV ECX.AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. EAX MOV ESI. Is it empty? .Move to shadow . See listing 19. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow). pNextPT [ESI]. JcbPD ADD EDI. EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX. . AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code. No! (Try again) . .Set user bits (Read/Write) . EFlags . as shown in the following.ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . and sticks it in the user's page directory.ESI now points to PD .Linear add back into EBX . MOV EAX. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . PUSH EDX . IN : Nothing .Offset to PcbPD in JCB . EAX ESI.Physical address in lower half . .EAX will have Physical address . out of physical mem . EBX . USED: EAX. 2048 EBX. 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. Next possible empty entry . 4 MOV EBX.

_nPagesFree OR EAX. . EFlags . EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. out of physical mem .OS Job Number (Monitor) . ESI points to OS Pdir . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX.no free phy pages!) . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .. You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. . Listing 19. PUSH EDX . IN : Nothing . 1 XOR EAX. OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX. 511 MMURTL V1.EAX will have Physical address . in many cases.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX.0 . Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . Find first empty slot MOV ESI. Adding an operating system page table .size of request .next time.Sorry.17. Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX.See if have enuf physical memory . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . PUSH ESI . MOV EAX. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow).AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . 1 MOV EBX. PUSH EDI .was there an error (0 means no mem) .save pNextPT (the linear address) . . See listing 19.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running.17. USED: EAX. . AddOSPT: PUSH EBX .Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for .

2048 MOV EBX. .Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) . EBX . 2048 .Get values from stack ADD EBX. [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX.Source of Copy .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD .Physical address in lower half . nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX.0 . .Move to shadow . JcbPD MOV EBX. ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX.Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .AOPT02: ADD ESI.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.Linear add back into EBX . ESI EAX Get and . Is it empty? .Source EAX . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.Destination 1024 . Not a valid JCB (unused) .Save values on stack MOV EDX.Next JCB . 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1. [ESI] OR EBX. 4 MOV EBX. . . .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX .Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. EAX ADD ESI. The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) .Set present bit . . pNextPT MOV [ESI].Save nJCB we are on .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) .Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX. Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all. 2048 . Next possible empty entry .No. # of dynamic JCBs .Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX . Get back JCB number . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI]. No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir .

0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .Set ErcOK (0) . .save pNextPT (the linear address) . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) .At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! .next time. .18.AddRun . OUT: EAX Returns Errors. AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate. . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. ESI. EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . . else 0 if all's well . This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. EFLAGS MMURTL V1. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) .. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.was there an error (0 means no mem) . Listing 19. . ECX. DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . . Adding a call gate to the GDT . USES: EAX. ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. IN: AX . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . See listing 19. . Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management.size of request . .18. DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . . (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. EBX. 1 XOR EAX. allowing access to OS procedures. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined.

.19.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. 40 . . nCallGates .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . . for a task gate.Put Gate ID into gate . EDX. ESI.not too low. Listing 19.Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX.make index vice selector CMP EBX. . . SI . 8 .PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. ercBadGateNum .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].Put Offset 31:16 into gate . RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.19.0 . AX SHR EAX. CX SUB EBX. 16 . EAX . EBX.see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX. See listing 19.No. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX. . MOV EAX. . AX .Yes. . SI . USES: AX .0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 . 40h . . IN: .Put Offset 15:00 into gate . ECX.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. GDTBase . The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap. ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX]. interrupt. BX MMURTL V1.call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX.Extend INT Num into EDX .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4]. MOV EAX. . Adding entries to the IDT . AX MOV EAX.Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX.Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) .Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . CX SHL EDX. or task gate.EDX now points to gate .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. .Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . CX . 3 . 3 ADD EDX.

PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate. . .Kernel Error?? . _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . Allocate each physical page. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.EAX ALOSP00 EAX.Sorry boss. Procedureal Interface : . The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above. placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request. we're maxed out EAX. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. . but not close enough to easily combine their code.n4KPages EAX.size of request . EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit .Yes .(0 = No Runs big enuf) . AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage.No Error! EAX. See listing 19. . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space.More than 0? .0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX.ppMemRet): dError .n4KPages XOR EAX.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .See if have enuf physical memory . pRunTSS ADD EAX.20.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . This allows runs to span table entries.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.size of request .Yes .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree. Allocating a page of linear memory .0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS .Yes! Serious problem. . If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. A result code is returned in the EAX register.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. .20. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] . Listing 19.RETF .Can't be zero! .

Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. . Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed. JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. AliasMem(pMem. POP EAX . POP EBP . dJobNum.CALL AddOSPT OR EAX.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD.0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . .pMem EQU [EBP+24] .Go back & try again . This wastes no physical memory. If so. EAX . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. Even if the address is only two bytes. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Add a new page table (we need it!) .Save last error PUSH MemExch . The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. however . .No error ALOSPExit: . dcbMem. EAX . .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . Procedureal Interface : . Listing 19.Only an entry in a table. dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. . This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around.EAX now has linear address . . No alias is needed. Exit.Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. ppAliasRet): dError . . pMem is the address to alias. PUSH EAX . . . MMURTL V1. ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. . . ppMemRet . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: .ERROR!! . RETF 8 .EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . Code to alias memory .EBP . if it crosses page boundaries. See if they are available.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] .21.See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) . you need two pages.dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] .Does not return error .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory.

EAX is now nPages we need! EAX .No.Set up for OS memory space . .Number of pages we need into EBX .See if it is OS based service . EAX.Yes. we're done ALSPBegin: .Yes . . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX.Was there enough PTEs? . . 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.Are they the same Page Directory?? . 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . No Error . alias it . .Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .Now wait our turn with memory management .Yes! Serious problem. EAX. [EBP+16] CMP EAX. User memory .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.See if it is OS based service . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.EAX is nPages-1 . .Yes .Add to dcbMem 12 .Save nPages in ECX . ECX CALL FindRun .Get Job number for pMem .Kernel Error?? .dcbMem EBX . pRunTSS ADD EAX. .Exit. EAX JMP ALSPDone .Puts Current Job Num in EAX .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .EAX has 0 or 256 . [EBP+24] .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias .No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .0 .EAX is 256 for user space. We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX. . . 0 for OS . EBX.EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough .0h JNE ALSPDone . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. EAX. . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX.No.PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX. PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Yes .OS Job? .OS Job? .EBX still has count of pages OR EAX. EAX ECX.pMem into EAX 0FFFh .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.

[EBP+12] [ESI]. JobNum):ercType .Set .Save last error . . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address .EBX . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: .pAliasRet . 0FFFh EDI.Now. . . PUSH MemExch . EAX .22.22. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . See listing 19. dcbAliasBytes. DeAliasMem(pAliasMem.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun .EAX . Listing 19. . . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines.and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . Procedureal Interface : .Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing .0 = NO Error . .Job number .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . [EBP+24] EAX. pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI.Get remaining bits .Save alias page address base .Go back & try again .Set to 0 (no error) .original pMem . . Code to remove alias PTEs .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. EDI EAX.Returned address to caller! . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . [EBP+24] MOV EDX. EAX MOV ESI. EAX ESI.Address to alias . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP. PUSH EAX .We are done ALSPExit: . .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS .ERROR!! . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call.

Yes. .ESP . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX. XOR EAX. .Is page present (valid)??? .AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .We did some. PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX MOV [ESI]. DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . . EDX MOV EAX.None at all! . [EBP+20] .See if PTE is an alias.Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.Is page an ALIAS? .Linear Mem to DeAlias .DO not zero it! .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX. .ECX . [ESI] TEST EBX.Address of next page to deallocate .but less than you asked for! ECX.NO . EBX .EBP MMURTL V1. EAX DALM03: ADD EDX. .Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) . [EBP+20] .. if so just ZERO PTE. .pAliasMem . .EAX is nPages-1 EAX . . 12 . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .dcbAliasBytes .MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX.Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .Get PTE into EBX .Add the remainder of address EAX. -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 .and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS).We dealiased what we could. EDI DALM011 EAX.Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX.Next linear page .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI. ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX. 0FFFh .NO! (did we do any at all) .EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.pMem into EAX EBX.0 . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP.dcbMem EAX. EAX .ZERO PTE entry .so we zero out the page. [EBP+16] . [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy . it's page is present .Add to dcbMem EAX.

else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX. . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy . Even if you specify more pages than are valid.Number of pages to deallocate . providing it is valid.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. . pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias. . pRunTSS ADD EAX.Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy .Get PTE into EBX . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX.23. Procedureal Interface : . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. DeAllocPage(pOrigMem. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. pOrigMem AND EDX. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Error?? . [ESI] TEST EBX. . if so just ZERO PTE. n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate . its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS .POP EBP RETF 12 .Yes.Is page present (valid)??? . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . . .Yes! . deallocate. It will always free linear memory. The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored .0 .Address of next page to deallocate . n4KPages):ercType . because we deallocate 4K pages. DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls.See if PTE is an alias.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. Listing 19.Linear Mem to deallocate . . See listing 19. n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX.and pointer to PTE in ESI. .23. Deallocating linear memory . . . .Now we have Physical Address in EAX .

. .Kernel error has priority . .None at all! MOV EAX. ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX. QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .ZERO PTE entry . ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . .We deallocated what we could. . .save Memory error .Next linear page . You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. EAX MOV [ESI]. EAX ADD EDX. pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . AND EBX.but less than you asked for! .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS .Send a dummy message to pick up . Listing 19. .Yes.If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias .NO! (did we do any at all) .get rid of OS bits .We did some. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. over memory error . Procedureal Interface : . Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit . 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP.get Memory error back . so next guy can get in .. .24. 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. See listing 19. .24. . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX.Is page an ALIAS? .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. Code to find number of free pages .so we must unmark (release) the physical page. it's an Alias .

GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address.ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. EAX MOV ESP. pPhyRet . [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI.25. . pMemLeft EAX. No Error .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . EAX EAX. Linear Address .25. [EBP+16] MOV EAX. .END OF CODE MMURTL V1. Job Number . . . See listing 19. .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page.No Error . . GetPhyAdd(JobNum.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . MOV ESP. PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . LinAdd. pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] .. . EAX . Listing 19. This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. . Public for linear to physical conversion . . be returned . pPhyRet):ercType . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. EAX XOR EAX. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . _nPagesFree [ESI]. . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . .ESP MOV EBX. . left available returned . Procedureal Interface : .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] .

.

MMURTL is no exception. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. as well as the fastest one possible. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. In a 10ms period we have 200.6 percent for the worst case. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period.1. etc. divided by the total clocks for the same period.1. I experimented with several different intervals. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR.2 percent. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. which works out to about 1. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. It was 0. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. See listing 20. Even more important than total bandwidth.. It's at the end of the timer ISR. actually the scheduler. a slow machine. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. The average really depends on program loading.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. As you well know. I ended up with 10ms. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. Two of them will come in at 260us. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. with 100-MHz machines around. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. memory wait-states. preemptive multitasking. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly. however. or 3000 clocks. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Back when I started this project.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. was the effect on interrupt latency.2 percent of available bandwidth. I was consuming less than 0. along with a piece of the kernel. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. Somewhere between these two was the average.Chapter 20. But even with these calculations. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. especially synchronous. which is very conservative. my worries were unfounded. A single communications channel running at 19. The average is was far less.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 20.

The Timer Block is a structure that contains . 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400.2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. The odds of this are truly astronomical. Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. . That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine.Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup).320 clocks. A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386.DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 .INCLUDE TSS. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt.INCLUDE MOSEDF. But. Data and constants for timer code . This doesn't cause a problem at all. sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 .DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 .0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . This I could live with. These are the offsets into the structure . the exchange number of a task that is sleeping.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. See listing 20.2. Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16.2. that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt.INC . Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long .FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. or 20us. Listing 20.ALIGN DWORD . plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. and finally with test programs.INC . including the 10 percent overhead. .DD 00000000h . hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time. or one that has requested an alarm.DATA .

the first things defined in this code segment.ASM. If so.FALSE . You have now interrupted that task.Yes . See listing 20.0h .Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR .INTS are disabled automatically . INT 20 . The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs.Timer Tick.ISend Message MOV EAX. External functions for timer code . The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require..Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 . If it is the same or higher.. The three external near calls. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more. The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.ASM.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.No . It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. you switch to it. The timer interrupt service routine .goto decrement it PUSH EAX . Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.4. which is the one you interrupted.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 . only one task is actually executing.ECX has count of Timer Blocks .Yes .Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel. It is a small.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.3.3.No . At all times on the system. and they may be of an equal. .nTmrBlks CLD . PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. Listing 20. See listing 20. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? .FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. priority than the task that is now running.No.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS .save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] .4. or higher. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do. They may have been placed there by other ISRs.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX. Listing 20. -1 .Yes! .EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. yet very important part.

Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .If current is higher(lower num). MOV EBX. pRunTSS MOV DL.We will now check to see if this guy has been running .[EDI+Tid] .if we got a CARRY on the subtract.skip decrement . MOV ESI. TimerTick . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .. EAX MOV EAX.switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri . MMURTL V1. EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX.unless were done .. EAX JZ TaskCheckDone . and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS.or Equal.10ms more gone.for more then 30ms (3 ticks). Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick. JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI. . If so.Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 . PUSH 0 . Put current one in EAX .. and save in EDI . we will .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL.bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg .EDI .tell him his times up! POP ECX .Is there one at all?? .YES. ESI CALL enQueueRdy .Compare current pri to highest queued . Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX.No.current pri. we want to Switch.bogus msg PUSH EAX . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.keep going ..next block please! . Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . EAX . If the Queued Pri is LOWER .Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ . That means .get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].number was higher and we DON'T .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed .Change this to change the "time slice" .0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS ..PUSH EAX . CMP EAX.get count back POP EAX .FALSE . his . no need to check tasks .BX . Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. SUB EAX.Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.Is this from a HALTed state? .is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX.DL is pri of current . dfHalted OR EAX.

5. TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].ESP . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . .EBP . Sleep() .clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . See listing 20.Empty block? JNE Delay02 .ErcNoMoreTBs . RETF 4 . The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.ErcOk .all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX. DelayCnt CMP EAX. IRETD .FALSE . out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP.TSS_Msg .rgTmrBlks .EBX . The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero.TRUE .Count of timer blocks CLD .Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .nTmrBlks .pRunTSS . MOV EAX.See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.DelayCnt . The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.Sorry.5.EBX . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) . This requires an exchange.Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX.Must do this before we switch! .sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .No .unless were done MOV EAX.goto next block MOV EBX.[ECX+TSS_Exch] . Listing 20. 0 . MOV EBP.Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].FAR return from publics MMURTL V1. POP EBP .

MOV EBP.6. DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. .ESP . Code for the Alarm function . PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP . Listing 20.0 .It's OK to interrupt now EAX.FALSE .Empty block? Alarm02 . AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.put it in timer block! . Alarm(nAlarmExch. AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. MOV EAX.ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP.Up the blocksInUse count EBX. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel. The message is not repeatable.See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX. AlarmCnt CMP EAX. which means the message has already been sent.unless were done .Get delay count [EAX+CountDown]. KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. . Procedural Interface: .TRUE . AlarmCnt):dErc . See listing 20.AlarmCnt .7.EBX . out of timer blocks .all is well Alarm03 .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . nothing will stop it.Sorry. -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed. It must be set up each time.rgTmrBlks . . See listing 20.nTmrBlks .6. MMURTL V1.EBX .It's OK to interrupt now . 0 .Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.goto next block EBX.No .Count of timer blocks CLD .ErcOk .

0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.7.unless were done .EAX points to timer blocks .Block in use? KAlarm02 . The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.TRUE . But it's still very much needed.ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers.Get exchange for killing alarms to . . .Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1.EAX MOV ESP. .0 . .FALSE .It's OK to interrupt now .No . This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds). which drives the processor clock. The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator. so we get out! . This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.Count of timer blocks . PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.clear direction flag . See listing 20. The task is actually not suspended at all. Code for the KillAlarm function .ALl done -. KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . Listing 20.Listing 20.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .8.ErcOk .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . .KAlarmExch LEA EAX.Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX.sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX. Procedural Interface: .No blocks in use . The count is in 15us increments.Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS . . Code for the MicrDelay function .8.EBX . KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.

61h AND AL.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Get system status port . [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX. AL SHL EBX.Get delay count . the next byte is the Hours in BCD.AL IN AL. EBX MOV EAX.ESP MOV ECX. .04h OUT 70h.71h MOV BL.02h OUT 70h. AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.9. .Seconds .00h OUT 70h.71h MOV BL.AL IN AL. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI]. 10h CMP AH. and the high order byte is 0.Check toggle of bit .Toggle! Move to AH for next compare . 8 MOV EAX. See listing 20. Code to read the CMOS time . . AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.No toggle yet .AL IN AL.Clear time return . .AL SHL EBX.get out if they came in with 0! . MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. EBX MMURTL V1. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). 8 MOV EAX.0 .check refrest bit .71h MOV BL. Listing 20.AL MOV ESI. Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .9.Hours .Minutes . 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL.ESP XOR EBX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .MOV EBP. EAX MOV ESP. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. the next byte is the minutes in BCD.

10. . AL SHL EBX. GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . . . GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. . . See listing 20.AL SHL EBX. AL SHL EBX.Give 'em the time .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . No Error .09h OUT 70h. MMURTL V1.71h MOV BL. .06h OUT 70h. 0-6 0=Sunday).71h MOV BL.AL IN AL.71h MOV BL.Year . 8 MOV EAX. EBX XOR EAX. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99).AL IN AL.Clear date return MOV EAX. .Month .AL IN AL.ESP . Procedural Interface: .07h OUT 70h. XOR EBX. Listing 20. No Error .10.08h OUT 70h.Day of month . 8 MOV EAX. EBX .AL MOV ESI.0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS .XOR EAX. 8 MOV EAX. MOV EBP. EAX MOV ESP.AL IN AL. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). EAX MOV ESP. pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP .71h MOV BL.Day of week . Code to read the CMOS date . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12).

The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h.DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . AL XOR EDX. . Listing 20.Timer 2.To find the divisor of the clock.11. The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). MSB. Code to return the timer tick .1.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1. Because it is a dword. With a 10ms interval. AL IN AL. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h. LSB. TimerTick MOV [ESI]. which is connected to the system internal speaker. Hardware timer number 2.193182Mhz . . Listing 20. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. divide 1. .193182Mhz by Desired Freq. is used to generate tones. The procedural interface: . EAX XOR EAX.800. .000 ticks per month. Binary .0 .193182 Mhz . See listing 20. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() .No Error .ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. this amounts to 262. AL MOV AL.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. . 61h MMURTL V1.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS .12. See listing 20. pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.12. . .11.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . 10110110b OUT 43h.ESP MOV ESI. .This does all work for BEEP and TONE . The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror . EDX MOV EAX. pTickRet MOV EAX. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep().

. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. . AL PUSH ECX . Listing 20.14. See listing 20. I couldn't resist.350ms . MMURTL V1. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . if it had. This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. Code to produce a tone . Listing 20. .13. . . It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() .OR AL. Code to produce a beep . See listing 20. . Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS .) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. . 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h. 11111100b OUT 61h.ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. AL RETN Beep() . . 800 MOV ECX.14. CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL.ESP MOV EBX.13. (Sorry. .Freq . I would have called it Beep_Beep(). . Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 . . ToneFreq MOV ECX.PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ESP MOV EBX.

It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) . In chapter 7.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process.ASM.ASM which is presented later in this chapter.======================================================= . Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . Main Operating System Data . a workhorse for Main. Periodically you will see the . Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . “OS Initialization.DATA . Listing 21.0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . The assembler does no alignment on its own. It is the entry point in the operating system.ALIGN command. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files.INC . The second file is InitCode.ASM. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. the first instruction executed after boot up.INCLUDE TSS. The first file is Main.1. I generally try to align data that is accessed often. and I don't worry about the rest of it. and Public Call Gate table. Kernel Structures .INCLUDE MOSEDF.ALIGN DWORD .ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler.INC . Initial OS Page Table (PT).See MOSEDF.INCLUDE JOB. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 . For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) .Chapter 21. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are. . Initial OS Page Directory (PD).ASM.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files. Global Descriptor table (GDT). This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.INC . OS Global Data Listing 21. The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL . access to the data is faster if it is.INC for structure details. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main.

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

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.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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SI .This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. MOV ESI. PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].DPL 3. IN : Nothing .Breakpoint MOV EAX. .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . EBX. 08F00h .call DPL & ndParams RETN . 255 . adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic .SUB EBX. . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 08F00h .Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector. 8 . 4 . OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called.========================================================================= . Used : ALL registers and flags . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. Second.DPL 3.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 08E00h . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . InitIDT .DPL 3. Out : Nothing . software and hardware interrupt handlers. GDTBase . 3 . OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0 . AX . First. 08F00h . SI . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. 40 .make index vice selector MOVZX EBX.DPL 3. .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.Divide By Zero MOV EAX. 3 . 1 .0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. . OSCodeSel . Trap gate MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .Overflow 08F00h . OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. MOV ESI.DPL 3.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].Single Step MOV EAX. 16 . ESI. EAX. CX .

08F00h .Double Exception MOV EAX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. EAX. 8 .Invalid TSS MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS .DPL 3.DPL 3. 20h . OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1.Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. MOV ESI.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h .Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. 08F00h .Seg Not Present MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel .DPL 3. MOV ESI. 08F00h . MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Eh . MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. ESI. IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h . MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. OSCodeSel . 0Ch . 0Ah . 08E00h .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 08F00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. EBX. 08F00h .DPL 3. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int Page Fault MOV EAX. MOV ESI. 6 . 0Bh .Int TIMER MOV EAX. 0Dh .GP fault MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . 21h . MOV ESI.

INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.... 27h .. MOV ESI. 2Ah . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 24h . MOV ESI.Int . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h .. OSCodeSel .DPL 3... MOV EAX.. 08E00h . MOV EAX.. 08E00h .IntLPT1 MOV EAX. .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h ..DPL 3..FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..DPL 3. MOV EAX.. OSCodeSel .DPL 3....DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... OFFSET IntQ ... 28h .DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1..DPL 3..CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . 08E00h .Int LPT2 MOV EAX. OSCodeSel .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. ESI. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ .. 2Bh . OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int . MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE . MOV ESI. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.. 25h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 23h ..Int .DPL 3. 26h .Int .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..... 08E00h . EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..Int COM1 MOV EAX.Int . MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . 29h . EAX.. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX... MOV EAX. OSCodeSel ... MOV ESI.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.Int COM2 MOV EAX. 08E00h .... OSCodeSel ..0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS .

. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. Out : Nothing . 08C03h .. 08E00h . 2Dh . DPL 3 MOV ECX.. but MUST be called before the first far call to any . 08E00h . Used : ALL registers and flags . DPL 0 MOV ECX. DPL 3 MOV ECX. 2Eh .DPL 3.. 58h MOV DX. MOV EAX.. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX...... MOV EAX.. IN : Nothing .SendMsg -..3 DWord Params. 2Fh .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 40h MOV DX. 0EC01h . MOV EAX.Int . IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! . OSCodeSel MOV ESI.WaitMsg -. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..DPL 3. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX.. This can't .Int .Int .0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS .. OSCodeSel .========================================================================== .3 DWord params. DPL 3 MOV ECX. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1.2 DWord Params.. 50h MOV DX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 48h MOV DX. 0EC02h . MOV ESI.. OSCodeSel ....1Dword param.DPL 3. OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! . InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates.ISendMsg -. 0EC03h .Set Priority . MOV ESI. MOV ESI. 08E00h .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. before initcallgates. OSCodeSel .

. RETN MMURTL V1.The rest of the call gate set ups go here.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .

It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. TSSs. In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). EBX -.INC .Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1.INCLUDE TSS. These calls.CODE .Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in .INC . Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . many of them public functions.Begin Code ================== . was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: . Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. the JCB. The process of allocating all the resources.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management. pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while.1. can be a complicated scenario. and finally the operating system memory.======= End data. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. Pieces of related code in the kernel. this is the where you'll end up. See listing 22. Before I wrote this code. request blocks.INCLUDE MOSEDF. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD . When things don't work right.DATA . I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one. the monitor. it is usually quite a mess.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs . The resources you reclaim include all of the memory.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . link blocks. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB .Chapter 22. JCBs are in allocated memory .jobs (Monitor & Debugger) .asm .INCLUDE JOB. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. exchanges. From Main. The program loader is in this chapter.================================================================ . are used by almost every module in the operating system.1 Listing 22. INPUT : EAX -. Job Management Subroutines .0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . and finally starting the new task.

This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run.============================================================================= . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated.pbJobName ECX -. USED: EAX. .first byte of name . .EDX. EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information. InitFreeJCB .EAX .Make last one NIL RETN . .EDI points to JCB .ESI EFLAGS .Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. 3 . MMURTL V1.Put Ptr to PD into JCB .Video number is in JCB .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX.ECX. . EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols]. The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs. . EDX is size of each JCB. .Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . EAX .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum].EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB]. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). EAX points to the first JCB. OUTPUT : NONE .EDX .Count of JCBs . sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI]. EDX . . ESI -. 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. . MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. EBX ..0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . ECX .EAX . EBX.1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. .Move it in .EBX MOV EDI. . pJCBs .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs.EBX. . .EAX . ESI. in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger).Now to JobName . . EDI. . EAX ADD EDI. 7 MOV EAX. ECX. INPUT : EAX . . . . . The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). . .Size of JCBs . . 0 .cbJobName EDX -. ECX is count of JCBs. CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid].size is filled in . We can't use its position . [EAX+JobNum] RETN .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX. . while . PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. EDX.EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX.Address of JCBs to be initialized .

This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. CMP EAX. .FLAGS . .0 . INPUT : EAX .. 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . MOV EBX.pFreeJCB . 4096 EDI. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. nJCBs MOV EDX.Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. . . . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. .Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft .EBX. pJCBs MOV ECX. . . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . .Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . REGISTERS : EBX. update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX. .EBX . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX.============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . .0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. OUTPUT : NONE .FLAGS . 0 . .IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. . 0 . EAX ECX.DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. NewJCBDone: RETN . JE NewJCBDone . .============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . Get 'em! . then EAX will contain NIL (0). If none exists. The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB).================================================================ . If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return.[EAX+NextJCB] . . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. OUTPUT : EAX . Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). MOV EAX. JE DispJCBDone . Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . INPUT : NONE . This routine will also . REGISTERS : EAX. the free pool. . pJCBs STOSD .

. in EAX. This is based on which Task is executing. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task.EBX has OS ptr to free list . .EBX MOV pFreeJCB. PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. All TSSs are assigned to a Job.Pointer to JCB RETN . OUTPUT: EAX -. .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . All TSSs are . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX. This is based on which Task is executing. INPUT: Nothing . OUTPUT: EAX -.============================================================ . .pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB]. . A Job may have more than one Task. EFlags . . USED: EAX.EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS .Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. . assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. pRunTSS . Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX.============================================================ . . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. GetpCrntJCB .Current Job Number . .Job Number of desired pJCB . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . EFlags .Linear Address of current JCB . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. USED: EAX.Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . is a field in the JCB structure. INPUT: EAX -. PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. [EAX+JobNum] . .MOV EBX.============================================================ . OUTPUT: EAX -. . . USED: EAX. 2 MMURTL V1.Move it into newly freed JCB . All TSSs are . The Job number . GetpJCB . GetCrntJobNum .Current JCB RETN . . . assigned to a Job. EFlags . INPUT: Nothing .

Add in two static JCBs . Sorry. . . The Job number . is a field in the JCB structure. EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is a NEAR . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX.Current Job Number . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. AllocJCB (NEAR) . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. . . ppJCBRet):ercType . . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. 3 MOV EDX. . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. OUTPUT: EAX -. Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. USED: EAX.Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) .============================================================ .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. We got one! . sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. . . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. . languages. . Procedureal Interface : .Within range of JCBs . Get a new JCB . EFlags .Current JCB RETN .============================================================ .Times size of JCB . [EAX+JobNum] .0 . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. . pJCBs POP EDX RETN .Now points to desired JCB . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool).JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. . . call to support the public job management calls in high level . . . . GetJobNum . . . . . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB.

pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.pJCBRet . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. . GetpJCB . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. . . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. . . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. . Get a new JCB . . . . call to support the public job management calls in high level . . GetpJCB(dJobNum. EAX MOV ESP. EAX XOR EAX. DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). pJCB . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated.============================================================ . languages in the OS code. . Procedureal Interface : .============================================================ .============================================================ . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . . . EAX MOV ESI. .Job Num .ESP MOV EAX. you specifiy.===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. . . .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . .MOV ESP.No error . . . . . . EAX MOV ESP. . Procedureal Interface : . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . pJCBRet):ercType . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . . . . MMURTL V1. This is a NEAR . . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI].

Job Num OR EAX. POP EBP .. . . . RETF 8 . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned.0 is invalid CMP EAX. or 0 will be returned with the data.Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. POP EBP .EBP . . POP EBP . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI.ESP . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . ErcInvalidJCB .pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. Procedureal Interface : . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. . GetJobNum . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. RETF 8 . EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . MMURTL V1. [EBP+12] .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . nJCBs + 2. EAX XOR EAX. dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . . . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI].JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. . This is . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . . 0 .============================================================ . MOV ESP. This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job. .EBP . . ErcBadJobNum . the job that the task that called this belongs to.puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. .No Error . . . . RETF 8 .pJobNumRet . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 .Leave jobnum in EAX . [EBP+16] . . MOV EAX. EAX MOV ESP. . .

. MOV EAX.No Error POP EBP . pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk . MOV EBP. Functions for starting new jobs.asm.0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job.================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. contains all of the major high-level functions for job management.c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). disk that the system booted from.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. _BootDrive AND EAX.2. RETF 4 . Listing 22. AL .ESP . It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. EAX . This is from the public . 7Fh . loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS .============================================================ . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . Procedureal Interface : . Jobc. XOR EAX. still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. PUSH EBP . . .get rid of high bits MOV ESI. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . [EBP+12] . GetSystemDisk . And will . the number representing the system disk is returned. ending jobs. variable _BootDrive defined in Main. and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. This code is here for lack of a better place. pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where . It's really not a filesystem function either. . . . .. . This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . . . Jobc.c.

0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "MKbd. */ static long TmpStack[128].h" "MJob. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. char *pJCBRet).h" "MData.h" "MVid.ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet..h" #include "runfile. . SetExchOwner(long Exch. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. SendAbort(long JobNum. char *ppJCBRet). MMURTL V1.h" "MMemory..Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode. /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt.h" "MTimer. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it.).h" "MFiles. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB). long cb). static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. long Exch). GetExchOwner(long Exch. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. char *pNewJCB).

static char aFileE[80]. char *pMem.static long JobNum. 0. i<1024. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. 0. j. static unsigned long oCode. static long offCode = 0. sData. *pStack. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. ercE. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. 0. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. offData = 0. 0.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . BogusMsg[2]. unsigned long *pPT. 0. for (i=768. i++) { MMURTL V1. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. iE. sStack. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. static long cbFileE. 0. filetype. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. job_fhE. we eliminate the user PDEs. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. erc. extern unsigned long KillExch. static struct tagtype tag. static long sCode. oData. 0. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. ExchE. When all PTs have been cleaned. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. *pData. k. *pPDE.

oCDFIX = 0. MMURTL V1.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. i.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000.id = 0. reads and validates the run file. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. &fh). long cbFileName. &filetype. junk.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . for (j=0. cbFileName. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. offData = 0. oDDFIX = 0. nDDFIX = 0. offCode = 0. oDCFIX = 0. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. k). nDCFIX = 0. nCDFIX = 0. &dret). if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. 1. nCCFIX = 0. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. j<1024. &tag. 5. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. long *pfhRet) { long erc. &dret). If all is well. oCCFIX = 0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. fh. switch (tag. char fDone. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. 1. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. dret. *pfhRet = 0. 0.

default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oDDFIX+tag. /* skip it break. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &oDDFIX). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. break.len/4. i+tag. &sData. &oDCFIX). &oCDFIX). &offData. oCode+tag.len/4. &dret). nCDFIX = tag. break.len). MMURTL V1.len).len/4. &oCode). case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &i). /* skip it break. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break.0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS .len/4. &dret).len). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (tag. break. nCCFIX = tag. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &sCode. &dret). case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &oData). 4. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). 4. &offCode. /* skip it break.len). case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.len). /* skip it break.break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &oCCFIX). break. nDDFIX = tag. oCCFIX+tag. 4. &dret). /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.len). &dret). nDCFIX = tag. &pStart. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. oDCFIX+tag. 4. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. break. &sStack. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oData+tag.len). oCDFIX+tag. 4.

} } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). &pTmpJCB). long dcbPath) { long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum).break. dcbRunFile). } return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". &pTmpJCB). long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. return(0). erc). if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetpJCB(JobNum. return (erc). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. i). GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum).0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. MMURTL V1. &pTmpJCB). long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. pRunRet. i. *pdcbRunRet = i. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. else { CopyData(pRunFile. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet.

&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). return(0). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. dcbPath). long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. i).0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. *pdcbPathRet = i. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. } return(0). } return(erc). long dcbUser) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. char *pPathRet. dcbCmd). long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. i). GetpJCB(JobNum. pPathRet. pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0].else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. erc. *pdcbCmdRet = i. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). pCmdRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). MMURTL V1. else { CopyData(pCmd. else { CopyData(pPath. GetJobNum(&JobNum).

&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. i). else { CopyData(pName.0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . long dcbName) { long JobNum. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. pFileRet. dcbName). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). *pdcbFileRet = i. i. else { CopyData(pUser. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. GetpJCB(JobNum.GetJobNum(&JobNum). pUserRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0). GetJobNum(&JobNum). pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). return(0). &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. dcbUser). &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB). i). *pdcbUserRet = i. GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0).

else { CopyData(pName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. return(0). } return(0). long *pFix. i). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1].{ long JobNum. i. *pdcbFileRet = i. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. pFileRet. unsigned long *pPD. i. GetpJCB(JobNum. *pVid. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). U32 PhyAdd. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. long cbFileName. dret. *pPT. fh. cbFileName. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. dcbName). &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. GetJobNum(&JobNum).0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). long dcbName) { long JobNum. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. nPages. dcbName). &fh). *pOSPD. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet.

if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. 0). erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". PhyAdd). pPT. 0). &pData). &pStack). nPages = sData/4096. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. pVid = pPD + 8192. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. pPD). pOSPD[768] = pPT. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". pPD = 0. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. 4096. &pTmpJCB). if (sData%4096) nPages++. 4096. pNewJCB = 0. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. 1). sStack = nPages * 4096. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". GetpJCB(1. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. FillData(pVid. xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n".0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pPD). /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. /* Job's PD. MMURTL V1. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). &pCode). pPT). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. &PhyAdd)./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. pVid = 0. &pNewJCB). pPT = pPD + 4096. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. nPages = sCode/4096. pPT = 0.

0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. oCode).offCode + pCode. pFix = pCode + i. pPD. 4. &dret). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4.offData + pData. &dret). sCode. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i. 4. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oDCFIX). the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret).offCode + pCode. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. &dret). pFix = pCode + i. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pData. pFix = pData + i. oCDFIX). sData. */ CopyData(pOSPD. &i. 4096). &dret). oData). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCCFIX)./* Right now. pFix = pData + i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. pCode. 4. oDDFIX).offData + pData. &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } MMURTL V1. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.

/* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. pStart+pCode-offCode). pNewJCB). pNewJCB->nCols = 80. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. 0x18. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. 0. /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. i. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. 1024. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. /* Size */ CopyData("VID". 3). pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. 1024. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. pStack+sStack-4.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. 3). pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. 25.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0). 0).

if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCode). /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pData. The PD. long fh) { long erc. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). sStack = nPages * 4096.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. &dret). pCode. oCDFIX). nPages. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. oData). i. &pStack). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. sData. nPages = sData/4096. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. if (sData%4096) nPages++. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. dret. erc = AllocPage(nPages. &dret). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. sCode. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. pNewJCB = pJCB. &pData). long *pFix. nPages = sCode/4096. /* All Job memory is now allocated. &pCode). return(erc).

offCode + pCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pFix = pData + i. &i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. 4. return(erc). /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. pFix = pData + i. &i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh).offData + pData. &dret). &dret). } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret). and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. oDCFIX).PT and video. pFix = pCode + i. 4.erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCCFIX). oDDFIX). MMURTL V1. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData.offCode + pCode. This task. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. its exchange. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. &i. &i. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &dret). pFix = pCode + i.offData + pData. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .

CleanUserPD(pPDE). */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. ExchE. */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. WaitMsg(ExchE. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. &pTmpJCB). if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum).GetpJCB(JobNumE. This is used to kill run-away jobs. ISendMsg(KillExch. if (erc) return(erc). ercE = 0. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. Debugger or the current job. while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. BogusMsg). &pTmpJCB). It results in a violent death for the job specified. BogusMsg). A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. GetTSSExch(&ExchE).0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). SetPriority(31). /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. ErcOpCancel). ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc.

This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. 0. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). ExchE. /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. 0x08. pTmpJCB). /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum.ercE = 0. GetpJCB(JobNumE. fDebug. &pExchJCBE). If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. ESP. &_KillTask). ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). 3. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. } ercE = 0. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. return(erc). if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. Exch. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. &TmpStack[127]. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. iE = 0. iE++. EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. CodeSeg. We send "Abort" messages to all services. &pCrntJCB).0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. ExchE). Priority.

Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). */ GetExitJob(aFileE. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). */ SendAbort(JobNumE. EBP. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. CleanUserPD(pPDE). iE++./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. &cbFileE). /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. ercE = 0. ercE = 0. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). &pExchJCBE). iE = 0. ESP. Send Abort messages to all services. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). If no exit run file. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. EAX. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. ExchE). */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. ercE = 0.

and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. &job_fhE). if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. BogusMsg). SUB EAX. ADD EAX. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. job_fhE). MOV ESP. Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. SetPriority(31). cbFileE.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. */ #asm MOV EAX. MOV EBX. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . ercE). WaitMsg(ExchE. ExchE. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. MOV EBP.

In other words. aFileE. cbFileName.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. cbFileName). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. iE++. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE).error loading the Job. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). long cbFileName. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. */ MMURTL V1. long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. ercE = 0. &pExchJCBE). &job_fhE). The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. iE = 0. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. } CloseFile(job_fhE). cbFileE = cbFileName. Send Abort messages to all services. GetpJCB(JobNumE. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). &pCrntJCB). /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks.

Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). If no exit run file. job_fhE). EBP. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. ercE = 0. if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). &cbFileE). /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. */ MMURTL V1. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. ESP. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). /* Try to load the Chain file. &job_fhE). if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. job_fhE). } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . The original user's job is destroyed. EAX. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. cbFileE. ExchE).SendAbort(JobNumE. ercE = 0. CleanUserPD(pPDE). cbFileE. &job_fhE). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD.

MOV EBP. SUB EAX. BogusMsg). #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). MOV EBX.#asm MOV EAX. ExchE. WaitMsg(ExchE. ADD EAX.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . MOV ESP. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. ercE).

which are all debug exceptions. I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . entry from the current job into the debuggers job. I have left them as individual procedures. Next. Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. See listing 23.EnterDebug . The debugger is a separate task. While writing the operating system. so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address.Chapter 23. debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. First we copy the Page Dir . . This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. on which exception is was. . . Breakpoints. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. . register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. . but is still very immature. If we get here.1. Listing 23. Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. Get Flags . They are made to match those of the interrupted task. It has grown substantially. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions.1.0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. then copy the CR3 . All of the debugger's . then it jumped here to enter the debugger. This makes the . You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. Get EIP of offender for debugger . Get EIP of offender for debugger . Get CS .Enter debugger .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug .===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). . task (without going through the kernel). . small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS.Enter debugger .

Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23. OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3]. . EBX EAX." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code. Debugger Data and Code .INCLUDE .Put the stack back the way it was .Install Debugger's as current .Save the current pRunTSS .INC RQB. task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. then jump to the debugger's selector.When the debugger exits.ALIGN DWORD . You'll see much of it is display "grunt work. [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].CR3 -> DebuggerTSS . EAX This switches tasks.External near Variables MMURTL V1. .INC JOB.INCLUDE . [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX. and restore PUSH EDX . pRunTSS.DATA .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX.pCrntJCB -> EAX . caller's registers them before the into the debugger .pRunTSS -> EAX .pDebuggerJCB -> EDX . EnterDebug: PUSH EAX . EAX EAX. pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave.INCLUDE . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . .CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS. Listing 23.current CR3 -> EBX . BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .INCLUDE MOSEDF.pDebuggerTSS -> EDX .Switch tasks to debugger . with the exception of the disassembler.2. pRunTSS EBX.0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS .we MUST save PUSH EBX .make his registers right! .Set up debugger selector . EBX EAX.INC .INC TSS.2 presents the debugger code in its entirety..

ESC to quit.ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .Address we are dumping .'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'. . dbgExchMsg .EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .' '.0B3h.Active bytes in buf2 . . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .For ReadDbgKbd .0B3h.0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .'SetBP'.'DumpD'.0B3h.. 0 = Exch .General purpose DDs (used all over) .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .CR LF for Dump etc.'Tasks'.Has Dbg Video been initialized? .'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.0B3h.General use buffers DB '0000000000' .For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .Boolean.' '.0B3h.0B3h.are we dumping DWORDS? ..Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.'ClrBP'.flag 1 = Msg. .0B3h. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .0B3h. 0Ah DB 0 .Address of instructions we are displaying .0B3h.Address we are setting as next .TO save the TSS we interrupted . .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.' ' ' .

0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .' ES: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'EDX: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .'EIP: 0B3h.==================== End Data. OFFSET DbgVidSave .'CR0: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.'TSS: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.'EBX: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.'ESI: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . Begin Code ========================== .'EFL: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.

NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. . 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.0 . and number at 0 .When a fault or debug exception occurs. But we do. and flags are not the . The debugger . . CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.. . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 .EBX ..dbgOldEIP .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .Dbgr is Job 2 .EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX.the Instruction Pointer.BX MOV EBX.REF .EBX . . This only applies if .Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].0FFh . I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .0 . the values of .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX.dbgOldEflgs .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the .[EAX+TSS_EFlags] . the handler is a procedure (NOT a task). Code Seg.the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS.PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit. when the handler is entered.EBX .dbgOldCS . (we chanage the tasks) . 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.procedure was entered.Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.NO . MOV EBX. . is always entered as a procedure. MOV EBX. so we shouldn't have to reset it.Display fault message and . DbgpTSSSave .0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].

F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV dbgX.Reset X & Y to 0. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX.dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid . 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.ESCAPE (Exit) . 0FFh . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY . 0FFh LEA EAX.ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX. . EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.Get USER pUserTSS .DbgpTSSSave .Fall through to keyboard loop .reset fault indicator .Color White on black .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.0 . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .=========================================================== . MOV EAX.Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX.Set TF in flags for single step .Set BP (Current Address .Display menu PUSH dbgX .1 .Single Step (F1) . 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1. EAX . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP.00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].

Clear BP (Current Address .0 . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Back to where we were . EAX dbg00 .This puts the instruction on the line . EAX EAX.Clear BP saved address .Save it so we know where BP is . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX.Set Disassembly Address (F8) . 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd.See if we need to scroll up . . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.BP0 Set global . 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. EAX dbgBPAdd. . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX. . .Display Exchanges (F5) . 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. .Not used yet . 00000002h DR7.Address displayed .Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS .F3) . 11h dbg04 EAX. EBX EAX. .This puts the instruction on the line . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. EAX DR7.Task array display (F6) . EBX DR0.Sets NextEIP .Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . EAX dbg00 EAX.Full display . 00 MMURTL V1. EAX DR6.DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL.Return to CS:EIP (F4) .See if we need to scroll up .MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX. 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX.

18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL.0 .See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX. . EAX BX. If they are the same.This compares the current breakpoint the address . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel.Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS. .EAX must be preserved MOV EBX.Query XY .MOV dbgfDumpD.Info Address dump (F12) . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1.Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .This puts the instruction on the line . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . . BX . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL.Back to begining .Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) .GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.============================================================== dbgShowBP: .Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. .we are about to display.Return saved pRunTSS . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.

OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.EBP Display MMURTL V1.OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX. ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.00 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.BP Address .This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .EDX Display . dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.EAX MOV AX.ECX Display .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.03 MOV ESI.05 MOV ESI.============================================================== .[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.3 params to TTYOut .Number of this TSS .[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.01 MOV ESI.EBX Display .Save EAX across call .EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.07 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.06 MOV ESI.ESI Display .02 MOV ESI.EAX Display .Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.EDI Display .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.04 MOV ESI.TSS Display .

DS Display .[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.FS Display .[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.17 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.SS Display .20 MOV ESI.08 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.CS Display .EAX MOV AX.GS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.0 .EFlags Display .10 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ESP Display .EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.18 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.09 MOV ESI.15 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR0 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.11 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EIP Display .Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .16 MOV ESI.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.12 MOV ESI.CR2 Display .13 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.14 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.19 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.ES Display .OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.CR3 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.

Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) . .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .CALL DispRegs RETN .========================================================================== .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS .============================================== .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1. We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . This is for Debugger Register display .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 .

dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.=========================== . PUSH EAX .Max size LEA EAX.Goto Query Line .Go home.ptr to destination DD . cbBufLen2 . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX.Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 . dbgChar . dbgChar CMP AL.Ignore error if any MOV AL.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .ptr to size returned LEA EAX. EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN .ptr to string .Convert String to DD . PUSH EAX .Crnt size PUSH 8 . .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.. 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone . DbgBuf2 .0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EAX . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.=========================== .length of string .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX.did they exit with CR? . .Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1. 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX.

dbgChar . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.did they exit with CR? .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . PUSH EAX . cbBufLen2 .Goto Query Line ..ptr to size returned LEA EAX.ptr to destination DD .line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. PUSH EAX .. dbgSpace MMURTL V1.Convert String to DD . LEA EAX.Ignore error if any MOV AL.number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd . 4 .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . dbgChar CMP AL. dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. 6 LEA EAX.Max size LEA EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. PUSH EAX .Go home. dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .length of string . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. . 24 . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.convert address to text LEA EAX.0 .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Crnt size PUSH 8 . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 0 JNE DumpDone . DbgBuf2 .ptr to string .

Display First byte . 0 JE DumpB . 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS .ignore error .NO . dbgBuf ADD EAX.ignore error .get dump address MOV EAX.make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX. display 1 space . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX . dbgfDumpD . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgDumpAdd .Display 1 spaces .display 2st byte . dbgBuf .go to display bytes LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.point to second 2 bytes .Dumping DWORDS CMP AL. [EBX] .PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.0 . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.

go back for next 4 bytes .ignore error .23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.done with 4 quads?? . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.NO . DEC dbgGPdd1 .ignore error LEA EAX.Display 2 spaces LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgCont .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .a space .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .NO . dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 4th byte .ignore error . LEA EAX.Query XY PUSH dbgX . dbgCRLF .Yes . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.

MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.=========================== .Exch# we are on .First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . .Col dbgGPdd1 . Exch number .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Convert Exch number for display . dbgGPdd2 EDX.Do CR/LF 0 .Col PUSH 0 . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.prgExch . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 RETN .MOV EAX. 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . 1 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. sEXCH EDX EDX.line we are one .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 1Bh . 0FFh .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX. 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with . PUSH 54 .

Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5.Save dMsg2 .Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.Get dMsg2 . .pMsg -> EBX 20 . .No. [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX.Line OFFSET dbgBuf . .0 .For next msg in chain (if it exists) .See if there is a first message MOV EAX."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.Convert dMsg1 .ADD EAX.EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX.MsgFlag -> EBX . Go to next Exch .Convert Job Number 10 .Is is 1 (a message)? . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . [EAX+EHead] .Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX OR EBX. . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. .Flag to indicate we are doing messages . 0 . EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) . [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX. [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Could have left it on stack. .Get dMsg1 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS .pExch -> EAX . Go check for tasks . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . .Is is NIL (no msg or task)? .. EAX MOV EBX.Col dbgGPdd1 . MOV EAX. but would be confusing later. .Yes.Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .pMsg -> EBX . EAX MOV EAX.. [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX.Save for loop . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX. EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX. [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .

See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .Is is 0 (no TSS)? .Col .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Lop off key status bytes . INC dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. -382- RICHARD A BURGESS . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . nDynEXCH . 23 . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone . 31 .Col dbgGPdd1 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 .Col 24 .Line . .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone .No . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. [EBX+TSSNum] . 0FFh CMP EAX.Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Save ptr to next task if it exists .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 .0 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Get Number of Task at exch . .pTSS -> EBX . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5. MOV EAX.Clear pNextTask .pExch -> EAX . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1. EAX EAX. MOV EAX.Next line please .Line OFFSET dbgCont . EAX AX.Convert Task Number 1 .

PUSH 54 . we get all the data BEFORE we display it .Length of message . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . 1 . . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .Displays Tasks that are active along with .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 .If not.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 . . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX. EAX.for the next one dbgDT01: .Tasks .Line for labels . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .NonZero if we are doing tasks .If so. OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . we increment TSS number and go back . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX. dbgGPdd6 OR EAX.Another pointer in the link? . 1 .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. nDynEXCH . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Set up to loop for next msg/task .=========================== . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Col PUSH 0 . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) . 1 dbgDT02 EBX. EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS . We are on line 1 again . 2 dbgDT03 EBX. .Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .line.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid .No .line we are one .Col . Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. MMURTL V1.We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX. Task number . dbgGPdd2 EAX. Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. 0 RETN .

Col dbgGPdd1 .Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . 8 . 512 ECX EBX. DDtoHex 20 .Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd3 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4.Not used. EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 .back for next one dbgDT05: . EAX . DDtoHex 10 .Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd4 .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . nTSS .Save pJCB for display .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 . [EBX+Priority] .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .of TSSs .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5. MOV CL. 8 .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. ECX MOV EAX.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . EBX . . dbgGPdd2 .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 . EAX MOV EBX. JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 .EAX has pJCB OR EAX. ECX . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX. [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.

Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.Yes.Line OFFSET dbgCont . . .====================================================================== . 31 . 0FFh .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. This is for Debugger Address Info display . EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 . Call with: . 0 RETN .Save number to display MMURTL V1.=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . dbgGPdd6 .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . 8 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 23 .go for next Task number .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 8 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display . DDtoHex 30 .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS . continue prompt dbgDT01 . go back for next 0 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Col dbgGPdd1 .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 1Bh . MOV EAX.No.Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . DDtoHex 40 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Col 24 . EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. We save all registers cause the vid calls don't .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Save it for the top MOV EAX.

pTSS3 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM2 . rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1. IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI. OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.IDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM1 .RdyQ LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM4 .0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM8 .LBs LEA EAX. prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.=============================================== .OFFSET DbgM6 .PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .OFFSET DbgM5 .OFFSET DbgM7 . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.MonTSS MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM3 .SVCs LEA EAX.PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.ptr to line .OFFSET DbgM9 .JCBs MOV EAX.RQBs MOV EAX. pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Exchs MOV EAX.Do it .Vid Attribute .Length of line . pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM0 .OFFSET DbgPA .DbgInfo .GDT LEA EAX.

MOV ESI. The other . Line 0-24) 0 66 . query line. rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .ignore error RETN .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY. .Timer Blocks LEA EAX. .fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .No.Query XY (See what line and Col) .Got to Column 0.This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .Columns 0-65 24 .Clear the query line (Line 23.between colums 0 and 66.======================================================= .OFFSET DbgMB . Scroll test area (Col 0-64.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.======================================================= .0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS . Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? .Lines 0-23 1 .If so.===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1. 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 . go back for next key 0 .areas are resrved for the menu.All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .Yes.and the register display.Col 0. . dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX. . and line 0 to 24. we scroll up the text area by one line. 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .

.

The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. Comments. many device drivers are written in C. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). All of the hardware commands are well documented. U32 dfReplace). One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry.g. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. If you have MFM drives. This seems to be the best. you're on your own. They were designed that way. but I try not to. There are no include files. but I think you're OK. U32 nDevices. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. Listing 24. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . extern far U32 MMURTL V1. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. Time was the deciding factor. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). and maybe the only dependable way to do it. this device driver should work with MFM drives.1. in addition to those in the code itself. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section.1. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. though I would rather have done them in assembler. In fact.Chapter 24. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). See listing 24. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum.. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. unsigned long int). otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. S8 *pDCBs.

. U8 *pDataOut. U32 *pMsgRet). U32 dnBlocks. U8 *pDataRet). While writing the operating system. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). See listing 24. U16 wPort).. S8 *pIRQ). It's called xprintf(). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 HdSect. static void hd_reset(void).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). void OutByte(U8 Byte. . I needed a method to get data to the screen. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 msg1. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U16 InWord(U16 wPort). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch.0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . U8 *pDataIn). You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. U32 msg2). U32 dLBA. OutWords(U32 dPort. U32 msg1. Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. static U32 hd_wait (void). U8 *pDataOut). U32 dnBlocks. InWords(U32 dPort. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U32 dBytes).2.2. U32 dOpNum. Listing 24. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). U32 dnBlocks. static U32 send_command(U8 parm). U32 *pMsgRet). U32 dBytes). U32 dBytes). MMURTL V1. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U32 msg2). U8 *pDataIn. U32 dnBlocks). /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U8 *pDestination. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). void OutWord(U16 Word.). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 count). Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). static U32 check_busy(void). U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 nBlks). U16 wPort).

U32 dStatusMax. U32 sdInitData). S8 * pStatRet. hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set.. bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1.. S8 *pInitData.0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 *pdSatusRet).U8 static U32 *pData).

Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit .sector number (1F3h) 4 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.high cyl (1F5h) 6 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives.Set. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 . head and Sector number. and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.16 bit) 1 . wait 50us. Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver.0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag..high cyl (1F5h) 6 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 . This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.write data (1F0h .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .sector number (1F3h) 4 .command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.read data (1F0h . can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .16 bit) 1 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .error register (1F1h) 2 .

Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. */ /* Current number of heads. hd1_heads. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. statbyte. cylinders.3. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. hd0_secpertrk. /* Calculated from LBA .3. /* Calculated from LBA . hd1_secpertrk.which head */ hd_nsectors. hd_control.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd0_cyls. hd0_heads. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. /* Calculated from LBA . The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. fDataReq. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. hd1_type. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. /* Current Physical Drive. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command. See listing 24. If I did one member.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. Listing 24.

/* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. LastRecalErc1.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. U32 OS5. U8 fNewMedia. S8 *pDevSt. fIntOnReset. S8 *pDevInit. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. U8 fDevReent. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. U32 OS2. LastErcByte0. U32 OS1. U32 BlocksMax. MMURTL V1. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. U32 blocks_done. U32 OS4. LastErcByte1. U8 type_now.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Number of bytes per sect. S8 type. }. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. S8 sbName. U32 nBlocks. U32 OS6. LastSeekErc0. S8 *pDevOp. U32 last_erc. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. LastSeekErc1. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. filler1. ResetStatByte. LastStatByte1. 32 bytes out to here. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. S16 nBPB. S16 wJob. }. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. U32 OS3.static U16 hd1_cyls. U8 fSingleUser. LastStatByte0.

/* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A).Name[2] hdcb[1].pDevOp hdcb[1].nBPB hdcb[1].Name[2] hdcb[0]. static U32 hd_msg.pDevInit hdcb[1]. /* Random */ 512.4. static long HDDInt.Name[1] hdcb[1]. 524288.4. static U32 hd_msg2.nBlocks hdcb[1]. Listing 24. hd1_heads = 16.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 24. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. 'D'.sbName hdcb[0]. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0]. this would be the main() section of the C source file.Name[0] hdcb[1].2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. 'D'./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch. hd1_cyls = 1024. 1. 3. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024.sbName hdcb[1].pDevSt hdcb[1]. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19).nBPB hdcb[0]. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver. '1'.pDevInit hdcb[0].pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. MMURTL V1.type hdcb[0].Name[0] hdcb[0]. &hddev_init. '0'. &hddev_stat. 3. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17. hd1_secpertrk = 17. &hddev_init.Name[1] hdcb[0].nBlocks hdcb[0]. /* largest disk handled .pDevOp hdcb[0].type hdcb[1]. /* largest device handled . 524288. 1. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read. /* Random */ 512. &hddev_stat. In a loadable driver. 'H'.

but they don't. We have to do it once. then try both physical drives. It seems like a lot of work. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. } } /* if we got here.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). We have to make this sucker work the hard way. hd1_type = 0. The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. MMURTL V1. */ hd_reset(). They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). They vary from BIOS to BIOS. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives.0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. hd0_type = 0. &hdisk_isr). /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. If the second drive is not there.erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. SetIRQVector(14. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0.last_erc = erc. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. erc = hd_recal(0). some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. */ erc = hd_recal(0).last_erc = erc. */ hd_reset(). */ /* Reset the HDC . UnMaskIRQ(14). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0].

If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller.ResetStatByte = statbyte. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. UnMaskIRQ(14). This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus.last_erc = erc. HDDInt = 1. 0xfffffff0). 1)). This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. if (i) hdstatus.seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. 0xfffffff0. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. HD_REG_PORT). and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. else hdstatus. /* 200ms . HD_REG_PORT). hdcb[0].erc = hd_recal(0). &hdcb. EndOfIRQ(14). &hd_msg). ISendMsg(hd_exch. It just waits for an interrupt.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . 2. The caller should call check_busy and check the error.fIntOnReset = 0. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). Sleep(20). OutByte(4. /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit.fIntOnReset = 1. MicroDelay(4).

/* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady).3 seconds.5. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). Listing 24. nSectors. Sleep(5). hd_Cmd[4] = 0. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. return(erc). It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. See listing 24. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). erc = hd_wait(). if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. etc. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk.). sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0.5. /* set max heads. hd_Cmd[3] = 0.0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. check_busy(void) count = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0.

/* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). 300). ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. return(erc). } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. if (drive) hdstatus. KillAlarm(hd_exch).0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. Time-out and return if no interrupt.LastRecalErc1 = erc. } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). else hdstatus. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch.Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. KillAlarm(hd_exch). if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). &hd_msg). erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. return(ok).LastRecalErc0 = erc.

} erc = check_busy(). if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. HD_PORT+2). HD_PORT+1). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). seek). if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. HD_PORT+5). setupseek(U32 dLBA. For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. hd_nsectors = nBlks. /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. write. HD_REG_PORT). *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. HD_PORT+6). HD_PORT+3). HD_PORT+7). head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). msg[2]. MMURTL V1. return(erc).alarm or int messages before we send a command. verify. U16 cyl. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). format. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. &msg) == 0). j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk).0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. OutByte(hd_control. HD_PORT+4). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. if (!erc) erc = check_busy().

if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). /* cyl & 0xff. 1). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. hdstatus. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk)./* we now know what cylinder. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore.. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking..0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* hd_sector. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). } = = = = = nBlks. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.LastSeekErc0 = erc. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). return(erc). /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder.

default: break. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1).LastStatByte0 = statbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. After all. } return(erc). else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. else return(erc). */ erc = check_busy(). else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. else hdstatus. if (hd_drive) hdstatus.U8 statbyte. he interrupted us with status. else hdstatus. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break.LastErcByte0 = errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. break. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).LastErcByte1 = errbyte. errbyte. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. } else { erc = check_busy(). else return(erc). MMURTL V1. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy.

/* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. nBPS. dnBlocks).nBPB.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . pDataRet. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. pDataOut. U32 dnBlocks.else erc = ErcBadHDC. --nleft. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. nleft. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. erc = setupseek(dLBA. dnBlocks). } } return(erc). hd_sector.nBPB. erc = check_busy(). U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. erc = setupseek(dLBA. U32 dnBlocks. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. pDataOut+=nBPS. nBPS). pDataRet+=nBPS. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). nSoFar. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. hd_sector. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. nSoFar++. nBPS. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. nBPS).

erc = setupseek(dLBA. nSoFar++. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. U16 cyl. U32 HdSect. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. /* cyl & 0xff. hd_head. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1.0 -404- . pDataOut+=nBPS. HD %d. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. return(erc). } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. dnBlocks). erc = hd_wait(). cyl = Cylinder.erc = hd_wait(). U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). cyl. head and Sector number. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. pDataOut. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. /* hd_sector. return(erc). SEC %d\r\n". /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). nBPS). if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. hd_sector). /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0.

U8 *pData) { U32 erc. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. &hd_msg). 512).6. } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive.blocks_done = 0. “Programming Interfaces. See listing 24.6. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. Listing 24. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. } Chapter 8. pDataRet. 12=0 and 13=1. U32 dLBA. U32 dnBlocks. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. For Hard disk. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. return(erc). erc = hd_wait().” discussed device driver interfaces. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = 0. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. else hd_drive = 1.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). MMURTL V1. U32 dOpNum. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive.

break. dnBlocks.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). U32 dStatusMax. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. dnBlocks). case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. erc = 0. /* Null Command */ break. break. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported.last_erc = erc. break.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. pData). } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. break. pData). S8 * pStatRet. break. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). return(erc). */ break. dnBlocks. pData). pData). Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. dnBlocks.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. break. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. break. default: erc = ErcBadOp. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. dnBlocks.

nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.nBPB.type_now = hd1_type. hdstatus.last_erc. S8 *pInitData. hdstatus.last_erc.nHead = hd1_heads. hdstatus. i). return ok.nBPS = hdcb[0]. CopyData(&hdstatus.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. *pdStatusRet = i.type_now = hd0_type. else i = sStatus.erc = hdcb[1]. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. pStatRet. hdstatus. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.nCyl = hd0_cyls. } /* Calculate size of status to return. The DCB values are updated if this is successful.{ U32 i.nCyl = hd1_cyls. hdstatus.nBPB. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax. hdstatus.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS . hdstatus. } else { hdstatus. hdstatus. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters.nBPS = hdcb[1].erc = hdcb[0]. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat). *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice.).nHead = hd0_heads. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. hdstatus. hdstatus.

erc = 0.nSectors.last_erc = 0.type_now. return(erc).0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS .nCyl. } hdcb[hd_drive]. CopyData(pInitData. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.nBlocks = HDStatTmp.nCyl * HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive]. /* If no error. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.nBPS.nCyl. &HDStatTmp.nSectors * HDStatTmp. } /* If no error. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive). if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp.nSectors. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive). else hd_drive = 1. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp.nHead. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. i.nHead.nHead. hdcb[hd_drive]. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp.nBPB = HDStatTmp.last_erc = erc. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp. else i = sdInitData. i).{ U32 erc. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.type_now. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive].

This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. the driver. Listing 24.. */ It's already open.. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. as well as by the driver itself. unsigned long LastTotal.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned long LastErc. 150 . It needs more work. See listing 24.. unsigned char parity. unsigned char databits. unsigned long Baudrate. unsigned long RTimeOut. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file. 0=none.. unsigned long RBufSize.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. RS-232. */ 150-38400 */ 0. as well as status. but. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. unsigned long XTimeOut.. 16450. unsigned char IRQNum. 1=even. unsigned long resvd[6]. “MMURTL Sample Software. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. */ It's opened by someone else..” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. unsigned long XBufSize. or 16550 UARTs. which is a block oriented random device. unsigned long IOBase. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. MMURTL V1. unsigned char stopbits. other than that. and this driver. it is a fully functional driver. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. which is a sequential byte-oriented device.7.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port.7.38400 */ Parity for this port.

extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 dfReplace). you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again.}.8. Listing 24. See listing 24. extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. All other command are specific to this driver. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum.8. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. S8 MMURTL V1. Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. U32 nPages). RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . S8 *pDCBs. U32 nDevices.0 *pIRQ).h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). U8 **ppMemRet).

U32 msg1. U32 dLBA. U32 dnBlocks. U32 dBytes). U16 wPort). U8 InByte(U16 wPort). These will be called form the device driver interface. set and reset signal line condition and functions. U32 msg1. /* local prototypes. U8 *pData). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dStatusMax. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count).0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). U32 *pdStatusRet). U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. S8 *pStatRet. U32 sdInitData).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. S8 *pInitData. S8 *pMsgRet). U8 *pDestination. U32 msg2). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 msg2). U32 dOpNum. */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 count). void OutByte(U8 Byte. #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice.

MSR[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. LSR[2]. tail_send[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . *pRecvBuf[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. LCR[2]. IER[2]. MCR[2]. cSendBuf[2]. FCR[2]. int_id[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. mstat_byte[2]. stat_byte[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. tail_recv[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. IIR[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. cRecvBuf[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. head_send[2]. sSendBuf[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. head_recv[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. fExpectInt[2].

RX data.9.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS .I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24. 1 = Multichar 0.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -. \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -.4 chars 11 .TX data.1 char 01 .2 chars 10 . \___________ = 0. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0. 0. MMURTL V1. Divisor Latch LSB IER -. FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 . I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0.Interrupt Enable.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. Listing 24.

10. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2].Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -. static struct statRecC *pCS. See listing 24.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -.10. Listing 24. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS . The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232. MMURTL V1.H.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints.

It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts. U32 OS3. S8 *pDevOp. See listing 24. U32 OS1. Listing 24. S16 nBPB.0 = 'C'.12. = 'M'. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 OS5. One for each channel. S8 fDevReent. S8 *pDevInit. S8 type. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. as is required by MMURTL. Note that there are two of DCB’s.12. and they are contiguously defined.Name[1] comdcb[0]. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. U32 OS2.11. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. See listing 24.Name[2] MMURTL V1. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. S8 *pDevSt. U32 OS6. This means it's ready for business. U32 nBlocks. 8N1. S8 sbName. S8 fSingleUser. S16 wJob. }. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. Listing 24. /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void). U32 OS4. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc. U32 last_erc. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600. = 'O'. static void interrupt comISR1(void).Name[0] comdcb[0].This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers.11.

databits comstat[0].RTimeOut comstat[1].stopbits comstat[0].type comdcb[1].IRQNum = comstat[1]. = 4096. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. = 0. &comdev_stat. /* Set default comms params in stat records */ comstat[0].parity comstat[1].type comdcb[0].IOBase = comstat[1]. /* Sequential */ 1. /* COM1 */ /* COM2 */ = 9600. = 9600.pDevOp comdcb[0]. 4. SetIRQVector(4.XBufSize comstat[1]. &comdev_init. } MMURTL V1. 4. 0x2F8.nBPB comdcb[0]. /* Sequential */ 1. 'M'. 2. = 2. '2'.IRQNum = comstat[0]. return(erc = InitDevDr(5. /* 1 byte per block */ 0.RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. 'O'. 2.IOBase = comstat[0].XBufSize comstat[0].XTimeOut comstat[1]. 4.nBlocks comdcb[1]. &comISR0).Name[0] comdcb[1]. = 4096. &comdcb. 1)). &comdev_init.Baudrate comstat[0]. = 4096.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'.Name[2] comdcb[0].pDevOp comdcb[1].nBPB comdcb[1]. sRecvBuf[0] = 4096. MaskIRQ(3). = 4096.Name[1] comdcb[1]. = 2.sbName comdcb[0].XTimeOut comstat[0]. SetIRQVector(3. MaskIRQ(4). = 100. &comISR1).databits comstat[1]. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. /* none */ = 8.Baudrate comstat[1]. =