MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

...........................................296 AddGDTCallGate ...................................... Code for the MicrDelay function ....................................................314 GetCMOSDate() ................................................................................................................................................6.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15....................................................................................................................301 Listing 19.................5.......................................... Data and constants for timer code..... Code to find number of free pages...................................................................................................................................316 Listing 20...................................................... Adding a run of linear memory..................................................................308 TIMER CODE ....................................................................................... Code to produce a beep.........................................305 Listing 19....1...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS .................................................................................. Code for the KillAlarm function................................................................................................301 DeAllocPage ....................................................................................................................................................................................309 Sleep() ...................................317 Tone().................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to remove alias PTEs.............2..............................................................................................................12......311 Alarm()......303 QueryMemPages................................................................................13........................... TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ............................................ The timer interrupt service routine ............................................................................................................................................. Adding an operating system page table .................. Adding a page table for user memory..............................................................288 Listing 19...................................................................................291 AddUserPT ..................289 Listing 19...............................................................................304 GetPhyAdd ...........................315 Listing 20............................................................................................................................308 Listing 20................... Deallocating linear memory..............19............................................................................................................................................298 Listing 19....316 Beep()......................................................FindRun ..7...........................................................................309 Listing 20.....................................................................311 Listing 20...............................294 Listing 19......................21................................................................................................................................................................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ...........296 AddIDTGate..............................................307 TIMER DATA .......................................................290 AddAliasRun ....................................................................................18.....................................291 Listing 19.................................... Code for the Sleep function ........................................................................................... Adding entries to the IDT ..22.................... Code to produce a tone ............................................................... Code to find a free run of linear memory....................................................................................299 DeAliasMem...............................................................................................................................................................316 Beep_Work() ................4..............3...................................................................................................297 Listing 19.......................................................................................................14..........................................317 MMURTL V1................................17............................................................... Code for the Alarm function ........................305 CHAPTER 20.........312 KillAlarm()..............................................................................................315 GetTimerTick()....................................................................................................................................................23.............................................................................. Adding an aliased run of linear memory....................................................................................................................303 Listing 19..................................297 AllocOSPage...............................................313 GetCMOSTime() ...................................................................................................................................................................................299 Listing 19..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................312 Listing 20.................................................25..........296 Listing 19................ Code to read the CMOS date ..................................................11..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10........... Allocating a page of linear memory...........................................307 INTRODUCTION ......................................307 Listing 20...............................................................................................................................309 Listing 20...................................................................................................................... Loop in timer ISR .................16............24...........................317 Listing 20.............................................................................................................................312 Listing 20.............293 AddOSPT .............................8.......309 The Timer Interrupt ............288 AddRun .................................................................................................................293 Listing 19...............304 Listing 19......314 Listing 20........................................20..................................................13...................................................... External functions for timer code ..........................................................................316 Listing 20.......... Code to return the timer tick ................................................................................ Code to read the CMOS time.. Adding a call gate to the GDT ...............................................................................................................317 Listing 20.............................. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ...........................................................................................................313 Listing 20.................. Public for linear to physical conversion..................................................................................................................................................................................................14........................................................................................... Code to alias memory ........................................................................................................................................................................................9..............................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ...................................................................................298 AliasMem ...............................313 MicroDelay() ................................

.... 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ....................................1...................................... 321 Listing 21..................................4...............2............................................................................................................................................................................................. 413 Listing 24....................................................................................3................................................................................................................................11..............................................................................................................................................3..................... 326 Listing 21............................................................. Debugger Data and Code......................................................................... 442 Listing 25....................... 436 Listing 25................................................................................................................................................... Continuation of OS initialization.................... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ........................................................................................................................................................... 410 Listing 24............................................. 438 Listing 25......................................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ......... 429 KEYBOARD DATA......................................... 319 Listing 21......... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ............................................... 424 CHAPTER 25............ 344 Listing 22.............................................. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger........................ 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ................................................................................................................................................. 442 MMURTL V1................................................................ Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ..............................6............................... End of Initialization Code....................................................................... 325 Listing 21................................................................... 328 Listing 21........................................................................................1............................................................ 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ....................................................................................... Keyboard ISR Code............................................................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ............................................................................................................................................... 321 Listing 21................................................................................................................................................. 390 Listing 24........5......... 327 Listing 21............ Keyboard Data and Tables ................................................................ 337 Listing 22........................................................... 415 Listing 24.... Job Management Subroutines................................................... 429 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 414 Listing 24..................... 365 Listing 23........ JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ..............................1..........10..... OS Initialization Code and Entry Point.......................................................7........ 398 Listing 24.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE................. 389 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................4............................................................................................... 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ...................c source code......................................... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA ...................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Jobc............ 389 Listing 24.....9.............................................................. 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT .................................. Initialize call gates amd the IDT........................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init).......... 393 Listing 24. DEBUGGER CODE ..........5................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) .. 395 Listing 24................................ 415 Listing 24........... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER....................................................... 409 Listing 24............................................................. Read Keyboard Buffer Code .....................................2..................................... Continuation of OS initialization................................................................2.........................................1.................... 337 INTRODUCTION ............................................................ 319 INTRODUCTION ............................................................... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ..........6...... 409 Listing 24... 366 Listing 23......................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) ...............................13.................................................4.............. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ....................................................................................................................CHAPTER 21............................................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ............. 389 Listing 24.................................................................... 331 CHAPTER 22................................................................................... Initialization Subroutines....................... Keyboard Translation Code...................14....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 436 Keyboard ISR................ 365 INTRODUCTION ........................... 344 CHAPTER 23......................................... INITIALIZATION CODE ...2............................................................................................. 366 CHAPTER 24.......................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ..............................................................................................................................7...................................................................................................... 436 Keyboard Translation..................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ....................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ...........................................................................2... Main Operating System Data .................................................8...h Header File .... KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE.................................................. RS-232.....12............................... 429 Listing 25.................................................................................................... 417 Listing 24... 438 Reading the Final Buffer ....................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ...............................................1.......................................3................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ............................................................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ..................

...............458 Listing 26.................464 Listing 26.......................................................540 Application Template File....................................2.................. Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call .......474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ......................................................................................................1.....................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization ..... Code to Edit a Line on the Screen.....................................................................................5..................................................................................457 INTRODUCTION ............. Code to Get a Character and Attribute..........9....................14......................1............................................................................541 Command Line Options ............................................................................. Debugger Read Keyboard Code ................................................................... Simple Application Template File ....................................................................................................539 USING DASM.....................................................7....457 THE VIDEO CODE .....................443 Listing 25...........473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers.....................................................474 CHAPTER 28......................0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ..................... Keyboard Service Initialization ............................................................................................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ........ A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER .473 INTRODUCTION ........................540 Listing 28........................................................................................................The Keyboard Service .................................................................................................................................................462 Listing 26.................. Code to Clear the Screen ....................................................................................472 CHAPTER 27.........................................................452 Hardware Helpers ...............................................................................................................................................................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ............................................................................................................................................................................................. Code to Return Current Cursor Position ..................................................3................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................8....................................................... Low-level Keyboard Control Code.............................................................................................. Code to get the Normal Video Attribute.............................................16............................................................................................. Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ................................458 Listing 26.466 Listing 26............................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector ............................ DASM.............................450 Listing 25..........................541 List File Option ........................................ Code to Get the Current Video Owner.......542 Dynamic Link Libraries ...........................4.................................................................. Code to Initialize Video ...................................10.................... VIDEO CODE ..................................................................................................................................................461 Listing 26.........................468 Listing 26.............................................................................................................................................................. Code to Set the Video Owner ............................................539 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................451 Listing 25................................................................................................................6................................................................................................................................................................................................................541 Errors Only Option ...........474 File System Initialization ............................. FILE SYSTEM CODE................................................................................... A More Complicated Template File ..........................................................................469 Listing 26..............................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM .................................................................................................................................................1........................................................................................................ Code to Set Cursor Position...................................................................................15............473 Logical Block Address (LBA)..............................................539 DASM CONCEPTS ....................................................................................542 MMURTL V1...........................................................................................................5.......................................................................453 CHAPTER 26............................................. MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code .....7..........................................13..448 Debugger Keyboard................ Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen...................................................9..............................................................465 Listing 26............................................................................................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position................................................................................................................................................................................460 Listing 26.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................542 Device Drivers ..............................................2.....................................................................................................................................................................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ........................................12.....................................................6................................................................................................. Video constants and data ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................474 Listing 27...................460 Listing 26............................................................................................ Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ...................................................................................................................................................................453 Listing 25.......................................................................540 Listing 28........................468 Listing 26...............................................................................................................................................459 Listing 26......................................................................................................448 Listing 25.........10..........464 Listing 26................ Code to set Normal Video Attribute .................................................................................................8........................457 Listing 26................................................................ Code to Screen Video Attributes ...................................... Keyboard system service code....................................473 Hidden Sectors.......................452 Listing 25...............450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up..............................................................461 Listing 26...............................................................11......... Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ........................................................................................................

............................................ 575 APPENDIX A -................................................................... 555 Table 28.................................................................................................................. 545 DASM Addressing Modes .................................................................Specifying Memory Operands........................................CD-ROM CONTENTS ............ 568 Library Functions ....................2................................................................................................................... 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ............................................................................................. 565 Structure Limitations .................................................................................................................................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations ...................3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 568 USING CM32........................ CM32........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ....................................................................................................................DASM Source Files ....................................... Standard String Functions for MMURTL ....................................... Alternating data and code in a template file .................................... 552 Table 28............................................................................................................................................. 569 Listing 29........................................................................ 545 Storage Declarations........................................................................................................................... 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 543 Listing 28............................................. 568 Command Line Options ............................................................................................................................................................ 542 DASM Program Structure ............................................................................. 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ............................................................... 569 Library Code Examples ........................ 565 Far External Functions ................................................................................................ 548 Labels and Address....... Standard file I/O for MMURTL .................................................................. 562 FAR Calls ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 558 Your Own Assembler? ........................... 559 CHAPTER 29...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Tag Usage ...........................................1....................................... 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers........................................................................ 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ........................... 563 Supported C Language Features ............................................................................. 570 Listing 29......................................................................................................... 542 Memory Model............................................................ 543 DOT Commands .................................................................................................................................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 561 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 562 Interrupt Functions.............................................. 581 MMURTL V1............................................................. 570 Listing 29...................................................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 548 PUBLIC Declarations............................ Supported Library Functions ..... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ......................... 548 EXTRN Declarations................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 547 DW (Define Word) ........................... A 32-BIT C COMPILER ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 563 Library Header File Access............1 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 .......................... 566 Initialization of Static Variables ............. 547 DF (Define Far Word) ................... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ................................................................................................................. 545 Table 28.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ................................................................................................ 556 Tag Descriptions.......................................................................................Supported Instructions ................................... 562 Variable Length Argument Lists .....................................................................................................................................................3....................................... 579 INDEX .................................................... 547 DB (Define Byte).............3.... 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ....................... 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ......................................................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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But I wanted a small API. NOT SO FAST THERE. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. however. do some research on each of the desirables. Realizing this. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. portability issues size and speed. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. If you're an experienced programmer. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. You. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. I would just make a list. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. In the early days. IBM. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. as viewed by the outside programmer. As coding began. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. The most obvious of these. In the case of my own operating system. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. When I started out. It's up to you. That was part of my wish list. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. code. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. and begin coding. memory model. When OS/2 was first developed. and the programming interface. I decided what stayed and what went. I set the ground rules.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . I have Albert's absent-mindedness. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). I've learned a lot from all that I've read. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. or Sun. I have documented what it takes to really write one. are the tasking model. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. They use them. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. not his IQ. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. it's a complete system. it's unlikely they'll use it.Chapter 1. I determined the specifications for the final product. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. they work with them. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. Unfortunately. If you write something that no one can use." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. MMURTL V1. You don't need to design your own. but very light on specifics.

Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. but it was a "must" for me. You can use pieces of it. Hardware Timers. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. It clouds far too many real issues these days. modify. The source code. change it to suit your needs. For this reason. real-time. 80486 (486). Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. redesign it to meet your requirements. I'm sure it won't. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. they are effectively super-386 processors. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. or all of it if you wish to write your own. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. hardware interface. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). portability issues. ideas from it. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. You may or may not want to do this for your system. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. and some serious "turbo" modifications. Serial and Parallel Ports. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. so I've removed the mystique. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. multitasking.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . For instance.to 32-bit jump. or write your own. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. In fact. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. This was completely intentional. In my opinion. along with all the tools necessary to build.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. Even though they have added speed. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. MMURTL V1. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. would help me write better application software for it. But that's not what this book is about. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). which I felt. Once again. your goals may be different. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. This was the 16. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. a few more instructions. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). size and speed. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. programming interfaces. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. the memory model. message based. Throughout this book. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference.

yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. Message agents could be added to any platform. “Programming Interfaces.But not the programmer. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. MMURTL V1. Extended. the right mix of capability and simplicity. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems.The ability to react to outside events in real time. and most of them are grossly under used. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. Power without BLOAT. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. I use the stack. hardware paging. Easy programming .Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. or maybe a little less? Of course. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). You may start with my list and modify it. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. I discuss this in chapter 6. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. I didn't want to do this. calling conventions.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. yet powerful enough to get the job done.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. I also wanted to maintain a small. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). if we knew how. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model).” and chapter 8. but not all the options. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. “The Hardware Interface. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. LIM.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform.” Simplicity . but I don't recommend it. such as C or Pascal. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . the humans. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6.Keep the system as simple as possible. We want the system to react to us. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. “The Hardware Interface. “Programming Interfaces.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . or start one from scratch. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. General Discussion and Background. is with a procedural interface. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management.. many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. are outside events. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. UMBs. Client/Server design .My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap.. We. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . HIMEM. If you don't have this requirement. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. but real multi-threading . and also what I decided on. LOMEM. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). I'll discuss some of your options. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. If it is another processor. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. Chapter 5 covers memory management. Real-time operation . YOURMOTHERSMEM. and what my end result was.Not just task switching between programs. If you're going to write your own. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). you may have a different platform in mind. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability).” Protection from other programs . This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. and for a very good reason.

complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. be of value in your other programming projects as well. Dedicated. no doubt. Message based. MMURTL V1. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. kerneL. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. If you don't like my acronym.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. I put together my own operating system. Multitasking. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. In the educational field. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). or use any of the tools I included. Yes. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. expand it to your heart's desire. If you're not worried about memory consumption. make up your own! But. If you intend to run MMURTL. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. Real-Time. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). nor is it intended to directly replace them. but only a distant cousin. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. I'm sure. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. Sections of the source code will. Then again. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. and 64K of data). If you don't want to start from scratch. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. x86/Pentium processors. the tools. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). and the initialization entry point jumped to. Real-Time. or for general reference. the code. And of course. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list.

Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. One Megabyte of RAM is required. you can ignore this section. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. Note: PCI bus designs work well. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. IBM and other clone processors. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. but only out of convenience. This includes Cyrix. No reformatting or partitioning your disks.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. eases the development burden. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. 80486. Both 5. (or even MS-DOS). not at all the same. but still. MMURTL V1. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations.25" and 3. If yours isn't.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here.5" are supported. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). AMD. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). that is. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). via the keyboard serial controller (most are. also – 2000).x (IBM). but a few are not). The processor must be an Intel 80386. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. EISA (Ed. 8250. The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. If you want to run DOS. Hence. you can change the code as needed. Pentium. IDE is preferred. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. and more importantly. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines.

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). however.k. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker).” I covered what my final design goals were. In Chapter 1. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. affect its design. client server designs. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. as well what may influence your design. I might add). This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. has had an effect. It does. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. That worked out just about right. my schooling. Every little thing you've run across will. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers.000. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). or even just use MMURTL the way it is. no doubt. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. “Overview. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. etc. and just make it better if you have the desire. Borrow from mine. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected.a. Five years later. merged). my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. It whet my whistle. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. make a lot of sense. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. Far too often. write your own operating system.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. for no apparent reason). A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. MMURTL V1. simplified memory management. In fact. Burroughs and Sperry. improve. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. a. add. As you can see. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code.Chapter 2. my reading of various publications and periodicals. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. It was a 32-bit system. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. take away. you might not want to). which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. here it is. and borrowed with great respect. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. That was 1989. I would not let this happen.

I thought about other processors. Then those were the 2. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. I'm not a Borland salesman. however. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. but the tools worked.1. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with.. In fact. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed.. Message-based.x assembler and 2. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. but the tools just worked better. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments.After I got involved with the IBM PC. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. in the process of using these other tools. maybe. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. popular platform. was a must. Operating system developers. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. Once again. Memory access was limited. there was no such thing.all but ancient history now.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's. however. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. MS-DOS was everywhere. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. but as you well know. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. a lure that could not be suppressed. or even OS/2. Again. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. I really had no choice. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. and utilities .yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. The next major decision was the software development environment. As you may be aware. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. or ported to a system. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware.0) and later moved to 5. There was no turning back. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors.x linker. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. It is just now becoming popular. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. compiler. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. like a bad virus. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. and a few others. at times it was quite difficult. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). It was limited to the small memory model. but it worked nonetheless. Of course.including assembler. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. It's the place to start.

" It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. no linker. There is no linker. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. which is fed to the assembler. want or need. To fully understand this. I plead the "Fifth" on this. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. as you may understand. The C compiler produces assembly language. in which case. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. and a few other minor utilities. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. Parameters are passed left to right..” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. as well as the software control of these devices. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. at least. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. articles. or may not. Developing this assembler was. or even port MMURTL to it. interface design. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler.. such as Chips & Technologies. discreet devices in the IBM AT system.” Assembly language has its place in the world. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. you will need to read chapter 28. Needless to say. DC. DMA. SX MMURTL V1. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. In fact. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. Many different books. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. a major task. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. It is tied to the internal bus. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler.some tools from the major software vendors. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. I do so because its bus. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. IBM published theirs. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. That set me back four months. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. Computer chip manufacturers. etc. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. It's simply not needed. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. and the called function cleans the stack. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits.). TTL. but I pretty much built from scratch. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . etc. I think many people started there. a disassembler. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. but another port is in the works. Communications controllers. documents. in itself. Besides. These documents are usually free. which is 32 bits for the most part. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. That's right.

MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. OS/2 version 2. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. During this time. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). The thought was rather sickening. as well as the stack storage. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. but not a fully segmented model . If you use Intel-based platforms.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS .machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations.x. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. Windows version 3. All of the early test programs were in assembler. "Thunking" was out of the question. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). timers. anyway.). This simple model could allocate and manage memory. etc. The segmented memory idea was canned.and 16-bit code and data. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. MMURTL V1. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. There was no loader. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently.g. This easily consumed the first six months. of course.x. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. I had to meet my design goals. aliasing is also required. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. from a 16-bit code segment. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. but it's not at as complicated. In chapter 5. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. This was timeconsuming. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). this is a year you won’t have to go through. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. no way to get test programs into the system. etc. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. If you write your own system. even the operating system writer. But as you may be aware. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. as you will see. It was a "kinder..two segments per program and two for the OS. but instead a lean. anyway (e. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. but it presented several serious complications.). my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. I discuss several options you have. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. EISA. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. powerful. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. It has turned out very nicely. all implementations of UNIX). you'll be ahead of the game. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. Memory Management. but this is transparent to the programmer. In a paged system. gentler" environment I was after. all based on their own selectors. [Thunking is when you interface 32.

will depend on the memory model you choose. and there will also be background noise. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. You can then “port” the prototype. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. For example. and overall program management – as you see fit. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. It will be worth the time spent. you know that it can be a very daunting task. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. Select your hardware platform. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. The level of complexity. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. I envy you. This is called the critical path. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. Decide on your basic models. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. you know that certain items in a project must work. you'll NEVER really be done with it. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. But. hints are about all I CAN give you. the rest is real work. Memory management is next. compilers and utilities. it may be CISC. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. how much knowledge you have. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. The Critical Path Along your journey. of course. I say this from experience. I have provided such an operating system with this book." It is difficult for me to do this also. do it. But I'll try. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. Document the problems. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. I was really interested in communications. Go for the kernel. you will no doubt find bugs. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). garbage collection. It may be RISC. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. Or at least when you get it working.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . but they just didn't say. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. MMURTL V1. There are so many platforms out there. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. or how much time you really have to invest. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. Know your desired application.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. but I'm very serious. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). Of course. get to know it very well. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. the discoveries . unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. the actual application may not be so important. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. This includes the tasking model. Investigate your tools. but whatever you decide on. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. If this has never happened to you. but there wasn’t. memory model and basic programming interface. Get to know your assemblers. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model.anything that you think you'll need to remember. "You start here. This may sound a little humorous. I'll tell you the easiest.

Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. But really. sweat and maybe some tears. Sounds backwards? It is.” Once satisfied. These tools include documentation for the hardware. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. MMURTL V1. I moved on from there. But don't set them too high. As I mentioned above. Work with small. I had my wish list well in advance. it won't be luck. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. and then I write the code. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. easily digestible chunks. dependable pickup truck. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. Document as you go. compilers. I lay out my notes for what I want. I write the documentation. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). Good luck. It will be blood.Working Attitude Set your goals. it's worth the time. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. all the way. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good.

may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). but I hope you will accept them.This term is not disputed very much. then start another task running. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is.g. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. When a task is suspended from execution. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language." which means communications between tasks. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. and more specifically. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. Most of the discussion centers on resource management.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). KERNEL . MMURTL V1.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. TASK . An operating system that you use may be preemptive. but it is. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. After all. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine).Chapter 3. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. Hence. at least temporarily. In other words. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). CPU utilization. Generally. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. I admit some guilt here too). You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. Some documentation. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. MS-DOS TSRs .” In most instances I call it a TASK. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program.. But this is not cast in stone either. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. be specific about it. or at least coming to agreement on them. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e.” while others call it a “thread. Some operating systems call a task a “process. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. but doesn't expect the interrupt. If you write your own. coffee and soda spilled on them. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. You may not agree with the definitions. Tell the programmers what you mean. and most people refer to. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. In its executable form. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. it’s PREEMPTIVE. It shouldn't be. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. and I'm not talking about programming languages. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. however. This makes it a very small kernel. save its state. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about.

"Everything should be as simple as possible. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. or even network connections for logons. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. "simple software for simple minds. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. Quite obviously. Tasks crash. In other words. You may MMURTL V1. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). On the other hand. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. Tasks end. and hardware (Timers. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. Single vs.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. One of my friends suggested the motto. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. etc. But in almost all of these systems. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. when the mission was accomplished. Some are communications programs (FAX software. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. comms programs). In each case. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS .In other words. It may have memory assigned to it. Task Management Tasks begin. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). and why. This is its only real purpose in life. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. Interrupt Controller Units. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. How tasks are handled. and some are user-oriented software. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). keyboard. These are the real resources. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. DMA. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . good old Albert). each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). Nor did I want it to be. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. it didn't sit too well with me. Managing these resources in a simple. I deal with one user at a time. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. execute programs as the new users desire. or the user was done. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. Multitasking. including video. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task.). One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. Single User. but it may not be so easy for you. Input/Output (I/O) devices. memory management." but needless to say. When I wrote these programs. disk.

CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. Microcomputers spoiled me. In the case of hardware interrupts. We were each getting a piece of the pie. The CPU takes care of it for you. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. Then I asked. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. It was crude. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. When you restore a task. It's actually easier than it sounds. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. it would seem to return at its leisure. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. When you change tasks. This is where the hardware-state is saved. In a multitasking operating system. "It's 11:00PM. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. but an important one. If you must do it yourself. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. This will be the heart and brains of the system. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. MMURTL V1. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. but effective. I had my very own processor. it was a breeze. My first programs were written with that attitude. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. The software state can consist of almost nothing. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor.want to deal with many. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. Yet. this is usually a no-brainer.

a single threaded system may be the best solution. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. interrupt servicing. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. however. It may not always be obvious when it happens. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. A task that has the processor gives it up. For instance. management of CPU time is easy. The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. do an adequate job in many cases. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. or a combination of the two. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. which I cover in this chapter. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. This can be for a number of reasons. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). In many single tasking systems. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. In a single tasking operating system. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. They can.I'm done with the CPU for now. Cooperative and Preemptive. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. if necessary. In this case. the screen and everything else looks frozen. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. "Hey . If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). and in some cases. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. With these calls. however. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. MMURTL V1." From there. and basic input/output. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. And yes. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. you are cooperating with the operating system. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. In fact.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. you basically have a hardware manager. he then monopolizes the CPU. This may be in milliseconds.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. or to pause when it has nothing to do. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). Meanwhile. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task).

it doesn't expect it. controlling. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. this adds the requirement of timing. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. quite often.g. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. etc. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. and maybe memory context. communications device. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. connected to the outside world .communicating. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. the task that's running. the scheduler. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). When do we switch tasks. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). or the operating system from an external device (e. or a few other hardware-related things. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. The timer can help determine when to preempt. when a task is preempted. and how long does that task get to run? Who. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. It does nothing to prepare for it.). when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. there is going to be a desire. is a preemptive system. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). a program. They are also. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). In fully cooperative systems. For the preemptive system. Generally. These parties include the programmer. hardware timer. we must now decide which task runs next. MMURTL V1. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. In a preemptive system. As you can see. However. the scheduler simply determines who's next. outside events. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. after the interrupt is finished. When. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). The next section is the tricky part.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. To expand on that definition. disk drive. The currently running task is preempted. to which task do we switch. Most of the time. or after a set period of time. or even a requirement.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. or it may be for something extremely critical. As I also mentioned earlier. Also. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. or monitoring. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. and maybe (if we're nice) the user.. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. On most platforms.

"a slice of time. and the next task in line is restored and executed. In a time sliced preemptive system. otherwise. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . (the others will be flipping 8. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. For example. or how much time there is MMURTL V1." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. For example. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. only the very highest would ever get to run. Time slicing is an old technique. Who determines which task gets more time. each task will get a fixed amount of time .all tasks will get the same slice . Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. In a cooperative system. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. This gives the scheduler something to work with. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. The others may see a slow down. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). In the simplest time sliced systems. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. Not quite that simple. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. its complete hardware and software state is saved. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. but it won't be on their terminals. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. This is usually not very effective. But it has some major drawbacks. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. and if a user interface is involved. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. the one with the highest priority will be executed. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). A simple queuing system suffices. When a task's time is up. In some systems. each task gets 25 milliseconds. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. it can serve admirably.and they will be executed in the order they were created.000 burgers.

To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. But I opted to "get real" instead. or the user.to go around on the system. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. Thus. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled.. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. but it makes the point. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. dependable. Therefore. clean communications.g. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. and we want our machines responsive to us. We want good. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. Now. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. but one channel is handling five times the data. For instance. This IS real-time stuff. The buffer will overflow. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. but it's not dramatic enough. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. come do something with this data before I lose it"). The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. computers are everywhere. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. things are never as simple as they seem. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). These are communications and user interface issues. In a message based system.

This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. A very simple. all tasks will get to run. however. In this type of system. it would still be scheduled to execute. based on the number of tasks scheduled. although such systems exist. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. MMURTL V1. In addition. To be honest. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. Fully Time Sliced. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. Time Sliced. See what works for your applications. even though these methods are very important. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. A task may. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. Primarily Cooperative. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. I can't picture a system without it. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. Users on a larger. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). Some Cooperation In this type of model. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. you have a few ideas of your own. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). But even when the task has nothing to do. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. and even help define the tasking model.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. No doubt. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute.

you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. if you have 256 priorities. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. "Experience is a wonderful thing. monitors the current task priority. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. and in reality. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. After all. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. multitasking. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. preemptive. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. and no. To me. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. and the next task with the highest priority executes. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. or whatever. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. To briefly explain my tasking model. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. Keep them short. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. Other processors may offer similar options.Primarily Cooperative. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. I never wanted to miss outside events.PERIOD. For instance. In such a system. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. The task based ISR is slower. Go for the fastest option . The timer-interrupt routine. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. file access. much faster. real-time operating system. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. Limited Time Slicing category. I wanted a priority based. This is a speed issue. The less time the better. It's faster – actually. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. timer services. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. and limit the functionality if at all possible. This could have presented some protection problems. goes into a "waiting" state. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS .

but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . or even possibly the users. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. you switch tasks. or Ms. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. For instance. After a period of time has elapsed. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted.only the user knows. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. In a cooperative environment.management headaches. On systems that are primarily time sliced. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. the problems didn't surface. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. MMURTL V1. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). who's to say when Mr. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it.

semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). As you will see in this chapter. nor should they have to. portions of the code will not be reentrant. there are public calls that allocate semaphores." MMURTL V1.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. Of course. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. only one task can execute at a time. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. where it waits. However. it could cause some serious problems.Chapter 4. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. what operation you want to perform. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). As the name implies. In other words. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. perform operations on the semaphore structures. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. In operating systems that use semaphores. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). On a single CPU. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. if it's being allocated). Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. or is suspended when it can't run. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. As I described in earlier chapters.

In fact. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. or schedule tasks for execution. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. I have added a second. As you can see. This is much more efficient. I refer to a program as a “job. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe().In most cases.). the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. In fact. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. OS/2 is one such system. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. tasks are not wholly independent. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. but I used a second form of messaging instead. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. destroy tasks. ClosePipe(). They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. such as MMURTL. In my system. OpenPipe(). more powerful. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. But once again. In a message-based system. You will see these commands. If you intend to implement semaphores. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. a program is made up of one or more tasks. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. ReadPipe(). etc. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. only the basic form of messaging is implemented.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. In my humble opinion. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. which will consist of one or more tasks. I didn't. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). and WritePipe(). With the send() and wait() types of messaging. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. OS/2.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. He or she will make a system call for some resource. on most real-time operating systems. such as those procedures that create new tasks. or similar ones. you should study how they are used on other systems. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. public pipes are very handy.

the answering machine is the exchange. provide some other pieces of information. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. give it the message and away it goes. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. Now I have some very important terms and functions . If there is no task waiting at that exchange. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. It returns 0 if all goes well. It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). a bin. char *pMsgRet). Yes. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. SendMsg(). Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. or whatever you call it. You point to a piece of code. long dMsgPart1. it's a little more complicated than that. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges." This is an example of a one way message. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. and VIOLA. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. I called it an Exchange. In MMURTL's case. the message is received right away. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. SpawnTask(). his offer is the pits. but large enough for a couple of pointers. "Tell Mr. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you're lucky. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties.functions. for which you expect no response. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). or just about any other name you like. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. It does just what it says . You also need a way to send the message. only one task is actually executing instructions. an exchange point. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. request() and respond(). Not too large to move around.it sends a message. long dMsgPart2). You tell it what exchange. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. WaitMsg(). Zork to forget it. Consider the phone again. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). dExch is the destination exchange. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. a task is born. In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. char *pMsgRet). The task is the human. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. In an operating system's case. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. such as. AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. MMURTL V1. CheckMsg(). In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). You can send one way messages to a person. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response.not in detail yet. but enough that we can talk about them. Now. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept.

Kernel attaches message to Exch1. Kernel makes Task1 run. In this example.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. What it's doing isn't important. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. As we move down the table in our example. time is passing. None are waiting. Task2 is still running. None found.. It's still task 2. very small.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2.. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. You start with a single task executing. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2.). Task2 is higher. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. Table 4. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. Table 4. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Task2 allocates Exch2. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. it's not called the kernel zone.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . Task1 is ready to run. Just kidding. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue.

it will be made to run. queued file management. the receiving task is made to run. If there is a task at the exchange. MMURTL V1. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. and also need to be shared with multiple applications.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. BBS systems. With MMURTL. each service installed is given a name. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. I didn't do this with MMURTL. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. printing services. In fact. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName.. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. If there is one. The name must be unique on the machine. This way. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later).533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. A fully loaded system may have 5. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural.1. The processing is carried out by the service. FAX services. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. If everyone is waiting at an exchange.. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. 10 or even 15 system services. but the name will always be the same. When the service is first installed. only the service name. From the simple example in table 4. e-mail services. This may not work on all types of processors. They are ideal for things like file systems. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. keyboard input. Each service can provide up to 65. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . the list could go on and on. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . The functions and what they do are defined by the service. In some systems. They are dedicated types. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work.. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. . and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. unsigned int wSvcCode. This can simplify the scheduler. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference).. they must be waiting for something.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. It gives task2 the message. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. Each time an interrupt occurs. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services.

and dData2 . this would be the size (length) of the filename. dStatRet . This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. in the file system OpenFile() function. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. char *pData2SR. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). The service name is eight characters. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). if the request was serviced (with no errors). For instance. long dnpSend char *pData1SR.long dRespExch.This is the same as dcbData1. Where is the response data and status code? First. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbData2 . pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). dcbData1 . long *pdRqHndlRet. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. These are documented independently by each service. wSvcCode . dnpSend would be 1. This will be explained later in memory management.the status or error code returned to the requester. long dcbData1SR. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0.Pointer to the service name you are requesting. dData1. dRespExch . the second dword is the status code or error from the service.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). it is NOT a response. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. There's still a little work to do. but network transport mechanisms do not. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. In many functions you will not even use pData1.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. Second. or pData2 to send data to the service. long dData2 ). dData0. Two questions arise: 1. If this is the response. all capitals. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). dnpSend . Second. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. long dcbData2SR. you'll need to know which one is responding. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). long dData1. Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. They are described below: dRqHndl . *pdRqHndlRet . If you made more than one request. Using the Open File() example. At first glance. But.is the number (0. long dStatRet). and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. *pData2 . Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). If it is 80000000h or above.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. *pData1 .Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. long dData0. These can never be pointers to data. The service already knows this. and spacepadded on the right.the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. Zero (0) usually indicates no error. If you remember.Number of the specific function you are requesting.

there was only one buffer left. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. right? But let me guess . Not as difficult as you expect. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. Also. and WHAMO . So. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. But when it reaches PointX. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. checks the semaphore. To really understand this issue. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. Now. An exchange is a small structure in memory. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. When each task is done with the allocation routine.it's crash time. So the code goes in. The buffer is gone. As you know. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. lets look at an example. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). task1 gets to run again. Semaphores are used on many systems. it is preempted. It's really quite simple. Now. only one task can really be running at a time. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. As you can see. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. but this would slow things down a bit.to read or write data. it's a mess. Not very big. Each task that enters the code. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. For the sake of understanding this. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. and show you what can happen. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. but still very important. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. or pauses in the middle of them. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. even in a multitasking system. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. pointers are off the ends of arrays. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left.

Also. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. This is 1/38. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code.000. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS .If the instruction sequence is short enough. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. let's look at a real-world example. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. and also "the biggie" . it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. it will simplify IPC greatly . you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. Don't blame Windows though. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. “Memory Management. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. but my testing shows I did OK. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. In theory. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. The next sections discuss this. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model.” MMURTL V1. I started with one and abandoned it early on. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19.task switches. It will be the only way. In the kernel code. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval.200 baud in Windows 3. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. You didn't disable interrupts.x? You will lose data. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. and maybe even not often enough. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods.000 * 3). Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. WHOA THERE . you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). You will lose data. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused.

If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. Whether or not you use paging hardware. I do make some assumptions about your processor. or another complicated applications. This greatly affects the next three items. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. Either way. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. For instance. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application.Chapter 5. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. There are some major differences though. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. it's all basically the same. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. The memory model you choose. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. Some do it with internal paging hardware. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). Address 0 is the first. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. so does an operating system.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . if available. Instead. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. MMURTL V1. Basic Terms Once again. With the Intel processors.

Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. different memory allocation schemes (top down. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied.). I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. bottom up. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem.1. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. MMURTL V1. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. Figure 5. etc. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. chunks of physical memory called pages. As programs are loaded. With this scheme.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . at least for the operating system.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. This can be good. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. You may be restricted from using some of these options. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. No address translations take place in hardware. As programs are loaded. In this type of system. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. Figure 5. and possible partitioning for each program. and bad. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level.

if you have 16 MB of physical memory. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. With this scheme.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. or even 64 MB). the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. direct access storage device. Figure 5. Figure 5. For example. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. With paged memory. Figure 5. For instance. With demand-paged memory.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. MMURTL V1.2 .The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. more than likely a hard disk drive.Figure 5.

4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique.3 . The minute you apply this term to memory management. Look at Figure 5. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use.Figure 5. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. and the hardware allows it. all the programs still use the same linear space. and indeed you are. it means that you're lying to your programs. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL. as in virtual reality. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. MMURTL V1. but it sure looks like it is. With paging hardware.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system.

but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. parallel linear spaces. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. there are many possible variations.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. Note the advantages here. No doubt. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. In order to allow multiple. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. you will think of. MMURTL V1.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. Once again." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. Note also the disadvantages. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. the memory management hardware must support it. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system.Figure 5. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. memory is NOT flat. In Figure 5. yet. different data or code).4 . This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. and implement some of your own.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. A way around this to use a shared memory area. The options here are almost mind boggling. which is the idea.

Likewise. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. When this was a 16-bit world. What they came up with is called Segmentation. and generally the most efficient.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. This means you can save the time rewriting it. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. so I won't go into further detail. When you use a selector. When the 80286 came on the scene. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. 8088. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. it is usually termed as "dirty.g. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. The most common. MMURTL V1. When a page has been written to. This is a very handy feature. and the popular Zilog Z80). The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. they needed to identify and manage those segments. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. The LRU schemes have many variations. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). one for code and several for data access. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. or even an 8-bit one.. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. They allowed multiple sequential. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. This was actually several registers. and you need to understand the implications. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). and 80286). they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. 80186. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. In fact. To make this work. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. we had some pretty limited address spaces. They are not limited to 64K. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. All of the Intel products are very well documented. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. They used something called a segment register. 20 to be exact. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. It's just what it sounds like. However. OS/2 or Windows). If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space.

Other factors include how much memory you have. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. the type of applications you cater to. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. when one application crashes. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. which will be defined by the paging hardware. MMURTL V1. you ARE the operating system. You'll have to make a decision. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. With this scheme. it usually takes the whole system down. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you do. and it will be based on many factors. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management.” Before you decide which method to use. Allocating memory for applications. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. and Handling protection violations. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. But in many systems. if your hardware supports it. Remember. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. each block holds its own link. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. How you store the links in this list can vary. You make the rules. They are “linked lists” and “tables. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. I will give you a good idea what it's like. This way.With a 32-bit system. I learned this the hard way. when one application crashes. one person). This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. Allocating memory to load applications and services. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. but not in the order I listed them. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. This can be a real hassle. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. I'll discuss each of these things. Tracking client linear memory allocations.

pMemInUse. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext.pNext until pLink.pNext = 0. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). pFree.size = 0. This is done by following pLink. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree.pPrev = 0. you would set up the two base link structures. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. pFree. long owner. pLink->pNext = 0. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. you must remember that pLink. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS .owner = 0.owner = 0. For my description. I haven't disassembled their code. This is another topic entirely. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. struct MemLinkType *pLink. or you reach a link where pNext is null.size = 0. You now have an idea where they went. In the process of memory management initialization.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. pLink->owner = 0. pMemInUse. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request.size is large enough. which means you can't honor the request. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. struct MemLinkType pFree. MMURTL V1. No next link yet. }. These are the first links in your list. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. Of course.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. char *pPrev. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). pMemInUse. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic.pPrev = 0. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. } When a client asks for memory.pNext = 0x100000. In the following simple linked list scheme. pFree and pMemInUse. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . pFree.16. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. pMemInUse. but I'll touch on it some. /* " " */ long Client = 0. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000.

or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB.pNext. it WILL get fragmented.16. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. pNewLink->owner = 0. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. If you use this code. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. WantSize is the size the client has requested. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. The function returns the address of the new memory. } } return(0). it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. Granted. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. } /* Sorry .The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. Client is the owner of the new block. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16). And believe me. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine.pNext = &pLink... /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize.WantSize . pLink->size = WantSize. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1.

if at all possible. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. change its owner. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. and you insert it there. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. This will add time to deallocation routines.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link.pNext. This is where the fragmentation comes it. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway.deallocate. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order.16. /* scan till we find out where we go. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. This makes the most sense to me. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. This provides instant cleanup. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . This will be useful in the following routine. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. But we can't add our size to pFree. But you can't depend on this. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. then move it to the pFree list. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. which returns memory to the free pool. There are several thoughts on cleanup. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. validate the link. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. but cleanup will be a snap. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. You have the linear address. depending on the order of deallocation. or you can do it all after the fact. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. In other words.

You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . pLink = pNextLink->pNext. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. return(0). */ /* In this case. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. The two must be synchronized. You can expand on them if needed. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. we couldn't be combined with the previous. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). MMURTL V1. pNewLink->owner = 0. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. you can decide how you want them setup. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. If you don't use the paging hardware. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. you will have two memory spaces to track. In the case of the paging hardware. } } /* If we got here. It should give you a great number of ideas. there are physical pages assigned to it. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging.

Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. it becomes allocated memory right away. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. and you should take that into consideration. You will be allocated these up front.” but once the operating system is loaded. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. Wherever you load it. MMURTL V1. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. But it's up to you. You must set up tables. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. If you use paging. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. In some cases. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. This can get complicated. you will have independent tables for each application. If your processor gives you these types of options. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. and turn on the paging hardware.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. add the translations you need and are already using. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. trap. For instance. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. “OS Initialization. Batteries fail. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. From there. you will have to move it all. You must consider where the operating system loads. it will generally be in a block of addresses. “the Hardware Interface. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. It will be the page’s size. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit.When you work with paging hardware. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Large. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. and many others. uninitialized data segment. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. but in a very limited fashion. This could change in future versions. Compact. but will have no effect on applications. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. The common data segment is 10h. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. It can be very complicated to use on any system. and one or more code segments. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. If you have no desire to use them. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. the initialized data segment. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. but nice to have. The operating system code segment is 08h. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. you know that with MS-DOS. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. and one data segment for all programs and applications. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. and even larger with demand page memory. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. and I even use the Intel segment registers. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. If you are familiar with segmented programming. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. For instance. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. the application code segment. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. Small. The user code segment is 18h.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. This greatly simplifies every program we write. I use almost no segmentation. set them all to one value and forget them. the concept of program segments is an old one. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. Medium. 32-bit offset). These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. This was too complicated for me. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. I wanted only one program memory model.

Each of the PDEs points to a PT. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. No. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE).967. MMURTL V1. Right? Wrong. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome).1. because I haven't explained it yet. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency.runs in the task of the job that called it. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). Each PDE is also four bytes long. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. For instance." huh?). Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). but most of the operating system code – specifically. is that you really do need most of this capability. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. Sure. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. If you want just a few bytes. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. The operating system itself is technically not a job. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. Besides. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. and each application the same thing. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. Each PTE is four bytes long. Because of this. the kernel . It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. Every Job gets its own PD. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). its not magic. If you get our calculator out.memory. but you need it in pieces. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). which can have 1024 entries. but it’s close. What you don't see. it has code and data and a task or two. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory.294. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory.

Table 5. but it wasn't needed. Read on and see what I did. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. Of course. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. If you remember. In the scheme of things. possibly several for each application. in a word. Now it's got the PTE. Code. Now that it knows where the PD is.1 . However.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. Sure. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. but it does this with very little overhead. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. Likewise. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. MMURTL V1. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). I didn't give it to the Red Cross). This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. Well. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. Besides. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. the secret is out. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. and it needs it fast. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. I could have built a separate table and managed it. This is fine for one address per job. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. but when you start talking 10. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. certainly less overhead than this explanation). But it was for a good cause (No. Sounds like a lot of work. When I started the application. 20. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. yes. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. I wanted to keep the overhead down.

in Table 5. This is 0 to 1Gb. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. 512 513 . 256 257 . The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. As shown. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. all the shadow entries are marked not present. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range..2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. If I decided to do it.2. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job... 768 769 . 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes.. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. in fact. AllocOSPage(). This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. Table 5. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned.. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA.. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. That would really be a waste. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. it would be transparent to applications anyway. AllocPage().. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. MMURTL V1. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors.0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS .. but you get the idea. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum).Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. If I desired. and how I use the processor's paging hardware.1.

there will be no error. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. and DLLs. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. If so. With a 1Gb address space. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. only that number will be deallocated. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. and whether or not it's currently in use. Device Drivers have code and data. If it does. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. System Services. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. It does not tell you whom they belong to. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her).0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . initial stack. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). They are simply new jobs. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. but only from this caller's memory space. and data. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). from a previous AllocPage() call. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). nor do you even care. you allocate physical memory from the top down. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. If the physical memory exists. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. the caller passes in a linear address. nor should it try to find out. Each application (job) gets it own PD. Device drivers. but no stack. which is also my sister's name. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up.Managing physical memory. The caller will never know. along with the number of pages to deallocate. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. MMURTL V1. It is not important. If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). Now comes that easy part . it will create a new PT. but the memory will not be available for later use. It's loaded into these initial pages. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. or will return an error if it's not available.

I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. With a page based system such as MMURTL. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. an error will occur. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. how could they be swapped?). They have only code. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). Of course. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. They share physical memory. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. you should do it before you read this section. the second job has access to other job's data. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. They are there to be used as shared code only. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. and no stack. There is no new allocation of physical memory. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. This will make more sense if you do. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. If it tries to deallocate them. but that's trivial (a few instructions). are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. But this gets away from memory management. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. Instantly.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . When an application requests a service. no data. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data.

When it's done its work. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. MMURTL V1. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. One or more PTs for the OS.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. it responds. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. How they see the interface is very important. use it. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. For MMURTL.

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This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. but that doesn't mean that you won't. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. and it simply runs. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). in theory. The most common. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. It executes your instructions. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. You provide a common. As good as it sounds. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. aside from the instructions you give it. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. The two that are obvious are code size. there are drawbacks to this idea. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. jumps where you tell it. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. or for specific timing requirements. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you.Chapter 6. is the interrupt or trap. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . however. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . to interoperability with other systems. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system.how it is accessed in memory. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. Therefore. But there's always more than meets the eye. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. and speed. and the most significant at the lowest. although I never thought so. MMURTL V1.

The second is the address bus. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. or ISA Bus. Multibus. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. internal bus. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. They are actually very forgiving devices. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. PCI. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. This is called the main bus. but in some of the processor documentation. address. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. and some that are available now. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. in that case. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. MMURTL V1. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). but I found the most valuable. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. On the PC-ISA platforms. no matter which device you must code. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. Quite honestly. I read many books about my target processor. This is handy.some proposed. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. or CPU bus. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. On smaller systems. such as those dealing with interrupts. The most common is the relatively low-speed. Finally. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. There are many extensions to this bus . With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. The first set is the data bus. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. and most useful. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. just to name a few. ISA. EISA. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. I've tried both methods. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. and especially the interface bus. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. For instance.

The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. but is really a device connected to the bus. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts.25 (an international link and network layer standard). If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. the infamous Centronics interface). except for the hardware clock timing. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. Another way is programmed I/O. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. or network card). This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. or HDLC. SDLC. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. network frame handlers. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. Unlike UART devices. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. and on some systems. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . to name a few. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. but still very important. MMURTL V1. They have no way. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware.. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. Quite often. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system.Less commonly found.g. or even memory to memory. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). Parallel buses can move data faster. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. Therefore. In fact. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. They work with frames or packets of data. in many cases. and tape drives. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth).

Video Like the keyboard. All the output would be via a serial port. However. is worth more than I can indicate to you. In character-based systems. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. this video memory will contain character codes (e. Each bit array is on its own plane. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals.On many systems. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. In most cases. On the PC-ISA platform. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. Quite often. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. but you must realize the importance of this device. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). Video hardware manufacturers realize this. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required..0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. If this is the case. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. In fact. This consumes the least amount of your address space. This could consume a vast amount of memory.g. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. This is known as planar pixel access. and MMURTL V1.500 bytes of memory space. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. This requires an interrupt service routine. or Unicode. If you want 16 colors for each bit. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. this only consumes 4000 bytes. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). On an 80-column-by-25-line display. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format.

interprocess communications.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS .allow you to switch between them. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. For a 256-color system. except maybe an embedded system board. and your tasking model. In many cases. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). I did. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA().. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). this would be 16 planes at 37. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. That equates to 600. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses.g. “Video Code.000 bytes. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. and timing when you write to the video display area. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). and to query the status of the move. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. non-overlapping video users. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. In some cases. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. you'll have no problems. “Memory Management. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. Your requirements will more than likely be different. I took this into consideration also. multiple. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. Chapter 26. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. The code for these two calls is shown below. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. and GetDMACount(). These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. This is known as packed pixel access. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. This includes cursor positioning. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. have to research hardware cursor control. I was interested in character-based. MMURTL V1.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. however.

Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .INCLUDE MOSEDF.Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Read/Write DMA Rq Register .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh .Ch 1 Address . DACK1 (etc.INC . DMA moves (channels 5-7).Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h . .CODE With 8-bit DMA.Read Command/Write Single bit mask . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware. the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.DATA . but the standard include file MOSEDF.Ch 0 Address .Ch 0 Word Count .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h . There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Ch 2 Address . Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . There really is no data segment for DMA. This is called a cascaded device.Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .Read/Write Mode register .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah .0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS .Ch 2 Word Count .Ch 3 Word Count .========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Ch 3 Address . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) . Optimize it as you please. while 23-17 are put in the page register.Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h . .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers. The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.DMA DACK0 Page register .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device. etc.DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h . etc.Ch 1 Word Count .Read Status/Write Command .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller. With word.Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .) MMURTL V1.

AL OUT DMA2Mode. which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. . AL XOR AL.CH 0 DMA 1 . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. . This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. . 41h OUT DMA1Mode. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . . AL OUT DMA2Mode. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. AL AL. the segment is wrapped around. .CH 0 DMA 2 . . . dChannel. AL OUT DMA2Clear. 04 . 0C0h DMA2Mode. we do math) MMURTL V1. as you might assume).AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. . 42h OUT DMA1Mode. AL MOV AL. even on word moves. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. AL .Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . 40h DMA1Mode. so they always specify byte count for the setup call. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. For channels 5. AL MOV AL. AL OUT DMA2Mode. Verify).All commands set to default (0) . . Out.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . I do this for the caller.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. or 128K boundaries for a word move. sdMem. dType.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . AL OUT DMA1Clear. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 .6 and 7. . . AL XOR AL. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. AL RETN . AL XOR AL. If they do. AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL.Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller.

8 DMA10Add. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. 00001000b . 0C0h .5.1.Jump table for channel selection . MOV EAX. 0 . MMURTL V1. Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect .. 04 .3. [EBP+20] CMP EAX. In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . [EBP+28] DMA10Add. 1 Single Cycle. ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. Put it in BL MOV EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+16] . dMode . 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . AL AL. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. 3 Cascade . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. 1 = In (Write Mem). Yes CMP EAX.2. dType .0 = Verify. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+12] . AL . Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . Lo byte address . dChannel (0.0 Demand Mode.7) . 1 . Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. BL DMA1Mode. OR with MODE . OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. MOV EBP. 6 . . 00000100b . get dType AND BL. AL DMA1FF. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX.ESP . 2 Block. AL . 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. dMode CMP EAX. 00000000b AL. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . 2 = Out (Read memory) . dPhyMem . Hi Byte . 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX.6.0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS .

00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL AL. AL EAX. sdMem . EAX DMAEnd . [EBP+28] DMA12Add. CH2 . Lo byte address .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. AL EAX. dPhyMem . 8 DMAPage2. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. 8 DMA12Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. AL AL. sdMem . AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. Hi Byte . 00000001b AL.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. 00000010b AL. 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. 8 DMA11Cnt. AL EAX. Hi Byte . AL EAX. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL . AL EAX. AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . AL AL. 8 DMAPage0. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL AL. OR with MODE/TYPE . [EBP+28] DMA11Add. BL DMA1Mode. dPhyMem . 8 DMAPage1. AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. BL DMA1Mode. Highest byte (to page register) . CH1 . channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA10Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. AL DMA1FF. EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. AL EAX. OR with MODE . Lo byte address . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA12Cnt. 8 DMA11Add. AL DMA1FF.

Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. . 8 DMA21Add. Lo byte address . AL EAX. 15 DMAPage5. 8 DMAPage3. 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. EBX EAX. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. . We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . 00000001b AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+28] DMA13Add. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . 1 DMA21Add. AL EAX. CH3 . . AL DMA1FF. CH1 on DMA 2 . sdMem . 8 DMA21Cnt. 00000011b AL. AL AL. AL AL. 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. Highest byte (to page register) .0 AL. [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. Hi Byte . AL AL. AL DMA2FF. AL AL. Hi Byte . 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. BL DMA1Mode. . OR with MODE . AL EAX. BL DMA2Mode. 8 DMA13Cnt. AL EAX. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . OR with MODE . EAX DMAEnd . EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. AL EAX. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA13Add. . . .XOR EAX. AL EAX. . dPhyMem . MMURTL V1. 0FFFFh EAX. EAX EAX. AL EAX.NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . [EBP+24] EAX. .

EAX DMAEnd . Rid of all but lower 16 . BL DMA2Mode. EBX EAX. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . sdMem . AL EAX. 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. 00000010b AL. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer .0 AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. BL DMA2Mode. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA22Add. 8 DMA23Add. [EBP+24] EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Hi Byte . [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. Hi Byte . 1 DMA22Add. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Lo byte address . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 1 DMA23Add. AL DMA2FF.DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . AL AL. CH3 on DMA 2 . 15 DMAPage6. dPhyMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . OR with MODE . OR with MODE . 0FFFFh EAX. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. dPhyMem . [EBP+28] EBX. AL EAX. AL AL. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. 15 DMAPage6. AL EAX. EBX EAX. 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL AL. [EBP+28] EBX. EAX . Lo byte address . EAX EAX. EAX EAX. AL DMA2FF. Highest byte (to page register) . 8 DMA22Cnt. 0FFFFh EAX. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. CH2 on DMA 2 . 8 DMA23Cnt. AL EAX. sdMem . AL EAX. 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. Rid of all but lower 16 . AL AL. 00000011b AL. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer .EBP MMURTL V1. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL.

Return address for count .ESP MOV EAX. .g. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3.0 .535: . [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. . For channels 5 through 7.6. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . To move 64K. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. [EBP+16] MOV ESI. you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. GetDMACount(dChannel. dChannel (0. . For channels 0 through 3. this will be the number of words. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. In this case. DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. this is bytes. no error from the floppy controller). you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. EBP+ 16 12 . DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. . On some devices. . . 7 MMURTL V1.Channel .3.2. . DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX.5. . The count is number of WORDS-1 . 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made.7) . pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where .1. PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX..POP EBP RETF 20 . 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX. . GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. . pwCountRet) . you actually set the channel byte count 65. the count will be returned. DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. . 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX. 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX.

EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. which determines the interrupt interval.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS .JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX.DX MOV CH. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. or at set intervals. As you can imagine (or will have realized). Your job is to know how to program the PICU. The operating system may. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. many devices interrupt the processor. EAX MOV ESP. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. but it is critical that it's done correctly. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. 20 bytes of junk to dump . . One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. The PICU takes care of this for you. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. . Quite often. ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. CX XOR EAX. MMURTL V1. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. .AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI].AL IN AL. or even hours in some cases. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. Usually. however. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. . Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. . be responsible to program these dedicated timers. Internally. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. and read as required.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. This is not very complicated.DX MOV CL.No such channel! . . Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. . and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. . . these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. Therefore. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly. program. In the process of an interrupt. No Error .

You will need the hardware manual for code examples.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

In other words. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. memory. MMURTL V1. This can be done in more than one step if required. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . loader program that in turn loads the operating system. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. we start with loading the operating system. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. it executes from a reset state. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. In the PC world. and important structures. When I say "just enough code. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. where boot ROMs usually reside. more complicated. For this reason. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code." that's exactly what I mean. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. The question is. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform.Chapter 7. tasks. and it's not exactly easy. This device will. the boot sector code may load another. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. including hardware. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. This is known as a multistage boot. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. be organized with a file system. If this is true. To be honest. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up.at least not as a file from the file system. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. In this chapter. then jumping to the first address of the sector. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. then execute it. I've done all your homework. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. no doubt. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. then go through each section of the basic initialization. you'll have to do some research. If you're using another platform.

Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. 8. But it gets more complicated. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. 8. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. In my case. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. 7. such as a fixed track or cylinder. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. This was a double problem. and where you stored it. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). First. such as a whole track). I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. 3. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. 4. then executed the next instruction at the new address. 2. 5. the hardware commands. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump.g. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). Second. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. so you can begin execution. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. then life is easy. Where your operating system will reside in memory. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector.. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. This was the case with my system. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. 7. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. 2. This lead to two relocation efforts. then Drive C.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. which they store in a small work area in RAM. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. 4. MMURTL V1. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). 3. In an ISA system. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). 1. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. 6. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. because they provide the BIOS. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. 5. 6. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system.

Examine the following code: .instructions. (worthless) .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.nSect in FAT .media desc.0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) . IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h . The boot sector code also . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.386P directive is required because I use protected .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) . This contains additional information about the file system . (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single .nTotalSectors if > 32Mb .Resvd sectors .and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible .nHeads . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.386P . The OS must .Sect/Cluster .stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as . and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.Padding to make it 3 bytes . .nFATs .11 bytes for volume name .BASE (Linear) . DS:CSEG.on this disk that the operating needs to know.The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads .Drive boot sector came from .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors. One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors.nSectors/track .nBytes/Sector . Why not? I do own it.Root Dir entries max .The .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk. CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .disks.LIMIT 768 slots . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) . .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots . There's no operating system here now.nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .

. AX SP.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. 512 MOVSB . nSectPerTrack . Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . vector location..Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.This is done by finding out where it is and writing . return address. some of the parameters to it from the boot sector. 0078h .Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) . . 0Fh . DI AX. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. Push the .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. then "return" to it. 7C0h DS. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. 09000h ES.Segment for new location .The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . AX DI.Destination segment . AX MOV BX.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS .9000h SS. that I calculated after assembling it once. Its pseudo jump .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX.Clear interrupts .Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF . SI CX. It works.This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . AX SI. 8000h .Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. AX MOV DS. at the beginning of this code CLI . MOV AX.Make DS correct again . table so it can read the disk for us.Source segment . MOV CX.

bBootDrive XOR AX.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) ..CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root .on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in .Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot . MOV SI.0020h .The layout of the Disk is: . OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. We need the space for other code. MOV CX.Reset failed. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) . nBytesPerSect BX AX. FATS (1 or more) . AX .Bad boot goes here and displays a message then .Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . WORD PTR nHidden .AX is at sector for cluster 0. AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot . ADC DX. but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist . OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .stage one of the a two stage loader should be).The controller is reset. nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX.logical sector order. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated .Must set interrupts for BIOS to work . Hidden Sectors (optional) .Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) .What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster . POP DS .STI MOV DL.waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.Required for Disk System Reset .Save in CX . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX. now let's read some stuff!! . nRsvdSect MOV CX. . AX MOV AL.Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. cluster because the first 2 are unused).so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be.0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS .. CX . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX.to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or .really IS the OS. nOSSectors .

BX . DX . AX has . OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX.Leaves Head in DL. CH . Hi 2 bits to CL CL. BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX.Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL.AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH. Drive to DL CX.0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX. 20h ES. before we move it down to 0000h . AX . 1 . . 2 .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads .XOR INT INT AX.AX 16h 19h .Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . .Read 13h . ES BX. Read a .OR with Sector number AL.Next Sector MMURTL V1.Number of sectors AH. nSectPerTrack SI . 6 . Cyl in AX DH. DH . It's slow. MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC . DL .Head to DH.Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI.0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . 06000h MOV ES. ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI. 0Eh MOV BX. bBootDrive DL.I increment ES and leave BX 0 .Sector to read DX. BX AX .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH.BX will be zeroed at top of loop .This is segment where we load the OS.512 bytes for segment .This is a single sector read loop . but works well.Wait for keystroke . shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL. BYTE PTR ResvdByte .Cyl into CX CL.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte.

Now we disable interrupts. 8000h .0D1h OUT 64h.WORD move .CX IBEmm1: IN AL.64h TEST AL.64h TEST AL. DX MOVSW .0 .AX DI.the OS down to address 0.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section . Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.WORD move .0DFh OUT 60h. . SI AX. turn on the A20 line. move .DI CX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.AL XOR CX.A20 line should be ON Now .CX IBEmm2: IN AL. BX SI.AL XOR CX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 .from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear. DX MOVSW .1000h ES.DI CX. SI MMURTL V1. SI AX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL. 06000h DS. DX XOR SI. BX SI. AX ES.LOOP NextSector .64h TEST AL.AX DI. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX.So move the OS MOV DX.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS . 07000h DS. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX. Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.

Load Processor ITD Pointer . BX XOR EDX. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.call JMP FAR 08h:10000h. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code. such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate). bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX. 'Bad Boot Disk!'.BX ES.Set up segment registers .CR0 OR AL. 0Ah.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction.BYTE move MOV BX. 00h '. It's worthless.EXE header.Control Register .by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump .BX GS.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .2000h ES. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.asm <Enter> This will make a . and a map file from the link (Bootblok. As you change and experiment with the boot sector.'. 'Loading MMURTL'. DX MOVSB . 9000h MOV DS. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok. EDX MOV DL.Load Processor GDT Pointer .DI CX. 10h DS.Set protected mode bit .EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX. The segment and code size escape .BX FS.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS . 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END .lst).OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .Clear prefetch queue with JMP .We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually . I left it in.1 MOV CR0.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.map). DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector.BX . The first 512 bytes is the . 00h 0Dh.MS-DOS used this.BX SS.AX DI. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format. 0Ah.

Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. They may do this as they format the disk. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). you can use the Dump command to display it. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. and Name commands. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. Keep in mind. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. Then copy the operating system image to the disk. you should not do this to your active development drive. you can use Debug to load it as a . This is easy to do. logical sector number. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . After you have assembled your boot sector. It's quite easy to do with the Load. To find where Debug loaded it. The results can be disastrous. or after the fact. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. and number of sectors following it. This will show you a segmented address.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. then write it to the disk. From the MS-DOS prompt. C:\>Debug BootBlok. Write.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. Register.bin in the root directory of drive C. To read the boot sector from a disk.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting.

Additionally. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment.c) to properly build it. At this point.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. If so. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. With MMURTL.00 loader. Hopefully.asm on CD-ROM. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. I have provided a utility called MakeImg.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. but it's not necessary. I'm happy. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. Good luck.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go.” MMURTL V1. and basic timers . It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. This single source file program (MMLoader.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). I couldn't. They must simply be initialized to their default states. the Direct Memory Access hardware. up to the point we jump the monitor program. It is all contained in the source file Main. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. This includes setting up the OS stack. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. It does everything that the boot sector code does. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. understands.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. “The Hardware Interface. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. It is called MMLoader. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. If it is in an executable format from a linker.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. Chapter 21. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable.C:\> Copy OS. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. All of the hardware that is resident in the system . “Initialization Code. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. It should help give you a picture of what's required.

or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. you just learn to live with it. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. the A20 address line serves no purpose. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. and also some basic variables. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. Chapter 3. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. If you want to eliminate it. is not trivial. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. on the Intel processors. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. For instance. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. The option is usually up to you. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. This leaves you with a few options . Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls).” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. In all of the cases that were discussed. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. While in real mode. “the Tasking Model. If you use one more bit. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). It's not that big. If you desire. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. you've got your job cut out for you. Either way. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0).the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. This depends on the platform.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. setting up for multitasking. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. I just left it alone. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. as well as one to switch to. Being a little conservative. MMURTL V1. you can address above 1Mb.

To make a transition to a paged memory environment. and you can't manage or allocate it. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. If you chose not to do this. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. MMURTL V1. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. but one I'm glad I didn't face. The following list is not all-inclusive. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. “Memory Management Code. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. I tried several methods. Meanwhile. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. The point is. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. where the address match will occur. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. It's not that much of a headache. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do.My goal was not to discover why it existed. although some people may still have problems with it. otherwise. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. back to the initialization (already in progress). or is at least loaded. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. Chapter 19. At this stage of the initialization. or any number of things. This piece of code may have a lot to do. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). You don't know how much you have. some which didn't work on all machines. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. This seems to work on most machines. If your machine doesn't support this method.

I found. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. If the parameters are on the stack. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. public distribution. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. What could be easier? I can't imagine.Chapter 8. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. life was easy in this respect.” shows you how I documented my calls. what order are they in? If the stack is used. No kidding! With UNIX. If this happens to me. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . I'm still not entirely happy with it. This may sound like a no-brainer. or your own consumption and enjoyment. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. the function does its job and returns. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. The call is made. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. may be similar to another documented call on the system. UNIX was written with C. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. an embedded system. that on occasion. because the call they add. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. In any and all of these cases. “API Specification. they do. and leave undocumented. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. In the following sections. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. Chapter 15. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). Quite often though. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used.

but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. OS/2. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. code size. but the stack is not used for parameters. and it required a fixed number of parameters. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only).0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. I'm sure you know of several. this is MMURTL V1. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. some use both. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. Second. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. Execution speed. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. for example.junkies). MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. It's up to you. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . especially when it comes to speed.g. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions.. the interrupt vector table). has three or four calling conventions. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. as if you couldn't guess). I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. This device is extremely hardware dependent. In other words. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. or at least every time it's rebuilt. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. faster. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. However. First. no doubt. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). Many systems use an intermediate library. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. There are two reasons this library may be required. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. Your opinion may vary on this. support several conventions. Pascal . Some use registers. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. some use the stack.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention.

When the software-interrupt mechanism is used.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. However. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system." Yeah. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). However. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. I really hope not. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. For the operating system source. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. When you need to return data from the call. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. This may be a personal issue for me. For application source code portability. If portability is near the top of your wish list. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. the procedural interface is the key. The intermediate library would fill in this value. then execute the interrupt instruction. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. right. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. MMURTL V1. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . and the call gates are really not a problem. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). the hardware will be obsolete.

For instance. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. They work with the hardware.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . You more than likely will. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. and certain memory-management functions. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. I set out to design the simplest. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. that it's almost impossible to separate them. You need to consider these requirements in your design. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. Do you see what I mean? Internally. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. Suddenly. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. timers. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. and Statusing the driver. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. If this is the case. and this wasn't my original plan. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use.

Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. when one user is doing serial communications.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. For example. . [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. pStatRet. . Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). EBP+24 . I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself.0 . You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. nDevices.Set up local vars . and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. In a multitasking system. dOpNum. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). InitDevDr(). this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. InitDevDr(dDevNum. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. EAX MOV EAX. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX.ASM. nDevices MMURTL V1. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. so I won't go over it here. pInitData. pDCBs. When you look at the code. EBP+20 nDevices. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. . dLBA.ESP SUB ESP. ndBlocks.InitDevDr(dDevNum.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. “Systems Programming. You'll see certain validity checks. . dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The first call listed in this section. . 16 MOV EAX. This is a common requirement on many systems. This will give you a good place to start in your design. EAX MOV EAX. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system.

is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX. .If we got here.Point EBX to rgpDCB .nDevices .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.pDCBx = 0 if not used yet . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: . [EBP+24] EAX. 0 .error exit .Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .No .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. dDevX SHL EAX.12 . [EBP+16] nDevs. EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX].into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX. OK to use .Now check to see if device is already installed .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: . [EBP+20] . 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 . 2 ADD EBX. we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX.Decrement nDevices . EAX EBX.Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX .Set nDev to number of devices again . rgpDCBs MOV EAX.0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS . rgpDCBs EAX.Next caller DCB .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX.dDevNum .Yes . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.Empty. 2 . dExchTmp . 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: .Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs. ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .All went OK so far.Next devnum .dDevNum MMURTL V1. ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. prgDevs . 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12].NONE left .OK to replace existing driver? . 0 JNZ InitDev06 . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array .

. DeviceOp() and DeviceStat().pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. rgpDCBs MOV EBX.Now that EBX. MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch].ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: .Set up for no error . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. and are not presented here.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. EAX and ECX are set up. nDevices . 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX. 0 . [EBP+20] . MOV EBX. EAX EBX. PUSH EBP . ECX [EBX].EAX points to first DCB . or reset it after a failure.EBX now points to correct pointer . EAX MOV EAX.ADD EBX.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . EAX .If the device driver was NOT reentrant . dExchTmp .for all devices that one driver controls.Any more DCBs?? . and . 2 .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for .ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh .Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. pInitData.the first customer to use. loop through each . A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. .Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. [EAX] . EBX . 4 EAX. ADD EAX. This is the same exchange . . .next p in rgp of DCBs . MOV EBP. MOV EBX. . CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20].device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX .0 . are almost identical to DeviceInit(). [EBP+20] MOV ECX. SHL EBX. sdInitData). EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . The other two calls. -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . ErcBadDevNum . You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB. DeviceInit(dDevNum. PUBLIC __DeviceInit: .DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it.ESP .Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX.also place Exchange into DCB.next DCB . [EBP+20] .

No. but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments..Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] .Get DCB ptr back . This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.so we check to see if driver is reentrant. adding the procedural call examples is a good idea.Ptr to message area . ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd .Bogus Message . If not we . 0 .Yes .call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.Push exchange number .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 .NO driver! .dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example. 0 DevInit02 EAX.Get device error back . It you use assembly language and provide code examples. MMURTL V1. 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.Get ptr to DCB back into EBX . .0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP.Push all params for call to DD .save ptr to DCB .Get semaphore ticket . CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Device IS reentrant . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType]. The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.Is there a physical device? DevInit02: .. Send semaphore message to Exch .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX. . .All looks good with device number .Save ptr to DCB .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .Ignore kernel error .

A Function in C or Pascal. Look at the table 9. usually passed on the stack. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. Before writing your first MMURTL program. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. Function .” and Chapter 5.1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. though.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE. and DWORD. If I were a perfectionist. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). but alas.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. or a Procedure in Assembler. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. Byte . you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values).1 . The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. Argument . Terminology Throughout this section. “Memory Management. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements.Same as Procedure. It may even be entertaining.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter .0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. WORD. “Interprocess Communications.Chapter 9. I think you will find it useful. Call .A value passed to a function or procedure. MS-DOS). Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4.g.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word .. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. or a Procedure in Pascal. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . and a dword is also accessed at the same address.

Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. not the real address of the SetXY function. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). “API Specification. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. and in some cases. and are expanded to 32-bit values. erc. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. Pascal. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. In some C compilers. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. and assembly language. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. even the assembler or processor itself. It may indicate an error. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. Most return a value that is a an error or status code.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. This will be done by the compiler. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. All parameters are pushed from left to right.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. or dError. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. or simply convey information that may. MMURTL V1. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. But the address is really a call gate. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some do not.

The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management.2 . they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. The operating system resides at address 0. MMURTL V1. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. . This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. There are no far data pointers. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use. malloc() in C). Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers.. you simply allocate it. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). She may pick up your dirty socks. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it... Chapter 3. MMURTL is a Paged memory system. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector..” describe this in great detail. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory.. When you are done with it.. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages.g. In fact. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark..2: Table 9. .Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . If you need a 2Mb array. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . but she would much rather that you did it. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). “The Tasking Model. “Interprocess Communications.” and Chapter 4. you should deallocate it.. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. you allocate it. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory..

The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. so long as you know it can't be addressed. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. however. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. dData1. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). dRespExch. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. However. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. This means that in a multitasking environment. cbData2. Address 40100000h is returned to you. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. wSvcCode. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. dData0. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. dMsg1. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. Of course.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. cbData1. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. SendMsg (dExch. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). pData1. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. You allocate 5 pages. MMURTL does NOT. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . Now you allocate 4 pages. pRqHndlRet. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. Data. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). protect programmers from themselves. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . This is not a problem. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. pData2. The operating system Code. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. npSend.

printing. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. which the GetJobNum() call will provide.Normally. char sbJobName[14]. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. you need to know your job number. Messaging is very powerful. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables).c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). For instance. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. but you don't want that either. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. If you do. and user interaction. The pointer is read-only. Other than that. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. /* User Name . This eats all of your link blocks. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . but can also be destructive (to the entire system). Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. only your program will be trashed.LString */ MMURTL V1. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. such as data communications. MMURTL is not a mind reader. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory.

dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet.LString */ std input .char sbPath[70]. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. char *pVidMem. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. “Keyboard Service. char JcbCmdLine[80]. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. long NormVid.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . and special keys. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. long CrntY. long VidMode. char fCursType. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. }. The keyboard interface is a system service. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. char *pVirtVid. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. editing. char JcbSysIn[50]. char fVidPause. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. To change data in the JCB.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. unsigned char ScrlCnt. with unused portions padded. char JcbExitRF[80]. pPathRet. long NextJCB. long nLines.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. For most applications. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. long CrntX. char JcbSysOut[50]. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. Chapter 13. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent.LString */ std output . long nCols. long ExitError. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . you must use the calls provided by the operating system. MMURTL V1. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. char fCursOn. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric.

Background.4. character placement.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. the high nibble is the background. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. is the intensity bit. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes).3 . Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down).4096 bytes). logically OR the Foreground. The high bit of each.Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24.4 . The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. In this byte.3. and cursor positioning. PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. and low nibble is the foreground.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . The colors for TTYOut(). Table 9. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. Tables 9. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. and Blink if desired to form a single value.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . only the least significant byte is used. and 9. Background colors describe the attributes. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. Foreground colors.

BGBLUE|WHITE). but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. 0. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. MMURTL has to hunt for them.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . This includes any memory. exchanges. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. MMURTL V1. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. This is done by calling the Chain() function. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). This is done with the SetExitJob() call. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. 17.". Remember. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. or system calls. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. "This is a test. and other things allocated while you were running. If no file is specified. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify.

MMURTL V1.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required.Chapter 10. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. or provide services to application programs. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. Service names are casesensitive. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. as well as for other services. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. use messaging. the service does the processing and Responds. if needed. such as: Additional memory. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. then Respond. It's not very useful. Additional tasks if required. and memory management operations. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. service them. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. Client programs make a Request. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). Pascal.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. if required. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. and Assembly language programmers. Additional exchanges. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. Wait for messages.

long dData2. while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). char *pData1. ErrorToUser. char *pRqHndlRet. long dData1. long RQBRsvd1. else if (pRqBlk.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. }. long cbData1. long dData0. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. long RespExch. int ServiceCode. long RQBRsvd3. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. MainExch. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. char *pData2. long RQBRsvd2.1. NextNumber = 0. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". MainExch). long cbData2. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. Message[2].ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. char npRecv.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. long ServiceRoute. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk.Listing 10. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. Message). /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. long RqOwnerJob. char npSend.pData1 = NextNumber++.

Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. and another RenameFile. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. another CloseFile. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. In the simple example above. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. dData1. you define the data items you need. The complexity of your service. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. one number represents OpenFile. cbData1 and cbData2. when you receive a Request. For example. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. or any data movement back to the caller. As a system service writer. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. These items are dData0. in the File System. For larger data movement to the service. The operating MMURTL V1. The first dword is the Request Block Handle.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. and what service you provide. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. This is the number 1 (one). You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation.The Request Block As you can see. the service only defines one service code that it handles. and how much information a program must pass to you. As a system service. They are 32-bit values. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. In fact. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. This is called the service code. The memory address of the Request Block. and dData2. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. because the operating system does not alias them as such. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. For all other values of the service code.

When you write system services. MMURTL uses this concept. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. and moves it to another exchange. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. cbData1 and pData2. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. RAM disks. This is the easiest way to handle requests. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. However. you must respond to it immediately. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. Disk drives. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. then respond before waiting for the next request. MMURTL is built in layers. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. If this happens. cbData2. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes.system is “aware” of this. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. before responding to any other requests you are holding. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. Synchronous services wait. In the keyboard service. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. the file may not exist. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. but carries it one step farther. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. tape drives. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. until you respond. The first is the request block handle. In each of these cases. communications ports (serial and parallel). receive a request. which is a valuable system resource. If so. If so.

multi-threaded environment. It does not directly access hardware. the file system is at user level (3). or any OS structures. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. basic video. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it.e. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. C and Pascal). MMURTL V1..which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. the PICUs. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. or is included in the OS code at build time.and sequential-oriented. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent).0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. or a processor protection violation will occur.g. multitasking. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). keyboard. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. With InitDevDr(). Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. Block Size. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. hard disk. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device.. as well as where the data is on the device. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. RAM DISK). MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. The interface is non-specific. SCSI ports. to handling complex devices such as hard drives. For example. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. or network frame handlers (i. powerful. This means message. Things like Device name. interrupt vectors. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3).g. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). Sequential devices are things like communications ports. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. I have made it rather painless to build fast. If a device driver controls more than one device. keyboard. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. network link layer devices). timer hardware.

It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. This layer of code performs several functions for you. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. Call InitDevDr().Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. Do anything else you need before being called. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. The generic steps are described below. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. if needed. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. Allocate exchanges. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. or in Pascal. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. InitDevDr() never returns to you. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. In C this would be main(). and is programmed. just like any other program. You can name them anything you want in your program. if needed. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. Set up interrupt service routines. The device driver looks. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. Check or set up the device’s. like any application in MMURTL. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. The main entry point will never be called again. At this point. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. it's the main program block. if required. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made.

Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. direction. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. Timer Facilities Quite often. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). especially if the driver controls two devices.”API Specification. specifically DOS. MMURTL uses paged memory.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. Two calls provide these functions. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. This is often called an interrupt vector. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. mode. In other operating systems. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. although it’s not a requirement. and size of a DMA move. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. device drivers are very close to the hardware. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage().0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . or how much was transferred. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. If you use MMURTL V1. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range.

If you use SendMsg(). Table 10. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory.1-. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled).) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). a structure in C. but easy to figure out.Alarm(). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). you can use SendMsg(). so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. and KillAlarm() functions. Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. and how to implement them in your code. or assembler to construct the DCB. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. Table 10. Alarm().

Each driver names the device it serves. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. Disk drives are divided into sectors.number of bytes per block. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. pDevInit. If the device is sequential.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . not the next track. Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. this is device dependent. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. For devices that are not re-entrant. DevType .0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). MMURTL V1. For example. and handle device conflicts internally. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. sector zero. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. fDevReent . Some names are standardized in MMURTL. usually an unexpected one. sbDevName . then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. dLastDevErc . znBPB . head zero. but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . This reduces disk arm movement which. then this should contain a 2. we then move to the next head. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). The Hard disk driver operates the same way. The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. For instance. increases throughput. Each device name must be unique. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. and WaitMsg() primitives. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). the SendMsg().Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() .a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. but this is not much of a limitation. where several devices are controlled though one access point. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. If it is another device. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr().When a driver encounters an error. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. and you read one sector past the end of that track. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. ndDevBlocks .Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls.This is a 1-byte flag (0 false.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. Each sector is considered a block. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). In assembler. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. pDevOp.this indicates whether the device is addressable. RETN is the proper instruction. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. if you are on track zero. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. In other words.

no job is currently assigned the device. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. They equate to standard device operations such as read. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device.dLBA. If this is zero. OSUseONLY1. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack.6 . Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. pStatRet. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver.3.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time. ndBlocks.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr.dOpNum. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32).If the fSingleUser is true.pData). wJob . The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on. verify. Your function implementations must do the same. and format. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored.5.4.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . this flag should be true (non-zero). pInitData. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. dOpNum. dLBA. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device.fSingleUser . The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it.dnBlocks. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. write.2. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session.

For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. Not all devices will return status on demand.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. this will simply be the number of bytes.pInitData.pdStatusRet).dStatusMax. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. and so on.dInitData).5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed.pStatRet. parity. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1.

OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. MMURTL V1. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. such as a disk or SCSI controller. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. If more than one device is controlled.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. this is the first number of the devices. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. This means the devices are number consecutively. fReplace If true. After the Device driver has been loaded. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. If this is not the case. This is because one controller. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. and one DMA channel if applicable. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. nDevices. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. pDCBs. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. the second at pDCBs + 128. If the driver controls more than one device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. and so on. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls.

If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status. then use it. MMURTL V1.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call.

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it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication.g. is assigned to the new job or is terminated. Sample Initial. Any spaces. Drive:\DIR\NAME. When the user presses these global keys.This is the initial jobs file. C:\MSamples\Service\Service. a buffer in memory. The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with.run C:\MMSYS\CLI. No spaces.. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen.INITIAL. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name. If you intend to write an operating system. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. the job he is currently viewing.system boot in this file.RUN <---. the keyboard. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded.Maximum line length is 80 characters total.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . . The format is very simple. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing. . as well as the video display. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system.JOB . Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. The name must start in the first column of a line. Listing 11.Job file .to the run file.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon . This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up. One run file name per line.1. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file. Listing 11. tabs or comments after .file name including path.JOB.the run file name are ignored. Even when a Job is not being displayed. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. .Chapter 11. or terminate.JOB file. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. (e. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system.after each entry. If it's displaying video data. In future versions of MMURTL. No parameters are passed .0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS .RUN) .1 shows a sample INITIAL. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . The file name must contain the FULL .

Table 11.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. RS-232 serial communications. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction.1. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. and access to the built-in debugger.1. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages .. priority task.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code.RUN. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. any errors returned are displayed. During this process.1 describes the function of each assigned key. Once the initialization is complete. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. MMURTL V1. They are displayed as typed. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. Table 11. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS .This is the total count of task switches since boot up. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. job display. Task switches total . and the parallel port (LPT) driver.

This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. Free Link Blocks . including requests. This number may seem a little high. Each new task uses one of these.h" "MMemory. MMURTL V1. but the count is fixed at OS build time.h" "MData.These are task-management structures. Listing 11. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ". Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. but have a fixed count at OS build time.h" "MVid. the C library code can be used. Tasks Ready to Run . you will see the preemptive task switch count increase.2.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated.A small structure used by all messages sent and received. Free Exchanges .h" "MKbd. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated.h" "MTimer.h" "MFiles. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory. See listing 11.This is the number of free job control blocks left.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . These are static and the count is determined at OS build time.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run.CPU idle ticks (no work) . Free Job Control Blocks . These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel. that don't get picked up right away. the request block is returned for re-use. There were no tasks ready to run. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system.h" "MJob. Free Task State Segments .2. If this number is greater than zero.h" "MDevDrv. Response is made by the service. even in the same job. Each job uses one.

/* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. MngrMsg[2]. LastSeekErc0. tick. unsigned long KillExch. U32 blocks_done. gcode. KillError. 1990-1995. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. LastErcByte0. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". MngrHndl. static unsigned long GPHndl. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. KillJobNum. Burgess. MUltitasking. LastSeekErc1. LastRecalErc1. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. U8 type_now. fKilled. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. MMURTL V1. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. static long time.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS .static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. LastErcByte1.Message based. date. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. MngrExch. U8 fNewMedia. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. Real-Time kerneL". U32 BlocksMax. All Rights Reserved". LastStatByte1. fIntOnReset. static unsigned long GP1Exch. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n".A. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. LastStatByte0.

nReady.c */ HardIDE. /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. nHalts. BootDrive. nLBLeft. #asm MMURTL V1.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 resvd1[2]. static unsigned long nMemPages. xsprintf. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. char *ppJCBRet). extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. lpt_setup(void). nSwitches. nSlices.asm */ Floppy. InitFS(void).c */ RS232. coms_setup(void). nEXCHLeft. hdisk_setup(void). /* out to 64 bytes */ }. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. static long StatStack[256].c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. nRQBLeft. char *pJCBRet). /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. fdisk_setup(void). static struct diskstattype DiskStatus.c */ Parallel.c */ Fsys.U8 ResetStatByte. /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). nTSSLeft. nJCBLeft.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256].

zero = ' '. chr = *fmt++. long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. EAX MOV ESI. width = value = i = 0. *ptr. #asm XOR EAX.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . *ptr = justify = minus = 0. chr.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. 30h . 39h .No CMP AL. total.MOV EAX. char *fmt. i. unsigned long width. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. total = 0. minus. justify. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. JLE isdigit1 .0 JL isdigit0 . ptr = &numstk[32].[EBP+8] CMP AL. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. value. zero. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0).[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI].EAX .0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS .

width = (width * 10) + (chr . } value = *--argptr. break. break.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 'b' : i = 2. if(width) --width. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. } while(value /= i). break. } case 'u' : i = 10. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. chr = *fmt++. default: *--ptr = chr. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. case 'o' : i = 8. break. break. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7.'0'). ++minus. ++argptr. break. ++total. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. *--ptr = chr. case 's' : ptr = value. case 'c' : *--ptr = value.

i < width. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. } /************************************ MMURTL V1. ap). ++total. value = width . .. } /* move in data */ i = 0. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. return total. } } } else { /* not format char. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. long total. fmt). ++total. char buffer[S_SIZE]. va_start(ap. } } *outptr = 0.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . ++total. ++i. fmt. just move into string *outptr++ = chr. strlen(buffer). fmt). return total. ++total. ++i.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). TTYOut(buffer. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer.. ++i) *outptr++ = zero.) { va_list ap. Color).1. va_end(ap.

va_end(ap. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol.Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. Exch. 24. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. tick). When it gets one. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated.1).0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . 25. rgMonMenu1. . } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. ap). fmt.. BLUE|BGWHITE). PutVidChars(54. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). char *fmt. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. PutVidChars(27. fmt). fmt). GetXY(&iCol.. SetXY(0. PutVidChars(0. return.23. total = _ffmt(s. rgStatLine.22). va_start(ap. PutVidChars(0. rgMonMenu2. iLine. 24. Msg[2]. return total. 24. SetXY(0. WHITE|BGBLUE).) { va_list ap.1). it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. 26. "%d". BLUE|BGWHITE). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. i. long total. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. MMURTL V1. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. BLUE|BGWHITE).80.0. 80.1. 26. rgMonMenu3. &iLine). } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor.

50). /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. tick). Sleep(50). */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). GetTimerTick(&tick).0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS .U8 *pPD. Tone(440. WHITE|BGBLUE). Error: %d\r\n". Sleep(50). /* year */ 0x0f). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. ((time >> 16) & 0x0f).5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). 0x0f). /* Day */ 0x0f). xprintf("Job number %d terminated. 80.*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0].0. pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. KillJobNum. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). WHITE|BGBLUE). rgStatLine. PutVidChars(0. PutVidChars(0. (time & 0x0f). 80. *pVid. &pJCB). rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. /* sleep 0.5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate. "%d". 0x0f). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). /* month */ 0x0f). TSSExch in it.. KillMsg). KillError).. /* sleep 0. CheckScreen().. tick). pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD.0. for(. rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). rgStatLine.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). "%d". ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). The message has Error.

&gcode.) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. 0. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. 1). 0. MngrExch. char *pJCB. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). i. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. 2. 0.. /* We're done (and so is he. Also. Msg). We don't actually switch jobs.GetVidOwner(&i). &i. Exch.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. 0). MMURTL V1.. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". fDone. /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". DeAllocPage(pVid. DeAllocJCB(pJCB). Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. 0. 1. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). 2). */ DeAllocPage(pPD. j. fKilled = 1. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). 0. 0. &MngrHndl. if the debugger has the video. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. 0. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. 4.. It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key.. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger).

0. &MngrHndl. 0. 0. &pJCB). 0. MngrExch. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. 0). 0. MngrExch. fDone = 0. } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". i = j. MngrMsg). 0. 0. &gcode. MngrMsg). if (i==2) i = 3. 4. for(. 0. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. while (!fDone) { i++. erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD".0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). 0. erc = KillJob(j). 0. 0). 0). 0.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch.. 0. else if (i>34) i = 1. 0. 0. i. &MngrHndl. 4. erc = GetpJCB(i. 2. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { .4.

0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . i. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . } . /* 0=A. 0. #asm CLI MOV ECX.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. 1. unsigned char sdisk. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. 20). sjobfile. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). sjobfile.run and the last job loaded. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. 2=C etc. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. while (!fdone) { i = 0. fh. char fdone. j.check port up to 64K times . char arunfile[80]. do MMURTL V1.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. fcli.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. job.first we clear interrupts .64h TEST AL. &fh). fcli = 0. &ajobfile[1].AL STI #endasm return. sdisk &= 0x7F. sdisk += 0x41. cbrunfile. 1=B.0FEh OUT 64h. job = 0.return. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). char ajobfile[50].JOB\0". We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command.Read Status Byte into AL . } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile.

&arunfile[i++]. xprintf("Loading: %s. erc). } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n".{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. arunfile). "cli. &j).. job). if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. else fcli = 0. GP1Exch. Sleep(50). 0.') continue. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. &job). &GP1Hndl. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". MMURTL V1. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. 1.. CheckScreen(). assign the keyboard and video to it. 4. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7].run". Sleep(50). CheckScreen(). } } } else fdone = 1. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). } CloseFile(fh). job = 0. erc = 0.\r\n". erc = Request("KEYBOARD". CheckScreen(). cbrunfile.0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS .

GP1Msg). 16). erc = LoadNewJob(acli. iCol. 0). */ acli[0] = sdisk. job. k. MMURTL V1. &acli[1]. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). } return erc. GP1Exch. InitScreen(). i. &GP1Hndl. GP1Msg). 0. 0. Sleep(50). CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI.". xprintf("Loading: %s. *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. 0. &job). unsigned long ccode. 0. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". 0). acli). 4. sdisk &= 0x7F.JOB file not found in system directory.0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = Request("KEYBOARD". } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. unsigned char sdisk. sdisk += 0x41. acli[40]. } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized.. strlen(acli). char text[70]. CheckScreen(). 0. iLine. 0.\r\n"). job. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. ccode1. 0.RUN\0". CheckScreen(). unsigned char c. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. 0.. j. 1=B.0. SetVidOwner(job). 0. 0. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. job. 2=C etc. job). /* 0=A.

Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. 1 ). xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc). i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . erc = fdisk_setup(). erc). Error: ").15). erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). 24.. xprintf("%d\r\n". xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". &StatStack[255]. MUltitasking. erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). erc = hdisk_setup(). erc). i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n".A. c). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". erc). if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc).Tone(250.. /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". erc). c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). erc = InitKBDService().Message based.. Tone(1000. xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc). erc). Error: "). xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". erc = coms_setup(). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask.. erc). xprintf("%d\r\n". xprintf("Init floppy device driver.33). i). erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). 0. Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK.0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc).Burgess. xprintf("Copyright (c) R. erc = lpt_setup(). 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). i). Real-Time kerneL\r\n").

erc = GetpJCB(i.. erc).\r\n"). 1. GPExch. erc = InitFS(). j++. case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen().xprintf("Initializing file system. */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". i<nMaxJCBs. /* Col offset */ for (i=1. 10. 1 ).. erc).. pJCB->JobNum). CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40.j). j = 2. /* Line */ k = 0. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. 13). 4. 0. */ LoadJobFile(). if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". Tell it to wait for a key. 0. erc). 0. 0).0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS .j). /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. &GPHndl. GPMsg). for (.) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. &ccode. text). if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". MMURTL V1. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". SetXY(k+10. 0. xprintf("File System. 1. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. c = ccode & 0xff. /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. &MngrStack[255]. if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". break. 0. erc). Error: %d\r\n".. &pJCB).. text. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n".

nEXCHLeft). 1. 1. xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". case 0x12: /* F4 .loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). GREEN|BGBLACK). nReady). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". "-". "\\". GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. "-". xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". xprintf ("\r\n"). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK).12). SetXY(0. 1). nRQBLeft). erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1.0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . any other key to cancel"). 1. 1. PutVidChars(29. \r\n"). Sleep(9). nJCBLeft). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. Sleep(12). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. nSlices). nMemPages). nTSSLeft). case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". Sleep(9). xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". nHalts). "|".Cancelled\r\n"). if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). Sleep(12). PutVidChars(29. while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1.. "/". Sleep(9). xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. nSwitches). 1.} } break. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages).. 1. PutVidChars(29. } SetXY(0. xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". nLBLeft). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). "/". 1. xprintf(". 1. break. break. Sleep(9). "|". 1. Sleep(9). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. 1. PutVidChars(29. PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK).1). PutVidChars(29. case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . " ". default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. 1.. case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. 1. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break.. 1. PutVidChars(29.future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. Sleep(9). "\\". 1. break. case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3).1).

1). 1. SetXY(0. WHITE|BGBLACK).22).23. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1.80.1. &iLine). 2.TTYOut (CRLF. } } GetXY(&iCol. else TTYOut (&c. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS . WHITE|BGBLACK).

.

0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. the debugger is an assembly language. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. MMURTL V1. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). The registers can be examined to see where it happened. When this occurs. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. will clear the screen for display. the debugger is entered. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. and a red banner is displayed. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. and why. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). It is not a separate run file.Chapter 12. Certain debugger display functions. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. function keys are across the bottom. non-symbolic debugger. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. along with the exception number that caused it. such as dumping data. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. If the debugger was entered on a fault.

The GDT contains many items.First TSS.Global Descriptor Table. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address.Job Control Blocks. F8 CrntAdd . Each TSS is 512 bytes. The address is displayed on the left.Clear Breakpoint. the address of the task's JCB. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. the address of the TSS. F10 . TSS1 . The address is displayed on the left. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. LBs . This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. F4 CS:EIP . This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. “Application Programming. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. low order).Set Breakpoint.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. GDT .Display Exchanges. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array.Ready Queue. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. F2 SetBP . IDT . This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. that will be somewhere in this array. F6 Tasks . These values are hard coded at system build. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed.Request Block Array. This clears the single breakpoint. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. a linear address. JCBs .Display Tasks. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. RdyQ . F3 ClrBP . This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. with the down arrow key. MMURTL V1.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS .Goto CS:EIP. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right.Dynamic TSSs.” SVCs . some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. without executing them. This is the address of the Monitor TSS. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. This displays all active tasks on the system.Address Information. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. This requests a linear address. These structures can also be very useful during program debugging.Dump Bytes.Interrupt Descriptor Table. and then dumps the bytes located at that address. You may move down through the instructions.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . This returns to the application and executes one instruction. RQBs . next. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. . and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right.Dump Dwords. TSS3 . This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). F12 AddInfo . F5 Exch .Link Blocks. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. TSSs are numbered sequentially. This is an array of 512-byte structures. This becomes the active address. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. The abbreviations are given in the following list. as most of them are. next.Services Array. This requests a linear address.Change Current Address. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. The task number. F9 DumpB . Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. the associated Job number. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued.Single Step.

and also how local variables are accessed.Exch . Each exchange is 16 bytes. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. listed in your ATF file. without having to fill in special registers. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. ESP .START in an assembly language program. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. such as [EBP+12]. In MMURTL. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ASM files. aTmr . In some cases. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC].Timer Blocks. its down and dirty troubleshooting. There are four debug address registers in the processor. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. or at the beginning of any instruction. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. With near calls like you would make inside your program. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. but for right now. it is the index of that exchange in the array. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. locking up. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. MMURTL V1.Exchanges. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. Lots of code here MOV ESP. like the older processors. actually a trap. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. When it occurs. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . entering the debugger. This is the address of the array of timer blocks. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. or for . or whatever). Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. For applications. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code.and displayed as an unsigned number. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing.

It almost. including allocated memory. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized.Processor exceptions. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. is saved by the debugger. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). If you look through the 386/486 documentation. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. called exceptions.1. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. Instead. just like applications do. When the debug interrupt activates. a pointer to the currently running TSS. When writing an operating system. If you are going to debug a task. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. Traps. you must be able to access all of its memory. usually a blank screen and nothing else. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. Table 12. you will see that there are many interrupts. or faults. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults.. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). that can occur.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . a page fault is fatal to a task. The debugger also has its own virtual screen.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. the current pRunTSS. The debugger cannot debug itself. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done.1. MMURTL V1. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on..) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. The debugger becomes the active job. No other task operates at a priority that high. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. but not quite.

The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. This makes the debugger transparent. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. MMURTL V1. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. While you are in the debugger. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. These contain the address of the exception handler.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. which is exactly what you want. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. When the debugger is entered. you should kill the offending job and restart. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. To do this.

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Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. It's easier to use. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number.Not used (0) */ dData2 . 0. As described in chapter 10. 0). I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. MyExch. 1. “system programming. &KeyCode 4. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . 0. Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. but not as powerful. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1.1 shows the services provided by the service code. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". this is true multitasking). &MyRqhandle. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.Chapter 13.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. 0 0.fWait for Key */ dData1 . 1. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always).0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS .not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . Available Services Table 13.

The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys.Not used 0 . This allows for "hot-key" operation. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered. Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 . The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available.1. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. the error should be 0. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. Unlike regular keystrokes. even if a key is not available.Wait for Key = 0 . and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications. In this case.Not used.Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed.Return with error if no key waiting 1 .Count of bytes in the code 0 . Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1.Not used = 0 . Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 .Table 13. described in detail later.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you have an outstanding Notify request.

Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly.4. If you have an outstanding Notify request.3. Alt & Ctrl. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself.2. The low-order byte is the actual key code. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps.). and Scroll). The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. shown in table 13. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. etc. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . as shown in table 13. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. this cancels it. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C). Locks. Num. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. as shown in table 13.

Table 13. Table 13.2.3 shows how the bits are defined. shows how the bits are defined. Table 13.. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps.3 . you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned. This bit (Bit 0. Num or Scroll).Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read.2 . Alt or Shift). Table 13.If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned. This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS .

All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 .4 . Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key.main keyboard. Key Codes Table 13. Table 13.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. If a shift code is not shown.1h to 7Fh). The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. Ctrl. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned. Alt. A description is given only if required. or Locks)..4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. For example.

comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS . / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1.Y Z [ \ ] ` CR .5 shows the key code value returned. Table 13. Table 13. . Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.5 . ' .

6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active. Caps lock does not affect these keys. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS .7.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. 13.6 . Table 13.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states. (Period) Cursor. Edit.7.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .

MMURTL V1. when all else fails. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. Remember. if you desire. the programmer will read the documentation. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. Pieces of it may be useful for your system. or you may want more. such as international key translations.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. as I have tried to do in this chapter.”Keyboard Code. Chapter 25.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS .” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system.

filename. This ties its hands so to speak. there isn't anything new about the format. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. but none as wide spread. the network service receives the request from the file system. and optionally.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. The third part is the filename as described above. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. MMURTL V1. will be routed to the service with the same name. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation.and finally the filename itself. just how we access it. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. a network name. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . The Service Name is "FILESYS ".txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. then up to three more characters. a period. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. For example.Chapter 14. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. When a network file is opened. the default name NETWORK is used. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. and a node name is specified. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else.

The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. or just reading alone. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only).0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . a number called a file handle is returned to you.File Handles When a file is opened. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. When a file is opened in Read mode. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). Make no assumptions about this number. 4096 byte buffer. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. in any mode or type. This is a one page. MMURTL V1. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required.

1 shows the service codes the file system supports. This is called a file pointer in some systems.doc".ptr to name */ cbData1 -. 1. All message-based services use the same request-based interface. 0. 0).size of name */ pData2 -.ModeRead */ dData1 -. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. 11. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. It meets all the requirements. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. Table 14.Block Type Access */ dData2 -. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA). 1.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. &MyRqhandle. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service. The file system actually runs as a separate task.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. &FileHandle 4. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. &"AnyFile. 1. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -.Size of a handle */ dData0 -.1. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. Listing 14. or file pointer.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ".1 . The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. MyExch. For Stream files.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware. You can make a request.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file.returned handle */ cbData2 -. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. no matter what Mode the file was opened in.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking). Table 14. Listing 14.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS .

VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. Table 14. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. KBD and VID devices only. MMURTL V1.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. The request is transparent to the caller. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL.2 .0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . It is easier to use because it has less parameters. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. The Request interface will not allow device access. but only through the procedural interfaces. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. Table 14. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access.

pointer to the filename or full file specification. Procedural parameters: pName . Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. If stream access type was specified. Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS .pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType .READ = 0.a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. Stream = 1. dOpenMode. all buffers are flushed and deallocated. pdHandleRet . pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. dAccessType. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path.Block = 0. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users. Procedural parameters: dHandle . dcbName . dcbname.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . If a file is open in ModeRead.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available.

Pointer to the data to write nBytes . This MUST be a multiple of the block size.Logical File Address to read from. nBytes. pData . Procedural parameters: dhandle .0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. One Block = 512 bytes. nBytes . SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file. dLFA. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. dLFA . dLFA .DWord with number of bytes to read. dLFA. MMURTL V1. This must be a multiple of the block size. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs. pdnBytesRet .pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512). pDataRet. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk.pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. pDataRet . nBytes.Logical File Address to write to. pdnBlkRet . This must always be a multiple of 512.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. This will always return a multiple of 512. See the SetFilesize() section.DWord with number of bytes to write.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. Procedural parameters: dHandle . pData.

nBytes . pdnBytesRet . pDataRet. pData. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. nBytes. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. The bytes are read from the current LFA.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . nBytes.Dword with number of bytes to read.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. pDataRet . The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. Parameters: dhandle . GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file.

Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).Dword with number of bytes to write. Procedural parameters: dHandle . pdnBytesRet . pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C).Pointer to the data to write. pData . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet .Dword with a valid file handle. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files. as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. nBytes . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF).a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned. Procedural parameters: dhandle .0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS .pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle.Dword with a valid file handle.Procedural parameters: dHandle . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.

The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically. and allocated space on the disk.dLFA .Dword with a valid file handle.a Dword with the LFA you want to set.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. as returned from OpenFile() dSize .a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned. Procedural parameters: dhandle .a Dword with the new size of the file. The file length. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify.Dword with a valid file handle. as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. Procedural parameters: dHandle . dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files.

Dword with length of the filename dAttributes . Procedural parameters: pName .0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbNewName . dcbName .Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1.pointer to the new filename or full file specification. The file is closed after creation. empty file in the path specified.pointer to the current filename or full file specification. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file.Dword with length of the current filename pNewName . dcbName. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. and ready to be opened and accessed. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode.pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.pointer to the filename or full file specification to create.A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden. dcbName . Procedural parameters: pName . dcbname.

Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1.pointer to the path (directory name) to create. dcbPath .pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. Procedural parameters: pPath . No further access is possible.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . the directory is created in your current path. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. If only the new directory name is specified. specified in the Job Control Block. empty directory for the path specified. Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword that was returned from OpenFile. as opposed to a full path. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). and the filename is available for re-use.

If set to non-zero. If no path is specified.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. dcbPath . The path must contain the directory name as the last element. Procedural parameters: pPath . The directory must exist in the path specified. dcbPath. or directory name to delete.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. all files in this directory. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. dcbPath. This call returns one sector from a directory. or directory name. Procedural parameters: pPath . as opposed to a full path. to read tj sector from dcbPath . You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). Each sector contain 16 directory entries.pointer to the path. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . If only the existing directory name is specified. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. pSectRet. the path in your JCB will be used.pointer to the path. the name is appended to the path from your job control block. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. all subdirectories.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles .

The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk.pSectRet . The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. Because it is a pointer. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. When it reaches 0. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. it's not allocating files. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. while others are part of the operating system data segment. FCB. If the file is opened in Stream mode. MMURTL V1. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. buffer pointers.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. Quite a few of them use this same name. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. Each opened file is allocated an FCB. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. Some structures are dynamically allocated. The FUBs contain the file pointer.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . the open mode. Each FCB is 128 bytes. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs.

That's 128Kb. L = Last entry in your file. On most hard disks. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. which is cluster size. However. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. If so. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. The list could go on and on. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. Large database files are the major random users. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. Load FAT buffer if required. inside of a 400 Mb file. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. return an error ErcFileInUse. Run files being executed. If opened in Block mode. The fourth entry points to the fifth. The file is open. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. because of the design of the FAT file system. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT.The disk is allocated in clusters. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . they use what is called a FAT16. X = not your file. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. MMURTL V1. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. the user will strike next. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. From this. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. Directories are stored as files. or three entries. If it's open in ModeWrite. allocate an FUB and attach it. you can usually do it quite rapidly. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). source files for compilers. and raster image files. Usually. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. That's a lot of FAT (or file). The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. the fifth points to the sixth. vector. In this example. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. This is in itself is time-consuming. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. and the sixth is marked as the last. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely.

You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. If opened in block mode. but much overhead is involved. and depends on how the file was opened. MMURTL V1. If the file is being extended. you must find unallocated clusters. Both copies must be updated. Close This is the easy part. then write the data. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. attach them to the chain. It sounds simple. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes.

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If you are going to write your own operating system.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system.0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT).2 lists these additional prefix characters. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. An improperly. Table 15. These are known as compound descriptions. They are listed by functional group first.g. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. The call address consists of a selector and an offset.1 . The offset should be 0. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names. “File System Service”). The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use. I might add.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. Table 15. Table 15.Chapter 15.1 lists the prefixes. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes . Table 15. Chapter 14.. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter.2 .

It is processor (hardware) enforced. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. dMsg1. be returned. Bytes and words (8. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. Pascal. Each compound set of prefixes . Messaging Respond(dRqHndl. Ret means Returned.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. if a value is returned by the function. pdDataRet . dMsg1.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters.and optionally suffixes . indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. or Assembler.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. Table1 5.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. a colon with the returned value. the most common returned value shown. and finally. Max means Maximum. and Min means Minimum. If a parameter is a byte. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch. grouped by type. The function name is followed by the parameters. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. or should be.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS .3. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. The dError. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. dcbDataRetMax . dcbFileName .3 .

dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. pDestination. dJobNum. dBytes) MMURTL V1. wSvcCode. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. dLBA. dcbFileName. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. pS2. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. dData0. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. pInitData. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. pRqHndlRet. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. pStatRet. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. cBytes. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. dESP. dPriority. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. dExch. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. cbData1. pPathRet. pDestination. dnBlocks. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dcbAliasBytes. npSend. dRespExch. pDCBs. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. ppMemRet. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. pData2. pData1. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. dData1. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. dfDebug. fDebug. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. cbData2. nDevices. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. dPriority.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbMem. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. dOpNum. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. dcbFileName. wCodeSeg. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem.Request( pSvcName. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. pS2. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. pStack. LinAdd. dStatusMax.

pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. dULline. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. pbChars. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. pdLenRet. nChars. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. nChars. nCols. Speaker.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dCrntLen. pbExitChar. nLines. pDataIn. dChannel. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. pbCharRet. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. dLine. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. dPort) OutWord(Word. sdMem. dPort) OutWords(dPort.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. dLine. pDataOut. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. fdRead.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . dTextOut. dMaxLen. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. ddLine. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet.

dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). exceptions. This must be zero (0) for task gates.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).Returns an error.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . Unlike most other operating system calls.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . EAX Returns Error.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . They are passed in registers.0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . exception gates and interrupt gates. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate. Unlike most other operating system calls. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. Parameters: AX . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. the parameters are not stack based. Parameters: AX . They are passed in registers. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. and interrupts. or 0 if all went well.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. the parameters are not stack-based.

). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use).Job number from the other application. Parameters: pMem . each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1).Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. except it can be used asynchronously. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. This would be for the time-out function described above. except you provide the exchange.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. In fact. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. ppMemRet. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. Parameters: nPages .Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. dcbMem . AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. Alarm() can be used for a number of things. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep().Dword (4 BYTES). AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. MMURTL V1. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables.A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. even though it's very close. Each application has its own linear address space. WaitMsg. ppAliasRet . Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. etc. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. dJobNum . dcbMem. If you do. This means you can set an alarm. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. The overhead included in entry.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. the more precise the timing. Parameters: dnTicks . Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. pdPhyMemRet . do some other processing.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. It will always begin on a page boundary. and don't get placed in a waiting condition. The larger dnTicks is. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. ppRet . dJobNum. The message that is sent is two dwords. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. initial Task State Segment. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small.length of the run filename. and data pages. stack. Page Descriptor. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. pdJobNumRet . MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. Parameters: dn15us . LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. Parameters: pFilename . This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. precise. Parameters: dIRQnum .pointer to the filename to run. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. although longer periods will work.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. MMURTL V1. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. dcbFileName . MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. so the time could be much longer. and the memory required to run code. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. Virtual Video. dcbFileName. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned.Parameters: dAlarmExch . DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. and you call this often enough. Interrupts are not disabled. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file.

The byte value to write to the port. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address.The address of the port.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution.The dword value to write to the port. dExch.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for.Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl . DPort .Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. OutWord OutWord(Word. Parameters: MMURTL V1. Paramters: Dword . DPort . dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. ESP . else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order.Which code segment. Exch . Parameters: Byte .Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . dPriority.Exchange for TSS. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution.The address of the port. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. No error is returned.exchange where the Request is to be sent. dCodeSeg. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . dESP. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS). OutDWord OutDWord(DWord. OS=8 or User=18 Priority . dfDebug. Parameters: JobNum . it is made to run. The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS .handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch .

The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values.” describes all of the attribute values. This is the number of Words * 2. pDataOut. dLine.Word . Parameters: DPort . nChars. OutWords OutWords(dPort.line (0-24) dnChars . It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. if not displayed. DBytes .pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen.column to start on (0-79) dLine . “Application Programming. Parameters: dCol . Parameters: pdnPagesRet . You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2). MMURTL V1. PdataOut . or virtual screen. Each page of memory is 4096 byte.The address of the port. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol.The count of bytes to write to the port address.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port.The word value to write to the port. dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort.The address of the port. dLine. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9.line (0-24) pbChars .column to start on (0-79) dLine . DPort .color/attribute to use during display. pbChars. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.number of characters pbChars is pointing to.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned.Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS . dnChars. Parameters: dCol . dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space.number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . dAttr .

A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. Parameters: pSvcName . pData2. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . or on what machine the request is being serviced. pRqHndlRet. dRespExch.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. if forwarded across a network.the exchange to be associated with the service name. and padded with spaces (20h). dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. If fWait is true (non-zero). wSvcCode. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. fWait . If no key was available. dData0. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. This call blocks your task until completion. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. npSend. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . The string must be left justified. cbData1. Parameters: BAddress . fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request Request( pSvcName. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. Service names are case sensitive.a pointer to an 8-byte string. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. If fWait is false (0). dData1. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. cbData2. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. pData1.If true (non-zero).

The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. With all kernel primitives.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. wSvcCode . It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. dData1. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. dStatRet .This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. MMURTL V1. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time.a number (0. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. Parameters: dRqHndl . the value returned from the Request() call itself. The use of dData0. pData1 . Function Codes 0. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. Respond Respond(dRqHndl.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. dRespExch . dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. dMsgLo. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. cbData2 . 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. dError. 1 and 2.same as pData1. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. See Respond(). then npSend would be 2. Parameters: pSvcName . If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. dData2 . are sending data to the service. of the message sent back to the requester of the service. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. Zero will be returned if all was well.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. For example. dData0. This error is not the error returned by the service. npSend . space padded. dError. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. service name. or received from the service. This may be data sent to the service. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. pRqHndlRet . This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service.dData0. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. cbData1 .a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in.the size of the data being sent to the service.This is the operating system Request primitive. The service must be registered with the operating system. Always assume it will be network-routed. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). pData2 . With all kernel primitives. is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. 65534 (0FFFEh).

dcbCmdLine . which is the first dword pushed. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0.dULline. MMURTL V1. Parameters: DULCol . the message is associated. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned.The lower dword of the message. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. msg[1]. the new command line string. dMsgLo .The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . it will be into an array of dwords. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. DnLines .a polite term for crashed. and is not enforced by the operating system. msg[0]. and while Chaining to another application. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. In this case the top line is lost.25. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . If it were a Response from a service.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line.1). dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up.dnCols. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. and the bottom line would be blanked.The count of lines to be scrolled. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs.The number of columns to be scrolled. dMsgHi . This call stores the command line in the JCB.dnLines. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. and it is moved to the Ready queue. dMsgHi.The upper dword of the message. If there was a task waiting at that exchange.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line.The length of the command line string to store.Points to an array of bytes. Parameters: dExch . SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. DfUp . Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol. linked with that task. If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. This is an agreed-upon convention.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi.0. Parameters: pCmdLine .80.

MMURTL V1.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. Parameters: dIRQnum . SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur. dcbExitJob .If installed. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). and its ExitJob is zero length. Table 15. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. The filename must not longer than 79 characters.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. pVector . the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. Parameters: pExitJob . Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. Built-in device drivers assume these values.4 . Initially. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. which will happen most often. When a job exits. Table 15. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. After the interrupt vector is set. these should follow ISA hardware conventions.

dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. This is a maximum of 13 characters. dcbJobName . If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. MMURTL V1.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. Refer to the file System documentation). Longer values will be truncated.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. Typically. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. Parameters: bPriority . Parameters: pPath . a text string.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . The maximum length is 13 bytes. then call ClrScr(). If no job name is set by the application. the color of the characters themselves.SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed.This is the new priority (0-31). SetPath SetPath(pPath. will clear the job name from the JCB.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. The default foreground color. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. Parameters: pJobName . The path is interpreted and used by the File System. dcbPath . and background colors may be changed by an application. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. The path is 79 characters maximum. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. A zero length. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes.

The job number for new owner of the active screen. The name is preserved across ExitJobs.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. Parameters: pUsername . and Chaining to another application. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. If the SysIn name is set to KDB.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the SysOut name is VID. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. SetXY SetXY(dNewX.is the length of the string to store. Parameters: pFileName . WriteBytes(). writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. dcbUsername . Parameters: pFileName . The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. Only ASCII data is returned from this call. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. is VID. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application.points to a text string. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. dcbFileName . The default name. if none is set by the application. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. if none is set. which is the one to be displayed. The default name.SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. which is the user's name. is KBD. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. Parameters: DJobNum . This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. dcbFileName . you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes().

SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry.This is a pointer to the function.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. Parameters: dnTicks . This applies to the virtual screen. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. or make it sleep. but testing will be required to ensure harmony. 1 is accepted.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. lower numbers. fDebug. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. If your task is a high enough priority. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. Parameters: DNewX . it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. dPriority . procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it.The new vertical cursor position row. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.This is a number from 0 to 31. The timer interrupt sends the message. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. fDebug .A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. Tone Tone(dHz. Parameters: pEntry . Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. pStack. dPriority. it is made to run. and clears the block when it reaches zero. should use priorities above 25. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. otherwise. such as the file system and keyboard. Application programs should use priority 25. or the real video screen if currently assigned.The new horizontal cursor position column. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. Certain system services are higher priority. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . DNewY . fOSCode . The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. and may cause applications to appear sluggish.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task.

0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . When an IRQ is masked in hardware. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job. If already at column 0. Parameters: pSvcName . the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. will be moved down one line. Parameters: dIRQnum . The string must left justified. if the cursor is in the last column of a line. If this line is below the bottom of the screen. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered.The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. dTicks10ms . no characters are changed. DAttrib .pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. Backspace will have no effect. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask.The number of characters of text. Parameters: PTextOut . A value of 100 is one second. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. dTextOut.The attribute or color you want. DTextOut . Service names are case sensitive.The cursor will be moved one column to the left. Parameters: dHz . 08 backspace . Examples: "KEYBOARD" .Dword that is the frequency in Hertz.The cursor. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. from 30 to 10000. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. They will receive an error. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . and padded with spaces (20h). next active character placement. The service with that name will no longer be available to callers.A pointer to an 8-byte string. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. The backspace is non-destructive.A near Pointer to the text. For character placement. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed .

Of course. Parameters: DError .The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . an array of two dwords.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . less than 8000000h. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. If no message is available.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. At that time. dExch . MMURTL V1. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. You've got to send mail to get mail. so this would be obvious to you. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to.A pointer to where the message will be returned. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer. you would have had to make the request in the first place. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. the task will be placed on the exchange specified. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer.

MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL. but it's a good start. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me). I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. is described in the following sections. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM.Enter Debugger Del . MMURTL V1. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system.Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its. It provides information such as date. The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. time. To see what has been included on the CDROM. it does work and it's useful in its own right. “What's On the CD-ROM.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . D:\DIR\) RD . CLI version.Copy a file Dir .Clear Screen Copy .Set file access path (New path e. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself.Hex dump of a file Exit . The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter.Chapter 16.Make Directory Path .Remove directory Rename . However. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.Directory listing Debug . see Appendix A. The top line is the status line.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. The internal commands are: Cls . and your current path. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL.Delete a file Dump .Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD . job number for this CLI.g. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute .Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help .Rename a file (Current name New name) Run . use.Display list of internal commands Monitor .0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS .RUN files). Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. It has been expanded.

If a file exists with the same name. “The Debugger.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS .Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. Both names must be specified. a period is displayed instead.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. or the same name in a different directory. >Copy THISFILE. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. MMURTL V1. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values.TXT THATFILE. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. If the character is not ASCII text.

This CLI will still be executing. and . the tree will only be extend one level. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. The path must end with the Backslash. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor..0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. In MMURTL. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job.). no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. or external command that is executed for this CLI. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed.) MMURTL V1. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. listing. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. renaming.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. Unlike a single tasking operating system. etc. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. In other words.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. With any file-system operation (opening.

CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.End of Command.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file.Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. It is a simple text file with one command per line. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix . If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below.CLI File The file COMMANDS.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM.run . An example of COMMANDS. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands. The contents of the file COMMANDS.CLI follows: . The file must not be open by any other job.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file.RUN).TXT Run (Execute a . Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS . pausing after each page. The first item on the line is the command name. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time.run New. The File COMMANDS.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number). which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute. MMURTL V1. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test.CLI Commands. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.

CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData.CLI file.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.h> #include <string. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.0 of the Command Line Interpreter. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.h> #include <ctype. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS. 1. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . CLI Source Code Listing .h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.CLI.Terminates the currently displayed job.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys. but other application might. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command. In this case. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down. CTRL-ALT-DELETE . Listing 16.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status.1.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor.Ver.

/* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. cmdpath[60]. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. /* "Cls". unsigned long GPHndl. /* MMURTL V1. /* "Dump". /* "xxxxx".0 { 0 external */ 1 . unsigned long GPExch. iLine.0 Job Path: ".#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. long JobNum. /* "Exit". /* "Monitor". hlppath[60]. /* "Dir". /* "Debug". /* "Del". clipath[60]. /* "MD". syspath[50]. long cbCmd = 0. /* "RD". unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. char char char char sdisk. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. char ExitChar. /* "Ren". date. unsigned long GPMsg[2]. char text[70]. unsigned char Buffer[512]. char fUpdatePath.not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* "Help". char aCmd[80]. long cbPath. /* "Path". /* "Copy".

U16 Date. It updates the status line which has the time and path. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. }. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. U16 Time. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. U8 Ext[3]..) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. U8 Rsvd[10]."Run". U8 Attr. U32 FileSize. } dirent[16].0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. "Type". U16 StartClstr. long acbParam[13]. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. char *apParam[13].

break. 0x0f). break. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". &aStatLine[47]. break. 30.cbPath = 30. case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". break. MMURTL V1. FillData(&aStatLine[47]. 0). break. break. case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". /* year */ 0x0f). aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. (time & 0x0f). case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). Sleep(100). ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". 40. break. case 1: pSt = "End of file". /* month */ 0x0f). case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. break. break.0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 208: pSt = "File in use". 80. /* Day */ 0x0f). ' '). FillData(st. break. case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". break. } GetCMOSDate(&date). cbPath). break. + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). 0x0f). case 201: pSt = "No such drive". break. CopyData(aPath. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). PutVidChars(0. case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". aStatLine. switch (erc) { case 0: return. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). break. case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". break. break. char st[40].0. case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". STATVID). fUpdatePath = 0. break.

fNew is used to determine is we do or not. erc = 0. &iLine). erc). } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. } printf("%s\r\n". pSt = st. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . #asm INT 03 #endasm return.0. unsigned char buff[17]. } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger).default: sprintf(st. while (cb) { printf("%08x ". *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). i. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. break. addr). 80. &iLine). } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. iLine = 2. STATVID).0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . aStatLine. return. PutVidChars(0. MMURTL V1. j. pSt). If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. ClrScr(). KeyCode. GetXY(&iCol. "Error %05d on last command". iLine). unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. } SetXY(iCol. long cb. GetXY(&iCol.

if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. ModeRead.. 512. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. i++) { printf("%02x ". 1. if (!erc) { j=0. l. erc = 0. This expects to find the filename in param[1]. /* ReadKbd. printf("ESC to cancel..80. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. } InitScreen(TRUE).23). 512.1). } buff[i+1] = 0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode."). &fh). fh. } return erc.if (cb > 15) j=16. &buff[0]).*pb). else j = cb. ++iLine. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. printf("%s\r\n". MMURTL V1. dret. &dret). addr+=j. k. SetXY(0. for (i=0. Buffer. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. &k). if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. else cb=0. any other key to continue. if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. i<j. SetXY(0. 1). 0). buff[i] = *pb++. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. erc.1). } if (cb > 15) cb-=16.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = ReadBytes (fh.23. acbParam[1].23). while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer.1. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. iLine =1.

dret = 1. cbName.23). i. KeyCode. } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. 1. long cbName) { long i. 0). &fh). NORMVID). else l=k-j. SetFileLFA(fh. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++.23.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . &dret). erc = ReadBytes (fh. MMURTL V1. dret. iLine++. return erc. i = 1. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). 0. lfa. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. iLine. erc = 0. } erc = OpenFile(pName. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. &lfa).1).if (k-j > 512) l = 512. Buffer. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. erc. j). if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. 512. 78. } CloseFile (fh). Buffer.80. SetXY(0. } for (j=0. dret. j<=i.1. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. fh. } SetXY(0.iLine). j+=512. lfa+i). j. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.

bytesLeft.mi. if (yr > 99) yr -=100. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.1).23). MMURTL V1. any other key to continue.se. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). /* ReadKbd. printf("ESC to cancel. U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n". erc. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. 1). bytesGot.da..1900.se). CopyData(st. bytesWant. 8). char *pTo. 8). "%02d:%02d:%02d"."). char st[15]. iLine =1. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. return erc. "%02d-%02d-%02d". sprintf(st.. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer.hr. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 .hr. Use block mode for speed. erc). se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11. SetXY(0. U16 date. InitScreen(TRUE). CloseFile (fh). char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. pDateRet. CopyData(st. } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.da. U32 cbFrom. sprintf(st.mi. da = date & 0x001F. This uses a conservative 4K buffer. This is used by the directory listing. char *pTimeRet. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n").mo.yr). } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking. pTimeRet. fhFrom.if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time.mo.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS .

&fhFrom). 0. bigBuf. if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. 0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. dLFA. erc = OpenFile(pFrom. ModeRead. bytesLeft = size. ModeModify. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. size). cbTo. } dLFA += bytesGot. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. &bytesGot). cbTo. bytesWant.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . KeyCode. &bytesOut). } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. bytesGot.bytesOut. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. &size). } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). dLFA. dLFA = 0. 1). /* ReadKbd. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. bigBuf. dLFA. size. } MMURTL V1. } CloseFile(fhTo). } return(erc). 0). cbFrom. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. &fhTo). else bytesWant = bytesLeft.

U32 SectNum. acbParam[1].Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. dirent[i].23). i<16. *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. /* ReadKbd. } } } MMURTL V1. any other key to continue. if (!erc) { for (i=0. dirent[i]. SectNum = 0. } fDone = 0.1). 512. 1).FileSize. SectNum). CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]. fDone = 1.Attr./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path.Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st.").1.1). dirent[i]. i. dirent[i]. } InitScreen(TRUE). if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. dirent[i]. &st[24]). SetXY(0.Name[0]) { erc = 1.StartClstr). } if ((dirent[i]..Ext. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. dirent[i].Time. iLine++. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS .Name. &dirent[0]. char st[78]. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". iLine =1.23).. st).80. printf("ESC to cancel. SetXY(0. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.Date. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. fDone = TRUE. printf("%s". &st[33].23. erc. KeyCode.

*********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. i. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. iPrm. iPrm<nParamsMax. j. k. cmdline[90]. MMURTL V1.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. } return(erc). fdone.. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. iCmd++. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. *f. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. The format for a line entry in Commands. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. rawline[90]. If it finds it. for (iPrm=0.} else fDone = TRUE.. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . } acbParam[iPrm] = i.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. SectNum++.

j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd.CLI not found. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline.') /* a comment line */ continue. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. /* now move arguments if any. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. "r"). } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '.\r\n"). cmdline[j] = 0. 89. cmdline). /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. return(1). cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++].cmdline[0] = 0. } } else printf("Commands. f = fopen(cmdpath. return(0). acbParam[0]). runfile[k] = 0. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. rawline. if (f) { fdone = 0.

&fh). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). we then go to COMMANDS. ". cbCmd). &runfile[i]. erc = Chain(runfile. strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). long i.RUN"). } } } printf("Command not found\r\n").When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. 0). acbParam[0]). strlen(runfile). erc = OpenFile(runfile. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. SetCmdLine(aCmd. SetCmdLine(aCmd. strlen(clipath)). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). runfile. strlen(clipath)). strcat(runfile. ModeRead. erc = Chain(runfile. ModeRead. 1. acbParam[0]). SetExitJob(clipath. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). erc = OpenFile(runfile. &fh). we first look for a . ModeRead.RUN"). we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. &fh).RUN file in the current path. we go to the system directory. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. If so. i = strlen(runfile). if it's not there. ". 1. strlen(runfile).CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. erc. syspath). 0). If we don't find one. CopyData(apParam[0]. SetExitJob(clipath. cbCmd). strlen(runfile). cbCmd). runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. } MMURTL V1.0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetCmdLine(aCmd. fh. /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. strlen(clipath)). } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. SetExitJob(clipath. 0). 1. strlen(runfile). erc = Chain(runfile. } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile.

/* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. j. iLine). &iLine).0". strcat(clipath. SetXY(0. and help file. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. JobNum)./********************************************** Main function entry point. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. strcat(syspath. SetJobName("CLI V1. sdisk += 0x41. syspath[1] = ':'. sdisk &= 0x7F. i. } else { strcpy (aPath. fh. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. aPath. strcpy(clipath. GetPath(JobNum.RUN")."CLI. &StatStack[255]. 8)."COMMANDS. erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). strcpy(hlppath. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. MMURTL V1. syspath). syspath). erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . strcat(hlppath."HELP.CLI"). 0). &cbPath). */ cbPath = 0. 1=B. 0. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. 2=C etc. 24. "%02d". InitScreen(FALSE). Note: No params to CLI. strcat(cmdpath. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). strcpy(cmdpath. syspath). SpawnTask(&StatTask. command file. GetJobNum(&JobNum). "\\MMSYS\\"). syspath[2] = 0. syspath).CLI"). if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. /* 0=A.

SetPath(syspath. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. break. &cbCmd. break. } erc = 0. break. break. acbParam[0] = 0. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. 0. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. } i++. 79. NORMVID). while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). acbParam[2]). GetXY(&iCol. ' '). NORMVID). aCmd[79] = 0. } fUpdatePath = 1. case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). TTYOut (">". 1. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. SetExitJob(clipath. EditLine(aCmd. CmdNum = 0. paCmds[i]. EDVID). else erc = ErcBadParams. SetXY(0. 1. apParam[2].cbPath = strlen(syspath). if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. acbParam[1]. &fh). apParam[0] = 0. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). InitScreen(TRUE). 79. &iLine). 2. &ExitChar. acbParam[1]. strlen(clipath)). cbCmd = 0. iLine). TTYOut ("\r\n". cbCmd. if (!erc) MMURTL V1. strlen(syspath)).

case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". strlen(clipath)). if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. 0. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. ExitJob(0). acbParam[2]). 0. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. acbParam[1]). GPExch. strlen(hlppath)). GPMsg). case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. break. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. } break. &cbPath). 0. aPath. 0. acbParam[1]. break. acbParam[1]).erc = DeleteFile(fh). if (!erc) printf("Done. break. break. acbParam[1]). fUpdatePath = 1. break. break. break. acbParam[1]. break. 0. break.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. 1. break. 0). default: break. 0. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. 0). break. SetVidOwner(1). case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. 4. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". apParam[2]. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). cbCmd-i). else erc = ErcBadParams. &GPHndl. acbParam[1]). 0). erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. SetExitJob(clipath. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir().\r\n"). MMURTL V1.

} GetXY(&iCol. status and error display. See Appendix A. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. The top line provides continuous status information.1). The last line is used for data entry. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections.80. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands. current filename. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. &iLine). SetXY(0.2. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes).} CheckErc(erc).1.23. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb.23). Table 16. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM. What's On the CD-ROM.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line).1. The next 23 lines are the text editing area. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns.

Listing 16.h> #include <ctype.2.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.h> #include <string. Editor Source Code /* Edit.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.2 is the editor source code.h" MMURTL V1.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.4 . which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. Listing 16.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .

/* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. unsigned char filler[100]. U32 oBufBound. char *apParam[13]. unsigned char b.. U8 bSpace. char aStat[80]. 0.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. char *pBuf1. void clearbuf(void).h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. long cbFilename. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. U8 *pBufWork. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. char aCmd[80].h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. char fModified. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. U32 iColMax. struct EditRecType *pEdit. U8 fVisible. long erc.sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. /* sBuf . /* cursor. char fOvertype.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. U32 sLine. /* cursor. char aStat1[80]. U32 iAttrMark.1 */ U32 iColMin.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. }. struct EditRecType EdRec. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60].. U32 iAttrNorm. *pBuf2. fh. U32 iTabNorm. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]. U32 iRowMax.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. b1.

0). FillData(st. } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. long i. STATVID). default: sprintf(st. PutVidChars (0. "Error break. "Error break. case 6: sprintf(st. erc). i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. %05d occured on CreateFile". long erc) { char st[40]. 0). case 7: sprintf(st. i<40. this will prompt you to save. erc). erc). if (erc) { FillData(st. case 4: sprintf(st. %05d occured on ReadBytes". erc). 24.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. "Error break. erc). %05d occured on last command". %05d occured on SetFileLFA". If fClose. 80. 39. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. case 5: sprintf(st. PutVidChars (40. } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. } return (erc). "Error break. 24. %05d occured on OpenFile". %05d occured on SetFileSize". "Error break. erc). If fPrompt is true. %05d occured on ReadKbd". 80. st.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 3: sprintf(st. *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. "Error break. erc). 40. "Error break. case 2: sprintf(st. "Error break. %05d occured on WriteBytes". Beep(). the file will be closed MMURTL V1. NORMVID). erc). } for (i=0. st.

if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). cbFilename = 0. unsigned char *pBuff. fYes. keycode. WriteBytes (fh.. fModified = 0. pBuf1. pEdit->oBufLast. SetXY(0. fh = 0. ClearStatus(). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. STATVID). ". BLACK|BGCYAN). } } MMURTL V1. 0)). **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. PutVidChars (0. &i)). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. "DONE. SetFileLFA(fh. 10. ClearStatus().and the buffer will be closed. 43. ClearStatus(). Sleep(150). i <=pEdit->iBufMax. } fYes = 1. 24). pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. SetFileSize(fh. ReadKbd(&keycode. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6.0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . TTYOut("This file has been modified. 24.. int fClose) { U32 i. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". clearbuf(). 1). pEdit->oBufLast)).

1./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. BLACK|BGWHITE). cbFilename. pEdit->oBufLast = dret. ModeModify. erc = 0. cbFilename = 0. name. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. MMURTL V1. 1. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. 10.24). 26. 29.0). BLACK|BGCYAN). &filesize). cbFilename = strlen(Filename).24. if (!name) { SetXY(0. } else { b1=0x0d. /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh).". "Filename: ". PutVidChars (0. 1). fh = 0. keycode. 60. &fh). SetXY(0. filesize. erc). BLACK|BGCYAN). ReadKbd(&keycode.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . Beep(). TTYOut("File is too large to edit.24). SetXY(10. If not. cbFilename. strncpy(Filename. CreateFile(Filename. else erc = 0. 24). pBuf1. 13). if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. TTYOut("Doesn't exist. Create?? (Y/N)". BLACK|BGCYAN). dret. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. SetXY(50. it will prompts to create. 1). &b1. &cbFilename. &fh)). if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. &dret). SetXY(50. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. cbFilename. 0. ReadKbd(&keycode. 24). OpenFile(Filename. 0)). EditLine(Filename. ModeModify. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep().

pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. unsigned char *pBuff.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++.if (erc) { fh = 0. ClearStatus(). i = 0. iEolMax. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. nEols = 0. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. i. *pBuff. } } else { cbFilename = 0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. return(nEols). } } else CheckErc(1. erc). /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). even though we word wrap always. iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. cbFilename = 0. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols.

if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i. char *pBuff. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. } } return(iEol). } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . i = 0.1. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. j. */ iEol = iEolMax. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. iEol = iBuf. /* now find first non-space . if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart .iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax.. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++.

iColFinish . else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. iLn. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . iLn. PutVidAttrs (iColStart. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc .iColStart +1. pEdit->iAttrNorm). *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. if (i) i++. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->iColMax .pEdit->Line[iLn]. MMURTL V1.0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS .iColFinish. if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. return(j). } while (i < oBufStart).pEdit->Line[iLn]. iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command.1. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iColFinish. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.pEdit->Line[iLn] . iLn. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark.i--. iBoundLoc. iMarkLoc. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pEdit->iAttrMark).

} /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. pEdit->oBufInsert++. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. fModified = 1. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. } return (fOK). CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. *pBuff. cb).pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. erc = 40400. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . cb). if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. Beep(). char fOK. char fOvertype. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->sLine. pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->iAttrNorm). } } } else { fOK = 0. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. pEdit->oBufLast++. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++.iLn.

0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS .1. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. i <=iBd-iMk. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. } } } else Beep(). i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. i<=iMk . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.iBd . pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. iBd.pEdit->oBufInsert . } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. iBd.iMk.1. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. for (i=0.1. for (i=0. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i]. MMURTL V1. iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. char *pBuff. *pBuffWork. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. pEdit->oBufInsert . if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i].iBd + iMk . i<=iBd-iMk. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk.

pEdit->oBufInsert+1). pEdit->sLine. i. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert.iMk + 1. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert].char *pBuff. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. MMURTL V1.0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->oBufLast+1). iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. (hides it). for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. iBd-iMk+1). } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd.iMk + 1. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. } } } else Beep(). *pBuffWork.iMk. pEdit->oBufLast . if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound.

char fProb. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. i = pEdit->iRowMin.iBd + iMk. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.might be off screen . if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i.iBd + iMk . if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i.if it is. &pBuff[iMk]. else fProb = FALSE. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. j. *pBuffWork. char *pBuff. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. } nullMarkBound (). } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .normAttr (). } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert .0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. iBd.1.

0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . i = pEdit->iLine. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--.pEdit->iColMin. } i = pEdit->iLine. j = pEdit->iLine. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. /* get to potential insert . } } MMURTL V1. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . j = pEdit->iLine.1. pEdit->iLine = i . pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol . if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.is. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. i. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1].pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. /* if bogus line.i++. if prev char <> CR. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line.

i <= pEdit->iRowMax. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. else for (j=i+1. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i])./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. */ for (i = k. j. oBuf. i<=k. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. MMURTL V1. iLn. k. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. cb. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). j<NLINESMAX. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . k = pEdit->iRowMax. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1.

0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. makeOnScreen (). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.1. cb = i . } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. i<NLINESMAX. i = pEdit->iRowMin.char *pBuff. FillData(filler. 0x20). oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn].oBuf + 1. 80. /* Make size. iLn. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. /* oBufInsert on screen . if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . MMURTL V1. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. doMark (iLn). else i = pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->iAttrNorm). char *pBuff. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pFiller. cb. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. for (i=0. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->sLine-cb. pBuff+oBuf. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. iLn. iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. Called before use and after closure.

pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. i. erc = AllocExch(&exch). 80. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. j. char fSpecInsert. normAttr (). } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. pEdit->iCol. fScreen = FALSE. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS .fModified = 0. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. *pBuffWork. sprintf(aStat. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. for (i=0. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. fDone = FALSE. pEdit->oBufLast). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. fOvertype = FALSE. char *pBuff. long exch. k. 0x20). FillData(aStat. nullMarkBound(). pEdit->iLine). /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). fScreen = TRUE. key. unsigned char b. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). pEdit->oBufLast = 0. normAttr (). if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07.

break. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. coordCursor_oBuf (). 1)). if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -.Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. break. fScreen = TRUE. break. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . 80. &aStat[40].Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. TRUE). case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow .Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. coordCursor_oBuf (). break. fSpecInsert = FALSE. case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . fScreen = TRUE. else CopyData("INS". STATVID). 0. aStat. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. ReadKbd (&key.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. b = key & 0xff. &aStat[77]. break.Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. 3). pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. break. PutVidChars (0. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. 3). cbFilename). if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax.CopyData(Filename. &aStat[77]. i = pEdit->iLine.

Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. break. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. fScreen = TRUE. FALSE). break.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x51: /* ALT Q . default: break. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . i = pEdit->iLine+1. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. fDone = TRUE. } break.pEdit->Line[i]. } fScreen = TRUE. case 0x53: /* ALT S . OpenAFile(0). break.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. TRUE). } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). } else { for (i=0. fScreen = TRUE.SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. } break. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. break.

break. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++.1. if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1].} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. fOvertype. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLast+1). else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--.0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . if (!(putInBuf (b.1. fSpecInsert))) Beep(). } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . default: break. MMURTL V1. if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . break. findCursor (). /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. pBuffWork.

1. } break.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS .Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x10: /* F2 -. i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast .1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. fScreen = TRUE. } break. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. j = pEdit->iTabNorm . if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . } break. i <=j. case 0x17: /* F9 .1.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE.(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). FALSE. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. for (i=1.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. break. case 0x11: /* F3 -. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast . fScreen = TRUE. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). break. } break. case 0x12: /* F4 -. fScreen = TRUE.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). MMURTL V1.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). case 0x06: /* Home . } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). FALSE). fModified = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. moveData (). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert.

i = pEdit->oBufLine0.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . CopyIt (). } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. fScreen = TRUE. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iRowMax. coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } } break. /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. break. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i).break. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. j--. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. case 0x18: /* F10 . /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i].pEdit->iRowMin. } break. k = pEdit->iLine. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. j = pEdit->iRowMax . fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine.COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufInsert = i. break. k--.

&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. coordCursor_oBuf (). if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. default: MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. pEdit->iCol = i. pEdit->iLine = j. break. fScreen = TRUE. } break. } break. pEdit->oBufLast--. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. pBuffWork. } } break. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. else fOvertype = TRUE. } fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iCol.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . j = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufLast+1). CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1].pEdit->iLine++. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. } break. fModified = TRUE.

if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. 0. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. cbFilename = 0. return. /*sBuf . pEdit = &EdRec.break. pEdit->sLine+1. 80. erc = AllocPage(32. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. 131071. FALSE. 79. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. SetFileLFA(fh. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. } CloseFile(fh). 6). SetJobName("Editor". pBuf1. fModified = 0. erc = AllocPage(32. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. 0). 0)). 0x20.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . WriteBytes (fh. } *pbExitRet = b. &i)). &pBuf2). SetFileSize(fh. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. pBuf2. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). fh = 0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. i <=pEdit->iRowMax. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. U8 *argv[]) { long i. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. ClrScr(). i. pEdit->oBufLast.pEdit->oBufLast)). 23. and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. 1.0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. &pBuf1). /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0.

i. struct statRecC com.3. 0. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc.. for (i=0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]).0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. i = pEdit->iRowMin. EMPTY. 0x20). EDVID. EMPTY. i<NLINESMAX.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.h> #include <ctype. 80. 0. 0. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. 4. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence.h> #include <string.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key.sLine-1 */ cursor.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). fModified = 0. } Editor(&b). ExitJob(0).cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler. Listing 16.. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver. fOvertype = FALSE.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob. 0. 0. 0.

com. ClrScr(). but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). erc). ClrScr(). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. %d\r\n". lastb.h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. %d\r\n". erc). &com. printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". = 1. &i). &i). ClrScr(). com. SetNormVid(NORMVID). ExitJob(erc). = 8. ExitJob(erc).RBufSize).databits com. %d\r\n". char fOK.parity = com. 64).stopbits = 9600. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. &com. we open the comms port */ /* device. if (erc) { MMURTL V1. /* View other params which we could set. The structure is defined in commdrv.XBufSize).Baudrate com.RTimeOut). } /* If device init went OK. CmdOpenC. %d\r\n".IRQNum). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n").XTimeOut). dOpNum. dLBA. 0. } /* set the params in the block */ com. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n").0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . 64. printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n".unsigned char b.IOBase). NO_PAR. */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". com. 0. %d\r\n". com. com. com. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. dnBlocks.

*/ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0. dOpNum.. 0. dOpNum. ClrScr(). lastb = b. CmdCloseC. ExitJob(erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. NORMVID). if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. 1. */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. dOpNum. /* This is it. dnBlocks. fOK = 1. 1. 0. default: break. 0. &b). } } else { /* device. 0. CmdReadB. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. erc = DeviceOp(6. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. dLBA. 0. dLBA. &b). &i). ClrScr(). } } } MMURTL V1..0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . CmdWriteB. erc). if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". ExitJob(erc).. 0.. 0.\r\n"). else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. } } } } /* device. dLBA. NORMVID). dnBlocks. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n".SetNormVid(CLIVID). CmdWriteB. erc). &b). SetNormVid(CLIVID). dnBlocks. break. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device.

h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. FILE *f. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). NoFF = 0. struct statRecL lpt.h" "\OSSource\MVid.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device. char name[80].4. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n .0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1. fDisplay = 0.h" "\OSSource\MKbd. col = 0.h" "\OSSource\Parallel.Display the file while printing \F . Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No. Listing 16.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver. long long long long long tabstops = 4. Send with no translations. That's the intention of the design.4. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv. In listing 16.h> <stdio.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B .h> <ctype. fBinary = 0.h" "\OSSource\MTimer.h" "\OSSource\MJob.h> <stdlib.2. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.4 or 8) \D .h> <string.Binary print.

*ptr. break.0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . i < argc. break. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. 8). NO translation. default: printf("Invalid switch"). printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). cl. erck. case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1.void main(long argc.Tab stop translation value\r\n"). 79). i. no FF\r\n\n"). ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i].No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). name[0] = 0. break. printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). case 'B' : /* BINARY . unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. lastb. char fdone. } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). exit(1). break. for(i=1. } MMURTL V1.0x30. SetJobName("Printing". unsigned char b. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. exit(1). printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . Version 1. printf("/B Binary print.0\r\n"). argv[i]. break.

&lastb). &i).h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. 0. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. ExitJob(erc). } printf("Printing %s . 0. if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". cl = fgetc(f). CmdOpenL. "r"). &i). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. /* This is it. } /* If device status went OK.\r\n". name). erc). 0./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. i = 0. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". ExitJob(erc). -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . we open the printer port */ /* device.0 1. &i). } else { MMURTL V1. dOpNum.. 0. erc). b = (cl & 0xff). fdone = 0. if (!f) { /* device. } col = 0. dLBA. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3.. CmdWriteB. ExitJob(erc). 0. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. 64. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. */ erc = DeviceStat(3. The structure is defined in parallel. name). dnBlocks. if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". dLBA.. */ f = fopen(name. dOpNum. &lpt.. dnBlocks. b = 0. CmdCloseLU. lastb = b.

switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdCloseL. %d\r\n". CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. "\f"). CmdWriteB. 1. /* reset */ break. 0. &b). 0). 0. erc = 4. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). 1. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. break. dOpNum. col = 0. } while (col % tabstops). col++. 0. } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. dnBlocks.0 1. if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. erc = DeviceOp(3. b). lastb). } } &b). case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. 1. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. erc = DeviceOp(3. dLBA. &i). 0. col++. /* device. if (erc) MMURTL V1. CmdWriteB. 0. erc). &b). CmdWriteB. -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. break. &lastb). 0. } fclose(f). CmdWriteB. 1. 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. " "). if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. 1. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". } erc = DeviceOp(3. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n".

While this program is running.5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError.h" "\OSSource\MJob. Service. ExitJob(erc). /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. MMURTL V1.h> "\OSSource\MKernel.printf("Can't close LPT. erc). /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2].0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS .” It has been expanded some. Listing 16. long *pDataRet. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. printf("Done\r\n"). keycode. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. run the TestSvc.h" "\OSSource\MVid. Error: %d\r\n".h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. ErrorToUser. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service. “Systems Programming.RUN program to exercise the service. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly.

MainExch. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.\r\n". &keycode.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). 0. *pDataRet = NextNumber++. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. MainExch). /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. 0.\r\n"). 4. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). ErcNoSuchSvc). 1. OSError). /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost.if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. 0.. NextNumber-1). /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. Message). } DeAllocExch(MainExch).\r\n"). ClrScr(). Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0].. Respond(pRqBlk. 0. ErrorToUser).) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. &rqHndl. 1. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). } pRqBlk = Message[0]. 0).

0. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running.C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. unsigned long Exch. Number).} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. Error).6.6 exercises the sample system service listed previously.\r\n". if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service.\r\n".C Listing The program in listing 16. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. Error = Request("NUMBERS ". Error). } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1. rqhndl. Message). 0.\r\n". Listing 16. 1. Error). } } DeAllocExch(Exch). 0. 0. void main(void) { unsigned long Error.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4. Message[1]). &rqhndl. unsigned long Message[2]. /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. Exch.\r\n".h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel.h" unsigned long Number. Error = AllocExch(&Exch).0).\r\n".0. if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. Also try it when the service is not running. TestSvc. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio.

The ordering for MMURTL V1. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code.).This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. but it is not used by the processor.This is the first assembler file that contains code. By including the comments. which means its data will be at the lowest address. This is the first file in the source. MAIN. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. as you look through the code. The GDT is 6K in size. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode.Chapter 17.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM . It helps me think. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion.This is also a table.ASM . This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. and structures together. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. common variables. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. This file should be left in the order I have it in. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. and used by the processor. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). This is really just a data position holder in the data segment.ASM . you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. the human becomes a compiler of sorts. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. I just expend the time up front instead of later. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). however. In fact. The caller cleans the stack in this convention.. All source files are located in one directory. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. Quite a few of them. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor. MOSGDT. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading.ASM . some of the things that tie all of the source files together. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. MOSIDT..This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). MPublics. use the stack just as a compiler would. Also some data is defined here. MOSPDR.ASM . There are also header files for the C source. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. In fact. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. I hope I’ve met this goal. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. You may find some of the source files rather large.

System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver. but I don't have any more to test it.C .the remainder of the modules is not as important. NumCnvrt.ASM . JobC. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. HardIDE. Video. RQBCode. It think it still works with MFM drives.C . and the mode. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. Parallel.ASM . when a device driver writers need DMA. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file.This file is the debugger disassembler.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() . Debugger.ASM . I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either. MemCode.C .The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file.ASM . MMURTL V1. JobCode.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC.C . but only to enable the input buffer (which helps). someday).The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service.C . Device driver writers will appreciate this.The simple parallel port driver is contained here. but you never know where to put.ASM .This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa. UASM. but it's effective and accurate.ASM . Debugging a debugger is even less fun.The code memory allocation. but can be modified for four.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here. You only need to know the channel.Request block management code is in this file.ASM . System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. and it works rather well. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. This is one complicated driver. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. I was surprised.C are contained in this file. Keyboard.ASM . Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. how much to move. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. is in this file. On the other hand. You have to see what you're doing.ASM . even in the earliest stages of a project. FSys. you're on your own. SVCCode. It's not very pretty. DevDrvr. if needed. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. It supports the 16550. they must handle it themselves. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . as well as port I/O support. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions. undoubtedly. TmrCode.are in this file. If you have MFM drives.ASM . RS232. This file has routines that handle DMA for you.C .Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. IntCode.This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.ASM was one of the first files written.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. It drives two channels. MiscCode.ASM .Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work.ASM . DMACode. Floppy.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system. Keyboard.C .In many systems.

This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.5 minutes on a 486/33.INCLUDE MPublics. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).ASM .INCLUDE Video.ATF It's truly that simple. . If you want an error file.1. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) . but it really isn't part of the operating system.DATA . Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table .INCLUDE Keyboard. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. 6K) .Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file.INCLUDE MAIN. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler.INCLUDE MOSIDT. Listing 17. Main OS code and some data & START address . Video code and data MMURTL V1.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! .ASM . Keyboard ISR and Service . Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important.ASM .This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions.ASM . All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM.ASM . You could replace quite easily. Except. Assembler Template File . specify /E on the command line after the name. DASM produces the operating system RUN file. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. It provides a lot of the OS functionality. /L on the command line after the name. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.C After all the C source files are compiled.0 . you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL.ASM . CM32 (no switches needed).INCLUDE MOSPDR. If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. . Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code.INCLUDE MOSGDT. . a C source file and must be compiled first with . Monitor.ASM . The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28.Kernel. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces).All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. InitCode.Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1. Indirect calling address table .C . An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . and the DASM assembler (also included).The monitor program is contained in this file. This takes about 1.0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS . An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor.BAT) will build the entire operating system. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.ASM .ASM .” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files.ASM .5 Pages.

ASM . The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.INCLUDE .ASM InitCode. no doubt. In fact.* . Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files.INCLUDE .ASM NumCnvrt.ASM IntCode.* .INCLUDE .ASM HardIDE. The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.ASM Except. . .INCLUDE . CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding.ASM Floppy.ASM RS232. I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM TmrCode. CM32 packs all structure fields completely..INCLUDE .ASM JOBC.INCLUDE .0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will. . If your C compiler allows it.I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one. you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments . and they will work fine.ASM RQBCode.ASM SVCCode. you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier). As each piece of code is assembled. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.ASM JobCode. You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures. For instance.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. Otherwise. .ASM Parallel.INCLUDE .* . .ASM FSys.C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort. .* .ASM DevDrvr. use another compiler for your project.INCLUDE .ASM Monitor. This is one thing you should watch. MMURTL V1.INCLUDE . The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language. .INCLUDE .* .code and data.INCLUDE . . but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular.INCLUDE .ASM MemCode. . it is placed into the code segment in that order. The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location.ASM MiscCode.INCLUDE .ASM Kernel. .* :* .INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. you can take the file system code (FSYS. .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc.END Debugger. code (string. . .ASM DMACode.INCLUDE . .INCLUDE . This is because DASM doesn't support structures.array. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies.ASM UASM.INCLUDE .

a single underscore will be prepended to the name. For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables. The actual message handling functions.INC JOB. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations.DATA . Being an old "structured" programmer.ASM. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.1. internal public functions. two underscores will be prepended to the name.INC DD 0 .INC RQB.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . local helper functions. I think it will make more sense to you. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). See listing 18.Chapter 18. and kernel publics functions. The bulk of them are in the file Main. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. Kernel data segment source . I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. These all change with respect to the task that is running.INCLUDE . These are things such as the task state segments.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. Listing 18. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data.1.INCLUDE . job control blocks. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). and offsets into structures and tables. so I could get to them with the monitor program.INC TSS.INCLUDE . the scheduler. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). and memory management tables.

In MMURTL. for example. . Listing 18. 0 . This is important. link blocks. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. When a message is sent to an exchange. and if a task is waiting there.EDX. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. . . Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. and exchanges.Next <= NIL.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . is coded in-line. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. INPUT : ESI. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there).ESI. This is strictly a speed issue. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange ..EAX . pExch => EAX. It's not that the routines are called so often. MODIFIES : EDX . pLBin^. 0 . Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . REGISTERS : EAX. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. which means interrupts must be cleared. OR EAX.2. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . pointed to by the ESI register. This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.FLAGS . This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes.EAX .MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. and therefore.EAX . OUTPUT : NONE . if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. JZ eqMsgDone . See listing 18. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message.2. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. if . XCHG ESI. pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead].

deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there. .MsgTail <= pLBin. MOV EBX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].MsgTail <= pLBin. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. . ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX.. . but not both.MsgHead <= pLBin. REGISTERS : EAX.EBX.[EAX+ETail] .ESI . You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. As stated before. If not.. .ESI .ESI . MMURTL V1.msg.3.. JZ deMsgDone . pLBout <= .NextLB <= pLBin.. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .EBX . If not.ESI . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.ESI . then MOV [EAX+EHead]. If not. OUTPUT : EAX .MsgHead <= . Listing 18. . Get Msg Flag OR EAX. If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it.3. INPUT : ESI . else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX.JNE eqMNotNIL .[EAX+NextLB] . Put pExch Back in ESI RETN .0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS . deMsgDone: RETN . De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: . MOV [ESI+EHead]. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. . EAX .head and EBX . 1 .. No! (return 0) MOV EAX..MsgHead.Next.[ESI+fEMsg] . MOV [EDX+NextLB]. . deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there.. See listing 18. MOV [EAX+ETail]. MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI].MsgHead^. you return NIL (0). Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN . EAX . OR EAX.MsgTail^. 1 .4. MOV [EAX+ETail]. . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. exchanges can hold messages or tasks. See listing 18. if pLBout = NIL then Return.ESI. MOV EAX.[ESI+EHead] .FLAGS .ESI . Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone .

EDX. Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX.EBX . . enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue.EBX . 0 . Listing 18. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. . Priority => EAX. . get the priority MOV BL. MOV [ESI+EHead].Next <= NIL. REGISTERS : EAX.EBX . . . if Head = NIL MMURTL V1..TSSHead. The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers.5.EAX . . OR EAX. algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority. INPUT : ESI . Set up to return nothing MOV EBX.EBX. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI . pTSSout <= . MOV EBX. It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX.EDX .RdyQ . head & tail per QUEUE).Next. INC _nReady . REGISTERS : EAX. MODIFIES : EAX. This . EAX .[EAX+Priority] . XOR EAX. . This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI . Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. JZ deTSSDone . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. OUTPUT : NONE . The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists.0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . . register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue.. 0 .[ESI+EHead] . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS].5. JZ eqRdyDone . if pTSSout = NIL then Return.EBX.TSSHead <= . You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: .EBX. OUTPUT : EAX . INPUT : EAX . OR EAX. deTSSDone: RETN .FLAGS .ESI.. pTSSin^. one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL.EBX .FLAGS .[ESI+fEMsg] . pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. in EBX XCHG EAX.TSSHead^.4. 3 . Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: . if pTSS = NIL then return. XOR EBX.[EAX+NextTSS] . MODIFIES : EAX.EDX . .EAX . See listing 18.Listing 18. EBX JNZ deTSSDone .

. INPUT : NONE . . The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list. this returns NIL (0).EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . . then . . . deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . that 0 is the highest priority. . OUTPUT : EAX .NextTSS <= pTSSin. If there was no task queued.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX]. .. MMURTL V1. Listing 18. .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. . EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX.ECX. .EBX.FLAGS . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. and 31 is the lowest.6.[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS].EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].Tail <= pTSSin.[EBX] OR EAX. See listing 18. . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX..0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . .Tail^. EAX is returned as NIL.. .sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. else . Keep in mind.RdyQ .JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head]. This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . . IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ. . MODIFIES : RdyQ . .6. queued on the RdyQ. De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . .Head <= pTSSin.ECX deRdyDone: RETN . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX. RETURN Otherwise..nPRI . MOV ECX. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. REGISTERS : EAX. If none is found. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. . Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX.Tail <= pTSSin. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. .

When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. is queued to run. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .EBX. "It's a nasty job.FLAGS .ECX. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . . INPUT : NONE . . . See listing 18.8. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. Listing 18. . but someone's got to it. It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. EAX is returned as NIL.8. This why it's specified as PUBLIC.7. check the next priority. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and .7.RdyQ . This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. Listing 18. .ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job.[EBX] OR EAX. If there was no task queued. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX. Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. OUTPUT : EAX ." See Listing 18. They are located in Kernel. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue . .sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . MOV ECX. They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. without actually removing it from the queue. MODIFIES : RdyQ .0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . Get pTSSout in EAX . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. . REGISTERS : EAX. . This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that .ASM because they work closely with kernel structures.nPRI . Point to the next Priority Queue .

MOV EBP.Next <= pFreeTSS. [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. No MOV EDI.0 .pFreeTSS .EBX . . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] .ESP . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . Is it Zero? . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. EDI PUSH EBX .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. EDI OR EAX. Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to..[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . No error . . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . .EAX . MODIFIES : RdyQ .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. pTSSin^. . a job. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.nPRI . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. Procedureal Interface : . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. . POP EBX MOV EAX. . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. Fix link in Queue list . . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . EDI ADD EBX. INC _nTSSLeft . . Yes. EAX OR EAX. . All done (clean stack) . Point to the next Priority Queue . MOV ECX.RdyQ . OUTPUT : NONE . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . . Make EAX point to new head TSS . deQueue the TSS . PUSH EBP . . MOV [EAX+NextTSS].

OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. back to check next at head of list . pTSSin^.JMP RemRdy0 . Listing 18. Trash it. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI.Yes.Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. SetExchOwner(). EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. See listing 18.EAX points to crnt TSS .back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. . Next TSS . .Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . No.Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS].Next <= pFreeTSS. . . Yes. [EAX+NextTSS] . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. . . . . The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. . . 0 . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Finding the owner of an exchange .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) .Jump the removed link . . .9. This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates).9.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . INC _nTSSLeft . ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 .EAX . This is not so if it's for a new job. deQueue the TSS . char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. MOV [EAX+NextTSS].EDI points to prev TSS . ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. Next Queue please . . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX. POP .pFreeTSS .EBX . This function is used with the next one. Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. ESI PUSH EBX .Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX.

[EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. . EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. .0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . mentioned previously.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified.ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. See listing 18. MMURTL V1. ..sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . not allocated . No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch. . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. . . . EAX XOR EAX.ESP MOV EAX. . . . . . . SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner().10. Listing 18. . .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . . .prgExch ADD EDX. . . pJCBRet . . Exch is . EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. pJCBRet the exchange number.EAX MOV EAX. . is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. [EBP+12] CMP EAX. Exch . . . Changing the owner of an exchange . . This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. . Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. continue Yes. Valid Exch (Allocated) . No.10. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). [EDX+Owner] OR EAX.

11. telling them that a particular job has died. . the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. . it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. . Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum.ESP MOV EAX. If a service is holding a request from the job that died. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). . . . . The error it returns is of no consequence. . See listing 18. other services. . Listing 18. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. . The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . . Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EDX MOV EBX. [EBP+12] MOV EDX. . Notifying services of a job’s demise . . . . .. . . If a program sent a request. . or the operating system itself. . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] .11. Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . EBX XOR EAX. .nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job.0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS .prgExch ADD EAX. . Get the address of rgSVC . . .OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. . We ignore the kernel errors. . pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. . EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications.ESP MOV ESI. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner.

dData0 PUSH 0 . NO.Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI.dData1 PUSH 0 .Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . [EBP+12] .cbData0 PUSH 0 .pData0 PUSH 0 .pData1 PUSH 0 . 0 JE SAB05 . The function that searches the array is GetExchange().JobNum PUSH EAX . next service PUSH ESI . These are functions such as GetPriority(). except this function requires several more parameters. Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive. The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block.dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . Listing 18.Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk .npSend PUSH 0 .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] .pName PUSH 0 .Abort Service Code MOV EAX. sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX. Request kernel primitive code . .Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI . . The procedural interface to Request looks like this: . See listing 18. and code for it is in the file SVCCode.12. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel.CMP DWORD PTR [ESI].cbData1 MOV EAX. [EBP+8] . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls. Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates. A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it.asm. A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV ESP. Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model. .pHandleRet PUSH 0 . Valid name? . These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate.Next Service name .12.

ESP . Set up New FramePtr . .Put . AX MOV [EBX+RespExch]. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. ESI MOV EAX.. .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- .Get .put . EAX MMURTL V1.EBX .ESI still has the exchange for the service . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2]. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0]. Req04: . [EBP+48] CMP EDX.Get . EAX MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. return error Req02: .No JMP ReqEnd .put .Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 .Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 . Sorry. .Put ..Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX.Yes.Get .Put .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . ErcNoMoreRqBlks . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX. [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. .Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX.EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX. . Error in EAX register . . . Save the Previous FramePtr . EAX .pServiceName CALL GetExchange . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No.Yes.Get .put . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. JMP ReqEnd . EAX MOV EAX.No.Validate exchange MOV EDX.nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX. [EBP+56] . continue Yes. . dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX. . [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. . .put . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch].EAX .EDX still has the response exchange . EAX MOV EAX..Get . . .0 . .Get .

Put npRecv in RqBlk .put in RqBlk .Must be 2 or less . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB].The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX.ESI EDX. [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. [EBP+44] MOV [EDI]. EAX <= pFreeLB.REQLB . 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX.Next <= NIL. Save pLB on the stack . .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. sEXCH EDX EDX. pLB^.MOV EAX. [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2]. EAX MOV EAX.[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB.prgExch EAX. .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI .pFreeLB OR EAX.Leave in CL . CL .EAX . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].Number of Send PbCbs . pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk . DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . Store zero in upper half of pLB^. AL [EBX+npRecv].Get cbData2 .Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. .Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX. MOV [EAX+DataLo]. . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].0 . No interruptions from here on . 2 CL. 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend].Next .Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) . [EBP+40] CMP EAX.put in RqBlk . . EBX MOV EDX.EBX DEC _nLBLeft . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . . . Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO.Data PUSH EAX .ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. . .Give it to them . . AL CL. free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. . 0 . . EBX .EDX ESI..Get cbData1 .EDX .. . .Get pData2 .Ptr to return handle to . . EAX MOV EAX.ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it. .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.put in RqBlk .ESI still has the exchange Number for the service. 0 .

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX.sEXCH . return to the caller with error MOV EAX. address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories. . . .pdqMsg):ercType . Procedureal Interface : .18. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . PUSH EBP . .ChkExchange . CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].ESI . .ercOutOfRange . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS .EDX . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. .EBP . MOV ESI.prgExch . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 . MOV ESP. . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . CheckMsg(exch. . pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored.EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. As with WaitMsg(). the return to caller with error MOV EAX. MOV ESI.ercNoMsg MOV ESP. . .ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. 0 . in the EAX register.18. Listing 18. A result code is returned in the EAX register. return with erc no msg .EAX . Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner]. . See listing 18. MOV EBP.nExch .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. in the EAX register.REQLB MMURTL V1. . If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . . message should be sent. Chk01: MOV EAX. RETF 8 . Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return .ESP . CheckMsg kernel primitive code . . MOV EDX. .We can be interrupted again . POP EBP . .0 -270- .

is pData1 NULL? .Now we set up to alias the memory for the service .0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.. . MMURTL V1.Error?? .is cbData2 0? . continue .Set up params for AliasMem . .Yes . Get pRqBlk into EBX .Make stack right .Offset to pData1 in RqBlk . EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.is pData2 NULL? .cbMem . continue . .Return Error. EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP._AliasMem(pMem. . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.No.is cbData1 0? .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .Yes .Yes .. . Save ptr to Link Block .dJobNum .Return Error.. Get pRqBlk into EBX .Set up params for AliasMem . ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.JNE Chk04 . ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX.Save again .Linear Address of pData1 .DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX. EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP. [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.[EAX+DataLo] .Second Pointer (pData2) .Error?? .cbMem . . . . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX. Treat it as a data link block .Offset to pData2 in RqBlk . .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. dcbMem.No. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.Restore ptr to Link Block . No.pLB.pMem . dJobNum.Linear Address of PData1 . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX.Yes . (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.Make stack right ..dJobNum .pMem .

stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. .Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . Listing 18.EAX MOV ESP. INC _nLBLeft . . . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1.x.pFreeLB . CodeSeg.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] .Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX.pCkMessage [EDX]. . NewTask kernel primitive code . This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in.8 for OS. . MOV [EAX+NextLB].Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.[EAX+DataHi] EDX. Get pLB^. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.ECX . fDebug. EIP): dErcRet . NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. ESP.EBX [EDX+4].Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . . NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter.[EAX+DataLo] ECX. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation. .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. Priority. NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] . or page fault. .EBX . . 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] . For MMURTL version 1. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs. STI .Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] .ESP MOV EDX. . pLBin^. .EAX . .0 .Next <= pFreeLB. Exch. .Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pFreeLB <= pLBin.19. . The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection. This creates a new task and schedules it for execution.ErcOK! (0) . See listing 18.Restore Ptr to Link Block . MOV pFreeLB.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] .Data in specified memory space (EDX) . Procedural interface: . In future versions.Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS .19. NewTask(JobNum. XOR EAX.

mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP].ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX.0 .Set up to call LinToPhy .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI . NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .ECX now has pJCB .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS. 0 MMURTL V1. .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.we can't be interrupted .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX. .ECX MOV EBX.mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg.Restore pNewTSS to EAX .Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . NTS_CS .EAX now has pJCB .ercOutOfRange NTEnd . NTS_Exch ECX.Set up to call GetpJCB . .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.pNewTSS into EAX . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.0202h .Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .Save pNewTSS .. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.CX .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS].get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.Exch in range? PUSH EAX .Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch].DL .Next . [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.No.EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.EBX EBX.put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. nExch NT0001 EAX. NTS_ESP . .EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0]. ECX.Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 . .EBX . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. ECX .. NTS_EIP . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Put pJCB into TSS . EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].pFreeTSS OR EAX. .Save pNewTSS again . ECX.

EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP.ercOk JMP NTEnd .BL .Save time of this switch for scheduler .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX.0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space.Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX.20.Get priority of new task CLI .New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .EAX MOV BX.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . SpawnTask kernel primitive code .CrntTSS -> EAX.Move new TSS into pRunTSS . . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.Yes . . New TSS -> EDX . Listing 18.pRunTSS . NTS_Pri . .JE NT0004 .Save New TSS .EAX . As with NewTask(). 1 NT0004: MOV EBX.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. .ErcOk MMURTL V1. SpawnTask(pEntry. fDebug. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.20. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] . See listing 18. pStack. Procedural Interface: . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. . .Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority]. . fOSCode). . dPriority. .Jump to new TSS .New TSS -> EAX .

No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. pStackST .mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch].Save new TSS EBX.. .Next .Priority OK? .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX. pRunTSS MOV EDX. NewTSSST.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS .pEntryST .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX. NewExchST .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.two local DWORD vars .Yup.EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. 8 CMP dPriST. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .see if we got an error . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.No.Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX.we can't be interrupted . EAX .0 .Allocate exchange .Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP]. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Debug on entry? JE ST0004 . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^. . 1 . JobCodeSel .EDX .ercNoMoreTSSs . 0 .ESP SUB ESP.Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. EAX JNZ STEnd . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. .EBX MOV EBX.. . . JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .pFreeTSS OR EAX.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.EBX MOV EBX. nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX. . bad news .EDX MOV EDX. OSCodeSel . [EBX+TSS_CR3] .EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX.0202h .

AllocExch(pExchRet):dError .Old guy does. Procedural Interface : .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.we can't be interrupted .Move new TSS into pRunTSS . .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. just put new guy on Q.pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority]. New guy does (lowest num) . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . . See listing 18. dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority].nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.ErcOk .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. .0 .EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.ESP XOR ESI. Allocate exchange code . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Get number of exchanges in ECX .mov priority into BL .Jump to new TSS .MOV EBX. It is property of a Job (not a task).If crnt >.Get who's running . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange. . . New TSS -> EDX .BL CLI MOV EDX. Listing 18.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . .Return to caller .New TSS -> Stack . EBX <= ADR rgExch . . 0 MMURTL V1.prgExch MOV ECX. Zero the Exch Index . The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages.21. . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES). .EAX MOV BX. .Save time of this switch for scheduler .New TSS -> EAX .21. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.Who got the highest Pri? . returned. . . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .put in TSS .Place crnt TSS on Q .ercOk . .EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX.CrntTSS -> EAX.ESI MOV EBX.

22. Messages are deQueued. MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX. and request blocks are freed up as necessary. Stats XOR EAX.EDX .[EBP+0CH] . PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .EAX .22.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. . .EAX . .ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. . . it may have left over link blocks hanging on it.0 . Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange. Listing 18. POP EBP . RETF 4 . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). . TSSs.[EAX+Owner] EBX. and link blocks. This function has a lot more to do.sEXCH EDX EDX. Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. If we found a Free Exch. however.prgExch EAX. .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP.EDX ECX. DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType . DEC _nEXCHLeft .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] .pRunTSS EBX. . Procedural Interface : . JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX. Make the Exch owner the Job STI . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX].sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. See listing 18. .pRunTSS .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: .ESI EDX.EAX EDX.EBP . Those link blocks may also contain requests.0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. .[EBP+0CH] EAX. . .JE AE001 ADD EBX. . . When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. .0 . . .ESI . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector. .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. . Deallocate exchange code . MMURTL V1. . . . Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner]. .

JUMP MOV ESI.Next <= pFreeTSS. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. Go free the Exch. POP EBP . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . INC _nTSSLeft . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . NIL = Empty.EBX . Free up the exchange. GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. ECX . See listing 18. XOR EAX.0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . yes . RETF 4 .EAX . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. yes . is this the OS??? . if not owner. . Go And Check for more.ercNotOwner MOV ESP. 0 . Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI.ercOK (0) MOV ESP. Go And Check for more. 0 . INC _nEXCHLeft . These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner].0 .EAX .pFreeTSS . MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. MOV pFreeLB. INC _nLBLeft .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . . Reset msg Flag. pFreeLB <= pLBin. Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . See if a message may be queued JE DE001 . CLI . pLBin^. pTSSin^. 0 . 0 . MMURTL V1.23. OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. .only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow .Next <= pFreeLB. ECX . Get the TSS off of the Exchange . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Nothing there. This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. . Stats STI . CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg].Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . JMP DE000 .EAX . EAX JZ DE002 .EBX . No.pFreeLB . . JMP DE001 .EBP .instructions or a service crashes! .with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will .JE DE000 CMP EBX. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. Yes.

.ESP . [EAX+TSS_Exch] . Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX.ESP .24. RETF 4 .No error. EAX . . SetPriority(bPriority):dError . RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. PUSH EBP . PUSH EBP . . Procedural Interface : . .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. MOV EBP. MOV EAX.EBX . . See listing 18. ErcOK .This sets the priority of the task that called it . The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI].Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. bPriority is a byte with the new priority. Set priority code .23. .[EBP+0CH] . . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . . BL . POP EBP .pRunTSS . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. ErcOK POP EBP . MMURTL V1. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: .pRunTSS . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. 01Fh . SetPriority . GetTSS exchange code . MOV EBP.Listing 18. to the priority specified in the single parameter.24 Listing 18. .[EBP+0CH] . . . returned. Procedural Interface : . PUBLIC __SetPriority . This doesn't really affect the kernel. MOV EAX.

Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. MOV EBP. .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS .This gets the priority of . Get priority code . SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . . . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error. . MMURTL V1. GetPriority . RETF 4 . Get the MOV EBX. DL . and passes it to bPriorityRet. Listing 18. PUSH EBP .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. ErcOK POP EBP . bPriorityret is a pointer to a .ESP .pRunTSS . PUBLIC __GetPriority . XOR EAX. See listing 18.25. . Procedural Interface : . MOV EAX. priority returned. BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. . Get the MOV DL.25.[EBP+0CH] . EAX .

We alloc the "next" page table .0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS .INC .Default to 1 MB . As with all assembler files for DASM.INCLUDE TSS. The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).INCLUDE MOSEDF. The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.ASM.CODE command.1 bit/4Kbytes . Memory management constants and data .Page Allocation Map .User Writable .Chapter 19. 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU . MMURTL V1.INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h . page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs). Listing 19. MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .1.Number of free physical pages left .in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language.DATA .2048 bytes = 64Mb .1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code.User Readable (Code) . Listing 19.User Writable (Data) .Deafult is 32 (1Mb) . It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions. The task state segments are also used extensively. I call these internal support code. Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode.INC .Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt . I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections. the code section must start with the .Max is 2048 (64Mb) . The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .INCLUDE JOB.

EAX SUB EAX.Another megs worth of pages . EAX CALL MarkPage . MOV EDX.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX.IN: .Increase PAM by another meg . EAX . Listing 19.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. 0FFFFF000h .Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].top of 2 megs (for DWORD) . and makes PTEs. neither of which you consider free.EBX MOV ECX.Set oMemMax .Are we above 64 megs .Move in test string . EAX . PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED.2.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX. oMemMax must be last byte .3 MOV _oMemMax.3.USED: . which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh). Its the law! Listing 19.'mrtl' test string value for memory . 0001h .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .2.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX. See listing 19. . Continuation of memory management init. It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax.0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. in megabytes.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . The code in listing 19. which was just loaded. OFFSET pTbl1 . 32 CMP EAX. Now you must fill in bits used by OS.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.Supervisor.Set it to zero intially . by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.NO! . .Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed.Yes. 256 ADD sPAM.OUT: .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX.Next Meg .InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. . and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data.Yes! .Read test string into EBX .1 Mb of pages = 256 . 4 . Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code. This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . Present MOV EBX.Make it the last DWord again . InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree.See if we got it back OK .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].3 ADD EAX.1FFFFCh XOR EBX. Memory management initialization code . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree. We assume 1MB to start.100000h ADD _nPagesFree.ECX MOV EBX.Next table entry MMURTL V1. you have. 256 MOV EAX.

No.1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 .Reserve 192K for OS (for now) . Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. Listing 19. 4096 . but I can't be sure everyone can do it. nor can I provide instructions to everyone.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX. See listing 19. such as the 82C30 C&T.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. The initial page directory and the page table are static. 0FFFFF000h . Listing 19. 100000h . C0000h –FFFFFh. and then writing it again.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 .Physical address of OS page directory CR3.Set paging bit ON CR0.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. See listing 19.Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage . Several chip sets on the market. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM. 80000000h .Next PTE entry ADD EAX.5.Store in Control Reg 3 EAX.4. EDX. The routine in listing 19. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . EAX .5. EAX .Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 .EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . EAX . EAX .Make it index (SHR 12. . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte. ANDing it with 8000000h. EAX. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM. IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX].Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX . EDX. 4096 EAX.6. go back for more . 4 . SHL 2) . CR0 .Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. Turning on paged memory management EAX. This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. 0101b . OFFSET PDir1 .Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area .Next page please CMP EAX.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . Now we can go into paged memory mode. Continuation of memory management init. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses.Get Control Reg 0 EAX.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. EBX. then reading CR0. EBX.

6. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated. Allocation of memory management exchange . This reduces nPagesFree by one. sPAM DEC EAX . assuming that you will allocate it.7. or 0 if error EBX.no memory left. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. Finishing memory management init. 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. Listing 19.Done initializing memory managment .No EAX.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn .OUT : .Where we are in PAM . It also marks the page as used.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD. MemExch .8..7.. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage .IN : . this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it. Listing 19. OFFSET pNextPT . OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX.All 8 pages used? FHP2 .Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch . MMURTL V1. See listing 19. FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. See listing 19. I'm afraid.0FFh .0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS . Of course.EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. Find highest physical page code . 0 .8.Page Allocation Map . .Listing 19. LEA EAX. Get 'em! RETN . PUSH 1 .

or 0 if error EBX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX. Once again.Test bits . EBX FHPf EBX. EDX MOV DL.At the bottom of the Byte? .One less available . . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Start at first byte in PAM .Get the byte with a whole in it.Page Allocation Map ..Next bit . Find lowest physical page code . 7 XOR EDX. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it.Another Byte lower .Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller.Are we past at TOP of PAM? .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . .0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX. sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1.9. assuming that you will allocate it.DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX.0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. EAX . 3 ADD EBX.Another Byte lower .Back for next byte .. .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Set page in use . we must call UnMarkPage to release it. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 .Set the bit indexed by EBX .All 8 pages used? . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX. OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX. It also marks the page as used.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. This reduces nPagesFree by one. See listing 19. DL SHL EAX.OUT : ..9. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX.Add page number in byte .Error (BAD CPU???) . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. EAX SHL EBX.IN : ..no memory left. .No .\ Listing 19.

XOR EBX. EBX . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. 8 FLPn FLP3 . EBX FLPf EBX EBX.Error (BAD CPU???) . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. Code to mark a physical page in use . 3 ADD EBX.0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS .One less available . .ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX.Get the byte into DL BTS EDX. 12 . OFFSET rgPAM . .One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX.Page Allocation Map AND EBX..EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL.Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address. DL . This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX. MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. EAX SHL EBX.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .Next bit .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .Add page number in byte . 0FFFFF000h .Test bits . 15 .FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Get the byte with a whole in it. EBX XOR EDX.Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. DL SHL EAX. Listing 19. This reduces nPagesFree by one.10. 07h . [EAX+ECX] .Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree .Set page in use .End of the Byte? . ..OUT : .IN : .BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX]. EBX SHR ECX. See listing 19. EDX MOV DL.Set the bit indexed by EBX .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX.10.

ESI.12. See listing 19. EBX -.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. 12 AND EBX. 07h ADD EAX. USED: EAX. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. INPUT: EAX -.Physical Address . DMA operations.Page Allocation Map . OUTPUT: EAX -. . etc. [EAX] BTR EDX. 15 SHR EBX.Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . EBX MOV [EAX]. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. This increases nPagesFree by one. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1.11.BitReset instruction . Code to free a physical page for reuse . ECX MOV DL. . .ECX is now byte offset into PAM .OUT : . See listing 19. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address.IN : . ESI -. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM .Round down to page modulo . Listing 19. EBX. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. Listing 19. This function supports the similarly named public routine. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages. .Linear address .0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS .11.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. EFlags . . EBX SHR ECX. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN .

003FFFFFh SHR EBX. EAX MOV ESI. . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS.Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. Listing 19. 00000FFFh OR EAX.get rid of lower 12 to make it an index .Save this address for caller . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1.Save it again .Leaves pJCB in EAX . Code to find a free run of linear memory . OUT: EAX . EBX RETN FindRun . EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing. EBX MOV EDX. . 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. This is either at address base 0 for the operating system.Get rid of upper 10 bits .EBX now points to Page Table entry! . . IN : EAX . The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory. 12 SHL EBX.*4 makes it byte offset in PT .13.Save Linear .Get original linear .Physical base of page is in EAX .Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . 2048 SHR EBX. The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist. in which case we return 0. EBX .ESI now has ptr to PD . Save in EBX .Get original linear back in EBX .EAX now has ptr to PD! . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX. 2 ADD EBX.Address of PD saved here .EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables. EBX .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . 22 SHL EBX. USED: EAX.Index into PD for PT we are working on .Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset .*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow .0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .Keeps count of how many free found so far . 2 ADD EBX. EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. .EBX/EAX now points to shadow .Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .Copy number of pages to ECX.PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX.EAX now has Linear of Page Table . or the 1Gb address mark for the user. EAX MOV EAX. EBX MOV EAX. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI. .Index into shadow addresses from EAX . See listing 19.13.mask off lower 12 . The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.Move to shadow addresses in PD . [EBX] AND EAX.

Times size of page (* 4096) . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . . 22 SHL EAX.EAX is next 10 bits of LA .Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. .we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX. [ESI+EDX*4] . FR1: XOR EAX.MOV EDI.From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX . EBX . . This is the way FindRun left them. Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed.Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .Not empty. EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table.Zero means it's .EDX was index into PD.Not done yet. EAX . and the count of pages should be in EBX.Are we past last PTE of this PT? . 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 . .In use . Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection.EBX still has count of pages.Next PT! . 12 OR EAX.No.Yes.If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . or tables. while EAX was index into PT.The starting linear address is equal to number of the last . if the run spans two or more tables.go INC MOV JMP FROK: . SHL EDX.We found enough entries goto OK . . See listing 19.One less page (0 offset) . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4]. .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 . .One more empty one! . . EDI .EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .This is the linear address we ended at .If . next PTE please ECX. Next PTE Please.empty (available) . go for it XOR EAX.14.PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . EAX.EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. .Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 . . keep testing . The linear address of the run should be in EAX.0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . 12 SUB EAX.

(save for caller) .14.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . . .EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) .0 .Make it index to DWORDS . .Set PTE to present. . . 4096 . EDX. USED: . ARDone: MMURTL V1. .and OR in the appropriate control bits.Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. 10 AR0: MOV EDI.Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . EDX. 003FF000h SHR EDX. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX.Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX. Adding a run of linear memory .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) . EBX . EAX AND EDX.SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. .then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS .Restore linear address .Offset to shadow address of PD .At this point. EDX MOV EDX. 4 . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX.ESI now has ptr to PD! . [ESI] . CMP EDX. EBX EAX 22 2 .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .Next PTE please. .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX. EDX.EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . THEN store it in PT. OUT: .Get index into PD for first PT .LinAdd into EDX again .See if it's a user page . EDI is pointing the next PT.Yes. AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX.EDX . User ReadOnly .Listing 19. . 4 .Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 . [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.LinAdd to EDX . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX.No. IN : .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). 2048 ADD ESI. go do next PTE ADD ESI. MEMSYS CMP EAX.

EDX. EBX Number of Pages to alias . . this is the way FindRun left them. AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. USED: EAX. . (from find run) .adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. .Get index into PD for first PT .ESP SUB ESP.(save for caller) . EDX.15.ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. . Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . . . 8 MOV AliasLin. The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number.LinAdd to EDX . ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) . . . Listing 19.This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . OUT: Nothing . ESI MOV AliasJob. [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. See listing 19. The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. .or tables.POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun . if the run spans two or more tables . EBX EAX 22 2 . EDX.Make it index to DWORDS . .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS .15. EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . . and the count of pages should be in EBX. EFlags . Once again.we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX. .

MEMALIAS POP ESI .cut off system bits of PTE .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) .EDX is index to exact entry .At this point. . .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1. . go do next PTE .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . 4 CMP EDX. AND EAX. 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . AliasJob MOV EBX.Start at the entry 0 of next PT . [ESI] .ESI now points to first PT of interest .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. . .LinAdd into EDX again . . . next PDE (to get next PT) .No.Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) .Yes.This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE. 10 ALR0: MOV EDI.Address we are aliasing . .Next PTE please.EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . .Restore linear address . 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI.Are we past last PTE of this PT? . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX.Are we done?? . 0FFFFF000h OR EAX.Job we are aliasing .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum . 2048 ADD ESI. . MOV ESP. EDI is pointing to the PT we are in. . . AliasLin ADD AliasLin.Set system bits as ALIAS .POP EAX ADD ESI. EDX MOV EDX. to get a physical address into EAX.EAX now has physical address for this page . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Offset to shadow addresses in PD . 4 XOR EDX.mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . .Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].Set up for next loop (post increment) . ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. EAX AND EDX.

EDI points to UserPD Address . Is it empty? . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . 2048 MOV ECX. PUSH EDX . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . This will be in user address space above 1GB. 2048 EBX.See if have enuf physical memory .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESI now points to PD . 4 MOV EBX. out of physical mem . Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. EBX .no free phy pages!) .Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . EFlags . This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. pNextPT [ESI].Linear add back into EBX .Offset to PcbPD in JCB . MEMUSERD [ESI]. _nPagesFree OR EAX. ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. [ESI] OR EBX. Next possible empty entry . AddUserPT: PUSH EBX .EAX will have Physical address . . PUSH ESI . . [EDI] ADD ESI. . MOV EAX. PUSH EDI . Listing 19. JcbPD ADD EDI. as shown in the following. This is easier than AddOSPT.Physical address in lower half . USED: EAX. EAX ESI.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. . . IN : Nothing . Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow).16.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX.16. Adding a page table for user memory .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table.(save for caller) PUSH ECX .Sorry. initializes it.pJCB in EAX . EAX MOV ESI. Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code.ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD . See listing 19.Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX.Set user bits (Read/Write) .Move to shadow . No! (Try again) . EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. . because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. and sticks it in the user's page directory.

17.was there an error (0 means no mem) . . . . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . .next time.EAX will have Physical address .17. Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . in many cases. . Listing 19.Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . Adding an operating system page table . 1 XOR EAX. USED: EAX. it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running.save pNextPT (the linear address) . Find first empty slot MOV ESI.0 .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .. out of physical mem . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. PUSH EDX . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .See if have enuf physical memory . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. MOV EAX. ESI points to OS Pdir . _nPagesFree OR EAX. EFlags . . 511 MMURTL V1. AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow).(save for caller) PUSH ECX .AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX.no free phy pages!) . PUSH EDI . See listing 19. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often.Sorry. . IN : Nothing . PUSH ESI .size of request . 1 MOV EBX.OS Job Number (Monitor) . OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .

4 MOV EBX.Next JCB .Move to shadow .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . Next possible empty entry . 2048 . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all. The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) .Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS . . Get back JCB number .Get values from stack ADD EBX. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX. EBX . Is it empty? . JcbPD MOV EBX.Save values on stack MOV EDX.See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) .Source EAX .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX.0 .AOPT02: ADD ESI. PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI].Physical address in lower half . .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . pNextPT MOV [ESI].Source of Copy . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. [ESI] OR EBX.Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD .Set present bit . .Destination 1024 . .Save nJCB we are on . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX. . Not a valid JCB (unused) . ESI EAX Get and .No. .Linear add back into EBX . 2048 . 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1.Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. . # of dynamic JCBs . EAX ADD ESI. 2048 MOV EBX. EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 .

else 0 if all's well .save pNextPT (the linear address) .was there an error (0 means no mem) . . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. Adding a call gate to the GDT . Listing 19. . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . ESI. DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate.next time.0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS .18. . . See listing 19. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . 1 XOR EAX. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. EBX. allowing access to OS procedures. OUT: EAX Returns Errors. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. . Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. ECX. . .size of request . EFLAGS MMURTL V1.We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. IN: AX .At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: .18. USES: EAX.AddRun .Set ErcOK (0) .. EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . . EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. . .

. 40h .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI .Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX.19.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . interrupt.Yes. OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4].EDX now points to gate . See listing 19. MOV EAX. .not too low. . nCallGates . IN: . 16 . CX . . .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. SI .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . GDTBase . .Extend INT Num into EDX . . BX MMURTL V1.Put Offset 31:16 into gate . ercBadGateNum .0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. CX SUB EBX. USES: AX . the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. 8 . 40 .Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .make index vice selector CMP EBX. EBX.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. ESI. AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2].Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) . Listing 19.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. AX . . EAX .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. AX SHR EAX.call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX. RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. for a task gate.see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap.19.Put Offset 15:00 into gate . .No. 3 ADD EDX. CX SHL EDX.Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . 3 . ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX]. .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. AX MOV EAX.0 .PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. Adding entries to the IDT . EDX. . ECX. . or task gate.Put Gate ID into gate . MOV EAX.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. SI . EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX.

Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate. If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .Kernel Error?? . Listing 19.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Yes! Serious problem. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage.More than 0? . The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.Can't be zero! .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. See listing 19.RETF .ppMemRet): dError . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.Yes .These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] . This allows runs to span table entries. PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.size of request . _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory. . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS . placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request.Sorry boss.(0 = No Runs big enuf) . . . . . The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree. . A result code is returned in the EAX register.size of request .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit .Yes .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.No Error! EAX. .20.20. we're maxed out EAX. pRunTSS ADD EAX.See if have enuf physical memory . Procedureal Interface : .EAX ALOSP00 EAX.n4KPages XOR EAX. but not close enough to easily combine their code.n4KPages EAX.0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX. Allocating a page of linear memory . Allocate each physical page.

Exit. Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller.dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] . . Code to alias memory . dcbMem. This wastes no physical memory.Go back & try again . The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. . dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. . See if they are available. however .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. . . AliasMem(pMem. . Procedureal Interface : .CALL AddOSPT OR EAX.EAX now has linear address .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX].EBP . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . ppAliasRet): dError . Even if the address is only two bytes. Listing 19.See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) . . ppMemRet . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: .0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. .Only an entry in a table. POP EAX . This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around. dJobNum.JobNum EQU [EBP+16] .ERROR!! . The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. . No alias is needed.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . PUSH EAX . EAX .ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] . MMURTL V1.Add a new page table (we need it!) .Does not return error . .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . POP EBP . ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to.Save last error PUSH MemExch . If so. .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP.pMem EQU [EBP+24] . EAX .21.No error ALOSPExit: . . pMem is the address to alias. you need two pages. JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. if it crosses page boundaries. RETF 8 .

PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+24] .Are they the same Page Directory?? .Yes! Serious problem.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.pMem into EAX 0FFFh . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. EAX. EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. 0 for OS . We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX. . No Error .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX. User memory .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX .Kernel Error?? .Was there enough PTEs? .Puts Current Job Num in EAX . alias it . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .Now wait our turn with memory management .EAX is nPages-1 . EAX.OS Job? . EAX. .Yes .No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .Yes . .No.See if it is OS based service . pRunTSS ADD EAX. .Save nPages in ECX . .See if it is OS based service .Get Job number for pMem .Number of pages we need into EBX . ECX CALL FindRun .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. we're done ALSPBegin: . EBX.EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough . .0 .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . . .Exit. 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.EAX is 256 for user space.No. 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1. [EBP+16] CMP EAX. .Add to dcbMem 12 . . EAX ECX.0h JNE ALSPDone .Set up for OS memory space .OS Job? .Yes.EAX has 0 or 256 .dcbMem EBX . EAX.EBX still has count of pages OR EAX.Yes . EAX JMP ALSPDone .

Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) .Now.22. Code to remove alias PTEs .Returned address to caller! .EBX .Set to 0 (no error) .Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing . [EBP+12] [ESI]. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP. Listing 19. . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address . [EBP+24] MOV EDX.ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX.No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI.22.Save last error . dcbAliasBytes.ERROR!! .EAX . . EAX ESI.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1.Job number .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . Procedureal Interface : . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: . EAX MOV ESI. [EBP+24] EAX. EDI EAX. PUSH MemExch .pAliasRet . . See listing 19. DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . . .Save alias page address base .original pMem .Set . . .Go back & try again . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. .Get remaining bits . PUSH EAX . pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines. [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun . EAX .0 = NO Error .We are done ALSPExit: . JobNum):ercType . 0FFFh EDI.Address to alias .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX. EAX DALM03: ADD EDX. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit . .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX.Get PTE into EBX .and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS). 0FFFh .ESP . EDI DALM011 EAX.pMem into EAX EBX.dcbAliasBytes .Is page an ALIAS? .Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) ..See if PTE is an alias.NO .Address of next page to deallocate . .We dealiased what we could. [EBP+20] .Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.but less than you asked for! ECX. DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . .Add the remainder of address EAX.pAliasMem .EAX is nPages-1 EAX . [EBP+20] .EBP MMURTL V1. PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias . .Add to dcbMem EAX. EAX MOV [ESI].0 . XOR EAX. ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX.Next linear page .ZERO PTE entry . 12 .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX. [EBP+16] .Is page present (valid)??? .AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] . EBX . . EAX . . if so just ZERO PTE.Yes.DO not zero it! .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 .EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.dcbMem EAX.None at all! .so we zero out the page.NO! (did we do any at all) . [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy . . PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.We did some. [ESI] TEST EBX. -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .Linear Mem to DeAlias . . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP.ECX . EDX MOV EAX. it's page is present .

ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.23. It will always free linear memory. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .Error?? .Address of next page to deallocate .Linear Mem to deallocate . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias. because we deallocate 4K pages. The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored .See if PTE is an alias. PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. . Listing 19. this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page.23.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . Procedureal Interface : . . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be .Number of pages to deallocate . .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX. pOrigMem AND EDX. See listing 19.Now we have Physical Address in EAX .Yes. its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS . [ESI] TEST EBX.POP EBP RETF 12 .0 .and pointer to PTE in ESI.Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy . . .Is page present (valid)??? . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy . providing it is valid. DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls. n4KPages):ercType .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. if so just ZERO PTE.Yes! . . deallocate. . Even if you specify more pages than are valid. . n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate . . pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . Deallocating linear memory . pRunTSS ADD EAX. .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX.Get PTE into EBX . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX.

EAX ADD EDX.CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. it's an Alias . 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP. Procedureal Interface : . over memory error .Yes. n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX. 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. Code to find number of free pages . . .Is page an ALIAS? .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX. ..get rid of OS bits . . Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left. .We deallocated what we could. so next guy can get in . . .NO! (did we do any at all) .save Memory error .Send a dummy message to pick up .Kernel error has priority .24. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit .We did some. See listing 19. EAX MOV [ESI]. ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . . .get Memory error back . You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. Listing 19.ZERO PTE entry .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias .24. pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.so we must unmark (release) the physical page.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .but less than you asked for! . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .None at all! MOV EAX. AND EBX.Next linear page . ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX. .

. LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for .ESP MOV EBX. . See listing 19. Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. Procedureal Interface : . . . [EBP+16] MOV EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . Linear Address . . . EAX MOV ESP. EAX XOR EAX. EAX .No Error .ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. . . . No Error . Listing 19. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. _nPagesFree [ESI]. MOV ESP. . LinAdd. EAX EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . GetPhyAdd(JobNum. This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. Public for linear to physical conversion . pPhyRet .25.JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . . be returned . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . pMemLeft EAX.LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . pPhyRet):ercType .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] .END OF CODE MMURTL V1.25. Job Number . . pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . . left available returned .

.

A single communications channel running at 19. As you well know. a slow machine. See listing 20. divided by the total clocks for the same period. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. Listing 20. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. Back when I started this project. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. But even with these calculations. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . or 3000 clocks.. I ended up with 10ms.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR.1. which is very conservative. my worries were unfounded. Even more important than total bandwidth. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. MMURTL is no exception. etc. I was consuming less than 0.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. The average is was far less. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. It's at the end of the timer ISR. however. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. was the effect on interrupt latency.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us.2 percent.1. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. In a 10ms period we have 200. preemptive multitasking. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. I experimented with several different intervals.6 percent for the worst case. which works out to about 1. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. along with a piece of the kernel. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events.2 percent of available bandwidth. Somewhere between these two was the average. with 100-MHz machines around. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. actually the scheduler. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. as well as the fastest one possible. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. especially synchronous. It was 0. memory wait-states.Chapter 20. Two of them will come in at 260us. The average really depends on program loading.

PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine.2. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time. Data and constants for timer code . sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 . .Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks .2. SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long . These are the offsets into the structure .DATA . that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt.FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.INC . and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium. Listing 20.2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. See listing 20. Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions.DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 . But. and finally with test programs.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1.INC .DD 00000000h .0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386. This I could live with. This doesn't cause a problem at all.320 clocks. or 20us. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 .INCLUDE MOSEDF. plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. the exchange number of a task that is sleeping.ALIGN DWORD . The odds of this are truly astronomical. including the 10 percent overhead. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. . The Timer Block is a structure that contains . or one that has requested an alarm. 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400.INCLUDE TSS.

The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. only one task is actually executing.Yes . It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. At all times on the system.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it..ASM. . Listing 20.EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed.3. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches. See listing 20. If it is the same or higher. If so. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS .FALSE .goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. They may have been placed there by other ISRs. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do. -1 . which is the one you interrupted.Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 . you switch to it.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR . The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.ASM. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 . The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds.4. You have now interrupted that task. and they may be of an equal.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX .Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.0h . It is a small.Timer Tick.INTS are disabled automatically . priority than the task that is now running.No . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs.Yes . External functions for timer code . The timer interrupt service routine .goto decrement it PUSH EAX .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.Yes! .4. INT 20 .Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. or higher.nTmrBlks CLD . The three external near calls.ISend Message MOV EAX.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. See listing 20. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more. the first things defined in this code segment.No . allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel. Listing 20.No.. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run. yet very important part. The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.ECX has count of Timer Blocks .3.save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] .

Is this from a HALTed state? ..No..Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].We will now check to see if this guy has been running .DL is pri of current . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX..bogus msg PUSH EAX . SUB EAX.is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX.number was higher and we DON'T .BX . MMURTL V1. [ESI+Priority] CMP DL.bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg .empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. we want to Switch. Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. no need to check tasks .current pri.0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS .for more then 30ms (3 ticks). Put current one in EAX . and save in EDI . JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone . his . EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX.unless were done ..Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ . dfHalted OR EAX. .[EDI+Tid] . EAX JZ TaskCheckDone .PUSH EAX .FALSE .Compare current pri to highest queued .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . TimerTick .YES.next block please! .tell him his times up! POP ECX .Change this to change the "time slice" .Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) . That means .get count back POP EAX .keep going . PUSH 0 . If so.Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 . EAX MOV EAX. [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.Is there one at all?? .If current is higher(lower num).Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed . Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick. EAX . Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX. MOV ESI. Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches . CMP EAX.switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri . If the Queued Pri is LOWER .. MOV EBX. and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS.10ms more gone.if we got a CARRY on the subtract. pRunTSS MOV DL.skip decrement . ESI CALL enQueueRdy .EDI . we will .or Equal.

Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX. TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD .Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .goto next block MOV EBX.5.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.pRunTSS . .clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . POP EBP .Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .[ECX+TSS_Exch] .5. out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP. Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.Sorry. This requires an exchange.Must do this before we switch! .FAR return from publics MMURTL V1.FALSE .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown]. The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.EBX .Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX. The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX . MOV EBP.ErcOk . RETF 4 .ErcNoMoreTBs .rgTmrBlks .0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 . Listing 20.EBP .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX. MOV EAX.all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.DelayCnt . DelayCnt CMP EAX.unless were done MOV EAX.EBX . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch]. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero.Empty block? JNE Delay02 . PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .Count of timer blocks CLD .nTmrBlks .TSS_Msg . See listing 20.ESP . Sleep() .sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .No . IRETD . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .TRUE .

ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP. The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.No . AlarmCnt):dErc . .clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX.It's OK to interrupt now .all is well Alarm03 .FALSE .Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . nothing will stop it.Count of timer blocks CLD .TRUE . It must be set up each time.rgTmrBlks .7. .unless were done .Up the blocksInUse count EBX. which means the message has already been sent.6. PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP . out of timer blocks . Procedural Interface: .AlarmCnt . . KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. AlarmCnt CMP EAX. MOV EBP.6. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel.0 . AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch]. AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.Empty block? Alarm02 .nTmrBlks .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.EBX . -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .put it in timer block! . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.EBX . 0 .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. See listing 20. The message is not repeatable.ESP . DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MMURTL V1.It's OK to interrupt now EAX. MOV EAX.ErcOk . Code for the Alarm function .goto next block EBX.Get delay count [EAX+CountDown]. Alarm(nAlarmExch. Listing 20.Sorry.sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX. See listing 20.

. Procedural Interface: . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS .nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC . This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds). Code for the MicrDelay function . The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled. MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers.Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX.8.Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . . PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. But it's still very much needed. Listing 20.unless were done .KAlarmExch LEA EAX. The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator. 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.0 . so we get out! .7.ErcOk .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Block in use? KAlarm02 . The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.Get exchange for killing alarms to .EAX MOV ESP.clear direction flag . which drives the processor clock. KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.8.goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch].EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].No blocks in use .No . This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.Listing 20. .sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX.It's OK to interrupt now . . See listing 20.Count of timer blocks . The count is in 15us increments.EBX .ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed. KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . The task is actually not suspended at all.TRUE .ALl done -.EAX points to timer blocks . . Code for the KillAlarm function .FALSE . Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1. .

ESP MOV ECX. EAX MOV ESP. See listing 20. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. .check refrest bit . .0 . AL SHL EBX. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS .get out if they came in with 0! .MOV EBP. 61h AND AL. the next byte is the Hours in BCD.71h MOV BL.Toggle! Move to AH for next compare .9. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.9.No toggle yet . 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL.Get delay count .71h MOV BL.Hours . MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally.04h OUT 70h.Clear time return . EBX MMURTL V1.AL IN AL. .ESP XOR EBX. 10h CMP AH. .AL IN AL.AL IN AL.Check toggle of bit . Listing 20. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI].AL SHL EBX.Seconds . Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.02h OUT 70h. 8 MOV EAX. and the high order byte is 0. . EBX MOV EAX.Minutes . Code to read the CMOS time . the next byte is the minutes in BCD. 8 MOV EAX. .71h MOV BL.00h OUT 70h.Get system status port .AL MOV ESI. AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.

0-6 0=Sunday).71h MOV BL. 8 MOV EAX. Listing 20.AL SHL EBX. . EAX MOV ESP. See listing 20.08h OUT 70h. MMURTL V1. Code to read the CMOS date . .09h OUT 70h. pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. . No Error . EAX MOV ESP. XOR EBX. .AL IN AL. GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .71h MOV BL. 8 MOV EAX. AL SHL EBX.71h MOV BL. pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP . EBX . GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.Year .AL IN AL. AL SHL EBX.Month .10. MOV EBP. . Procedural Interface: . and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99). EBX XOR EAX. .AL MOV ESI.71h MOV BL.Give 'em the time .ESP .0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS .Day of week .06h OUT 70h.AL IN AL. 8 MOV EAX. the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12).07h OUT 70h.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .AL IN AL.10.XOR EAX.Clear date return MOV EAX. . the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31).Day of month . No Error . The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD.

Hardware timer number 2. . there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. TimerTick MOV [ESI].11.ESP MOV ESI. . which is connected to the system internal speaker. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror .This does all work for BEEP and TONE .000 ticks per month. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h. See listing 20. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() . With a 10ms interval. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months.11.0 . The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. AL XOR EDX. pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep().Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). AL MOV AL. AL IN AL. .Timer 2. . MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down.12.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. EDX MOV EAX.193182Mhz .12.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller.No Error .DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . Listing 20.To find the divisor of the clock. Binary . is used to generate tones.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . Because it is a dword. LSB.800. pTickRet MOV EAX. .The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1. . AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h. Code to return the timer tick . .193182 Mhz .193182Mhz by Desired Freq. 61h MMURTL V1. divide 1. . this amounts to 262.1. See listing 20. 10110110b OUT 43h. Listing 20. EAX XOR EAX. MSB. The procedural interface: .

It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier.14. Listing 20. 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . . if it had. . CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL.350ms . Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq. I couldn't resist. AL PUSH ECX . (Sorry.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. . . Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. See listing 20. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . 800 MOV ECX. . . . 11111100b OUT 61h. Code to produce a tone . MMURTL V1.ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs.Freq . Listing 20. This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier.13.14. See listing 20.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS . 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h. . AL RETN Beep() . . .13. Code to produce a beep .ESP MOV EBX. I would have called it Beep_Beep().OR AL. This function has nothing to with the Road Runner.

ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 . ToneFreq MOV ECX.ESP MOV EBX.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS .PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. MMURTL V1. . .

OS Global Data Listing 21.0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . In chapter 7. The assembler does no alignment on its own. the first instruction executed after boot up. Initial OS Page Table (PT).INC . Listing 21. “OS Initialization.See MOSEDF.INCLUDE JOB. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).ASM. .INC .======================================================= . Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files.ASM which is presented later in this chapter.INCLUDE MOSEDF. and I don't worry about the rest of it. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL .DATA . It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. Main Operating System Data .INC for structure details.ASM.INCLUDE TSS.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system.ALIGN DWORD . It is the entry point in the operating system. The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 . The second file is InitCode. a workhorse for Main.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files.ALIGN command. The first file is Main. Initial OS Page Directory (PD). Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) .ASM. Periodically you will see the .Chapter 21. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process. Global Descriptor table (GDT). This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) . For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. access to the data is faster if it is. and Public Call Gate table. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main.1.INC . I generally try to align data that is accessed often. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are. Kernel Structures .

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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4 .DPL 3. SI . OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. Trap gate MOV EBX. 1 . ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector.This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. . MOV ESI. software and hardware interrupt handlers.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. First. 08F00h . AX . 08F00h . 8 .Overflow 08F00h . 0 . InitIDT . Out : Nothing .DPL 3. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic .make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. 3 . 3 .========================================================================= .DPL 3. ESI.0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS . . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel .call DPL & ndParams RETN . .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.DPL 3. handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. 40 . EAX. PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX. .Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. Second. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 255 .SUB EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. 08F00h . SI . OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. CX .Single Step MOV EAX.DPL 3. 16 . IN : Nothing . adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . 08E00h . Used : ALL registers and flags .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04].move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. EBX.Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate .Breakpoint MOV EAX. GDTBase .Divide By Zero MOV EAX.

8 . MOV ESI. 20h . 0Dh .DPL 3. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI.Int Page Fault MOV EAX. IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . 21h . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 6 . EAX. 08F00h .DPL 3. ESI.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. 08F00h . 08F00h . OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h .0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0Ah . MOV ESI. 08F00h .Double Exception MOV EAX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX.Seg Not Present MOV EAX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 08F00h .GP fault MOV EAX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.DPL 3.DPL 3.Int TIMER MOV EAX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Bh .Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX.DPL 3.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Eh .Invalid TSS MOV EAX. EBX. 0Ch . MOV ESI.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 08E00h . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h . MOV ESI. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h . 08F00h . OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.

DPL 3.. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ ...FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . 2Ah .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h ....IntLPT1 MOV EAX..Int . MOV EAX.Int COM2 MOV EAX.... OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. ESI... MOV ESI. 24h . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3... OSCodeSel . EBX.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ .... IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . MOV EAX.. 23h . 28h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.DPL 3.. MOV ESI.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 25h . MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . 08E00h ..Int .. 27h . 08E00h ... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 26h . 08E00h .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 29h .DPL 3.DPL 3.Int .. MOV ESI. MOV ESI.Int LPT2 MOV EAX.0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS ....Int COM1 MOV EAX. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel ... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 08E00h . MOV ESI. .Int . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.. MOV EAX.. EAX.DPL 3. MOV ESI.DPL 3.Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX..... 2Bh . MOV EAX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... MOV ESI.Int . 08E00h .DPL 3. MOV ESI.

. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. IN : Nothing . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. This can't . DPL 3 MOV ECX.. OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! . IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! .... OSCodeSel .. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.. OSCodeSel ... 08E00h . 2Dh . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX. 58h MOV DX. 40h MOV DX...3 DWord params. MOV ESI.SendMsg -. MOV EAX.DPL 3.1Dword param. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0EC03h . but MUST be called before the first far call to any . before initcallgates. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 . Out : Nothing . MOV EAX.3 DWord Params. 0EC01h .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..Int ... 08C03h .. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.DPL 3. DPL 3 MOV ECX. MOV ESI.WaitMsg -. 08E00h . 48h MOV DX. 50h MOV DX. MOV ESI.. InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.Int . Used : ALL registers and flags . 0EC02h .Set Priority . OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. . MOV EAX.. 08E00h ..2 DWord Params.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.========================================================================== .ISendMsg -. OSCodeSel . DPL 3 MOV ECX.0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS .. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 2Eh .. 2Fh .. OSCodeSel MOV ESI...DPL 3. DPL 0 MOV ECX..Int .

RETN MMURTL V1..0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .The rest of the call gate set ups go here.

In the functions ExitJob() and Chain().Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) . Before I wrote this code. Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. EBX -.================================================================ . request blocks.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . the JCB.Chapter 22. can be a complicated scenario.INCLUDE JOB. and finally the operating system memory. TSSs.1.asm .======= End data. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language.1 Listing 22.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD .INC . When things don't work right. The program loader is in this chapter. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management. INPUT : EAX -.INCLUDE MOSEDF. it is usually quite a mess. are used by almost every module in the operating system. From Main. exchanges. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. Job Management Subroutines .INC . The process of allocating all the resources. link blocks.INCLUDE TSS.DATA . These calls. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one. See listing 22. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . this is the where you'll end up. pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while.Begin Code ================== . JCBs are in allocated memory . It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. many of them public functions. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: . and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. and finally starting the new task. the monitor. Pieces of related code in the kernel.Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in .INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs .CODE .

Move it in . CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). . ECX is count of JCBs.Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . . . EBX. EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols].Size of JCBs . EBX . .ECX. . 7 MOV EAX.EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB].size is filled in .Now to JobName . ESI. ESI -.EDI points to JCB . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. INPUT : EAX . EDI. . EAX . EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information.EAX .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX.Video number is in JCB . ECX.cbJobName EDX -. . . . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. EDX is size of each JCB. MMURTL V1.Count of JCBs .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX. PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. .EBX MOV EDI. 3 . InitFreeJCB . MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. ECX . while . EDX . [EAX+JobNum] RETN .. . . in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). .Put Ptr to PD into JCB . . .Address of JCBs to be initialized .0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated.1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. 0 .EBX. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI]. MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. . EAX points to the first JCB.pbJobName ECX -. EDX. .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs.============================================================================= . The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. .ESI EFLAGS . . 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. OUTPUT : NONE . USED: EAX. We can't use its position . EAX ADD EDI.EAX .EAX .first byte of name . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs. pJCBs .EDX .EDX.Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB].Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. .Make last one NIL RETN . This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run. . .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX.

REGISTERS : EBX. the free pool. JE DispJCBDone . JE NewJCBDone . EAX ECX. INPUT : EAX . OUTPUT : NONE . NewJCBDone: RETN . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in . then EAX will contain NIL (0). This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. . .FLAGS . . 0 .Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . CMP EAX.pFreeJCB . 0 . . INPUT : NONE . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . . . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . . . REGISTERS : EAX. If none exists.0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. . . Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). nJCBs MOV EDX.Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX.DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. This routine will also . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX.FLAGS . . .EBX . Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . . pJCBs STOSD . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . .[EAX+NextJCB] .0 . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . .IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. MOV EBX. Get 'em! .================================================================ . pJCBs MOV ECX.Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX.EBX. MOV EAX. . OUTPUT : EAX . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb.Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB.============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: .. . . 4096 EDI. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB .

Job Number of desired pJCB . EFlags . Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. . .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . .EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . All TSSs are assigned to a Job. is a field in the JCB structure. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .============================================================ . in EAX. INPUT: EAX -.EBX has OS ptr to free list . USED: EAX. . assigned to a Job. pRunTSS . USED: EAX. OUTPUT: EAX -. [EAX+JobNum] . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX.Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . INPUT: Nothing . PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. GetpJCB . Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. . . . .EBX MOV pFreeJCB. . GetCrntJobNum .============================================================ . PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX.Current Job Number .============================================================ . EFlags . GetpCrntJCB .Current JCB RETN . OUTPUT: EAX -. This is based on which Task is executing.Move it into newly freed JCB . All TSSs are . A Job may have more than one Task. Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. INPUT: Nothing . . .Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. OUTPUT: EAX -. 2 MMURTL V1.Pointer to JCB RETN . EFlags . . Many OS functions deal with the Job number.Linear Address of current JCB . .MOV EBX. All TSSs are .pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB]. assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. The Job number . This is based on which Task is executing. USED: EAX.

OUTPUT: EAX -. . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . .Add in two static JCBs . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. Procedureal Interface : . is a field in the JCB structure. Sorry. sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. .JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. 3 MOV EDX. AllocJCB (NEAR) . The Job number . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX.Times size of JCB . .Current Job Number . . .Now points to desired JCB . . . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX.0 . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] .============================================================ . We got one! . call to support the public job management calls in high level . . . . INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. . USED: EAX. EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. .Current JCB RETN . This is a NEAR . [EAX+JobNum] . GetJobNum . ppJCBRet):ercType . ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. EFlags . pJCBs POP EDX RETN . . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. Many OS functions deal with the Job number. OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. . EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. Get a new JCB . . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB.============================================================ .Within range of JCBs . languages.

============================================================ . pJCBRet):ercType . .MOV ESP. .============================================================ .============================================================ . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range .No error . . . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. . . . GetpJCB . . pJCB . languages in the OS code. EAX MOV ESP. . . Get a new JCB . Procedureal Interface : .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . This is a NEAR . EAX MOV ESP. EAX MOV ESI. . . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . . . EAX XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. you specifiy. . . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . . [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. Procedureal Interface : .Job Num . . . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). . . .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . . . . GetpJCB(dJobNum.ESP MOV EAX. . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI].pJCBRet . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. call to support the public job management calls in high level . .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . MMURTL V1.

ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job.EBP .EBP . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. nJCBs + 2. . MOV EAX. [EBP+16] .0 is invalid CMP EAX. . Procedureal Interface : .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. GetJobNum . RETF 8 . [EBP+12] . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. . . . . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType .EBP . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD].No Error .pJobNumRet . POP EBP .pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. . POP EBP .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP . . the job that the task that called this belongs to. .Leave jobnum in EAX . EAX XOR EAX. EAX MOV ESP. .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX.puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. RETF 8 .Job Num OR EAX. .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. This is .============================================================ . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 . MOV ESP. . . EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . . ErcBadJobNum . . RETF 8 . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . or 0 will be returned with the data. MMURTL V1. POP EBP . . 0 .. ErcInvalidJCB . .

============================================================ . . RETF 4 . This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the ..================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. This code is here for lack of a better place. contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. EAX . PUSH EBP . Functions for starting new jobs. 7Fh . GetSystemDisk . . This is from the public . and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. XOR EAX.get rid of high bits MOV ESI. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) .c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). Procedureal Interface : . And will . . MOV EBP.c.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. . . . Jobc. . variable _BootDrive defined in Main. MOV EAX. ending jobs. _BootDrive AND EAX. .No Error POP EBP . It's really not a filesystem function either. pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where .ESP . . . It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. the number representing the system disk is returned. AL . pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk .asm. GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType .2. still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. Jobc. [EBP+12] . loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 22.0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. disk that the system booted from.

static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. MMURTL V1.h" "MTimer.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS ..h" "MFiles.. . SendAbort(long JobNum.). char *pJCBRet).ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. SetExchOwner(long Exch. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb.h" "MJob.h" "MData. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB). */ static long TmpStack[128]. long Exch). /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt.h" "MKbd. char *ppJCBRet).h" #include "runfile. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. char *pNewJCB).Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it.h" "MMemory.h" "MVid. long cb). GetExchOwner(long Exch. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB.

j. static char aFileE[80]. *pPDE. char *pMem. i++) { MMURTL V1. k. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. static long offCode = 0. i<1024.static long JobNum. we eliminate the user PDEs. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. 0. 0. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. static struct tagtype tag. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. BogusMsg[2]. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. 0. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. extern unsigned long KillExch. When all PTs have been cleaned. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. ExchE. 0. 0. unsigned long *pPT. iE. ercE. static long sCode. erc. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. sData. offData = 0. sStack. *pData.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . *pStack. oData. 0. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. static long cbFileE. 0. for (i=768. job_fhE. filetype. static unsigned long oCode.

cbFileName. k). nDDFIX = 0. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. MMURTL V1. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. nCCFIX = 0. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). If all is well. &filetype. fh. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. for (j=0.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. 5. char fDone. &dret). while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. oCDFIX = 0. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. long *pfhRet) { long erc. erc = ReadBytes (fh. *pfhRet = 0. i. &tag. dret. 1. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. offData = 0. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. nCDFIX = 0.id = 0. &dret). long cbFileName.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . reads and validates the run file. &fh). switch (tag. oDDFIX = 0. oDCFIX = 0. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. offCode = 0. 1. nDCFIX = 0. junk. 0. j<1024.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCCFIX = 0. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens.

&dret).len/4. &dret). &oCDFIX). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. MMURTL V1. &oCCFIX). if (tag. oCDFIX+tag. &dret). &oDDFIX). case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &sData. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &offData. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* skip it break. oCode+tag. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. nDCFIX = tag. &sStack. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oDCFIX+tag. 4. oData+tag. &dret). case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. nCCFIX = tag.len). /* skip it break.len). break. &offCode. /* skip it break. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. 4.break. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. nDDFIX = tag.0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCCFIX+tag. break. &pStart. &dret). &oCode). nCDFIX = tag. /* skip it break. &i). 4. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret).len/4. 4.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. break.len). case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. break.len/4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.len). &oData). break.len).len/4. i+tag. 4. oDDFIX+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len). &oDCFIX). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len). &sCode.

pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. dcbRunFile). GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. } return(0). } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. i). } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). GetpJCB(JobNum. else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. MMURTL V1. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pRunFile. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. erc). *pdcbRunRet = i. long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB). return (erc). pRunRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. GetpJCB(JobNum. return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum.break.0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . long dcbPath) { long JobNum. i. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB).

if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. dcbPath). GetpJCB(JobNum. return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. MMURTL V1. erc. GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0).0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetJobNum(&JobNum). long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. dcbCmd). GetJobNum(&JobNum). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0). &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. i.else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. char *pPathRet. &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. i). pCmdRet. } return(erc). i). else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. else { CopyData(pCmd. *pdcbCmdRet = i. *pdcbPathRet = i. long dcbUser) { long JobNum. else { CopyData(pPath. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. pPathRet. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. &pTmpJCB).

pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. i). *pdcbUserRet = i. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. *pdcbFileRet = i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetpJCB(JobNum. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. dcbName).0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . i). long dcbName) { long JobNum. pUserRet. GetpJCB(JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. i. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. GetJobNum(&JobNum).GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. pFileRet. } return(0). return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). else { CopyData(pUser. GetJobNum(&JobNum). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. i. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. &pTmpJCB). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. else { CopyData(pName. &pTmpJCB). long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. dcbUser). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. return(0). } return(0).

GetJobNum(&JobNum). fh.0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. dret. long *pFix. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. long dcbName) { long JobNum. *pVid. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. i. } return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13.{ long JobNum. dcbName). if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. GetpJCB(JobNum. i). return(0). &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. nPages. *pOSPD. U32 PhyAdd. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. &pTmpJCB). long cbFileName. *pdcbFileRet = i. &fh). i. return(0). &pTmpJCB). *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. dcbName). pFileRet. GetpJCB(JobNum. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. else { CopyData(pName. *pPT. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). cbFileName. unsigned long *pPD.

4096. &pPD). 4096. sStack = nPages * 4096. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. pPT. &pCode). if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. PhyAdd). erc = AllocPage(nPages. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. FillData(pVid. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. 0). MMURTL V1. pNewJCB = 0. pPD). erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. 0). pPT). /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". &pNewJCB). nPages = sData/4096. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. 1). pVid = pPD + 8192. pPT = pPD + 4096. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n".0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pStack)./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. &pData). pOSPD[768] = pPT. /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. pPD = 0. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". &pTmpJCB). /* Job's PD. pVid = 0. if (sData%4096) nPages++. GetpJCB(1. nPages = sCode/4096. &PhyAdd). pPT = 0.

4096). &dret). pFix = pData + i. } MMURTL V1. &dret). sCode. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i. sData.offData + pData. oDDFIX). } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pCode + i. &dret). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. pPD. &i.offCode + pCode. &dret). pData. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oData). /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pFix = pData + i. oDCFIX). so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. */ CopyData(pOSPD. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. 4. &i. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCode). /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCCFIX). 4.offCode + pCode. pFix = pCode + i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS ./* Right now.offData + pData. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). oCDFIX). pCode. 4. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i. &dret). the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.

pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. pNewJCB). /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. i. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). 0). pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. 3). pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. 25. 0. pNewJCB->nCols = 80. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. pStack+sStack-4.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. 0x18. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* Size */ CopyData("VID". 3). pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. 1024. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. pStart+pCode-offCode). 1024. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. 0).

/* Allocate user memory for Stack. Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. nPages. pNewJCB = pJCB. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. oData).*pJobNumRet = JobNum. &pData). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. return(erc). pCode. nPages = sData/4096. sData. &pCode). *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. long *pFix. oCode). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. pData. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). erc = AllocPage(nPages. long fh) { long erc. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. sCode. i. /* All Job memory is now allocated. dret. &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &pStack). nPages = sCode/4096. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. if (sData%4096) nPages++. oCDFIX). } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. The PD. sStack = nPages * 4096.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS .

/* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . This task. 4. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode.offData + pData. 4. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offCode + pCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. pFix = pData + i. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. &i. 4. &i. return(erc). } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). oDDFIX).offData + pData. pFix = pCode + i. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i. &dret). &i. MMURTL V1. pFix = pCode + i. its exchange.erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offCode + pCode. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. oDCFIX).0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. 4. &dret). pFix = pData + i. oCCFIX).PT and video. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData.

erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. GetTSSExch(&ExchE). This is used to kill run-away jobs. CleanUserPD(pPDE). &pTmpJCB). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. ExchE. WaitMsg(ExchE. if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). &pTmpJCB). /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). ercE = 0. Debugger or the current job. ErcOpCancel). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. if (erc) return(erc).GetpJCB(JobNumE. SetPriority(31). This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. BogusMsg). It results in a violent death for the job specified. ISendMsg(KillExch. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB).0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. BogusMsg).

ExchE). &_KillTask). fDebug. /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor.ercE = 0. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. return(erc). 3. /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). 0x08. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). ESP. pTmpJCB).0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. &TmpStack[127]. GetpJCB(JobNumE. iE++. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. We send "Abort" messages to all services. &pExchJCBE). iE = 0. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. CodeSeg. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). ExchE. Priority. } ercE = 0. Exch. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. &pCrntJCB). 0.

Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!)./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. If no exit run file. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. ercE = 0. &cbFileE). iE++. /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. iE = 0. &pExchJCBE). CleanUserPD(pPDE). if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). */ GetExitJob(aFileE. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. ercE = 0. Send Abort messages to all services. ExchE). /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). EAX. ercE = 0. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. EBP. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. ESP.

Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it).if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. WaitMsg(ExchE. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. MOV EBP. MOV EBX. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. cbFileE. MOV ESP. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. ADD EAX. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . ercE). SetPriority(31). SUB EAX. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. BogusMsg). job_fhE). ExchE. &job_fhE).0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ #asm MOV EAX. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error.

ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. iE = 0. long cbFileName. */ MMURTL V1. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. &pCrntJCB). /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). aFileE. } CloseFile(job_fhE). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercE = 0. &job_fhE). cbFileE = cbFileName. cbFileName). cbFileName. In other words. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. iE++. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. GetpJCB(JobNumE. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. Send Abort messages to all services. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE).error loading the Job. &pExchJCBE).

ExchE). Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. The original user's job is destroyed. ESP. cbFileE. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. CleanUserPD(pPDE). &cbFileE). EBP. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. ercE = 0. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). */ MMURTL V1. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). job_fhE). If no exit run file. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. EAX. job_fhE). &job_fhE).SendAbort(JobNumE. cbFileE. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). &job_fhE). if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. ercE = 0. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. /* Try to load the Chain file.

ADD EAX. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. MOV EBP. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. ercE). #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). MOV ESP. SUB EAX.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . ExchE. WaitMsg(ExchE. MOV EBX. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. BogusMsg).#asm MOV EAX.

so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed.0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . . which are all debug exceptions. All of the debugger's . This makes the . . Listing 23. and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. . . First we copy the Page Dir . we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. Get EIP of offender for debugger . You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. Breakpoints. then copy the CR3 . Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger . register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS.Chapter 23. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger .1. Next. debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. See listing 23. While writing the operating system. . Get Flags . The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. Get EIP of offender for debugger .===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . entry from the current job into the debuggers job.EnterDebug .Enter debugger . are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. . code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). It has grown substantially. This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. They are made to match those of the interrupted task.Enter debugger .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . task (without going through the kernel). but is still very immature. I have left them as individual procedures. The debugger is a separate task.ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. If we get here. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. . on which exception is was. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted.1. Get CS .

[EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX.CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX .pRunTSS -> EAX . [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. EAX This switches tasks. pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave.Set up debugger selector .ALIGN DWORD . we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD . with the exception of the disassembler.Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23.INC .INCLUDE .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS .INCLUDE MOSEDF. EAX EAX.2 presents the debugger code in its entirety. pRunTSS EBX.Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX.make his registers right! . BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .INCLUDE . then jump to the debugger's selector. and restore PUSH EDX . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].When the debugger exits. caller's registers them before the into the debugger .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX . ." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code. task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.Switch tasks to debugger . Debugger Data and Code .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS . EnterDebug: PUSH EAX .INC TSS.we MUST save PUSH EBX .Install Debugger's as current .Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS. EBX EAX. OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3]. pRunTSS.current CR3 -> EBX . . You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.Put the stack back the way it was .INCLUDE .DATA . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. Listing 23. [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX .Save the current pRunTSS .External near Variables MMURTL V1.. .pCrntJCB -> EAX .INC JOB.INC RQB.2. EBX EAX.

For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.Address of instructions we are displaying .'ClrBP'.Has Dbg Video been initialized? .' '.' '.'SetBP'.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .0B3h.General purpose DDs (used all over) .0B3h.To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .General use buffers DB '0000000000' . dbgExchMsg . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.' ' ' .Boolean.0B3h.TO save the TSS we interrupted .EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .0B3h.Active bytes in buf2 .0B3h.flag 1 = Msg. 0 = Exch . .'Tasks'.0B3h. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB . .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 . ESC to quit.Address we are setting as next .'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 . . .For ReadDbgKbd .are we dumping DWORDS? .For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .CR LF for Dump etc..For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.0B3h..Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .Address we are dumping .ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .'DumpD'.0B3h.0B3h. 0Ah DB 0 .

'EBP: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'CR0: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.'TSS: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.'ESI: 0B3h.' ES: 0B3h.==================== End Data.'ESP: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .' CS: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.'EIP: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .'EFL: 0B3h. Begin Code ========================== .sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .' FS: 0B3h. OFFSET DbgVidSave .'EBX: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.

1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.[EAX+TSS_EFlags] .Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .We make them the same by putting the values we got from . MOV EBX. is always entered as a procedure..NO .Dbgr is Job 2 .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 .REF . MOV EBX. and flags are not the . .dbgOldCS .0 . Code Seg. when the handler is entered. 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.EBX .NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.0FFh .We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the .0 .procedure was entered.Display fault message and .BX MOV EBX.EBX .the Instruction Pointer.PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit.Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.. .dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. The debugger .0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].dbgOldEIP . .dbgOldEflgs . But we do. the handler is a procedure (NOT a task). I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! . .NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX. the values of . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS. DbgpTSSSave . This only applies if . . and number at 0 .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].EBX .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX. so we shouldn't have to reset it.When a fault or debug exception occurs. (we chanage the tasks) .

Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .reset fault indicator .Set BP (Current Address . 0FFh LEA EAX. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.Get USER pUserTSS . 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].DbgpTSSSave .Reset X & Y to 0.This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP. 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1.0 . MOV EAX. EAX .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll . 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. 0FFh . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble . EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.Set TF in flags for single step .F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESCAPE (Exit) .[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.1 . .=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid . EAX MOV dbgX.Color White on black .Single Step (F1) .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .Fall through to keyboard loop .Display menu PUSH dbgX .=========================================================== .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.

EAX EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. EBX DR0.BP0 Set global .This puts the instruction on the line . 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd.Clear BP saved address . 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. 00000002h DR7. EAX dbg00 EAX.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX.Save it so we know where BP is .This puts the instruction on the line . EAX dbg00 . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX.Sets NextEIP .Full display .0 . .Not used yet .Address displayed .Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Task array display (F6) .F3) . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX. 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. EBX EAX. EAX DR6.See if we need to scroll up .DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX.Display Exchanges (F5) . . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL. EAX DR7.Set Disassembly Address (F8) . 11h dbg04 EAX.MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX. .See if we need to scroll up . EAX dbgBPAdd.Return to CS:EIP (F4) . . . 00 MMURTL V1. .Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Back to where we were .Clear BP (Current Address .

GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .This compares the current breakpoint the address .Back to begining . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL.This puts the instruction on the line .============================================================== dbgShowBP: .Return saved pRunTSS . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.we are about to display. . dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1. If they are the same.Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX must be preserved MOV EBX.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS.0 . .Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) .See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX.Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. BX . 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.MOV dbgfDumpD.we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. EAX BX.Query XY .Info Address dump (F12) . . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD. 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 . . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel.

[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EBX Display .TSS Display .01 MOV ESI.03 MOV ESI.Save EAX across call .07 MOV ESI.00 MOV ESI. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.06 MOV ESI.3 params to TTYOut .EAX Display .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.02 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.============================================================== .05 MOV ESI.BP Address .EDI Display .ECX Display .information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .04 MOV ESI.EBP Display MMURTL V1.Number of this TSS .[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX. ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EDX Display .ESI Display .[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.

MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .08 MOV ESI.CR0 Display .14 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.20 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR2 Display .12 MOV ESI.ESP Display .OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EIP Display .OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.09 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.DS Display .[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ES Display .10 MOV ESI.FS Display .17 MOV ESI.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.SS Display .EAX MOV AX.19 MOV ESI.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.13 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.GS Display .EFlags Display .11 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.16 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.15 MOV ESI.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.CS Display .0 .[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR3 Display .18 MOV ESI.

============================================== . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN . This is for Debugger Register display .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.CALL DispRegs RETN . . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on .========================================================================== .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1.Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .

0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX.Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1. . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Ignore error if any MOV AL.Goto Query Line .ptr to string . PUSH EAX .. dbgChar CMP AL.dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .Convert String to DD . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.Go home. EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . cbBufLen2 .length of string .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.ptr to destination DD . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .Crnt size PUSH 8 . PUSH EAX .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . PUSH EAX .did they exit with CR? . .Max size LEA EAX.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX.=========================== .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . DbgBuf2 .=========================== . dbgChar . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone .

Goto Query Line .Max size LEA EAX. dbgChar CMP AL. 24 . DbgBuf2 .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .0 . dbgChar .Ignore error if any MOV AL. PUSH EAX . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1..Convert String to DD . PUSH EAX .ptr to destination DD . dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone .byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.did they exit with CR? ..Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd . LEA EAX.PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. 6 LEA EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.length of string .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! .Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. cbBufLen2 . dbgSpace MMURTL V1.Go home.ptr to string . PUSH EAX .convert address to text LEA EAX. 4 . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX.

make it a DD Text LEA EAX.NO .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS . display 1 space .get dump address MOV EAX.ignore error .Display First byte . 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.ignore error .Dumping DWORDS CMP AL.Display 1 spaces . dbgfDumpD . dbgDumpAdd . 0 JE DumpB .0 . dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL. dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX.point to second 2 bytes .Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX . dbgBuf . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.go to display bytes LEA EAX. [EBX] . dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 2st byte . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.

dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.go back for next 4 bytes .Query XY PUSH dbgX .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. DEC dbgGPdd1 . 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .a space .NO . LEA EAX.Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.ignore error .23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .NO . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. dbgCont .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgBuf ADD EAX.ignore error LEA EAX.ignore error .done with 4 quads?? ."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 . dbgCRLF .size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.display 4th byte . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Yes .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut .

0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . 1 .=========================== . .Convert Exch number for display . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.line we are one . 0FFh .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. Exch number . 0 RETN .Do CR/LF 0 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX. dbgGPdd2 EDX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Exch# we are on . PUSH 54 .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch . . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX. sEXCH EDX EDX. 1Bh .messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.prgExch .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .MOV EAX.Col PUSH 0 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.

Go to next Exch .Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.Get dMsg1 .Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX MOV EBX.Is is NIL (no msg or task)? . . . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.MsgFlag -> EBX .pMsg -> EBX 20 . .pExch -> EAX .Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Yes. . [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX. [EAX+EHead] .Convert Job Number 10 .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5. [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .For next msg in chain (if it exists) .Is is 1 (a message)? ."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1..ADD EAX. 0 . EAX MOV EAX.Get dMsg2 . EAX OR EBX. but would be confusing later.See if there is a first message MOV EAX. .0 . [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX.Flag to indicate we are doing messages .Convert dMsg1 . Go check for tasks .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . MOV EAX. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Save dMsg2 . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. . .Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS .No. [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX. EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) .Could have left it on stack.EDX MOV dbgGPdd3.Save for loop .pMsg -> EBX .Col dbgGPdd1 .. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5.

pExch -> EAX . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone .Convert Task Number 1 .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5. [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. 0FFh CMP EAX. [EBX+TSSNum] . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Lop off key status bytes .Line OFFSET dbgCont . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS .Line .No .Col 24 . MOV EAX.Col .Is is 0 (no TSS)? . 31 .Next line please .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .Col dbgGPdd1 .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Line OFFSET dbgBuf . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Clear pNextTask .pTSS -> EBX . 23 . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. EAX AX. INC dbgGPdd1 . .0 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5.Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. MOV EAX.Get Number of Task at exch . nDynEXCH . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. EAX EAX. .Save ptr to next task if it exists .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 .

Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .NonZero if we are doing tasks .Length of message . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX.Another pointer in the link? . . Task number .line. OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .for the next one dbgDT01: .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Col .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS . nDynEXCH . EAX. . PUSH 54 . 0 RETN . Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Set up to loop for next msg/task .Tasks . 2 dbgDT03 EBX. we increment TSS number and go back .Line for labels . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX. . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX. Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) .pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.=========================== . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX.Displays Tasks that are active along with . Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. 1 . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . We are on line 1 again . 1 . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.line we are one . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 .If not. dbgGPdd2 EAX.Col PUSH 0 .If so.No . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX. 1 dbgDT02 EBX. MMURTL V1.Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .

EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .back for next one dbgDT05: .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. nTSS . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . 8 .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6. dbgGPdd4 . 8 .Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf .EAX has pJCB OR EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1.of TSSs .Col dbgGPdd1 . ECX MOV EAX. EBX . EAX .Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5. dbgGPdd3 .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX. dbgGPdd2 . MOV CL.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Col dbgGPdd1 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . ECX .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .Save pJCB for display .Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 .EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4. DDtoHex 20 . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX.Not used. EAX MOV EBX.NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX. [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3. [EBX+Priority] . EAX . DDtoHex 10 . EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 . 512 ECX EBX. .

DDtoHex 40 .====================================================================== .Col 24 .No. 0 RETN . 23 .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. go back for next 0 .Yes. Call with: .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 .Save number to display MMURTL V1.=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .Col dbgGPdd1 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Col dbgGPdd1 .go for next Task number . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. This is for Debugger Address Info display . 8 .Save it for the top MOV EAX. DDtoHex 30 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 8 . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't . .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf . 0FFh . MOV EAX. ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . continue prompt dbgDT01 . 31 .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .Line OFFSET dbgCont . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. dbgGPdd6 . 1Bh .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. .

RdyQ LEA EAX.Exchs MOV EAX.=============================================== .OFFSET DbgM9 . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.SVCs LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM3 .MonTSS MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM1 .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.pTSS3 MOV EAX. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1. prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.JCBs MOV EAX.LBs LEA EAX.ptr to line .OFFSET DbgM0 .Length of line .DbgInfo .GDT LEA EAX. RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM4 .OFFSET DbgM8 .OFFSET DbgM6 . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .IDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM5 . pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.Vid Attribute .Do it . OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgPA .OFFSET DbgM7 .OFFSET DbgM2 .RQBs MOV EAX. rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.

dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.If so. . .areas are resrved for the menu.0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .======================================================= . 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Columns 0-65 24 .Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? .Query XY (See what line and Col) . Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . The other . . 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Col 0. query line.Yes.OFFSET DbgMB . Scroll test area (Col 0-64. go back for next key 0 .======================================================= .ignore error RETN .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.No.Got to Column 0.between colums 0 and 66. Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN . .Lines 0-23 1 .All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .Clear the query line (Line 23.===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1. and line 0 to 24.This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. we scroll up the text area by one line. rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .and the register display.Timer Blocks LEA EAX. Line 0-24) 0 66 .MOV ESI.

.

g. S8 *pDCBs. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. but I think you're OK. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. See listing 24. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). unsigned long int). The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file.1. In fact. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. extern far U32 MMURTL V1.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). many device drivers are written in C. but I try not to. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. If you have MFM drives. Comments. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). Time was the deciding factor. There are no include files. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. This seems to be the best.. you're on your own. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. All of the hardware commands are well documented. Listing 24. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. U32 dfReplace).Chapter 24. in addition to those in the code itself. though I would rather have done them in assembler. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. U32 nDevices. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. They were designed that way. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. this device driver should work with MFM drives.1.

U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U16 wPort). U32 dnBlocks. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dBytes). void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 *pMsgRet). U8 *pDataOut. static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). U32 msg1. S8 *pIRQ). U32 count). U16 wPort). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. Listing 24. See listing 24. U8 *pDestination. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 msg2). U8 *pDataIn. U32 msg1. U16 InWord(U16 wPort). U32 dnBlocks. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 *pMsgRet). static void hd_reset(void). U32 dBytes). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 dnBlocks). static U32 check_busy(void). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. InWords(U32 dPort. static U32 hd_wait (void). static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U32 HdSect. void OutByte(U8 Byte.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. void OutWord(U16 Word. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U8 *pDataOut). U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 dBytes). It's called xprintf(). Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. U32 dOpNum.2. U32 dnBlocks. . U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum).. U32 nBlks). U8 *pDataRet). static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U32 msg2). MMURTL V1. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). OutWords(U32 dPort. U32 dLBA. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch.2. U8 *pDataIn). static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive)..). /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. I needed a method to get data to the screen. While writing the operating system. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). static U32 send_command(U8 parm).0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch.

static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. U32 dStatusMax.. S8 * pStatRet. U32 *pdSatusRet). U32 sdInitData). hddev_stat(U32 dDevice.U8 static U32 *pData). bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum.0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS .. S8 *pInitData.

/* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver.write data (1F0h .sector number (1F3h) 4 .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS . head and Sector number.16 bit) 1 .read data (1F0h .sector count (1F2h) 3 . then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag. either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.sector count (1F2h) 3 . Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1.sector number (1F3h) 4 . wait 50us.Set. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.16 bit) 1 .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .error register (1F1h) 2 . and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 . Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit .low cyl (1F4h) 5 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.high cyl (1F5h) 6 ..low cyl (1F4h) 5 .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .

Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. /* Current Physical Drive. hd1_heads. cylinders. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. statbyte. hd_control.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS .Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. /* Calculated from LBA . hd0_cyls. Listing 24. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. See listing 24. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. hd1_secpertrk. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. hd0_secpertrk.3. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. hd0_heads. hd1_type. /* Calculated from LBA . */ /* Current number of heads. /* Calculated from LBA .3.which head */ hd_nsectors. If I did one member. fDataReq.

MMURTL V1. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. U8 fSingleUser. S8 *pDevSt. U32 OS3. LastStatByte1. U8 fDevReent. }. U32 OS2. U32 last_erc. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. U32 blocks_done. S8 sbName. 32 bytes out to here. S8 *pDevOp. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. S8 *pDevInit. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. U32 BlocksMax.static U16 hd1_cyls. LastStatByte0. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. /* Number of bytes per sect. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. U32 OS5. LastErcByte0. S8 type. S16 wJob. U32 nBlocks. LastSeekErc0. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. filler1. LastSeekErc1. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. U32 OS6. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. }.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 OS1. S16 nBPB. LastRecalErc1. fIntOnReset. LastErcByte1. U8 fNewMedia. ResetStatByte. U8 type_now. U32 OS4.

&hddev_init. hd1_cyls = 1024.pDevOp hdcb[1]. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17.Name[0] hdcb[1]. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.Name[0] hdcb[0]. 1. hd1_secpertrk = 17. &hddev_stat. static long HDDInt. /* largest device handled .nBPB hdcb[1]. static U32 hd_msg. 'D'. /* Random */ 512.Name[1] hdcb[0]. &hddev_init.nBlocks hdcb[0]. static U32 hd_msg2. /* Random */ 512. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19). MMURTL V1.4.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. hd1_heads = 16.pDevSt hdcb[1]. In a loadable driver. 3.Name[1] hdcb[1].sbName hdcb[1]. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024. Listing 24. &hddev_stat. this would be the main() section of the C source file. '0'. '1'.Name[2] hdcb[1]. 1. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0]. 'D'.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* largest disk handled .pDevInit hdcb[1]. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc.nBPB hdcb[0].type hdcb[1]. 524288.sbName hdcb[0]. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A).Name[2] hdcb[0]. 3.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'.4.pDevOp hdcb[0].pDevInit hdcb[0].type hdcb[0]. 'H'.nBlocks hdcb[1]. 524288. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver. See listing 24.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read.

some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. It seems like a lot of work. hd0_type = 0.erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). UnMaskIRQ(14). /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. */ /* Reset the HDC . */ hd_reset(). erc = hd_recal(0).last_erc = erc. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. } } /* if we got here.last_erc = erc. then try both physical drives. They vary from BIOS to BIOS. If the second drive is not there. &hdisk_isr). and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. MMURTL V1. We have to do it once. The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. SetIRQVector(14. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset().hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. hd1_type = 0. */ erc = hd_recal(0).0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . We have to make this sucker work the hard way. */ hd_reset(). */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). but they don't. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0].

It just waits for an interrupt. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. HDDInt = 1.erc = hd_recal(0).fIntOnReset = 1. /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. &hdcb. MicroDelay(4). and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. The caller should call check_busy and check the error.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0xfffffff0). &hd_msg). UnMaskIRQ(14). if (i) hdstatus. OutByte(4. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).last_erc = erc. 1)).ResetStatByte = statbyte. HD_REG_PORT). If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. else hdstatus. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. ISendMsg(hd_exch. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i.seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. 2. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. /* 200ms . hdcb[0]. 0xfffffff0. This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup.fIntOnReset = 0. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. HD_REG_PORT). Sleep(20). EndOfIRQ(14).

/* set max heads. hd_Cmd[3] = 0. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. etc. Listing 24. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. Sleep(5).). /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). nSectors. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise.5. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. See listing 24.0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . check_busy(void) count = 0.3 seconds. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. hd_Cmd[4] = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. return(erc). ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. erc = hd_wait().5. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1.

KillAlarm(hd_exch). *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. Time-out and return if no interrupt. KillAlarm(hd_exch).LastRecalErc0 = erc. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1.Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. else hdstatus. return(ok). } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt).LastRecalErc1 = erc. else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). &hd_msg). /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. 300). return(erc).0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). if (drive) hdstatus. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL).

if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. verify. HD_PORT+1). *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. HD_PORT+2). write. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. HD_PORT+4). format. *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. HD_PORT+3). HD_REG_PORT). &msg) == 0). seek). } erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). HD_PORT+7). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. msg[2]. MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+6). /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). OutByte(hd_control. setupseek(U32 dLBA. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. U16 cyl. hd_nsectors = nBlks. head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. HD_PORT+5). return(erc).0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- .alarm or int messages before we send a command. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08.

if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . hdstatus. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder).. /* hd_sector. j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. /* cyl & 0xff. } = = = = = nBlks.LastSeekErc0 = erc. return(erc). *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. 1). calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk./* we now know what cylinder. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK).

break.U8 statbyte. After all.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. } return(erc). else hdstatus. default: break. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. errbyte. } else { erc = check_busy(). MMURTL V1. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. else hdstatus. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok.LastErcByte0 = errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. else return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. if (hd_drive) hdstatus.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy. else return(erc). */ erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). he interrupted us with status.

/* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. hd_sector. dnBlocks). /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. nBPS.nBPB. U32 dnBlocks. nleft. pDataRet+=nBPS. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. --nleft. nBPS). /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. U32 dnBlocks. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). nBPS. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. dnBlocks). erc = check_busy(). } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. erc = setupseek(dLBA. } } return(erc). erc = setupseek(dLBA. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd_sector. nSoFar. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). pDataRet. nSoFar++.nBPB. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive].else erc = ErcBadHDC. pDataOut. nBPS). pDataOut+=nBPS.

U32 HdSect. hd_sector). cyl. nBPS). hd_head. nSoFar++. pDataOut. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. U16 cyl. cyl = Cylinder. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. head and Sector number. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. SEC %d\r\n". dnBlocks). /* cyl & 0xff. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc.0 -404- . erc = hd_wait(). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. return(erc). HD %d. pDataOut+=nBPS. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. erc = setupseek(dLBA. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. return(erc).erc = hd_wait(). } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* hd_sector.

Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations.blocks_done = 0.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. 12=0 and 13=1. MMURTL V1. else hd_drive = 1. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. } Chapter 8. U32 dnBlocks. } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. pDataRet. U32 dLBA. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. 512). If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch.” discussed device driver interfaces. U32 dOpNum. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. erc = hd_wait(). “Programming Interfaces. Listing 24. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). return(erc). This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use.6. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. See listing 24. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive.6. &hd_msg). For Hard disk. erc = 0.

} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. pData). break. dnBlocks). break. break. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . S8 * pStatRet. */ break. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. dnBlocks. pData). U32 dStatusMax. } } hdcb[hd_drive].last_erc = erc. break. break. break.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. break. dnBlocks. } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. default: erc = ErcBadOp. pData). return(erc). case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). pData). case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. erc = 0. dnBlocks. /* Null Command */ break. dnBlocks. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset().

nBPB. } /* Calculate size of status to return. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit. hdstatus. i). *pdStatusRet = i.nHead = hd1_heads. hdstatus.{ U32 i. } else { hdstatus.nCyl = hd0_cyls.). return ok. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. hdstatus. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat).last_erc.nHead = hd0_heads.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS .nCyl = hd1_cyls.type_now = hd1_type. hdstatus. CopyData(&hdstatus. hdstatus. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters.last_erc.nBPB. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1. hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[0]. The DCB values are updated if this is successful. pStatRet.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. hdstatus. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded.nBPS = hdcb[1]. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax. hdstatus. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. hdstatus. hdstatus. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc.erc = hdcb[0].nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. S8 *pInitData.erc = hdcb[1].type_now = hd0_type. else i = sStatus.

initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive).nSectors. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive]. } hdcb[hd_drive].type_now. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.nHead. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.type_now. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0. CopyData(pInitData.nCyl * HDStatTmp. &HDStatTmp.nSectors. } /* If no error.nBPB = HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nBPS.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = 0.{ U32 erc.nHead.nHead. else i = sdInitData.nCyl.nCyl. i).nSectors * HDStatTmp.last_erc = erc. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive]. i. /* If no error. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive).last_erc = 0. return(erc). hdcb[hd_drive]. else hd_drive = 1. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp.

5-8 */ stop bits for this port. unsigned char stopbits. RS-232. Listing 24. unsigned long RTimeOut. unsigned long Baudrate. and this driver. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. 1=even. as well as by the driver itself. */ It's opened by someone else. 16450. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return.7.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. as well as status. but. “MMURTL Sample Software. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. or 16550 UARTs. */ 150-38400 */ 0. It needs more work. the driver..7... unsigned long LastTotal.38400 */ Parity for this port. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file.. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. other than that.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. unsigned long LastErc. which is a block oriented random device. 150 . it is a fully functional driver. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. unsigned long XTimeOut. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. unsigned long XBufSize. unsigned char parity. which is a sequential byte-oriented device. 0=none. They are two different animals with the same basic interface..h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. unsigned long IOBase. unsigned char IRQNum.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. unsigned char databits. See listing 24. unsigned long resvd[6].. */ It's already open. MMURTL V1. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. unsigned long RBufSize.

RICHARD A BURGESS -410- .8. Listing 24. U8 **ppMemRet). extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. All other command are specific to this driver. S8 *pDCBs. extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. U32 dfReplace). you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). See listing 24. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum).}. Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. U32 nPages). extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. U32 nDevices.0 *pIRQ).8. S8 MMURTL V1.

U32 dLBA. U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). U32 *pdStatusRet). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 count). U16 wPort). U32 sdInitData). set and reset signal line condition and functions. U32 dBytes). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dnBlocks.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U32 msg2). S8 *pMsgRet). void MicroDelay(U32 us15count).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 dStatusMax. void OutByte(U8 Byte. These will be called form the device driver interface. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. S8 *pInitData. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U32 msg2). U32 dOpNum. U8 *pData). U32 msg1. U8 *pDestination. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. /* local prototypes. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 msg1. S8 *pMsgRet). S8 *pStatRet.

IIR[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. tail_recv[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. head_recv[2]. sSendBuf[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1.0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . FCR[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. MSR[2]. tail_send[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. DLAB_LO[2]. cSendBuf[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. LSR[2]. mstat_byte[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. stat_byte[2]. head_send[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. LCR[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. fExpectInt[2]. int_id[2]. IER[2]. MCR[2].

FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char. 0.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0.4 chars 11 . FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 .Interrupt Enable. RX data. \___________ = 0.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS .I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24. MMURTL V1. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30