MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

....................................305 CHAPTER 20.......................................................................................................................................315 GetTimerTick()..........................316 Listing 20...............................................................23...............................................................304 Listing 19......................................308 TIMER CODE ...................288 AddRun .......................................................289 Listing 19...............................................................................................301 DeAllocPage ....297 Listing 19..................................................................................... Code to return the timer tick .....................................................................................288 Listing 19................294 Listing 19.............................296 AddGDTCallGate ............................................................296 Listing 19...............................................................309 Listing 20.........................................................................313 MicroDelay() ............................FindRun ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................303 Listing 19............................................................................................................................................................................... Data and constants for timer code.. Adding a call gate to the GDT ............................297 AllocOSPage.............................. Adding an operating system page table ................................................3..................................312 Listing 20............ The timer interrupt service routine ................................................................................................................................................ Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ......................................13...309 Listing 20.....................10...........................5..............314 GetCMOSDate() ....................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory................................................................................................. Code to produce a tone .............................................................................................301 Listing 19...............12.....308 Listing 20..........................................................................................................................4.....311 Alarm()..........................................................................................................................17.............316 Beep_Work() ..........................................................................14.291 Listing 19...........................................307 INTRODUCTION ......... Adding a page table for user memory.......303 QueryMemPages........................304 GetPhyAdd .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................298 Listing 19.........................18..............................................................299 Listing 19........................................................................... Code to read the CMOS date ............................................................................................................................................. Code to produce a beep...................................... Code for the Alarm function .......................15..........................................305 Listing 19................................25...................309 Sleep() .................16..........309 The Timer Interrupt ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Code to remove alias PTEs...................................................24................................................................6........................ Loop in timer ISR .......................................................................................................293 AddOSPT ..............................................................................................................................................................................312 Listing 20.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19................................ Adding entries to the IDT .................13....................8..............................................................................14.....................317 Listing 20...312 KillAlarm()...........................................................................................1..........................................21.... Code for the MicrDelay function .......................................................................... Code to find a free run of linear memory.............9.......................291 AddUserPT ...........................22........................................................................299 DeAliasMem.................................................................311 Listing 20....................................................... Code for the KillAlarm function............................................................................................................................................... Adding a run of linear memory.......................................................313 GetCMOSTime() ...............................................293 Listing 19...20........................................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ....290 AddAliasRun ...........................307 TIMER DATA ............................................................................................................................................316 Beep()................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Code to find number of free pages.....................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ..................................7............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code for the Sleep function ....2............................................. TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ..............................................................317 Tone()................................307 Listing 20...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................298 AliasMem ........................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ..........317 MMURTL V1.......................................................................................................316 Listing 20.......................................................................... Public for linear to physical conversion......................317 Listing 20............................................................. Allocating a page of linear memory.................................................... Deallocating linear memory.............................................................................................................................................................................296 AddIDTGate......... External functions for timer code ............................314 Listing 20.....................................................315 Listing 20........................................ Code to alias memory .......................................11................ Code to read the CMOS time......................313 Listing 20...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..... INITIALIZATION CODE ................................................ Jobc.......................... 319 Listing 21...................................................... 344 Listing 22..........5.7.................................................... 398 Listing 24............................................ 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS .................................................................................................................................................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS .............................................................. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ............... 413 Listing 24........................................................................................................................................................................... Initialization Subroutines.................................... 438 Reading the Final Buffer ............................................................................ 415 Listing 24.................................................................................... 319 INTRODUCTION ................................... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING .................................................... Job Management Subroutines........................................... SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE...................................................................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................... 410 Listing 24................. 365 Listing 23.............................................2.............................................. 389 INTRODUCTION ...... 409 Listing 24......... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ..................................................c source code...................1........ OS Initialization Code and Entry Point........................................ 442 MMURTL V1..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................6...........1.................................................................................................................................. 393 Listing 24................................ 438 Listing 25... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ......................... 366 Listing 23........... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ........ RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ............................................ 417 Listing 24.................................................................................................................. Keyboard ISR Code...................11.......................................................................................................... 415 Listing 24...............................................................................................................1.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 344 CHAPTER 23................... Continuation of OS initialization...... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ................................ 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................ IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ....................................................................................... Continuation of OS initialization.................................................... Main Operating System Data ........................ Keyboard Translation Code..........................................................................................................3.................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ....................................................3............................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ......................................................h Header File ................................................4................................................................ 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ....................................... 414 Listing 24.................................4... 409 Listing 24....... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) .9.............................. JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ........................ Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) ............................ 326 Listing 21........................................................................................................................................................................ KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE........................................................................... 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ............................................................................... 395 Listing 24.. RS-232............................................................................ 337 INTRODUCTION ........................ 424 CHAPTER 25.........................................................4.............. Debugger Data and Code............................................... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 321 Listing 21. 390 Listing 24...................................................................14.............................................................. Initialize call gates amd the IDT............................................................................................................................................................12...... 328 Listing 21..................................................5............... 325 Listing 21..........................................................................................................7...........2...........................................................................................................................................................8...................... Read Keyboard Buffer Code .............................................................. DEBUGGER CODE ............................................... 366 CHAPTER 24........ 321 Listing 21........................................................................................................................................................................ 365 INTRODUCTION ...... 436 Listing 25....................................................................... 327 Listing 21.................................................. 436 Keyboard Translation..........................................................................3...........2...................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)........ End of Initialization Code.........................................................................................13.........................................................................................2................... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA .....................................................................................................................2..................................................................................................................................................................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ... 429 Listing 25... 436 Keyboard ISR....6... 429 KEYBOARD DATA............................1..................10.................................................................... 331 CHAPTER 22................................................................................................................................... 337 Listing 22.............. 389 Listing 24............................................ 389 Listing 24........ Keyboard Data and Tables ............................................................................................................................................... Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger........... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER........1........................................... 429 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ................................. 442 Listing 25..................................CHAPTER 21................

........14.......458 Listing 26................................................................................................................................................................................................................542 Device Drivers ................462 Listing 26........................................540 Listing 28...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1..................................................................................... Code to Set the Video Owner ........................................................................................................................448 Debugger Keyboard............................................................................................................................13................................................................... Code to Set Cursor Position..457 Listing 26.......................................... VIDEO CODE ...................... Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call .......8............... Low-level Keyboard Control Code....5...........................................................16................474 CHAPTER 28................................................................15....................457 THE VIDEO CODE ........................................................................ Code to Initialize Video ..........473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ............459 Listing 26........................................................................................................2..................................................................................539 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code ......7............................................................................464 Listing 26............................................................................................466 Listing 26.............451 Listing 25...........................469 Listing 26.....................................3............................................................ DASM...............................................................................................................6................................................................................453 Listing 25........................................................................11.................541 Errors Only Option .......474 Listing 27.....................................541 Command Line Options ....540 Listing 28............................................... Code to Get a Character and Attribute........ Code to Edit a Line on the Screen..........473 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................473 Logical Block Address (LBA)....................................................................... Code to Screen Video Attributes ...........2....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers................................................................................. MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ............. Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ................................................... Video constants and data ....... Code to Return Current Cursor Position ..........................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector ................................ Simple Application Template File .................................................................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................450 Listing 25..................................................457 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization ......461 Listing 26.................................................................................. Code to get the Normal Video Attribute........................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ..........................................6...............539 USING DASM..457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ...................461 Listing 26..........................................468 Listing 26....................10.............................................................................................458 Listing 26.......................................................................................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ............................ Code to set Normal Video Attribute ..............................................................................................................................5...... A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER ..............................................542 MMURTL V1.........540 Application Template File....465 Listing 26................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Keyboard Service Initialization ...........................................................443 Listing 25...................................................................................................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM .....................................................................................................................................................................473 Hidden Sectors............................................................................................................................................................ Keyboard system service code...453 CHAPTER 26...460 Listing 26............................................................................................................................. Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position.........................452 Hardware Helpers ...............................................................................................................541 List File Option ....................................................................................................................................472 CHAPTER 27................................474 File System Initialization ..1......................................................................................................460 Listing 26.............................................................................................................448 Listing 25................................................................................................................9..................................464 Listing 26...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................539 DASM CONCEPTS .............................................................................................10....................................................................................................................................... FILE SYSTEM CODE.....................................................................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT .........................The Keyboard Service ................... Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen..........................................................................1................9......................... Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ..............8.0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS .................................................................................................................................................................................................7.....................12.... Code to Get the Current Video Owner...............542 Dynamic Link Libraries ............................................................ Code to Clear the Screen ...........4....................................................................................................................................................................................................452 Listing 25................. A More Complicated Template File ............................... Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ......................................468 Listing 26.....................

.................................... 562 FAR Calls ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 561 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 570 Listing 29...................................................... 543 Listing 28................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM .............................................................................................................. 568 Library Functions ........................................................................................................................................................................ 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ....... 559 CHAPTER 29............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 579 INDEX ................................ 548 Labels and Address....................................2 .................................... 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ....... 542 Memory Model................................................................................. 548 PUBLIC Declarations.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 565 Structure Limitations ...... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ...... 562 Variable Length Argument Lists .............................................................. 552 Table 28..................... 547 DW (Define Word) ..................3 ........ Alternating data and code in a template file .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 565 Far External Functions .................. 570 Listing 29............................................. 545 DASM Addressing Modes ................................................................................................................................................................. 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 566 Initialization of Static Variables ......... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ............................................................ 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ...................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) .....................................................................................Tag Usage ............................................................... 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ....................................................................3...............................................................................................................................................3............................................................................................................... 568 Command Line Options ............ 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ A 32-BIT C COMPILER ...............0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ................................................................................................................................... CM32................................................................. 556 Tag Descriptions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Supported Instructions ......................................................................................................... 558 Your Own Assembler? ................................................................ 575 APPENDIX A -............................................... Supported Library Functions .........................1............................................................................2........................................................................................................................................................ 545 Table 28......................................................................................... 548 EXTRN Declarations..... 568 USING CM32.............................. 543 DOT Commands ..................................................................................................... 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ................................................................................................ 569 Library Code Examples .............Specifying Memory Operands.................. 562 Interrupt Functions........................................................................................................................ 542 DASM Program Structure ........................................................................................................................................................ 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information.............. 555 Table 28...........................CD-ROM CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 569 Listing 29................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 563 Library Header File Access...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 ................................. 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ...... 547 DB (Define Byte)................................................................................................................ Standard file I/O for MMURTL ...........................................DASM Source Files ................................................ 545 Storage Declarations.................................................................................. 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DF (Define Far Word) ................... 581 MMURTL V1.......................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ........................................................................ Standard String Functions for MMURTL .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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I would just make a list. code. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. It's up to you. it's unlikely they'll use it. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. You. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. I determined the specifications for the final product. portability issues size and speed. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. Unfortunately. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. and begin coding. and the programming interface. That was part of my wish list. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. but very light on specifics. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. memory model. They use them. they work with them. In the early days. If you're an experienced programmer. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. The most obvious of these. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . But I wanted a small API. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. When I started out. are the tasking model.Chapter 1. or Sun. IBM. I set the ground rules. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. Realizing this. not his IQ. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. You don't need to design your own. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. MMURTL V1. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. however. If you write something that no one can use. When OS/2 was first developed. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. In the case of my own operating system. NOT SO FAST THERE. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. as viewed by the outside programmer. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. As coding began. I have documented what it takes to really write one. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. it's a complete system. do some research on each of the desirables. I decided what stayed and what went. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions.

I'm sure it won't. This was the 16. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. The source code. message based. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. or all of it if you wish to write your own. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. ideas from it. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). In my opinion. Once again. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). In fact. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. change it to suit your needs. modify. portability issues.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can use pieces of it. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. Even though they have added speed. Serial and Parallel Ports. For this reason. they are effectively super-386 processors. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. or write your own. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. Throughout this book. But that's not what this book is about. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. For instance. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. but it was a "must" for me. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. You may or may not want to do this for your system. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. and some serious "turbo" modifications. would help me write better application software for it. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. This was completely intentional. multitasking. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. size and speed. It clouds far too many real issues these days. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. MMURTL V1. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. 80486 (486). Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. along with all the tools necessary to build. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. which I felt. the memory model.to 32-bit jump. redesign it to meet your requirements. a few more instructions. programming interfaces. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. Hardware Timers. real-time. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. hardware interface. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. your goals may be different. so I've removed the mystique.

You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. LIM. HIMEM.Not just task switching between programs. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. calling conventions. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. If you're going to write your own.But not the programmer. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . If it is another processor. or maybe a little less? Of course. General Discussion and Background. and most of them are grossly under used. and for a very good reason. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). I take a generic look at it in chapter 6.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). the humans. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. YOURMOTHERSMEM. UMBs. Chapter 5 covers memory management. “Programming Interfaces. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. or start one from scratch. “Programming Interfaces. Client/Server design .My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. if we knew how. Real-time operation .Keep the system as simple as possible.. Easy programming . but real multi-threading . I didn't want to do this. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. I discuss this in chapter 6. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. I use the stack.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. MMURTL V1. and what my end result was. such as C or Pascal. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. Extended. “The Hardware Interface.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions.” Simplicity . I'll discuss some of your options. We. but I don't recommend it. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . adding only the necessary calls to get the job done.Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. are outside events. but not all the options. the right mix of capability and simplicity. You may start with my list and modify it. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). and also what I decided on. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. I also wanted to maintain a small. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements.. We want the system to react to us. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . and 4 (Interprocess Communications). you may have a different platform in mind. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. “The Hardware Interface. yet powerful enough to get the job done.The ability to react to outside events in real time. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. If you don't have this requirement. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems.” and chapter 8. hardware paging. Power without BLOAT. is with a procedural interface. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. Message agents could be added to any platform. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. LOMEM. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there).” Protection from other programs .

Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). And of course. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. Multitasking. Then again. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink).0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you're not worried about memory consumption. be of value in your other programming projects as well. Message based. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. and 64K of data). and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. no doubt. If you don't like my acronym. Sections of the source code will. make up your own! But. Dedicated. or use any of the tools I included. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. If you don't want to start from scratch. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. In the educational field. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. If you intend to run MMURTL. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). Real-Time. nor is it intended to directly replace them. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. I'm sure. but only a distant cousin. x86/Pentium processors. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. expand it to your heart's desire. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. kerneL. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. Real-Time. or for general reference. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. MMURTL V1. the tools. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. Yes. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. and the initialization entry point jumped to. I put together my own operating system. the code.

Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. also – 2000). Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. AMD.x (IBM). The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). 8250. 80486. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. but still.25" and 3. This includes Cyrix. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). If yours isn't. The processor must be an Intel 80386. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. EISA (Ed. you can ignore this section. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. Note: PCI bus designs work well. (or even MS-DOS). and more importantly. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. Hence.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). but a few are not). The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. If you want to run DOS. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. IDE is preferred. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. but only out of convenience. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. that is. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. you can change the code as needed. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether.5" are supported. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. Both 5. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. not at all the same. Pentium. MMURTL V1. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. One Megabyte of RAM is required. eases the development burden. IBM and other clone processors. This makes it easy to use MMURTL.

.

etc. Borrow from mine. Far too often. my reading of various publications and periodicals. simplified memory management. It whet my whistle. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. I would not let this happen. Burroughs and Sperry. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. as well what may influence your design. and just make it better if you have the desire. however. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. a. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys.). and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. In Chapter 1. my schooling. It was a 32-bit system.” I covered what my final design goals were. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. That was 1989. you might not want to). affect its design. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. no doubt. make a lot of sense. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. here it is. As you can see. Every little thing you've run across will. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. That worked out just about right.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20.a. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. client server designs. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. improve. It does. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. add.k. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). for no apparent reason). and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. take away. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. I might add). Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. or even just use MMURTL the way it is.000. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). merged). In fact. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. and borrowed with great respect. write your own operating system. MMURTL V1. “Overview. has had an effect. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982.Chapter 2. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. Five years later.

but as you well know. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). or even OS/2.After I got involved with the IBM PC. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. As you may be aware. in the process of using these other tools.x assembler and 2. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . there was no such thing.. but the tools worked. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. popular platform. It's the place to start.including assembler. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. however. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors .. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. In fact. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. The next major decision was the software development environment. or ported to a system. I'm not a Borland salesman. but the tools just worked better. like a bad virus. I thought about other processors. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. It is just now becoming popular. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. Once again. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. Of course. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. Again. MS-DOS was everywhere. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. was a must. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. but it worked nonetheless. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5.x linker. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . and utilities . and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. It was limited to the small memory model. Then those were the 2. maybe. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. at times it was quite difficult. and a few others. compiler. a lure that could not be suppressed.all but ancient history now. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. I really had no choice. There was no turning back. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. Message-based. Memory access was limited.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system.0) and later moved to 5. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. however. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. Operating system developers. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's.1.

I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. in which case.). These documents are usually free. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. That set me back four months. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. Computer chip manufacturers. IBM published theirs. a major task. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. as well as the software control of these devices. Parameters are passed left to right. To fully understand this. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. or even port MMURTL to it. which is fed to the assembler. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. interface design. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. a disassembler. DMA. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. I plead the "Fifth" on this.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. which is 32 bits for the most part. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. It is tied to the internal bus. as you may understand. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. Developing this assembler was. etc." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. you will need to read chapter 28. I think many people started there. or may not. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. There is no linker. at least. I do so because its bus. but another port is in the works. That's right. It's simply not needed. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. want or need. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). In fact.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may.some tools from the major software vendors.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. Many different books. such as Chips & Technologies. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. documents. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. SX MMURTL V1. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. but I pretty much built from scratch. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. TTL. Communications controllers.” Assembly language has its place in the world. etc. and a few other minor utilities. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. The C compiler produces assembly language. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept".. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. DC.. Needless to say. Besides. and the called function cleans the stack. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. in itself. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. no linker. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. articles. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices.

a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers.x. There was no loader. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. If you use Intel-based platforms. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines).x. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation.two segments per program and two for the OS. gentler" environment I was after. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. but it's not at as complicated. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. It has turned out very nicely. In chapter 5. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. but not a fully segmented model . This was timeconsuming. etc. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?).] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). This simple model could allocate and manage memory. etc. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. It was a "kinder. If you write your own system.. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. I discuss several options you have. During this time. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. EISA. all based on their own selectors. But as you may be aware. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. this is a year you won’t have to go through. timers. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. as you will see. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. anyway. of course.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . "Thunking" was out of the question. all implementations of UNIX). no way to get test programs into the system. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. MMURTL V1. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. even the operating system writer. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. In a paged system. from a 16-bit code segment. you'll be ahead of the game. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. Memory Management. aliasing is also required. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. as well as the stack storage. This easily consumed the first six months. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. The segmented memory idea was canned. powerful. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. but this is transparent to the programmer. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. OS/2 version 2.and 16-bit code and data. anyway (e. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. but it presented several serious complications. The thought was rather sickening. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test.). [Thunking is when you interface 32. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations.). Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code.g. but instead a lean. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. All of the early test programs were in assembler. I had to meet my design goals. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. Windows version 3.

Memory management is next. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail.anything that you think you'll need to remember. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. I was really interested in communications. or how much time you really have to invest. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). But I'll try. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. but they just didn't say. Get to know your assemblers. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. you know that certain items in a project must work. it may be CISC. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. how much knowledge you have. It may be RISC. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. This includes the tasking model. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. the rest is real work. If this has never happened to you. This may sound a little humorous.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. you'll NEVER really be done with it. compilers and utilities. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. memory model and basic programming interface. Document the problems. do it. Investigate your tools. I say this from experience. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. I'll tell you the easiest. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. and there will also be background noise. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. Select your hardware platform. Or at least when you get it working. but there wasn’t. garbage collection. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. the discoveries . Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. This is called the critical path. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. get to know it very well. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. But. will depend on the memory model you choose. Know your desired application. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. hints are about all I CAN give you. The level of complexity. of course. but I'm very serious. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. Decide on your basic models. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. Of course. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. but whatever you decide on. and overall program management – as you see fit. the actual application may not be so important. There are so many platforms out there. I have provided such an operating system with this book. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers." It is difficult for me to do this also. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. Go for the kernel. It will be worth the time spent. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. "You start here. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. MMURTL V1. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. The Critical Path Along your journey. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. you know that it can be a very daunting task. you will no doubt find bugs. You can then “port” the prototype. I envy you. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. For example.

I moved on from there. easily digestible chunks. and then I write the code. all the way.Working Attitude Set your goals. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. Work with small. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. Sounds backwards? It is. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. As I mentioned above. sweat and maybe some tears. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). But really. it's worth the time. I had my wish list well in advance. compilers. MMURTL V1. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. Good luck. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. It will be blood.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . Document as you go. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. I write the documentation.” Once satisfied. it won't be luck. But don't set them too high. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. These tools include documentation for the hardware. I lay out my notes for what I want. dependable pickup truck. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous.

but I hope you will accept them. TASK . Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. In its executable form. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model.. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. If you write your own.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . When a task is suspended from execution. You may not agree with the definitions.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals.Chapter 3. This makes it a very small kernel. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine).Terminate and Stay Resident programs). but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. but it is. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). and I'm not talking about programming languages. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. Generally. Some documentation. CPU utilization. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. Tell the programmers what you mean. MMURTL V1. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. then start another task running. save its state. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. it’s PREEMPTIVE. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. but doesn't expect the interrupt. It shouldn't be.” while others call it a “thread. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code.g." which means communications between tasks. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. and most people refer to. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. and more specifically. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system.This term is not disputed very much. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. Some operating systems call a task a “process. be specific about it. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications.” In most instances I call it a TASK. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. Hence. however. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. But this is not cast in stone either. coffee and soda spilled on them. MS-DOS TSRs . KERNEL . After all. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. In other words. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. or at least coming to agreement on them. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. I admit some guilt here too). Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. at least temporarily.

Single User. and some are user-oriented software. comms programs). each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. Tasks crash. This is its only real purpose in life. How tasks are handled. disk. Multitasking. Some are communications programs (FAX software. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. These are the real resources. It may have memory assigned to it. or the user was done. when the mission was accomplished. Task Management Tasks begin. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. "Everything should be as simple as possible. etc. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. Interrupt Controller Units. including video. keyboard. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. Input/Output (I/O) devices. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user).When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. memory management. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. When I wrote these programs. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. In each case. and hardware (Timers. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks." but needless to say. Managing these resources in a simple. On the other hand. DMA. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. Nor did I want it to be. or even network connections for logons. But in almost all of these systems. Tasks end. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . In other words. I deal with one user at a time.In other words.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user).). it didn't sit too well with me. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. Single vs. and why. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. but it may not be so easy for you. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. One of my friends suggested the motto. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. good old Albert). "simple software for simple minds. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. execute programs as the new users desire. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). You may MMURTL V1. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. Quite obviously. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself.

the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. I had my very own processor. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. MMURTL V1. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. It's actually easier than it sounds. In the case of hardware interrupts. Then I asked. This is where the hardware-state is saved. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. but an important one. If you must do it yourself. This will be the heart and brains of the system. When you change tasks. this is usually a no-brainer. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. Yet. The software state can consist of almost nothing. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. but effective. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. We were each getting a piece of the pie. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system.want to deal with many. The CPU takes care of it for you. it would seem to return at its leisure. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. "It's 11:00PM. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. It was crude. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. Microcomputers spoiled me. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. When you restore a task. it was a breeze. My first programs were written with that attitude. In a multitasking operating system.

This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. interrupt servicing. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. however. do an adequate job in many cases. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. you are cooperating with the operating system." From there. In a single tasking operating system. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. This can be for a number of reasons. a single threaded system may be the best solution. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. "Hey . The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. he then monopolizes the CPU. In fact. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. and in some cases. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. you basically have a hardware manager. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. or to pause when it has nothing to do. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. In many single tasking systems. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. if necessary. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. and basic input/output. And yes. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. management of CPU time is easy. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler).I'm done with the CPU for now. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. however. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. MMURTL V1. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function).0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . With these calls. A task that has the processor gives it up. It may not always be obvious when it happens. For instance. They can. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. the screen and everything else looks frozen. Cooperative and Preemptive. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. In this case. which I cover in this chapter. Meanwhile. This may be in milliseconds. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. or a combination of the two. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task).

hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. outside events.. To expand on that definition. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. or after a set period of time. or a few other hardware-related things. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. the scheduler. or it may be for something extremely critical. In fully cooperative systems. As you can see. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . The currently running task is preempted. These parties include the programmer. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. It does nothing to prepare for it. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. As I also mentioned earlier. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). etc. or the operating system from an external device (e. Most of the time. and maybe memory context. controlling. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. communications device. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. In a preemptive system. and how long does that task get to run? Who. quite often. disk drive. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). the task that's running.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. a program. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. When do we switch tasks. On most platforms. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur.).g. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. connected to the outside world . hardware timer. after the interrupt is finished. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. it doesn't expect it. we must now decide which task runs next. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. Also. or even a requirement. The next section is the tricky part. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). or monitoring.communicating. the scheduler simply determines who's next. They are also. this adds the requirement of timing. However. The timer can help determine when to preempt. MMURTL V1. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. when a task is preempted. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. Generally. When. For the preemptive system. there is going to be a desire. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. to which task do we switch. is a preemptive system.

it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. When a task's time is up. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. In some systems. This gives the scheduler something to work with. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. In a cooperative system.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. but it won't be on their terminals. They can be waiting for something such as I/O.and they will be executed in the order they were created. The others may see a slow down.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. it can serve admirably. But it has some major drawbacks. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). only the very highest would ever get to run. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. each task will get a fixed amount of time . or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!).all tasks will get the same slice . This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. each task gets 25 milliseconds. otherwise. the one with the highest priority will be executed. and if a user interface is involved. (the others will be flipping 8. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. and the next task in line is restored and executed. Who determines which task gets more time. Not quite that simple. A simple queuing system suffices. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS .000 burgers." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. For example. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. its complete hardware and software state is saved. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. Time slicing is an old technique. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. "a slice of time. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. In a time sliced preemptive system. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. This is usually not very effective. In the simplest time sliced systems. For example. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system.

take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs).g. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . or the user.to go around on the system. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. and we want our machines responsive to us. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. but it's not dramatic enough. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. dependable. but it makes the point. But I opted to "get real" instead. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. computers are everywhere. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. but one channel is handling five times the data. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. Therefore. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. Now. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time.. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. The buffer will overflow. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. We want good. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. In a message based system. come do something with this data before I lose it"). things are never as simple as they seem. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. These are communications and user interface issues. clean communications. Thus. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. This IS real-time stuff. For instance. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster.

That's the only way you'll really know for sure. all tasks will get to run. Primarily Cooperative. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. Time Sliced. it would still be scheduled to execute. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. I can't picture a system without it. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. In addition. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. MMURTL V1. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. however. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). even though these methods are very important. No doubt. To be honest. Some Cooperation In this type of model. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. and even help define the tasking model.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. But even when the task has nothing to do. In this type of system. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation).0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. A task may. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). See what works for your applications. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. you have a few ideas of your own. although such systems exist. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. based on the number of tasks scheduled. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. Fully Time Sliced. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). A very simple. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. Users on a larger.

it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. much faster. I never wanted to miss outside events. Go for the fastest option . When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. "Experience is a wonderful thing. In such a system. timer services.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . and no. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. The task based ISR is slower. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. Other processors may offer similar options. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. if you have 256 priorities. For instance. monitors the current task priority." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. multitasking. and the next task with the highest priority executes. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. and limit the functionality if at all possible. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. This is a speed issue. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. The less time the better. real-time operating system. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. Limited Time Slicing category. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. This could have presented some protection problems. It's faster – actually. Keep them short. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. To briefly explain my tasking model. or whatever. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model.Primarily Cooperative. goes into a "waiting" state. The timer-interrupt routine. I wanted a priority based.PERIOD. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. preemptive. and in reality. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. file access. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. To me. After all. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted.

you switch tasks. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). On systems that are primarily time sliced. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. MMURTL V1. After a period of time has elapsed.only the user knows. In a cooperative environment. or even possibly the users. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. the problems didn't surface. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. or Ms. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. who's to say when Mr. For instance.management headaches.

Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. In operating systems that use semaphores. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. In other words." MMURTL V1. perform operations on the semaphore structures. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter.Chapter 4. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. On a single CPU. or is suspended when it can't run. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. it could cause some serious problems. As I described in earlier chapters. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. As you will see in this chapter. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. what operation you want to perform. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. Of course. As the name implies. nor should they have to. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. where it waits. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. if it's being allocated). Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. However. portions of the code will not be reentrant. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. only one task can execute at a time. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system.

I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). With the send() and wait() types of messaging. a program is made up of one or more tasks. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. In my humble opinion. destroy tasks. I refer to a program as a “job. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. OS/2. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. This is much more efficient. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. on most real-time operating systems. He or she will make a system call for some resource. ClosePipe(). and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. and WritePipe(). As you can see.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). tasks are not wholly independent. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). ReadPipe(). OS/2 is one such system.). All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. or similar ones. I have added a second. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). I didn't. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. such as those procedures that create new tasks. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. But once again. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). etc. In fact. In a message-based system. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. more powerful. OpenPipe(). which will consist of one or more tasks. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. If you intend to implement semaphores.In most cases. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. you should study how they are used on other systems. In my system. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. but I used a second form of messaging instead. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. In fact. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. or schedule tasks for execution. You will see these commands. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). Pipes can be implemented as public devices. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. public pipes are very handy. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. such as MMURTL.

the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. Yes. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. or whatever you call it. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. Now I have some very important terms and functions . the answering machine is the exchange. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. WaitMsg().functions. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). In an operating system's case. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. It does just what it says . but large enough for a couple of pointers. it's a little more complicated than that. It returns 0 if all goes well. dExch is the destination exchange. the message is received right away. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). CheckMsg(). Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. a task is born. Zork to forget it. You can send one way messages to a person. Not too large to move around. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). I called it an Exchange. You also need a way to send the message. Consider the phone again. Now. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. such as. or just about any other name you like. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . SpawnTask(). You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. an exchange point. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. In MMURTL's case. only one task is actually executing instructions. give it the message and away it goes. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. char *pMsgRet). MMURTL V1. If you're lucky. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. long dMsgPart1. his offer is the pits. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. but enough that we can talk about them. long dMsgPart2). unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. You point to a piece of code. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). but we have enough to finish the basic theory. request() and respond(). for which you expect no response. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. SendMsg()." This is an example of a one way message. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). AllocExch is an important auxiliary function.it sends a message. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. and VIOLA. char *pMsgRet). dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. The task is the human. "Tell Mr.not in detail yet. It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. provide some other pieces of information. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. You tell it what exchange. a bin.

In this example. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. Just kidding.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS .I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. time is passing. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Table 4.. None are waiting. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. None found..1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. It's still task 2. Kernel makes Task1 run. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. As we move down the table in our example. Task2 allocates Exch2. Task1 is ready to run.). You start with a single task executing.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. very small. it's not called the kernel zone. Task2 is higher. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. Task2 is still running. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. Table 4. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. What it's doing isn't important. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running.

The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. only the service name. This can simplify the scheduler. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code.. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . each service installed is given a name. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . I didn't do this with MMURTL. In some systems. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. In fact.1. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. Each service can provide up to 65. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. When the service is first installed.. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. they must be waiting for something. but the name will always be the same. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. From the simple example in table 4. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. it will be made to run. It gives task2 the message. Each time an interrupt occurs. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. A fully loaded system may have 5.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. If there is a task at the exchange. If there is one. unsigned int wSvcCode. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). 10 or even 15 system services. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. keyboard input.. e-mail services. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. MMURTL V1. With MMURTL. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). The processing is carried out by the service.. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. They are dedicated types. FAX services.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . and also need to be shared with multiple applications. This may not work on all types of processors.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. . queued file management. They are ideal for things like file systems. The name must be unique on the machine. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. printing services. BBS systems. This way. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). the receiving task is made to run. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. the list could go on and on.

In many functions you will not even use pData1. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. dRespExch . this would be the size (length) of the filename. These can never be pointers to data. it is NOT a response.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. dData1. *pData2 . If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). if the request was serviced (with no errors). If you remember. long dcbData1SR. long dStatRet). you'll need to know which one is responding. If you made more than one request.long dRespExch. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request().Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). If it is 80000000h or above. Where is the response data and status code? First. and spacepadded on the right.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. dStatRet . wSvcCode . this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). The service name is eight characters. long dData0. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. The service already knows this. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. long dData2 ). They are described below: dRqHndl . Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. long dcbData2SR. in the file system OpenFile() function. Zero (0) usually indicates no error.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. These are documented independently by each service. This will be explained later in memory management. There's still a little work to do. dcbData1 .Pointer to the service name you are requesting. all capitals.is the number (0. *pdRqHndlRet . 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. At first glance. dData0. Two questions arise: 1. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill. This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message.the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. but network transport mechanisms do not. long *pdRqHndlRet. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. dnpSend . *pData1 .the status or error code returned to the requester. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. For instance. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. But. and dData2 . Using the Open File() example. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). Second.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. long dData1. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. or pData2 to send data to the service. dnpSend would be 1.This is the same as dcbData1. dcbData2 .Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). Second. If this is the response.Number of the specific function you are requesting. char *pData2SR.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing.

A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. As you know. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. The buffer is gone. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. Now. only one task can really be running at a time. pointers are off the ends of arrays. Semaphores are used on many systems. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. MMURTL V1. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. even in a multitasking system. But when it reaches PointX. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. lets look at an example. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. Each task that enters the code.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. So. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. but still very important. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. As you can see. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. Now. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem().this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy.to read or write data. It's really quite simple. An exchange is a small structure in memory. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. When each task is done with the allocation routine. Not very big. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. but this would slow things down a bit. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. Also. right? But let me guess . there was only one buffer left. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. task1 gets to run again. it is preempted. So the code goes in. To really understand this issue. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. it's a mess. checks the semaphore. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. and show you what can happen. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant.it's crash time. or pauses in the middle of them. and WHAMO . The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. For the sake of understanding this. Not as difficult as you expect. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message.

000 * 3). Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19.task switches. The next sections discuss this. “Memory Management. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. Don't blame Windows though. It will be the only way.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above.x? You will lose data. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. I started with one and abandoned it early on. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. and also "the biggie" . you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. This is 1/38. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. WHOA THERE .000. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. Good tight code in the kernel is a must.” MMURTL V1. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. In the kernel code.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. You will lose data. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. and maybe even not often enough.If the instruction sequence is short enough. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). You didn't disable interrupts. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. Also. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL).400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. In theory. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model.200 baud in Windows 3. but my testing shows I did OK. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. let's look at a real-world example. it will simplify IPC greatly .

I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. MMURTL V1. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. Whether or not you use paging hardware. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. This greatly affects the next three items. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. I do make some assumptions about your processor. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. Instead. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. For instance. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. The memory model you choose. Address 0 is the first. so does an operating system. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with.Chapter 5. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. Basic Terms Once again. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. With the Intel processors. if available. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. There are some major differences though. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. it's all basically the same. Either way. Some do it with internal paging hardware. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. or another complicated applications.

With this scheme. and bad. MMURTL V1. As programs are loaded. at least for the operating system. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. bottom up.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. You may be restricted from using some of these options. No address translations take place in hardware. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. different memory allocation schemes (top down. etc. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory.).1. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. This can be good. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. and possible partitioning for each program. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). Figure 5. chunks of physical memory called pages.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. Figure 5. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. As programs are loaded. In this type of system. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware.

direct access storage device. Figure 5. With paged memory.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. if you have 16 MB of physical memory.2 .Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory.Figure 5. or even 64 MB). This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. Figure 5.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. more than likely a hard disk drive. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. Figure 5. MMURTL V1. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. For example. For instance. With demand-paged memory. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. With this scheme.

they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces.3 . Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. The minute you apply this term to memory management. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . but it sure looks like it is. as in virtual reality. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). it means that you're lying to your programs. all the programs still use the same linear space. Look at Figure 5. and indeed you are.Figure 5. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. and the hardware allows it. With paging hardware. MMURTL V1.

but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. memory is NOT flat. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. parallel linear spaces. yet. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. you will think of. there are many possible variations. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. Note the advantages here. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. which is the idea.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. Once again. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. The options here are almost mind boggling. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. MMURTL V1. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. A way around this to use a shared memory area. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. different data or code). No doubt. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. Note also the disadvantages. In order to allow multiple.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces.Figure 5. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. the memory management hardware must support it. and implement some of your own.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. In Figure 5. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory.4 .

is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. or even an 8-bit one. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. they needed to identify and manage those segments. 8088. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). They are not limited to 64K. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e.. However. When this was a 16-bit world. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. and you need to understand the implications. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. They used something called a segment register. What they came up with is called Segmentation. and generally the most efficient." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. and the popular Zilog Z80). and 80286). Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. OS/2 or Windows). This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. This was actually several registers. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. one for code and several for data access. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. To make this work. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. we had some pretty limited address spaces. The most common. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. so I won't go into further detail. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. It's just what it sounds like. They allowed multiple sequential.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. When a page has been written to. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. When you use a selector. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. 80186. 20 to be exact. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. The LRU schemes have many variations. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors.g. it is usually termed as "dirty. This means you can save the time rewriting it. This is a very handy feature. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. Likewise. MMURTL V1. When the 80286 came on the scene. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. In fact. All of the Intel products are very well documented. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector.

you ARE the operating system. and it will be based on many factors. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. Other factors include how much memory you have. How you store the links in this list can vary. This can be a real hassle. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. when one application crashes. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. I learned this the hard way. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. but not in the order I listed them. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered.With a 32-bit system. I'll discuss each of these things. each block holds its own link. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. when one application crashes. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. They are “linked lists” and “tables. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. one person). along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. it usually takes the whole system down. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. But in many systems. if your hardware supports it. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. With this scheme. the type of applications you cater to.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. Allocating memory for applications. and Handling protection violations. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. You make the rules. I will give you a good idea what it's like. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. Tracking client linear memory allocations. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. This way. which will be defined by the paging hardware.” Before you decide which method to use. Remember. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. Allocating memory to load applications and services. You'll have to make a decision. If you do.

pMemInUse. struct MemLinkType pFree. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. which means you can't honor the request. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. long owner. } When a client asks for memory. pFree. pMemInUse. MMURTL V1. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. pMemInUse. pLink->pNext = 0. or you reach a link where pNext is null. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic. You now have an idea where they went. This is done by following pLink. you must remember that pLink.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. These are the first links in your list.size is large enough. I haven't disassembled their code. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. /* " " */ long Client = 0. In the following simple linked list scheme. but I'll touch on it some. }. pLink->owner = 0. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated).pNext = 0x100000. char *pPrev. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. pFree.size = 0. struct MemLinkType *pLink. pMemInUse. No next link yet.owner = 0.pNext until pLink. you would set up the two base link structures. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size.size = 0. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . pFree and pMemInUse. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext.16.pPrev = 0.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there.owner = 0.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. This is another topic entirely. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. pFree. Of course.pPrev = 0. For my description. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. In the process of memory management initialization.pNext = 0.

WantSize is the size the client has requested. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list.pNext. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink.pNext = &pLink. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. The function returns the address of the new memory. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage.. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. If you use this code. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. pNewLink->size = pLink->size .16. } } return(0). The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. } /* Sorry . fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16).WantSize . And believe me. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . pLink->size = WantSize. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. Granted.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request. pNewLink->owner = 0. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. Client is the owner of the new block.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented.. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. it WILL get fragmented. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches.

You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. validate the link. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. This will be useful in the following routine. which returns memory to the free pool. but cleanup will be a snap. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). This makes the most sense to me. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1.16. But you can't depend on this. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. or you can do it all after the fact. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. depending on the order of deallocation. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. change its owner. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. This will add time to deallocation routines. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. You have the linear address. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. This is where the fragmentation comes it. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. But we can't add our size to pFree. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. if at all possible. and you insert it there. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. In other words.deallocate. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted.pNext. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. This provides instant cleanup. There are several thoughts on cleanup. Combining blocks can be done at the same time.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. then move it to the pFree list. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. /* scan till we find out where we go. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier.

pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. The two must be synchronized. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. You can expand on them if needed. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. you will have two memory spaces to track. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. pNewLink->owner = 0. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. there are physical pages assigned to it. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). we couldn't be combined with the previous. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). It should give you a great number of ideas. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. In the case of the paging hardware. you can decide how you want them setup. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. If you don't use the paging hardware. } } /* If we got here. MMURTL V1. return(0). It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. */ /* In this case. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware .0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS .

” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. “the Hardware Interface. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. you will have to move it all. For instance. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. You must consider where the operating system loads. it becomes allocated memory right away. From there. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. But it's up to you. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. trap. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. “OS Initialization. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. Batteries fail. You will be allocated these up front. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. In some cases. It will be the page’s size. This can get complicated. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. and you should take that into consideration. If your processor gives you these types of options. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. If you use paging. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design.When you work with paging hardware.” but once the operating system is loaded. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. you will have independent tables for each application. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. MMURTL V1. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. add the translations you need and are already using. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. it will generally be in a block of addresses. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. You must set up tables. and turn on the paging hardware. Wherever you load it.

If you have no desire to use them. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. The user code segment is 18h. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. The operating system code segment is 08h. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. the application code segment. Small. and one or more code segments. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. and one data segment for all programs and applications. Large. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. Compact. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. uninitialized data segment. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. but nice to have.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . but will have no effect on applications. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. Medium. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. This greatly simplifies every program we write. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. For instance. I wanted only one program memory model. This could change in future versions. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. but in a very limited fashion. If you are familiar with segmented programming. 32-bit offset). the initialized data segment. and even larger with demand page memory. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. you know that with MS-DOS. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. The common data segment is 10h. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. and many others. and I even use the Intel segment registers. It can be very complicated to use on any system. I use almost no segmentation. This was too complicated for me. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. the concept of program segments is an old one. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. One is for code and the other is for data and stack.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. set them all to one value and forget them.

go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. If you get our calculator out. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory.memory. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. If you want just a few bytes. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. No. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. Every Job gets its own PD. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. which can have 1024 entries. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). but most of the operating system code – specifically. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. because I haven't explained it yet. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. Sure.967. Each PTE is four bytes long. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. the kernel . The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. and each application the same thing. its not magic. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. The operating system itself is technically not a job." huh?). Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. Each of the PDEs points to a PT.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Each PDE is also four bytes long.runs in the task of the job that called it. For instance. What you don't see.1. is that you really do need most of this capability. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. Besides.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS .294. Right? Wrong. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. MMURTL V1. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). but it’s close. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). but you need it in pieces. it has code and data and a task or two. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing. Because of this.

The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). Read on and see what I did. Likewise. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. This is fine for one address per job. certainly less overhead than this explanation). you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. Well. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3.Table 5. If you remember. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. the secret is out. Sounds like a lot of work. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up.1 . Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. In the scheme of things. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. Now it's got the PTE. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. 20. Besides. but it wasn't needed. I could have built a separate table and managed it. Of course. and it needs it fast. in a word. Code. Now that it knows where the PD is. MMURTL V1. possibly several for each application. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. but it does this with very little overhead. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). When I started the application. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. Sure. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). However. yes. but when you start talking 10.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. I wanted to keep the overhead down. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. But it was for a good cause (No.

They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. AllocOSPage(). As shown..0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . it would be transparent to applications anyway.. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present. in fact. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. This is 1Gb to 2Gb... 512 513 . I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job.. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. If I desired. in Table 5. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. This is 0 to 1Gb.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . 256 257 . but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary.. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. AllocPage(). I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. all the shadow entries are marked not present. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). but you get the idea. That would really be a waste. If I decided to do it.2. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. Table 5. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. MMURTL V1..1. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum). 768 769 .. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL.

If the physical memory exists. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. MMURTL V1. If so. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses.Managing physical memory. The caller will never know. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). Loading Things Into Memory Applications. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. It does not tell you whom they belong to. and data. It's loaded into these initial pages. With a 1Gb address space. They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. nor do you even care. only that number will be deallocated. If it does. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. and DLLs. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. It is not important. but the memory will not be available for later use. from a previous AllocPage() call. They are simply new jobs. and whether or not it's currently in use. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. Device Drivers have code and data. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). it will create a new PT. but no stack. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. nor should it try to find out. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. System Services. the caller passes in a linear address. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. you allocate physical memory from the top down. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). which is also my sister's name. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. Each application (job) gets it own PD. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. Now comes that easy part . initial stack.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). Device drivers. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). or will return an error if it's not available. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. along with the number of pages to deallocate. but only from this caller's memory space. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. there will be no error.

no data. They have only code. With a page based system such as MMURTL. but that's trivial (a few instructions). Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. how could they be swapped?). PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. Of course. But this gets away from memory management. the second job has access to other job's data. They share physical memory. and no stack. you'll have to tackle address aliasing.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. There is no new allocation of physical memory. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. They are there to be used as shared code only. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. If it tries to deallocate them. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. Instantly. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). you should do it before you read this section. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. an error will occur. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. When an application requests a service. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). This will make more sense if you do. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it.

Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. For MMURTL. it responds. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. MMURTL V1. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. When it's done its work. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. use it.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). One or more PTs for the OS. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. How they see the interface is very important. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it.

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You provide a common. and speed. As good as it sounds. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. and it simply runs. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor.Chapter 6. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. and the most significant at the lowest. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. there are drawbacks to this idea. is the interrupt or trap. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. It executes your instructions. but that doesn't mean that you won't. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. memory-to-memory DMA transfers.how it is accessed in memory. MMURTL V1. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. jumps where you tell it. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. Therefore. to interoperability with other systems. aside from the instructions you give it. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. however. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . The most common. or for specific timing requirements. although I never thought so. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. But there's always more than meets the eye. The two that are obvious are code size. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. in theory. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface.

Most varieties of these devices are very similar. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. This is handy. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. MMURTL V1. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. Multibus. Quite honestly. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. I read many books about my target processor. internal bus. This is called the main bus. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. On the PC-ISA platforms. and some that are available now. but in some of the processor documentation. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. Finally. EISA. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. They are actually very forgiving devices. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. The second is the address bus. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. no matter which device you must code. but I found the most valuable. For instance. I've tried both methods. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. such as those dealing with interrupts. ISA.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. The first set is the data bus.some proposed. and most useful. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. On smaller systems. PCI. in that case. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. address. and especially the interface bus. There are many extensions to this bus . or CPU bus. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. just to name a few. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. The most common is the relatively low-speed. or ISA Bus. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus.

during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. MMURTL V1. In fact. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. SDLC. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e.g. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. Quite often. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). They have no way. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. to name a few. network frame handlers. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. They work with frames or packets of data. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. Another way is programmed I/O. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. Unlike UART devices. Parallel buses can move data faster. or HDLC. but is really a device connected to the bus. Therefore. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses.. or even memory to memory. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. in many cases. and tape drives. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. except for the hardware clock timing. the infamous Centronics interface). or network card). The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. and on some systems. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. but still very important. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. are synchronous communications such as those used with X.25 (an international link and network layer standard). The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals.Less commonly found. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB).

If this is the case. This requires an interrupt service routine. but you must realize the importance of this device. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. Video Like the keyboard. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS.. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). Each bit array is on its own plane. On an 80-column-by-25-line display. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. In most cases. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. In character-based systems. All the output would be via a serial port. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. On the PC-ISA platform. is worth more than I can indicate to you. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). Many books have been written on control of video hardware. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. In fact. This could consume a vast amount of memory. However. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. Quite often. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. this only consumes 4000 bytes.On many systems. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. This is known as planar pixel access. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display.500 bytes of memory space. This consumes the least amount of your address space. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. and MMURTL V1.g. or Unicode. If you want 16 colors for each bit. this video memory will contain character codes (e.

The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. “Memory Management.allow you to switch between them. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. multiple. have to research hardware cursor control. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. This is known as packed pixel access. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. Chapter 26. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). Your requirements will more than likely be different. non-overlapping video users. this would be 16 planes at 37. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. For a 256-color system. “Video Code. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. however.. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. except maybe an embedded system board. This includes cursor positioning. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. and timing when you write to the video display area. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). That equates to 600. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. and your tasking model. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. In many cases.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample).” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move.000 bytes. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. and GetDMACount(). I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit).g. I was interested in character-based. In some cases. I took this into consideration also. The code for these two calls is shown below. interprocess communications. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. MMURTL V1. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. you'll have no problems. and to query the status of the move. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. I did. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first.

Read/Write Mode register .========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .) MMURTL V1.Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .INC . There are two 4-channel DMA devices. With word.Ch 3 Address . DACK1 (etc. Optimize it as you please. The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh . etc.DATA .INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller.Ch 0 Address . etc.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . There really is no data segment for DMA.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .DMA DACK0 Page register .0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is called a cascaded device. .Read/Write DMA Rq Register .Ch 1 Word Count . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h . but the standard include file MOSEDF.Read Status/Write Command . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .Read Command/Write Single bit mask .Ch 2 Address .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.Ch 0 Word Count .Ch 3 Word Count .Ch 2 Word Count . while 23-17 are put in the page register.INCLUDE MOSEDF. Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.CODE With 8-bit DMA. the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h .Ch 1 Address .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h . DMA moves (channels 5-7).

even on word moves. AL AL. AL XOR AL.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. . AL MOV AL. the segment is wrapped around. AL XOR AL.CH 0 DMA 1 . AL OUT DMA1Clear.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. 41h OUT DMA1Mode. . AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. AL OUT DMA2Clear. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. so they always specify byte count for the setup call. . Verify). .Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL OUT DMA2Mode. AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. .CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . as you might assume). This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. If they do. 04 . AL . Out. . and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . . we do math) MMURTL V1. AL OUT DMA2Mode. AL XOR AL.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . AL OUT DMA2Mode. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. I do this for the caller.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. . 40h DMA1Mode. . PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL.CH 0 DMA 2 .Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller.All commands set to default (0) . DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. dChannel.6 and 7. which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. 42h OUT DMA1Mode.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. dType. sdMem. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . . 0C0h DMA2Mode. . The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. or 128K boundaries for a word move. AL RETN . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. For channels 5. AL MOV AL.

AL . dMode . 1 = In (Write Mem). dType . Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. [EBP+12] .0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS .6. PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . OR with MODE .5. dChannel (0. CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) .3. Put it in BL MOV EAX. AL DMA1FF. dPhyMem . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. [EBP+16] .7) . 00000000b AL.0 Demand Mode. OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX.Jump table for channel selection . 8 DMA10Add. 2 = Out (Read memory) . get dType AND BL. 3 Cascade . [EBP+28] DMA10Add. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 04 . 6 . Lo byte address . AL AL.. 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. 00001000b . 0 . dMode CMP EAX. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . 1 Single Cycle. 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm.2. 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX.ESP . AL EAX. AL EAX. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. [EBP+20] CMP EAX. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. . Hi Byte . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. BL DMA1Mode. AL . MMURTL V1. 00000100b . . Yes CMP EAX.0 = Verify. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. MOV EBP. 0C0h . ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. MOV EAX. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . 1 . (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . 2 Block. 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX.1. ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL.

AL AL. AL EAX. 8 DMA12Add. BL DMA1Mode. OR with MODE . 8 DMAPage1. AL AL. Highest byte (to page register) . AL DMA1FF. 8 DMAPage0. AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000010b AL. OR with MODE/TYPE . 8 DMA10Cnt. EAX DMAEnd . Lo byte address . AL EAX. dPhyMem . AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA11Add. AL EAX. BL DMA1Mode. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 00000001b AL. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. Highest byte (to page register) . channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. 8 DMA12Cnt. sdMem . 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. 8 DMA11Cnt. AL EAX. CH1 . 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL AL.0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. AL AL. 8 DMAPage2. AL AL. Lo byte address . sdMem . AL . Hi Byte . channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. Hi Byte . AL EAX. CH2 . [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. Highest byte (to page register) . [EBP+28] DMA11Add. dPhyMem . [EBP+28] DMA12Add.

8 DMA13Add. CH3 . AL EAX.NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. Hi Byte . [EBP+28] EBX. sdMem . . EAX DMAEnd . We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . [EBP+28] DMA13Add. 8 DMAPage3.0 AL. AL EAX. 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. 1 DMA21Add. 8 DMA21Add. AL EAX. . AL EAX. . OR with MODE . . AL AL. . MMURTL V1. BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. dPhyMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. . AL AL. 0FFFFh EAX. 15 DMAPage5. AL EAX. Hi Byte .XOR EAX. 00000011b AL. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. EAX DMAEnd . . . Highest byte (to page register) . BL DMA1Mode. AL DMA1FF. . AL AL. EAX EAX. AL EAX. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. Lo byte address . 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL DMA2FF. 00000001b AL. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. EBX EAX. 8 DMA13Cnt. 8 DMA21Cnt. AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . OR with MODE . CH1 on DMA 2 . [EBP+24] EAX.

00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. sdMem . 8 DMA22Cnt. Rid of all but lower 16 . Hi Byte . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . Lo byte address . -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0FFFFh EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. OR with MODE .0 AL. BL DMA2Mode. EBX EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. Hi Byte . AL EAX. sdMem . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA22Add. 8 DMA23Add. AL AL. EAX EAX. AL DMA2FF. 0FFFFh EAX. 00000010b AL. 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. EBX EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL AL. 15 DMAPage6.DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. CH3 on DMA 2 . 15 DMAPage6. AL EAX. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) .EBP MMURTL V1. EAX DMAEnd . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA23Cnt. CH2 on DMA 2 . AL DMA2FF. 00000011b AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. Rid of all but lower 16 . Lo byte address . OR with MODE . 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. Highest byte (to page register) . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . EAX . AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. 1 DMA22Add. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . [EBP+28] EBX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. AL EAX. 1 DMA23Add. Highest byte (to page register) . dPhyMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . BL DMA2Mode. dPhyMem . EAX EAX. 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL AL.

0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified.6. [EBP+16] MOV ESI. . DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. In this case. this is bytes. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes.0 . DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. . you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt.POP EBP RETF 20 . . PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EBP+ 16 12 . no error from the floppy controller). You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. . GetDMACount(dChannel. . DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. . 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. pwCountRet) . On some devices. DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. For channels 0 through 3. For channels 5 through 7. 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3.5. .3.. The count is number of WORDS-1 .535: .1. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. . dChannel (0.g. 7 MMURTL V1.ESP MOV EAX. .2.Channel . . . the count will be returned. DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. you actually set the channel byte count 65. . the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where . 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX.7) .Return address for count . To move 64K. this will be the number of words.

No such channel! .AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. or even hours in some cases. however. and read as required. MMURTL V1. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . be responsible to program these dedicated timers. . A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once.AL IN AL. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. Internally. . The PICU takes care of this for you. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. In the process of an interrupt. . A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . . There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. . Therefore. Quite often. . No Error . the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). Your job is to know how to program the PICU.JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. As you can imagine (or will have realized). and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly. One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. or at set intervals. .DX MOV CH. but it is critical that it's done correctly. 20 bytes of junk to dump . . these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. CX XOR EAX. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. . many devices interrupt the processor. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. program. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. The operating system may. Usually. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization.DX MOV CL. EAX MOV ESP. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. which determines the interrupt interval. ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. This is not very complicated.

MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will need the hardware manual for code examples.

The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. If you're using another platform. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . MMURTL V1. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. When I say "just enough code. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. more complicated. no doubt. the boot sector code may load another. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. and important structures. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. including hardware. then execute it. where boot ROMs usually reside. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual.at least not as a file from the file system. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. then jumping to the first address of the sector. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. In other words. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. For this reason.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . If this is true. tasks. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. memory. I've done all your homework. be organized with a file system. This is known as a multistage boot. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. we start with loading the operating system. In the PC world." that's exactly what I mean. and it's not exactly easy. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. then go through each section of the basic initialization. This device will. The question is.Chapter 7. In this chapter. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. you'll have to do some research. To be honest. it executes from a reset state. This can be done in more than one step if required. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know.

6. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. then executed the next instruction at the new address. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. First. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. 6. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. 3. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. because they provide the BIOS. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. 7. In an ISA system. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. 5. Second. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. then life is easy. which they store in a small work area in RAM. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. then Drive C. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. Where your operating system will reside in memory. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. 2. 4. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. and where you stored it. 8. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. This was the case with my system. so you can begin execution. But it gets more complicated. In my case. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. 4. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives.. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). the hardware commands. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. such as a fixed track or cylinder. MMURTL V1. 2. 8. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. This lead to two relocation efforts. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. This was a double problem. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. 7. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore.g. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). 1. 3. such as a whole track). it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. 5.

IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' .0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .Resvd sectors .nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.nTotalSectors if > 32Mb .media desc.on this disk that the operating needs to know.LIMIT 768 slots .Sect/Cluster . . and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single .and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible .nBytes/Sector .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .386P . The OS must . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG. ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) .Root Dir entries max .stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .BASE (Linear) .nFATs .Padding to make it 3 bytes .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads . (worthless) .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .nSectors/track . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.11 bytes for volume name .Drive boot sector came from . DS:CSEG.BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.instructions. (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.nSect in FAT . . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.disks.The . Why not? I do own it.8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk. I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire. Examine the following code: .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.nHeads . The boot sector code also . This contains additional information about the file system .386P directive is required because I use protected .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors. There's no operating system here now.

MOV CX. AX MOV DS. AX SI. 8000h .0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS .Destination segment . Its pseudo jump .Segment for new location . return address. AX MOV BX. at the beginning of this code CLI . . AX SP. vector location.Clear interrupts .Source segment . 09000h ES.. Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . It works. that I calculated after assembling it once. then "return" to it.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4].This is done by finding out where it is and writing . CL BYTE PTR [SI+9].The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . Push the . Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. 7C0h DS. some of the parameters to it from the boot sector. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX.This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . MOV AX.9000h SS.Make DS correct again .Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . nSectPerTrack . 0078h . SI CX. 0Fh .Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. AX DI.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. 512 MOVSB . DI AX.Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. table so it can read the disk for us.

to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or .0020h . WORD PTR nHidden . nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX..Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot .STI MOV DL.Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. CX .on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in . OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .The layout of the Disk is: . MOV SI. AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot . now let's read some stuff!! .Reset failed.Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . .We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file . We need the space for other code. AX MOV AL.really IS the OS. nRsvdSect MOV CX. nBytesPerSect BX AX.Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist .CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root .Required for Disk System Reset .The controller is reset.stage one of the a two stage loader should be).waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI. OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1.AX is at sector for cluster 0. cluster because the first 2 are unused). MOV CX. AX . WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) .Save in CX . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. POP DS .Must set interrupts for BIOS to work . ADC DX.logical sector order. bBootDrive XOR AX. FATS (1 or more) . nOSSectors .0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS ..What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster . Hidden Sectors (optional) .so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be.Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) .

OR with Sector number AL. 2 . bBootDrive DL. .Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL. 6 . BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX. 1 . CH . before we move it down to 0000h .This is a single sector read loop . . BX AX .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH. Read a . 06000h MOV ES. AX has . BX . ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI.0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . nSectPerTrack SI .Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL .Wait for keystroke . DL .Read 13h . DX . shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte.Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI.Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads .This is segment where we load the OS.Head to DH.0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX. AX .Leaves Head in DL.Next Sector MMURTL V1. ES BX.Cyl into CX CL. OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX. Hi 2 bits to CL CL. 20h ES. Drive to DL CX.512 bytes for segment .BX will be zeroed at top of loop . MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC .Sector to read DX.AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH. Cyl in AX DH. but works well. 0Eh MOV BX.XOR INT INT AX. It's slow. DH .AX 16h 19h .I increment ES and leave BX 0 .Number of sectors AH. BYTE PTR ResvdByte .

Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 . 06000h DS.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.A20 line should be ON Now .0 . 8000h .the OS down to address 0. BX SI. AX ES.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL. SI AX.64h TEST AL.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL. SI AX. DX MOVSW .AX DI.WORD move .AX DI.1000h ES. SI MMURTL V1.WORD move . Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX. BX SI.AL XOR CX. 07000h DS.LOOP NextSector .AL XOR CX.64h TEST AL. DX MOVSW . turn on the A20 line.So move the OS MOV DX.CX IBEmm1: IN AL.Now we disable interrupts.DI CX. . set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.CX IBEmm2: IN AL. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS . DX XOR SI.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .0DFh OUT 60h.DI CX. move .64h TEST AL.0D1h OUT 64h.

DX MOVSB . use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok. 'Loading MMURTL'.BX FS.Clear prefetch queue with JMP .lst). The segment and code size escape .referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector.2000h ES.MS-DOS used this.BX GS.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .Load Processor ITD Pointer .EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX.BX SS. As you change and experiment with the boot sector.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS .map). use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.Set up segment registers .Load Processor GDT Pointer .EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.EXE header.BX ES.AX DI.CR0 OR AL.We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually . 0Ah. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.'. and a map file from the link (Bootblok.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. The first 512 bytes is the .call JMP FAR 08h:10000h. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh.BYTE move MOV BX. such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate). BX XOR EDX. 9000h MOV DS.BX .asm <Enter> This will make a . EDX MOV DL.Set protected mode bit .Control Register . 00h '. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END . 10h DS. 0Ah. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX. I left it in.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry . 'Bad Boot Disk!'. 00h 0Dh. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.1 MOV CR0.DI CX. It's worthless.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump .

and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. This will show you a segmented address. and number of sectors following it. To find where Debug loaded it. To read the boot sector from a disk. After you have assembled your boot sector. C:\>Debug BootBlok. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. logical sector number. and Name commands. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. It's quite easy to do with the Load. Then copy the operating system image to the disk. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. Write. Keep in mind. you can use Debug to load it as a . From the MS-DOS prompt. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug).0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option.bin in the root directory of drive C. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. Register. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. They may do this as they format the disk. The results can be disastrous.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. you should not do this to your active development drive. then write it to the disk.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. or after the fact.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is easy to do. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. you can use the Dump command to display it. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting.

I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. At this point. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary.asm on CD-ROM.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. It is called MMLoader. This single source file program (MMLoader. All of the hardware that is resident in the system . In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. It should help give you a picture of what's required. It does everything that the boot sector code does. I'm happy. Hopefully.” MMURTL V1.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. This includes setting up the OS stack. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). I couldn't. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. and basic timers . I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. If so. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. but it's not necessary. up to the point we jump the monitor program. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. Additionally. Good luck.c) to properly build it. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system.C:\> Copy OS. the Direct Memory Access hardware. With MMURTL. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. If it is in an executable format from a linker. It is all contained in the source file Main.00 loader. They must simply be initialized to their default states. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. “The Hardware Interface. Chapter 21.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. understands.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. “Initialization Code. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles.

Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. If you use one more bit.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). If you want to eliminate it. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). It's not that big. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. This depends on the platform. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. Being a little conservative. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. you can address above 1Mb. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. you just learn to live with it. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. “the Tasking Model. The option is usually up to you. Chapter 3. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. While in real mode. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. is not trivial. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. I just left it alone. In all of the cases that were discussed. For instance. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. This leaves you with a few options .0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. Either way. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. as well as one to switch to. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. the A20 address line serves no purpose. setting up for multitasking. If you desire. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. and also some basic variables. you've got your job cut out for you. on the Intel processors. MMURTL V1.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0).

At this stage of the initialization. The point is. If you chose not to do this. or any number of things. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). but one I'm glad I didn't face. Chapter 19. where the address match will occur. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. It's not that much of a headache. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. This seems to work on most machines. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . or is at least loaded. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. back to the initialization (already in progress). and you can't manage or allocate it.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. some which didn't work on all machines. otherwise. This piece of code may have a lot to do. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. “Memory Management Code. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. The following list is not all-inclusive. Meanwhile. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services.My goal was not to discover why it existed. I tried several methods. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). MMURTL V1. although some people may still have problems with it. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. You don't know how much you have. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. If your machine doesn't support this method. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC).

” shows you how I documented my calls. The call is made. I found. what order are they in? If the stack is used. What could be easier? I can't imagine. No kidding! With UNIX.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. If the parameters are on the stack. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing.Chapter 8. If this happens to me. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. that on occasion. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. and leave undocumented. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). they do. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. may be similar to another documented call on the system. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. In any and all of these cases. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. This may sound like a no-brainer. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. In the following sections. “API Specification. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. UNIX was written with C. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. I'm still not entirely happy with it. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. because the call they add. an embedded system. public distribution. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. the function does its job and returns. life was easy in this respect. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. Chapter 15. or your own consumption and enjoyment. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. Quite often though. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me.

A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). Your opinion may vary on this. First. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions.junkies). A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. I'm sure you know of several. Many systems use an intermediate library. Some use registers. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. some use the stack. Second. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. for example. as if you couldn't guess). your code expects all of the data to be in registers. and it required a fixed number of parameters. some use both. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design.g. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. However. It's up to you. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. Pascal . When a high-level language has its own calling convention. In other words. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. this is MMURTL V1. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. but the stack is not used for parameters. Execution speed. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt.. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. has three or four calling conventions. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. code size. especially when it comes to speed. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). OS/2. support several conventions.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . the interrupt vector table). The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. no doubt. There are two reasons this library may be required.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. This device is extremely hardware dependent. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. faster. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. or at least every time it's rebuilt.

it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. The intermediate library would fill in this value.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. the hardware will be obsolete. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. right. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system." Yeah. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. I really hope not. This may be a personal issue for me. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. For the operating system source. MMURTL V1. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. When you need to return data from the call. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. For application source code portability. then execute the interrupt instruction. and the call gates are really not a problem. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. If portability is near the top of your wish list. However. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. the procedural interface is the key. However. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces).

Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. timers. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. I set out to design the simplest. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. You more than likely will. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. You need to consider these requirements in your design. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. If this is the case. They work with the hardware. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. and Statusing the driver. Suddenly. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. For instance. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. Do you see what I mean? Internally. and certain memory-management functions. and this wasn't my original plan. that it's almost impossible to separate them.

[EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. nDevices MMURTL V1. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. This is a common requirement on many systems. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. EBP+20 nDevices. EAX MOV EAX. The first call listed in this section. . InitDevDr(dDevNum.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP SUB ESP. dLBA. dOpNum. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. when one user is doing serial communications. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. nDevices. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. EAX MOV EAX. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. . you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. . EBP+24 . InitDevDr(). pDCBs. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). .0 . This will give you a good place to start in your design. You'll see certain validity checks. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice.InitDevDr(dDevNum. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. When you look at the code. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. “Systems Programming. 16 MOV EAX. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code.ASM. so I won't go over it here. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. . A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. In a multitasking system. ndBlocks. pInitData. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX. For example. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. pStatRet. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications.Set up local vars .

is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX. 0 . [EBP+20] .Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs.Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.error exit .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX.Set nDev to number of devices again . 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . [EBP+24] EAX.Yes .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. EAX EBX.nDevices . rgpDCBs MOV EAX. ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: . rgpDCBs EAX.Not valid DCB number InitDev01: .All went OK so far. prgDevs . dExchTmp . [EBP+16] nDevs.Next devnum . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd . and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX . ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX. 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12]. 2 ADD EBX.Next caller DCB .dDevNum .No .All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now check to see if device is already installed .dDevNum MMURTL V1. 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 .Decrement nDevices . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Empty.pDCBx = 0 if not used yet . dDevX SHL EAX.and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.OK to replace existing driver? .If we got here. 2 . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX].into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX.Point EBX to rgpDCB .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. . OK to use . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.JB InitDev01 MOV EAX.12 .NONE left .

. SHL EBX. or reset it after a failure.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. and . [EAX] . The other two calls.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20].Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. 4 EAX. pInitData. DeviceInit(dDevNum. . ECX [EBX].we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . rgpDCBs MOV EBX.Set up for no error . .EBX now points to correct pointer . and are not presented here.ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh .also place Exchange into DCB.Any more DCBs?? . EAX EBX.next DCB . are almost identical to DeviceInit(). 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX.the first customer to use.ESP . nDevices . sdInitData). A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. . EBX . .device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch].Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX.ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: .Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . MOV EBX.Now that EBX. PUSH EBP . 0 JNZ InitDev06 . This is the same exchange . ErcBadDevNum . -83- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB. EAX . DeviceOp() and DeviceStat().DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it. [EBP+20] .EAX points to first DCB . 0 . ADD EAX.next p in rgp of DCBs .ADD EBX. 2 . EAX and ECX are set up. EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .0 . MOV EBP. loop through each .If the device driver was NOT reentrant .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. [EBP+20] . EAX MOV EAX.for all devices that one driver controls. dExchTmp . MOV EBX. [EBP+20] MOV ECX.

Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType]. The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system..Yes . adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. . It you use assembly language and provide code examples.JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.Is there a physical device? DevInit02: . 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX. 0 DevInit02 EAX.Save ptr to DCB . CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. Send semaphore message to Exch . 0 . This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP. .Ptr to message area .dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.All looks good with device number .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 .Push exchange number . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.Bogus Message .. ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd .No.so we check to see if driver is reentrant.Push all params for call to DD .save ptr to DCB .Get device error back .Device IS reentrant .Get semaphore ticket . but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.Get DCB ptr back .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX . If not we . MMURTL V1.save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. .Ignore kernel error .NO driver! .call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.

These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application.” and Chapter 5.A Function in C or Pascal. or a Procedure in Pascal. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). Before writing your first MMURTL program. usually passed on the stack. Function . and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE.A value passed to a function or procedure. Terminology Throughout this section.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). “Interprocess Communications. though. the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. Byte . Look at the table 9. Call . and a dword is also accessed at the same address.Chapter 9. If I were a perfectionist.g. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word . and DWORD.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . MS-DOS). The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. “Memory Management.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . as you discover the methods employed by this operating system.1 . or a Procedure in Assembler.. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. It may even be entertaining. but alas. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. Argument .0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS .Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1.Same as Procedure. WORD. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord .1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. I think you will find it useful.

It may indicate an error. erc. But the address is really a call gate. not the real address of the SetXY function. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files).Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. “API Specification. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. and in some cases. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. and are expanded to 32-bit values. even the assembler or processor itself. Pascal. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. Some do not. In some C compilers.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. and assembly language. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. or simply convey information that may. MMURTL V1. or dError. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. The CM32 compiler uses this convention.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). All parameters are pushed from left to right. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). This will be done by the compiler.

dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. “Interprocess Communications. but she would much rather that you did it. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory.. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. malloc() in C). The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector.. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested..0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . you simply allocate it. MMURTL is a Paged memory system. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. MMURTL V1.2 . MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested.. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). There are no far data pointers. If you need a 2Mb array.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. Chapter 3. When you are done with it.2: Table 9.g. In fact. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh .. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. you allocate it. The operating system resides at address 0. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. “The Tasking Model...Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . She may pick up your dirty socks. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. .” describe this in great detail..” and Chapter 4. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. . This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0.. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). you should deallocate it.

You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. Data. pData2. The operating system Code. dRespExch. pRqHndlRet. You allocate 5 pages. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. SendMsg (dExch. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. MMURTL does NOT.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . so long as you know it can't be addressed. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. dData1. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. protect programmers from themselves. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). This means that in a multitasking environment. However. dData0. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. cbData1. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. This is not a problem. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. pData1. Now you allocate 4 pages. npSend. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. Of course. dMsg1. Address 40100000h is returned to you.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. wSvcCode. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . however. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. cbData2. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play.

It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). The pointer is read-only.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. printing. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. MMURTL is not a mind reader. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. /* User Name . only your program will be trashed. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). and user interaction. For instance. This eats all of your link blocks.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . such as data communications. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. If you do. but you don't want that either. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack.Normally. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. you need to know your job number. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. Messaging is very powerful. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. char sbJobName[14]. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. Other than that.LString */ MMURTL V1.

char sbPath[70]. long ExitError. char fVidPause. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. editing. char fCursOn.LString */ std input . char JcbSysOut[50]. }.LString */ std output . For most applications. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. long CrntY.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. unsigned char ScrlCnt. char fCursType. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. char *pVirtVid. long VidMode. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. char *pVidMem. long nLines. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. long nCols. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). To change data in the JCB.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. long NextJCB. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. “Keyboard Service. and special keys. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. long CrntX. Chapter 13. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. The keyboard interface is a system service. long NormVid. pPathRet. char JcbCmdLine[80]. with unused portions padded. MMURTL V1. char JcbExitRF[80]. char JcbSysIn[50].

x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. the high nibble is the background. Table 9. logically OR the Foreground. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . and 9. and Blink if desired to form a single value.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . Foreground colors.3. Background.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. character placement. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword.4096 bytes).Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls.3 . and cursor positioning. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes). These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. is the intensity bit. Background colors describe the attributes.4 . only the least significant byte is used. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. In this byte. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. The high bit of each. The colors for TTYOut(). Tables 9. and low nibble is the foreground.4.

You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). or system calls. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. This is done by calling the Chain() function. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. This includes any memory. and other things allocated while you were running.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. BGBLUE|WHITE).0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application.". You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. Remember. "This is a test. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. If no file is specified. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. MMURTL has to hunt for them. MMURTL V1. exchanges. 17. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. 0. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program.

then Respond. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. service them. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). Pascal. the service does the processing and Responds. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. Client programs make a Request.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. such as: Additional memory. if required. Service names are casesensitive. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist.Chapter 10. and memory management operations. use messaging. if needed. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. It's not very useful.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. or provide services to application programs. as well as for other services. Additional exchanges. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. MMURTL V1. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. Wait for messages. Additional tasks if required. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. and Assembly language programmers.

ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. char *pRqHndlRet. NextNumber = 0. long cbData2.1. int ServiceCode. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). long dData1. MainExch. long ServiceRoute. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. char npRecv. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. long RQBRsvd1. long RqOwnerJob. char *pData2. MainExch). /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). long cbData1. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. Message). while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. long RQBRsvd2. else if (pRqBlk. }.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. Message[2]. char npSend. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. char *pData1. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. long dData2. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. long RQBRsvd3.pData1 = NextNumber++.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . long RespExch. long dData0. ErrorToUser. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch.Listing 10. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError.

and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. the service only defines one service code that it handles. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. and another RenameFile. or any data movement back to the caller. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. This is the number 1 (one). you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. and what service you provide. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. The memory address of the Request Block. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. In the simple example above. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. in the File System. and how much information a program must pass to you. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. one number represents OpenFile. because the operating system does not alias them as such. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. For larger data movement to the service. and dData2. They are 32-bit values. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used.The Request Block As you can see. For example. dData1. when you receive a Request. you define the data items you need. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. The operating MMURTL V1. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. For all other values of the service code. As a system service writer. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. This is called the service code. These items are dData0. In fact.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . As a system service. The complexity of your service. another CloseFile. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. cbData1 and cbData2.

This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. This is the easiest way to handle requests. receive a request. the file may not exist. which is a valuable system resource. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. MMURTL uses this concept. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. Synchronous services wait. communications ports (serial and parallel). and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. cbData1 and pData2.system is “aware” of this. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. The first is the request block handle. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. MMURTL is built in layers. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. If so. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. RAM disks. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. If so. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. If this happens. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. In the keyboard service. All operations are handled in a serial fashion.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). you must respond to it immediately. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. tape drives. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. and moves it to another exchange. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. However. before responding to any other requests you are holding. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. then respond before waiting for the next request. Disk drives. until you respond. cbData2. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. When you write system services. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. In each of these cases. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. but carries it one step farther. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time.

MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. RAM DISK). Sequential devices are things like communications ports. timer hardware. If a device driver controls more than one device. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. Things like Device name.. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. This means message. powerful. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. MMURTL V1.g. It does not directly access hardware. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. interrupt vectors. multi-threaded environment. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. multitasking. With InitDevDr().g. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). or a processor protection violation will occur. or network frame handlers (i. I have made it rather painless to build fast. or any OS structures.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. keyboard. basic video. The interface is non-specific. or is included in the OS code at build time. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e.e. For example. the file system is at user level (3). Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. SCSI ports. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. C and Pascal). Block Size. as well as where the data is on the device. the PICUs. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. keyboard. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices.and sequential-oriented. network link layer devices).. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. hard disk. to handling complex devices such as hard drives.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners.

This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. Check or set up the device’s. just like any other program. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. You can name them anything you want in your program. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. The device driver looks. Set up interrupt service routines. The generic steps are described below. Do anything else you need before being called. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. This layer of code performs several functions for you. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. In C this would be main(). Allocate exchanges. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. Call InitDevDr(). In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. it's the main program block. and is programmed. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. if required. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines).0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . or in Pascal. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. if needed. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). At this point. InitDevDr() never returns to you. if needed. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. The main entry point will never be called again. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. like any application in MMURTL. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function.

This is often called an interrupt vector. Two calls provide these functions.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. If you use MMURTL V1. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. although it’s not a requirement. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). or how much was transferred. and size of a DMA move. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. mode. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples.”API Specification. direction. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. MMURTL uses paged memory. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. device drivers are very close to the hardware. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. Timer Facilities Quite often. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. especially if the driver controls two devices. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. specifically DOS. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). In other operating systems. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down.

and how to implement them in your code. and KillAlarm() functions. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg().) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. Alarm(). Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. but easy to figure out. If you use SendMsg(). See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. Table 10. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned.Alarm(). 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. Table 10.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. you can use SendMsg(). Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0.1-. a structure in C. or assembler to construct the DCB. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls.

the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. If the device is sequential. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. dLastDevErc .Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . In other words. pDevOp. head zero. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. ndDevBlocks . Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. This reduces disk arm movement which. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. sbDevName . If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. the SendMsg().a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. where several devices are controlled though one access point.When a driver encounters an error. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). sector zero. but this is not much of a limitation.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS .This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). and WaitMsg() primitives. and handle device conflicts internally. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. Each device name must be unique. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). Disk drives are divided into sectors. If it is another device. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. fDevReent . If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. not the next track. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. usually an unexpected one. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. For instance. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. if you are on track zero. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. For devices that are not re-entrant.number of bytes per block. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. znBPB . but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0.Each driver names the device it serves. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. increases throughput. then this should contain a 2. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr().this indicates whether the device is addressable. RETN is the proper instruction. and you read one sector past the end of that track. MMURTL V1. The Hard disk driver operates the same way. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Each sector is considered a block. we then move to the next head. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. DevType . this is device dependent. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). In assembler. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. it should set this variable with the last error code it received.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. For example. pDevInit. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return.

They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. this flag should be true (non-zero). and format. write. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on.2. OSUseONLY1. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice.pData). ndBlocks. no job is currently assigned the device. They equate to standard device operations such as read. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. pInitData. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function.If the fSingleUser is true. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver.dLBA. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques.3.5.dnBlocks.6 . This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. If this is zero.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. Your function implementations must do the same.dOpNum. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. dLBA. pStatRet. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here.fSingleUser .4. wJob . all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. verify. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. dOpNum. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32).

dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified.pStatRet. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. For sequential devices. parity.dInitData). The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice.dStatusMax. Not all devices will return status on demand.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe.pInitData. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. this will simply be the number of bytes.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation.pdStatusRet). you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. and so on.

pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. If more than one device is controlled. the second at pDCBs + 128. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. such as a disk or SCSI controller. pDCBs. and one DMA channel if applicable. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. If the driver controls more than one device. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. This means the devices are number consecutively. After the Device driver has been loaded.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. nDevices. fReplace If true. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. If this is not the case. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. MMURTL V1. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. This is because one controller. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. this is the first number of the devices. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. and so on.

0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS . then use it. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. MMURTL V1.

.

RUN) . a buffer in memory. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up.This is the initial jobs file. The format is very simple. . The name must start in the first column of a line. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing. The file name must contain the FULL . . Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. as well as the video display. . Sample Initial. No parameters are passed . Any spaces. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. Drive:\DIR\NAME.RUN <---.Job file .INITIAL.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with.system boot in this file. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. or terminate.JOB file. In future versions of MMURTL. No spaces.after each entry. C:\MSamples\Service\Service. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. Listing 11.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon . The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete.Maximum line length is 80 characters total. If you intend to write an operating system.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS .file name including path. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen.Chapter 11. One run file name per line.run C:\MMSYS\CLI. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system.the run file name are ignored. If it's displaying video data.g. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file. Even when a Job is not being displayed. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. tabs or comments after . (e.JOB. the job he is currently viewing. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1. Listing 11.to the run file. When the user presses these global keys.1 shows a sample INITIAL. the keyboard.JOB . This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want.. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication. is assigned to the new job or is terminated.1.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line .

Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. RS-232 serial communications.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . Task switches total . The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly.This is the total count of task switches since boot up. priority task. Table 11. any errors returned are displayed. and access to the built-in debugger.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS .1.RUN. MMURTL V1. and the parallel port (LPT) driver. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11.1. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). During this process.1 describes the function of each assigned key. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services.. Table 11. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. job display. Once the initialization is complete. They are displayed as typed. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service.

that don't get picked up right away. even in the same job. There were no tasks ready to run. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time.h" "MKbd. Free Exchanges .h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".h" "MJob. the C library code can be used.2.These are task-management structures.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated. Each job uses one.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run. including requests.2. Free Link Blocks . They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 11.CPU idle ticks (no work) .h" "MFiles. This number may seem a little high. If this number is greater than zero. Free Job Control Blocks .h" "MDevDrv.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do. Each new task uses one of these. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time.h" "MMemory.h" "MVid. but the count is fixed at OS build time.h" "MTimer. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. Free Task State Segments . but have a fixed count at OS build time. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated. Response is made by the service. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory. Tasks Ready to Run . MMURTL V1.This is the number of free job control blocks left.h" "MData. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.A small structure used by all messages sent and received. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. Listing 11. the request block is returned for re-use. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks.

LastStatByte0. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. fIntOnReset. All Rights Reserved". LastSeekErc0. MngrMsg[2]. MUltitasking. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. U8 fNewMedia. LastErcByte0. gcode. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. KillError. U8 type_now. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. static unsigned long GPHndl. LastRecalErc1. U32 BlocksMax. Real-Time kerneL". static unsigned long GP1Exch. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. KillJobNum. fKilled. LastStatByte1. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . MMURTL V1. LastSeekErc1. static long time. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". unsigned long KillExch. LastErcByte1. MngrHndl. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. date. tick. 1990-1995. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. U32 blocks_done.static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". Burgess. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors.Message based.A. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. MngrExch. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n".

coms_setup(void). /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. char *ppJCBRet). #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. nSlices.asm */ Floppy. InitFS(void).c */ RS232. nEXCHLeft. xsprintf. lpt_setup(void). /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void).c */ Parallel. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. nReady. static long StatStack[256]. nLBLeft. hdisk_setup(void). /* out to 64 bytes */ }. nRQBLeft. U32 resvd1[2].c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf.U8 ResetStatByte.c */ Fsys. char *pJCBRet). static unsigned long nMemPages.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . BootDrive. nJCBLeft. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. nHalts. nTSSLeft. /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard.c */ HardIDE. #asm MMURTL V1. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. nSwitches. fdisk_setup(void).

total. i. *ptr. total = 0. width = value = i = 0. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). *ptr = justify = minus = 0. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr. long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. JLE isdigit1 . EAX MOV ESI.[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI].0 JL isdigit0 . 30h . while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. #asm XOR EAX.MOV EAX. zero.0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned long width. chr = *fmt++.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. zero = ' '.EAX . while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. value. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'.[EBP+8] CMP AL. ptr = &numstk[32]. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. char *fmt.No CMP AL. minus. chr. 39h .Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. justify.

default: *--ptr = chr. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. if(width) --width.'0'). break. break. break. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. break. case 'o' : i = 8. } while(value /= i). ++total. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. case 'c' : *--ptr = value.width = (width * 10) + (chr . *--ptr = chr. } value = *--argptr. case 'b' : i = 2. break. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. chr = *fmt++. break. ++argptr. ++minus. } case 'u' : i = 10. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. case 's' : ptr = value.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS .

++total. ++total. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. fmt. } } } else { /* not format char. char buffer[S_SIZE]. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. Color). ++i. . } } *outptr = 0.. ap). long total. fmt). /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. i < width. ++i. va_start(ap. just move into string *outptr++ = chr.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). va_end(ap. return total. ++total. fmt).) { va_list ap. } /************************************ MMURTL V1. value = width . strlen(buffer).. TTYOut(buffer.1. ++total. ++i) *outptr++ = zero.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . return total. } /* move in data */ i = 0.

24. rgStatLine. 80. 24. long total. When it gets one. PutVidChars(0. fmt). BLUE|BGWHITE). tick). Msg[2]. va_start(ap. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr().22). Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. rgMonMenu1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. &iLine).0. rgMonMenu2. PutVidChars(27. PutVidChars(54. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. WHITE|BGBLUE).) { va_list ap. i. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. MMURTL V1. rgMonMenu3.1).80. SetXY(0.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. GetXY(&iCol. 26. BLUE|BGWHITE). ap).1.23. va_end(ap. total = _ffmt(s. return total. 25. fmt). return. PutVidChars(0. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated..Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. char *fmt. 26. SetXY(0. "%d". Exch. iLine. BLUE|BGWHITE). 24.1). .. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. fmt.

0. PutVidChars(0. pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. tick). /* year */ 0x0f). CheckScreen(). WHITE|BGBLUE). tick). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. GetTimerTick(&tick). The message has Error. 80. if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum..0. /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1.5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). "%d". *pVid. 0x0f). Error: %d\r\n". /* sleep 0. rgStatLine. 80. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. TSSExch in it. 0x0f). Tone(440. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. rgStatLine. WHITE|BGBLUE). KillError). KillMsg). /* month */ 0x0f). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). &pJCB).U8 *pPD. pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). "%d". PutVidChars(0. for(. rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f).0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS .. Sleep(50). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). (time & 0x0f). KillJobNum.. Sleep(50). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f).5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). xprintf("Job number %d terminated. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate.50).) { GetCMOSTime(&time). /* sleep 0. /* Day */ 0x0f).

/* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). 0. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). 2).. &gcode. fDone. MngrExch. &i. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created.. DeAllocPage(pVid. j. 0. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. erc = WaitMsg(Exch.GetVidOwner(&i). 0. 1).. 4. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. 0.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. We don't actually switch jobs.. 0). char *pJCB. 0. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory.) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". fKilled = 1. i. 2. It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. 0. if the debugger has the video. MMURTL V1. Also. Exch. */ DeAllocPage(pPD. 0. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. /* We're done (and so is he. &MngrHndl. DeAllocJCB(pJCB). Msg).

*/ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 0. 4. MngrExch. } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". i = j. 0. 0. erc = KillJob(j).0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . &gcode. 0. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . 0. while (!fDone) { i++. 0. 0. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". MngrMsg). 0. MngrExch. 0). #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1.4. 2. 4. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. 0. MngrMsg). for(. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0. i. &pJCB). 0. erc = GetpJCB(i. else if (i>34) i = 1. fDone = 0. 0. 0.. if (i==2) i = 3. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. 0). 0). &MngrHndl. 0. &MngrHndl.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0.

*********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . &ajobfile[1]. 0. job. &fh).0FEh OUT 64h. /* 0=A. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM.first we clear interrupts . char arunfile[80]. fcli. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. fh. 20). #asm CLI MOV ECX.check port up to 64K times . */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. 1. sjobfile. unsigned char sdisk. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. 2=C etc.run and the last job loaded. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. char ajobfile[50]. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. j.Read Status Byte into AL . GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). cbrunfile.JOB\0".AL STI #endasm return. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. sjobfile. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. sdisk &= 0x7F. } . while (!fdone) { i = 0. fcli = 0. sdisk += 0x41.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. job = 0. i.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1=B.64h TEST AL. do MMURTL V1.return. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile).Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. char fdone.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit .

run". assign the keyboard and video to it. &j). arunfile). } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. erc = 0.{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. cbrunfile. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. erc). */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. &job). Sleep(50). /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. &GP1Hndl. &arunfile[i++]. } } } else fdone = 1. CheckScreen(). MMURTL V1.\r\n". job = 0.') continue. } CloseFile(fh). CheckScreen().. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. "cli. if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. xprintf("Loading: %s. 1. CheckScreen(). 0.. 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. Sleep(50). if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n".0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4. GP1Exch. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". job). else fcli = 0.

unsigned char sdisk.. 0. iCol. GP1Exch. SetVidOwner(job). &GP1Hndl. k. 0. 0. xprintf("Loading: %s. acli[40]. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. 0. *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc.". 0. erc = LoadNewJob(acli.\r\n"). 16). } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. i.0. 0.. strlen(acli). job. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch.JOB file not found in system directory. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". &acli[1]. 0. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. GP1Msg). 0. job. acli). 4. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. unsigned long ccode. sdisk &= 0x7F. 2=C etc. 0). } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. job). unsigned char c. ccode1. 1=B. */ acli[0] = sdisk. 0). CheckScreen(). j. job. char text[70]. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. Sleep(50).0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). MMURTL V1.RUN\0". InitScreen(). 0. &job). CheckScreen(). iLine. sdisk += 0x41. GP1Msg). } return erc. /* 0=A.

Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. erc). erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). &StatStack[255].A. xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n".Burgess. 24. 1 ). xprintf("Init floppy device driver.. erc = coms_setup(). xprintf("%d\r\n". Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". Real-Time kerneL\r\n").Message based. erc = fdisk_setup(). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". i = (oMemMax+1)/1024.. xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". Error: "). erc = InitKBDService().Tone(250.. erc = lpt_setup().33). i).15). /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). erc). /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). erc = hdisk_setup(). xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). erc). erc). xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). Tone(1000. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". erc). erc). erc). erc). xprintf("Copyright (c) R.. 0. xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024.0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . Error: "). erc). erc). c). MUltitasking. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". i). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n".

0.j). text. 4. erc = GetpJCB(i. /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. j = 2. for (. if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen(). &pJCB). 1. 0. i<nMaxJCBs. erc). xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. c = ccode & 0xff.\r\n"). j++. 1.. GPExch.j). 13). 0. &GPHndl. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". Error: %d\r\n". */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 10. pJCB->JobNum). if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". 0).) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. 0. erc). text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. erc = InitFS(). /* Col offset */ for (i=1. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n". &ccode. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40.0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . text).xprintf("Initializing file system. */ LoadJobFile(). erc). SetXY(k+10.... /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). break. &MngrStack[255]. MMURTL V1. erc). /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. Tell it to wait for a key. /* Line */ k = 0. 0. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. xprintf("File System. GPMsg).. 1 ).

Sleep(9). while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1.loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. break. 1. SetXY(0. 1. PutVidChars(29. "\\". GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(9). xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n".Cancelled\r\n"). case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). 1. 1. 1.. Sleep(9). 1. 1. } SetXY(0. 1.1). "-". 1. nReady). erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. PutVidChars(29. nRQBLeft). xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). "/". GREEN|BGBLACK). \r\n"). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". Sleep(9).. nSwitches). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. GREEN|BGBLACK). "|". 1. 1).0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . Sleep(12). break. break. 1. PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. 1. nMemPages). PutVidChars(29. Sleep(12). GREEN|BGBLACK). any other key to cancel"). "|". case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . nLBLeft).future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. 1. case 0x12: /* F4 .12). xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). "/". xprintf(". PutVidChars(29. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. Sleep(9). xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot.} } break. nJCBLeft). xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". "-".. nSlices). case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). nEXCHLeft). xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). nTSSLeft). 1. nHalts). 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf ("\r\n"). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Any key to dismiss status.. " ". 1. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. "\\". GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(9).1).

80. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. 2. } } GetXY(&iCol. 1. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1. SetXY(0. else TTYOut (&c. WHITE|BGBLACK).0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS .TTYOut (CRLF. &iLine).1.1).22).23. WHITE|BGBLACK).

.

The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished.Chapter 12. and a red banner is displayed. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. MMURTL V1. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). Certain debugger display functions. the debugger is an assembly language. such as dumping data. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. will clear the screen for display. and why. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. non-symbolic debugger. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). along with the exception number that caused it. It is not a separate run file. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. the debugger is entered. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . and the left side is the instruction and data display area. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. When this occurs. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. If the debugger was entered on a fault. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. function keys are across the bottom.

the address of the TSS.Change Current Address.Single Step. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. This becomes the active address.Dynamic TSSs.Dump Dwords. with the down arrow key. without executing them. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued.Link Blocks.Dump Bytes. The task number. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. These values are hard coded at system build. The address is displayed on the left. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS . This displays all active tasks on the system.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . Each TSS is 512 bytes. GDT . The address is displayed on the left.Job Control Blocks.Address Information. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. LBs . F2 SetBP . JCBs . a linear address. This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. F12 AddInfo . The GDT contains many items. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. This requests a linear address. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. This requests a linear address. RdyQ . “Application Programming. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. The abbreviations are given in the following list. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. This is an array of 512-byte structures. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. F9 DumpB . F3 ClrBP . RQBs .Ready Queue. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program.Clear Breakpoint.” SVCs .Set Breakpoint.Goto CS:EIP.Display Exchanges. the associated Job number.First TSS. as most of them are. the address of the task's JCB. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. F4 CS:EIP . next.Display Tasks. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. TSS3 . after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. IDT .Global Descriptor Table. TSS1 . F5 Exch . This clears the single breakpoint. You may move down through the instructions. This is the address of the Monitor TSS.Services Array.Request Block Array. and then dumps the bytes located at that address. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. low order). The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. TSSs are numbered sequentially. . with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. MMURTL V1. that will be somewhere in this array.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. This returns to the application and executes one instruction. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. F8 CrntAdd . F10 . next.Interrupt Descriptor Table. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. F6 Tasks . This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development.

but for right now. locking up. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. it is the index of that exchange in the array.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS .Exchanges. Each exchange is 16 bytes. entering the debugger. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. without having to fill in special registers. Lots of code here MOV ESP. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. When it occurs. With near calls like you would make inside your program.Exch . In MMURTL. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. or whatever). aTmr . whenever any linear memory location is accessed. There are four debug address registers in the processor.and displayed as an unsigned number.Timer Blocks. like the older processors. listed in your ATF file. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. This is the address of the array of timer blocks. and also how local variables are accessed. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. such as [EBP+12]. its down and dirty troubleshooting. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features.ASM files. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. or at the beginning of any instruction. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. MMURTL V1. In some cases. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. For applications. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. ESP . or for . The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks.START in an assembly language program. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. actually a trap.

Table 12. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. you will see that there are many interrupts. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. is saved by the debugger. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news.. including allocated memory. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. MMURTL V1. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). you must be able to access all of its memory. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1).Processor exceptions.1. usually a blank screen and nothing else.. The debugger becomes the active job. or faults. The debugger cannot debug itself. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults.1. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. It almost. a page fault is fatal to a task. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. Instead. that can occur. Traps. but not quite. just like applications do. called exceptions. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . No other task operates at a priority that high. The debugger also has its own virtual screen.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. When the debug interrupt activates. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. When writing an operating system. a pointer to the currently running TSS. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). If you are going to debug a task. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. the current pRunTSS.

These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. which is exactly what you want. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. These contain the address of the exception handler. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. MMURTL V1.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. While you are in the debugger. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. you should kill the offending job and restart. To do this. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. This makes the debugger transparent. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. When the debugger is entered. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS).

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0). Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time.Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. MyExch.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. 1. It's easier to use.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . &MyRqhandle. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. this is true multitasking). 0 0. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters.fWait for Key */ dData1 . The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. 1. “system programming.1 shows the services provided by the service code. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". Available Services Table 13. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). 0. but not as powerful. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . 0. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time.0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . &KeyCode 4.Chapter 13. As described in chapter 10. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access.Not used (0) */ dData2 . You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls.

The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered. Unlike regular keystrokes.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS .1.Wait for Key = 0 . Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 .Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. even if a key is not available.Table 13. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter.Not used = 0 . If you have an outstanding Notify request. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available.Not used 0 . described in detail later. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1.Not used. In this case.Count of bytes in the code 0 . the error should be 0. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error).Return with error if no key waiting 1 .Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. This allows for "hot-key" operation. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications.

(D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1.2. Num. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. The low-order byte is the actual key code. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes.3. Locks. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. and Scroll).4. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. etc. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C). The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. shown in table 13. If you have an outstanding Notify request. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. as shown in table 13.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. Alt & Ctrl.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. this cancels it. as shown in table 13.).

If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. This bit (Bit 0. Num or Scroll).0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. Table 13.. Table 13.2. Table 13. Alt or Shift).Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. Table 13. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps. shows how the bits are defined.3 shows how the bits are defined. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned.3 .2 . you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned.

. Ctrl. Table 13. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active.4 .0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS .main keyboard.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. Key Codes Table 13.1h to 7Fh). or Locks). A description is given only if required.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. Alt. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. For example. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned. If a shift code is not shown.

Table 13. ' .Y Z [ \ ] ` CR .5 . comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. Table 13. / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.5 shows the key code value returned. Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality. .0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS .

0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS . The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1.7.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 . 13. Edit.6 .Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states. Caps lock does not affect these keys. Table 13.7.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active. (Period) Cursor.

” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. as I have tried to do in this chapter. or you may want more. such as international key translations.”Keyboard Code.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS . if you desire. MMURTL V1. Remember. when all else fails.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. Chapter 25. the programmer will read the documentation. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. Pieces of it may be useful for your system. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system.

will be routed to the service with the same name. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. and optionally. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. a period. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. there isn't anything new about the format. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename.and finally the filename itself. just how we access it. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. This ties its hands so to speak.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter.Chapter 14.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. filename. and a node name is specified. the network service receives the request from the file system. For example. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. but none as wide spread. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. MMURTL V1. a network name. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. then up to three more characters. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. When a network file is opened.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. The third part is the filename as described above. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . the default name NETWORK is used.

File Handles When a file is opened. in any mode or type. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. MMURTL V1. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. or just reading alone. Make no assumptions about this number. This is a one page. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. When a file is opened in Read mode. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. a number called a file handle is returned to you. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). 4096 byte buffer.

&"AnyFile.ModeRead */ dData1 -. It meets all the requirements. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. Listing 14. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA). MyExch. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. 1.Size of a handle */ dData0 -. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking). 11. The file system actually runs as a separate task. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. For Stream files. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS .Block Type Access */ dData2 -.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -.returned handle */ cbData2 -. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. Table 14.ptr to name */ cbData1 -. Table 14. Listing 14. 0). It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system.1 . The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ".Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. no matter what Mode the file was opened in. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file. &MyRqhandle. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service. You can make a request. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters.1 shows the service codes the file system supports.1.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -.doc". you do not specify an LFA to read or write from.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. This is called a file pointer in some systems. 1. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. or file pointer.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.size of name */ pData2 -. &FileHandle 4. All message-based services use the same request-based interface. 1. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. 0.

Table 14. The Request interface will not allow device access. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. KBD and VID devices only. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. The request is transparent to the caller. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access. Table 14. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL.2 . you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. MMURTL V1.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. but only through the procedural interfaces. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS .

all buffers are flushed and deallocated. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. dOpenMode. If stream access type was specified. Procedural parameters: pName . Stream = 1. dcbName . pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . dAccessType.READ = 0. Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. pdHandleRet . Procedural parameters: dHandle .File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available. If a file is open in ModeRead.Block = 0. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users.pointer to the filename or full file specification. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened.a dword that was returned from OpenFile().pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . dcbname.

This must always be a multiple of 512. pDataRet . nBytes. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. MMURTL V1. pdnBytesRet . pData. nBytes. dLFA . pDataRet. Procedural parameters: dhandle .Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read.Logical File Address to read from. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512). SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size.DWord with number of bytes to read. pData .pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. dLFA. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. pdnBlkRet . dLFA. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle.Logical File Address to write to. See the SetFilesize() section.Pointer to the data to write nBytes . This must be a multiple of the block size.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . One Block = 512 bytes. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. dLFA .DWord with number of bytes to write. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. This will always return a multiple of 512. nBytes . Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. Procedural parameters: dHandle .

pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file. pData.Dword with number of bytes to read. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. nBytes. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. pDataRet . Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. nBytes. nBytes . The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. Parameters: dhandle . pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. pDataRet. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. The bytes are read from the current LFA.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. pdnBytesRet . The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read.

An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. Procedural parameters: dHandle . The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C). Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle.Dword with number of bytes to write.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. pdnBytesRet .Dword with a valid file handle. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files.0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet .Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).Dword with a valid file handle. nBytes . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF).Procedural parameters: dHandle .Pointer to the data to write.a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. pData . as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: dhandle .

a Dword with the new size of the file. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. Procedural parameters: dHandle .a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . The file length. Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1.dLFA . as returned from OpenFile() dSize .Dword with a valid file handle. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files.Dword with a valid file handle. Procedural parameters: dhandle . and allocated space on the disk. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically.a Dword with the LFA you want to set.

Dword with length of the current filename pNewName . The file is closed after creation. dAttributes): dError This creates a new.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1.pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.pointer to the current filename or full file specification. dcbNewName . Procedural parameters: pName . pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. empty file in the path specified. dcbName. dcbName . and ready to be opened and accessed.pointer to the new filename or full file specification. dcbName .pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. Procedural parameters: pName . System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dcbname.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden.Dword with length of the filename dAttributes .

Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath.Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. as opposed to a full path. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. Procedural parameters: pPath .pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. and the filename is available for re-use. dcbPath . This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. empty directory for the path specified. Procedural parameters: dHandle . If only the new directory name is specified.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . specified in the Job Control Block.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). No further access is possible.pointer to the path (directory name) to create. the directory is created in your current path.

dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . The path must contain the directory name as the last element. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. all subdirectories. the path in your JCB will be used. This call returns one sector from a directory.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. to read tj sector from dcbPath . Each sector contain 16 directory entries. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. or directory name to delete. The directory must exist in the path specified. dcbPath. Procedural parameters: pPath . dcbPath. If only the existing directory name is specified.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . all files in this directory. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). If no path is specified.pointer to the path. as opposed to a full path.pointer to the path.If set to non-zero. dcbPath . the name is appended to the path from your job control block. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. pSectRet. Procedural parameters: pPath . or directory name.

When it reaches 0. while others are part of the operating system data segment.pSectRet . Because it is a pointer. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. The FUBs contain the file pointer. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. Some structures are dynamically allocated. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. Each opened file is allocated an FCB. the FCB is deallocated for re-use.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. it's not allocating files. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. MMURTL V1. the open mode. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. If the file is opened in Stream mode. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. FCB.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . buffer pointers. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. Quite a few of them use this same name. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. Each FCB is 128 bytes. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation.

File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. The file is open. inside of a 400 Mb file. Directories are stored as files. Load FAT buffer if required. L = Last entry in your file.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . If opened in Block mode. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. This is in itself is time-consuming. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. source files for compilers. The list could go on and on. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. On most hard disks. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). and the sixth is marked as the last. the fifth points to the sixth. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. or three entries. X = not your file. and raster image files. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation.The disk is allocated in clusters. Run files being executed. If so. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. they use what is called a FAT16. From this. However. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. MMURTL V1. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). you can usually do it quite rapidly. Large database files are the major random users. If it's open in ModeWrite. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. allocate an FUB and attach it. Usually. That's 128Kb. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. The fourth entry points to the fifth. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. the user will strike next. That's a lot of FAT (or file). Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. return an error ErcFileInUse. because of the design of the FAT file system. In this example. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. which is cluster size. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. vector.

0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . you must find unallocated clusters. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. If the file is being extended. then write the data. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. If opened in block mode. Close This is the easy part. attach them to the chain. and depends on how the file was opened. but much overhead is involved. MMURTL V1. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. It sounds simple. Both copies must be updated.

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4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected.2 . Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. If you are going to write your own operating system.. then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. The call address consists of a selector and an offset.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . “File System Service”). while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. Table 15.g.1 lists the prefixes. Table 15.Chapter 15.2 lists these additional prefix characters. Table 15. An improperly. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address. Chapter 14. I might add. The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT).1 . These are known as compound descriptions.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter.0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . The offset should be 0. They are listed by functional group first. or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes . Table 15.

Pascal. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. dMsg1.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. dMsg1. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. or Assembler. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. Bytes and words (8. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. Each compound set of prefixes . dcbFileName .and optionally suffixes . pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch. The dError. It is processor (hardware) enforced. grouped by type.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . Messaging Respond(dRqHndl.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. or should be.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15. a colon with the returned value. Table1 5. The function name is followed by the parameters. be returned. pdDataRet . if a value is returned by the function.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. If a parameter is a byte. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch.3. and Min means Minimum. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. Ret means Returned. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. Max means Maximum. and finally. the most common returned value shown.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can.3 .Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. dcbDataRetMax . dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch.

LinAdd. dBytes) MMURTL V1. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. pDestination. dExch. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. wCodeSeg. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. nDevices. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. npSend. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry.Request( pSvcName. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. cBytes. cbData1.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . fDebug. dStatusMax. cbData2. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. pPathRet. pS2. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dLBA. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. ppMemRet. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dRespExch. dcbMem. pData2. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. dnBlocks. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dData1. dfDebug. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. dESP. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. pDCBs. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. dJobNum. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. pRqHndlRet. dData0. pStack. dcbFileName. dOpNum. pInitData. dcbAliasBytes. pData1. pDestination. pS2. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dPriority. dPriority. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. pStatRet. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. wSvcCode. dcbFileName. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum.

ddLine. nCols. fdRead.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . dLine. dTextOut. Speaker. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. dULline. nLines. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dPort) OutWord(Word. nChars. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. pbChars.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. dChannel. pbExitChar. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. pDataIn. dPort) OutWords(dPort. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. dCrntLen. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dLine. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. pdLenRet. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. pDataOut. nChars. pbCharRet. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. sdMem. dMaxLen.

AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). but can be used by experienced systems programmers. Parameters: AX . AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. They are passed in registers. This must be zero (0) for task gates. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). the parameters are not stack-based. exceptions.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). or 0 if all went well. and interrupts. else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet.Returns an error. AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. Parameters: AX . Unlike most other operating system calls. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. Unlike most other operating system calls.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI .0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate. They are passed in registers. EAX Returns Error. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . exception gates and interrupt gates. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. the parameters are not stack based.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX .

If you do. dJobNum . You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. pdPhyMemRet . If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space.). except it can be used asynchronously. dcbMem . ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. The message that is sent is two dwords. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. In fact. and don't get placed in a waiting condition. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. ppAliasRet . This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. etc.Dword (4 BYTES). each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). even though it's very close. the more precise the timing. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. do some other processing. ppMemRet.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. Each application has its own linear address space. Parameters: pMem . ppRet . WaitMsg. It will always begin on a page boundary. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. The larger dnTicks is.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. Alarm() can be used for a number of things. dcbMem. The overhead included in entry.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. except you provide the exchange. Parameters: dnTicks . This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. Parameters: nPages .A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties.Job number from the other application. MMURTL V1. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). This would be for the time-out function described above. dJobNum. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned.A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. This means you can set an alarm.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. Parameters: dn15us . MMURTL V1. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. and data pages. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. although longer periods will work. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. Virtual Video. precise. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. and you call this often enough. Parameters: dIRQnum . Page Descriptor.length of the run filename. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. dcbFileName. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. Interrupts are not disabled. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. and the memory required to run code.Parameters: dAlarmExch . For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer.pointer to the filename to run. dcbFileName . but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. pdJobNumRet .pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. initial Task State Segment.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. stack. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. Parameters: pFilename . so the time could be much longer.

Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. dPriority. ESP .The address of the port.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task.The address of the port. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl . dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function.Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . Parameters: Byte . Exch . NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. OS=8 or User=18 Priority . dfDebug.handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch . Parameters: JobNum . No error is returned. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS).The byte value to write to the port. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord.Which code segment. dESP. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution. OutWord OutWord(Word.exchange where the Request is to be sent. else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. Paramters: Dword . dExch. Parameters: MMURTL V1. dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. it is made to run. DPort .Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. dCodeSeg.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS . The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.Exchange for TSS.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . DPort .The dword value to write to the port.Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg .

pDataOut. DPort . Each page of memory is 4096 byte.The word value to write to the port. dLine.pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . DBytes . PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol.column to start on (0-79) dLine .A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. dAttr . Parameters: dCol .Word .column to start on (0-79) dLine .line (0-24) pbChars . OutWords OutWords(dPort. dLine.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned.number of characters pbChars is pointing to. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. nChars. Parameters: dCol .line (0-24) dnChars .The count of bytes to write to the port address.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: DPort . dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9.The address of the port. pbChars. MMURTL V1. dnChars.number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib .Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values.color/attribute to use during display. PdataOut . QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort. It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.The address of the port. or virtual screen. “Application Programming. PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. Parameters: pdnPagesRet .” describes all of the attribute values. This is the number of Words * 2. You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2). if not displayed. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen.

Service names are case sensitive. dData1.A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. This call blocks your task until completion. If fWait is true (non-zero). Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet .0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. cbData2. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. cbData1. If no key was available. if forwarded across a network.a pointer to an 8-byte string. pRqHndlRet. wSvcCode. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. npSend. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. pData2.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. pData1. Parameters: BAddress . the call will wait until a key is available before returning. or on what machine the request is being serviced.the exchange to be associated with the service name.If true (non-zero).ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. The string must be left justified. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. dRespExch. Request Request( pSvcName. and padded with spaces (20h). If fWait is false (0). Parameters: pSvcName . the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. dData0. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . fWait . fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes.

Respond Respond(dRqHndl. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. See Respond(). This may be data sent to the service. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. dStatRet . The use of dData0. Parameters: pSvcName . Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. dRespExch . Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. cbData2 .dData0. With all kernel primitives. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. The service must be registered with the operating system.a number (0. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. 65534 (0FFFEh). 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. dData0. service name. This error is not the error returned by the service.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. Zero will be returned if all was well. dError. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing.the size of the data being sent to the service. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). dMsgLo. Function Codes 0. For example. wSvcCode . the value returned from the Request() call itself. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. dError. or received from the service. dData2 . dData1. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. cbData1 . is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. then npSend would be 2.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. are sending data to the service.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. pData2 . 1 and 2. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. Parameters: dRqHndl . This must be 0 if pData1 is not used.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. npSend . This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. space padded. With all kernel primitives. pRqHndlRet . MMURTL V1. pData1 .same as pData1. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. Always assume it will be network-routed. of the message sent back to the requester of the service.This is the operating system Request primitive.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword.

0. msg[1]. DnLines . If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange.80. linked with that task. Parameters: DULCol . If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line.dULline. and is not enforced by the operating system. and the bottom line would be blanked.a polite term for crashed. it will be into an array of dwords. If it were a Response from a service. Parameters: dExch . the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value.The number of columns to be scrolled. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. dMsgHi . and while Chaining to another application. and it is moved to the Ready queue. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address.The upper dword of the message. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0. dcbCmdLine . SendMsg SendMsg (dExch.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down.The lower dword of the message.dnCols. Parameters: pCmdLine .25. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently.The length of the command line string to store. This call stores the command line in the JCB.dnLines. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs. which is the first dword pushed. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. dMsgLo .1). Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. In this case the top line is lost.Points to an array of bytes. the message is associated. DfUp . MMURTL V1. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dMsgHi. the new command line string. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. This is an agreed-upon convention.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . msg[0].The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter.The count of lines to be scrolled.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent.

Table 15. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur. pVector . dcbExitJob .Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. Built-in device drivers assume these values. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. Parameters: dIRQnum . all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs).If installed. MMURTL V1. When a job exits. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. which will happen most often. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB).The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. Initially. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. and its ExitJob is zero length. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. Table 15. The filename must not longer than 79 characters. Parameters: pExitJob . pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB.4 . the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet. After the interrupt vector is set.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS .A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to.

a text string. The path is interpreted and used by the File System.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. Parameters: bPriority .This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. This is a maximum of 13 characters. dcbPath . If no job name is set by the application. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. Longer values will be truncated. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. Parameters: pPath . Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. A zero length. Typically. The maximum length is 13 bytes. dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. The default foreground color. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. the color of the characters themselves. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes.This is the new priority (0-31).SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. The path is 79 characters maximum. SetPath SetPath(pPath. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. then call ClrScr().0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: pJobName . SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. will clear the job name from the JCB. MMURTL V1.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. dcbJobName . and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. and background colors may be changed by an application. Refer to the file System documentation).

If you desire to write data from your application to a file. Only ASCII data is returned from this call.The job number for new owner of the active screen. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. Parameters: pUsername . The name is preserved across ExitJobs. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. and Chaining to another application. which is the user's name. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name.points to a text string. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. is VID.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). The default name. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. is KBD. dcbUsername . Parameters: pFileName . Parameters: pFileName . WriteBytes(). if none is set. If the SysOut name is VID. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. Parameters: DJobNum . The default name. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application.is the length of the string to store. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. dcbFileName . which is the one to be displayed. if none is set by the application. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. If the SysIn name is set to KDB. dcbFileName . dNewY): dError MMURTL V1.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . Only ASCII data is saved to the file.SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes().

Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. Certain system services are higher priority. Parameters: pEntry . and clears the block when it reaches zero. should use priorities above 25. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. Parameters: DNewX . fDebug.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. Tone Tone(dHz. dPriority. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. Application programs should use priority 25. The timer interrupt sends the message. fDebug . but testing will be required to ensure harmony. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time.The new vertical cursor position row. If your task is a high enough priority. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. it is made to run. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange.This is a pointer to the function. fOSCode . and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12.The new horizontal cursor position column. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. or make it sleep. lower numbers. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack .This is a number from 0 to 31. This applies to the virtual screen. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. DNewY . Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. pStack.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . dPriority . 1 is accepted. Parameters: dnTicks . System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. such as the file system and keyboard. or the real video screen if currently assigned.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. otherwise. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task.

DTextOut . the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum.A near Pointer to the text. Parameters: pSvcName . Service names are case sensitive. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. dTextOut. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed .The attribute or color you want. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. Backspace will have no effect. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . The string must left justified. If already at column 0. DAttrib .pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job.A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line. from 30 to 10000.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS .The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered.A pointer to an 8-byte string. The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). if the cursor is in the last column of a line. next active character placement. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry.The cursor will be moved one column to the left. If this line is below the bottom of the screen. 08 backspace . WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. They will receive an error. For character placement.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. Parameters: PTextOut . A value of 100 is one second. Parameters: dIRQnum .The number of characters of text. The backspace is non-destructive. will be moved down one line. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. Parameters: dHz . no characters are changed.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . dTicks10ms .The cursor. and padded with spaces (20h).

This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. You've got to send mail to get mail. Parameters: DError . the task will be placed on the exchange specified. MMURTL V1. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. If no message is available. an array of two dwords. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. Of course. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg .A pointer to where the message will be returned. dExch . At that time.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. less than 8000000h.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . so this would be obvious to you. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. you would have had to make the request in the first place.

Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . job number for this CLI.Remove directory Rename .Copy a file Dir .RUN files). One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.Delete a file Dump . This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. but it's a good start. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. MMURTL V1. The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. and your current path. To see what has been included on the CDROM. it does work and it's useful in its own right. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. It provides information such as date.Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD . D:\DIR\) RD . see Appendix A. use. The internal commands are: Cls . “What's On the CD-ROM. However.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS . The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. The top line is the status line.Rename a file (Current name New name) Run .Set file access path (New path e. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. It has been expanded.Hex dump of a file Exit .Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type .” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.Enter Debugger Del .Make Directory Path .Display list of internal commands Monitor .g.Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its. time.Clear Screen Copy . The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system.Chapter 16.Directory listing Debug . CLI version.Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help . is described in the following sections. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me).

Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory.TXT THATFILE.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS .Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set. >Copy THISFILE. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. If a file exists with the same name. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. To exit the Debugger press the Esc.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. MMURTL V1. If the character is not ASCII text. or the same name in a different directory. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Both names must be specified. a period is displayed instead. “The Debugger.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it.

The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility).Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job.). Unlike a single tasking operating system. the tree will only be extend one level. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor..) MMURTL V1. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. listing. The path must end with the Backslash. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. etc. In MMURTL. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. With any file-system operation (opening. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. This CLI will still be executing. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. In other words. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. renaming. or external command that is executed for this CLI. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . and . The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line.

cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number).Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. The first item on the line is the command name.run New. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name. The File COMMANDS.End of Command.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file. An example of COMMANDS. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix .TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below.CLI Commands. The contents of the file COMMANDS.TXT Run (Execute a .run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file.RUN). Additional spaces and tabs are ignored.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk.run .CLI follows: .CLI File The file COMMANDS.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS . The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist). MMURTL V1. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command. pausing after each page. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit. The file must not be open by any other job. It is a simple text file with one command per line.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test.

h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.1.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 16. 1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down.Ver.Terminates the currently displayed job. In this case. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.CLI file. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.h> #include <ctype.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.h> #include <string.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. but other application might.CLI.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. CLI Source Code Listing . CTRL-ALT-DELETE . This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.0 of the Command Line Interpreter. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS.

char ExitChar. /* "Debug". cmdpath[60].0 Job Path: ". date. /* "Dir". /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. /* "Help". /* "MD". long JobNum. syspath[50]. /* MMURTL V1. char aCmd[80].0 { 0 external */ 1 . unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. /* "Dump". /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* "Exit". char text[70]. long cbCmd = 0. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70].#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* "Cls". unsigned long GPMsg[2].not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . clipath[60]. /* "Ren". char char char char sdisk. /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. unsigned long GPExch. /* "xxxxx". /* "Del". /* "RD". /* "Path". unsigned long GPHndl. /* "Copy". /* "Monitor". char fUpdatePath. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. hlppath[60]. /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. long cbPath. iLine.

#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. long acbParam[13]. U8 Ext[3]. U16 StartClstr. It updates the status line which has the time and path. U16 Date. }. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. U8 Rsvd[10]. U16 Time. U8 Attr. "Type". /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8].. char *apParam[13].) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(."Run". #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. } dirent[16]. U32 FileSize.

break. case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". break. CopyData(aPath. break. 80. break. (time & 0x0f). + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f).cbPath = 30.0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . } GetCMOSDate(&date). aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). break. break. case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". case 1: pSt = "End of file". case 201: pSt = "No such drive". switch (erc) { case 0: return. case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". MMURTL V1. break. break. case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". 0x0f). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). /* Day */ 0x0f). aStatLine.0. cbPath). 0x0f). 0). break. break. break. break. ' '). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). 40. /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". FillData(&aStatLine[47]. case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". break. case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". PutVidChars(0. break. /* year */ 0x0f). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". 30. break. break. case 208: pSt = "File in use". case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). /* month */ 0x0f). case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". STATVID). fUpdatePath = 0. break. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). &aStatLine[47]. char st[40]. *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. FillData(st. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". Sleep(100).

GetXY(&iCol. *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). while (cb) { printf("%08x ".default: sprintf(st. "Error %05d on last command". if (fNew) { iCol = 0. iLine). addr). long cb. pSt = st. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. #asm INT 03 #endasm return. } SetXY(iCol. GetXY(&iCol. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . break. KeyCode. &iLine). i. PutVidChars(0. } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. iLine = 2. MMURTL V1. 80. } printf("%s\r\n". STATVID). aStatLine. erc = 0. unsigned long addr) { U32 erc.0. &iLine). erc). pSt). } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). j.0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . return. } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. unsigned char buff[17]. ClrScr().

if (cb > 15) j=16. &dret). /* ReadKbd. ++iLine. else cb=0. } InitScreen(TRUE). MMURTL V1. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. any other key to continue. l. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. &buff[0]).1). } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. addr+=j. erc = 0.23).1). } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1].0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. printf("%s\r\n". k. 1). 512. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page.1. This expects to find the filename in param[1]."). else j = cb. 1.80. SetXY(0. buff[i] = *pb++. dret. i++) { printf("%02x ". if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. 512. SetXY(0.23. acbParam[1]. } buff[i+1] = 0. &k). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. fh. printf("ESC to cancel. ModeRead.23). for (i=0. } return erc. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. i<j. Buffer. &fh). erc. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. iLine =1. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.*pb).. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. if (!erc) { j=0.. 0).

} if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. &dret). while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. 512. erc. dret. j. } erc = OpenFile(pName.23. Buffer. 1. SetXY(0. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20.23). 0. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. i. i = 1. long cbName) { long i. } SetXY(0. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. SetFileLFA(fh.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. dret. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). Buffer. j<=i. } for (j=0. &fh). 0). return erc. NORMVID). } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. iLine++. lfa. KeyCode. MMURTL V1.1). j). } CloseFile (fh).iLine). *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. cbName.80. else l=k-j. j+=512. lfa+i). erc = ReadBytes (fh. iLine. fh. erc = 0. dret = 1. 78.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS .1. &lfa).

mi.se. "%02d-%02d-%02d". } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n".23). ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. erc.mi.mo. 8).0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . Use block mode for speed. MMURTL V1.yr). U16 date.da. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). fhFrom.mo. bytesGot. printf("ESC to cancel. CopyData(st.1900.. 8).").if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . return erc. pTimeRet. sprintf(st. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. pDateRet.hr. 1). } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). This uses a conservative 4K buffer.hr. U32 cbFrom. SetXY(0. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking. char *pTo. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. bytesWant. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time. "%02d:%02d:%02d". char st[15]. if (yr > 99) yr -=100. any other key to continue. erc). iLine =1. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5..se). CopyData(st. U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11.1). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. /* ReadKbd.da. This is used by the directory listing. InitScreen(TRUE). } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS. sprintf(st. char *pTimeRet. da = date & 0x001F. bytesLeft. CloseFile (fh).

} MMURTL V1. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). dLFA. &size). } CloseFile(fhTo). cbTo. ModeRead. dLFA. &fhTo). erc = OpenFile(pFrom. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. else bytesWant = bytesLeft. } dLFA += bytesGot. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. /* ReadKbd. 1). } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. bytesWant. if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. dLFA. } return(erc). KeyCode. 0. 0. bytesGot. &fhFrom). ModeModify. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). bytesLeft = size. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. &bytesGot).0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512.bytesOut. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. 0). dLFA = 0. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. size. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. bigBuf. size). bigBuf. &bytesOut). cbFrom. cbTo.

. dirent[i]. fDone = TRUE."). U32 SectNum. printf("%s". SetXY(0. SectNum). if (!erc) { for (i=0. } InitScreen(TRUE).FileSize.1. dirent[i]. dirent[i]. } } } MMURTL V1. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. printf("ESC to cancel. dirent[i].1). &st[24]). dirent[i]. char st[78].Name[0]) { erc = 1. any other key to continue. } if ((dirent[i]. iLine++. 512. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. 1). KeyCode. SectNum = 0. SetXY(0. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]. erc.Time.23).80.Date. *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone.23). i.StartClstr). fDone = 1.23.Name. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. } fDone = 0. iLine =1. st). if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0.Attr. acbParam[1].Ext../********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS .Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st.1). dirent[i]. &st[33].Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. &dirent[0]. i<16. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". /* ReadKbd.

iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. iPrm<nParamsMax. iPrm. SectNum++. for (iPrm=0. j. rawline[90]. k.. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++.} else fDone = TRUE. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. If it finds it.. *f. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. iCmd++. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. cmdline[90]. } return(erc). **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. The format for a line entry in Commands. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. MMURTL V1. fdone. i.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++.

/* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '.cmdline[0] = 0. 89. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. runfile[k] = 0.CLI not found. return(1). /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. "r"). /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. rawline.') /* a comment line */ continue. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. cmdline). /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. } } else printf("Commands.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . cmdline[j] = 0. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). /* now move arguments if any.\r\n"). while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. return(0). f = fopen(cmdpath. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. acbParam[0]). if (f) { fdone = 0. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0.

acbParam[0]).RUN file in the current path. SetCmdLine(aCmd. erc = OpenFile(runfile. ModeRead. ModeRead.CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. } MMURTL V1. runfile. i = strlen(runfile). ModeRead. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). acbParam[0]). SetExitJob(clipath. we then go to COMMANDS. cbCmd). If so. erc. If we don't find one. SetCmdLine(aCmd. strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). cbCmd).RUN"). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. 0). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). syspath). strlen(clipath)). erc = Chain(runfile. strcat(runfile. &fh). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). if it's not there. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). strlen(clipath)). long i. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. erc = Chain(runfile.0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . strlen(runfile). cbCmd). } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. we first look for a . erc = OpenFile(runfile. strlen(clipath)). 0). 1. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. fh. ". 0). strlen(runfile). &fh). we go to the system directory. SetCmdLine(aCmd. strlen(runfile). ". &fh). CopyData(apParam[0]. erc = Chain(runfile. 1. strlen(runfile). 1. } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile.RUN"). SetExitJob(clipath. SetExitJob(clipath. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. &runfile[i].When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0].

Note: No params to CLI.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1=B. &cbPath)."CLI. syspath[1] = ':'.CLI"). strcat(hlppath. fh.CLI"). SetJobName("CLI V1."COMMANDS. */ cbPath = 0. SpawnTask(&StatTask."HELP. syspath). i. sdisk &= 0x7F. and help file. InitScreen(FALSE)./********************************************** Main function entry point. erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). syspath). /* 0=A. strcpy(cmdpath. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. iLine). strcpy(clipath. syspath). 2=C etc. sdisk += 0x41. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. strcat(syspath. SetXY(0. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. strcat(cmdpath. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. syspath[2] = 0. 0). 0. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &iLine). "\\MMSYS\\"). JobNum). We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. 8).RUN"). MMURTL V1. 24. "%02d". ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. strcpy(hlppath. syspath). strcat(clipath. GetPath(JobNum. j. aPath. } else { strcpy (aPath. command file. &StatStack[255].0".

switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). NORMVID). EditLine(aCmd. &fh). acbParam[2]).cbPath = strlen(syspath). if (!erc) MMURTL V1. InitScreen(TRUE). } i++. SetPath(syspath. &cbCmd. &ExitChar. else erc = ErcBadParams. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. strlen(syspath)). j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. 1. 79. TTYOut (">".0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). CmdNum = 0. acbParam[1]. aCmd[79] = 0. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. 2. break. 79. strlen(clipath)). break. ' '). SetExitJob(clipath. } fUpdatePath = 1. acbParam[1]. if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). acbParam[0] = 0. break. EDVID). } erc = 0. apParam[0] = 0. TTYOut ("\r\n". case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. 0. cbCmd = 0. NORMVID). paCmds[i]. &iLine). cbCmd. GetXY(&iCol. 1. SetXY(0. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. iLine). break. if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). apParam[2].

0. aPath. SetVidOwner(1). break. break. acbParam[2]). break. acbParam[1]. if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. acbParam[1]). acbParam[1]. 0). ExitJob(0). &cbPath). acbParam[1]). break. 0. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". break. SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(hlppath)).erc = DeleteFile(fh). case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. GPMsg). 0. fUpdatePath = 1. break. GPExch. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). break. &GPHndl. break. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. 1. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. break. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). acbParam[1]). 0). case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. break. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1].0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 0). } break. if (!erc) printf("Done. 4. cbCmd-i). 0. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). apParam[2]. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. MMURTL V1. 0. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. default: break.\r\n"). acbParam[1]). SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. break. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". break. else erc = ErcBadParams. strlen(clipath)).

The top line provides continuous status information. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM. &iLine). and typing mode (Insert or Overtype).} CheckErc(erc).1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.1. status and error display. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). The last line is used for data entry. Table 16. What's On the CD-ROM. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections.2. SetXY(0.23. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. } GetXY(&iCol.80. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands. The next 23 lines are the text editing area. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line).1).0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . See Appendix A.23). current filename.

4 . File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.2.2 is the editor source code.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.h" MMURTL V1.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData. Editor Source Code /* Edit.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service. Listing 16.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.h> #include <string.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 16.h> #include <ctype.

0. U32 oBufBound. long cbFilename.sLine-1 */ U32 iLine.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. b1. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. /* sBuf . U32 iTabNorm. U32 iColMax. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. /* cursor. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. char aCmd[80]. U8 *pBufWork. struct EditRecType EdRec. U8 fVisible. U32 iAttrMark.. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. U32 iAttrNorm.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. char *apParam[13]. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. char *pBuf1. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. U32 sLine. unsigned char b.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . fh. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. char aStat1[80]. 0. char aStat[80]. U32 iRowMax. /* cursor. U8 bSpace. struct EditRecType *pEdit. unsigned char filler[100].1 */ U32 iColMin. void clearbuf(void). }. char fModified. char fOvertype.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13].h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd..h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. long erc. *pBuf2.

} /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. st. } for (i=0. STATVID). case 3: sprintf(st. Beep(). erc). %05d occured on WriteBytes". "Error break. %05d occured on SetFileSize". %05d occured on OpenFile". 0). "Error break. } return (erc). case 5: sprintf(st. %05d occured on ReadBytes". "Error break. case 7: sprintf(st. FillData(st. long erc) { char st[40]. default: sprintf(st. If fClose. *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. If fPrompt is true. 80. erc). "Error break. PutVidChars (0. erc). 24. } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. i<40. %05d occured on CreateFile". "Error break. long i. case 2: sprintf(st. erc). switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. "Error break. this will prompt you to save. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". 24. case 4: sprintf(st. NORMVID). 40. "Error break. 80. if (erc) { FillData(st. %05d occured on last command". PutVidChars (40. erc). erc). 39.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . %05d occured on ReadKbd". the file will be closed MMURTL V1. erc). st. erc). 0). case 6: sprintf(st.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. "Error break.

keycode. i <=pEdit->iBufMax.. } } MMURTL V1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.and the buffer will be closed. ReadKbd(&keycode. SetFileSize(fh. 10. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. STATVID). if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. fModified = 0. WriteBytes (fh. 1). if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). TTYOut("This file has been modified. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. ClearStatus().0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0)). BLACK|BGCYAN). PutVidChars (0. int fClose) { U32 i. SetXY(0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. 43. fh = 0. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). cbFilename = 0. Sleep(150). SetFileLFA(fh. 24). pEdit->oBufLast. &i)). } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. } fYes = 1. pEdit->oBufLast)). ". fYes.. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. "DONE. unsigned char *pBuff. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. 24. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. pBuf1. ClearStatus(). clearbuf(). ClearStatus().

erc = 0. 24). "Filename: ". 10. SetXY(50. 1). &cbFilename. Create?? (Y/N)".24). if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. filesize. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). keycode. MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. pBuf1. SetXY(0. ModeModify. TTYOut("File is too large to edit.". &fh)). } else { b1=0x0d. ModeModify.24. pEdit->oBufLast = dret. 24). &fh). cbFilename. ReadKbd(&keycode. ReadKbd(&keycode. 1. 1. PutVidChars (0./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. else erc = 0. Beep(). cbFilename = 0. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. strncpy(Filename. erc). cbFilename. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. OpenFile(Filename. cbFilename = strlen(Filename). 13). EditLine(Filename.0). If not. it will prompts to create. 60. SetXY(10. &filesize). BLACK|BGCYAN). if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. BLACK|BGCYAN). 1). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4.24). &dret). if (!name) { SetXY(0. 0)). cbFilename. /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). 0. dret. &b1. 26. BLACK|BGCYAN). 29. SetXY(50. TTYOut("Doesn't exist. name.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . CreateFile(Filename. BLACK|BGWHITE). fh = 0.

} /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. } } else CheckErc(1. iEolMax. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. return(nEols). *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } else { cbFilename = 0. unsigned char *pBuff. *pBuff. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). i = 0. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. i. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. nEols = 0. cbFilename = 0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. ClearStatus(). even though we word wrap always. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol.if (erc) { fh = 0. erc). iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for.

i = 0. */ iEol = iEolMax.1. iEol = iBuf. j. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart ..iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. } } return(iEol). if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. char *pBuff. if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++..allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. /* now find first non-space . } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.

if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.pEdit->Line[iLn]. iColFinish . iLn. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . pEdit->iColMax .pEdit->Line[iLn]. iLn.pEdit->Line[iLn] . } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. MMURTL V1.0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iColFinish. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pEdit->iAttrNorm). i = (findEol (j)) + 1. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart.1. } while (i < oBufStart). PutVidAttrs (iColStart. iBoundLoc. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. iLn. iColStart-pEdit->iColMin.iColStart +1. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. if (i) i++.iColFinish. pEdit->iAttrMark). return(j). if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. iMarkLoc. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark.i--. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc .

} /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. fModified = 1. } } } else { fOK = 0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufInsert++. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. erc = 40400. cb). char fOK. pEdit->oBufLast++. CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. } return (fOK). char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->sLine. pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->iAttrNorm).pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. Beep(). cb). *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. char fOvertype.iLn. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. *pBuff. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn.

iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert.0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. iMk.iMk. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .pEdit->oBufInsert . i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. char *pBuff.iBd . if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. for (i=0. for (i=0. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0.iBd + iMk . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } } } else Beep(). iBd. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. i<=iMk . i <=iBd-iMk. *pBuffWork. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i].void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0.1.1. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. iBd. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk.1. i<=iBd-iMk. i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->oBufInsert . MMURTL V1. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.

} } } else Beep().iMk + 1. pEdit->sLine. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. *pBuffWork.pEdit->oBufInsert+1). *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . (hides it). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. i.iMk + 1. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufLast . if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin.0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.iMk.char *pBuff. pBuffWork. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufLast+1). } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. iBd-iMk+1). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1.

if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.iBd + iMk.might be off screen . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i.1. j. *pBuffWork.normAttr (). } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). &pBuff[iMk]. else fProb = FALSE. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. char fProb.iBd + iMk . } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block.if it is. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. i = pEdit->iRowMin. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. iBd. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . } nullMarkBound (). pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). iMk. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert . if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. char *pBuff.

pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol .1. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert .pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. j = pEdit->iLine.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* get to potential insert . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax.pEdit->iColMin. if prev char <> CR. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. /* if bogus line. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. } } MMURTL V1. j = pEdit->iLine.i++. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. } i = pEdit->iLine. i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iLine = i .is. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. i.

i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. iLn. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). i<=k.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. oBuf. else for (j=i+1. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. MMURTL V1./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. */ for (i = k. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. k = pEdit->iRowMax. j<NLINESMAX. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. j. cb. k.

if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. doMark (iLn).0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. FillData(filler. /* Make size. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. pBuff+oBuf. MMURTL V1. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.1.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. cb. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. char *pBuff. i = pEdit->iRowMin. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. 80. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. iLn. cb = i .oBuf + 1. /* oBufInsert on screen . Called before use and after closure. pFiller. iLn.char *pBuff. oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. for (i=0. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. makeOnScreen (). i<NLINESMAX. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. 0x20). iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. pEdit->sLine-cb. pEdit->iAttrNorm).

} else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. sprintf(aStat. nullMarkBound(). *pBuffWork.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . fDone = FALSE."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". char *pBuff.fModified = 0. normAttr (). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. j. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). normAttr (). pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. 0x20). It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. for (i=0. pEdit->oBufLast). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. key. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. pEdit->iLine). char fSpecInsert. fScreen = FALSE. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. fOvertype = FALSE. unsigned char b. 80. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. erc = AllocExch(&exch). pEdit->oBufLast = 0. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. FillData(aStat. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. long exch. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. k. i. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iCol.

case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. break. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. coordCursor_oBuf (). break.Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR".End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. break.Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. break.CopyData(Filename. ReadKbd (&key. aStat.Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1)). case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . 0. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. 80. else CopyData("INS". 3). b = key & 0xff. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. fSpecInsert = FALSE. &aStat[40]. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iLine. &aStat[77]. i = pEdit->iLine. coordCursor_oBuf (). STATVID).CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. &aStat[77]. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . fScreen = TRUE. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow .Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. fScreen = TRUE. 3). cbFilename). PutVidChars (0. break. TRUE). break.

} } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. break. default: break. break. OpenAFile(0). } else { for (i=0. fDone = TRUE. i = pEdit->iLine+1.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. } break. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. fScreen = TRUE.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS .Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. TRUE). FALSE). case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. } fScreen = TRUE. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData ().pEdit->Line[i]. break. break. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE.SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x53: /* ALT S . pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. } break. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20.

if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE.} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if (!(putInBuf (b. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). default: break. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. fSpecInsert))) Beep(). fScreen = TRUE.1. MMURTL V1. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLast+1). break.0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . break.1.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. pBuffWork. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). findCursor (). fOvertype. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace.

if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. for (i=1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace.1. MMURTL V1.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. j = pEdit->iTabNorm . if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast .Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. case 0x10: /* F2 -.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf ().0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . fModified = TRUE. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast . FALSE). fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. case 0x06: /* Home . } break. break. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. i = pEdit->iLine. i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x12: /* F4 -. } break. } break.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf ().(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). case 0x11: /* F3 -.1. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf ().1. break. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . i <=j.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). } break. FALSE.Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x17: /* F9 . moveData ().

i = pEdit->oBufLine0. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. coordCursor_oBuf (). /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i).break. case 0x18: /* F10 . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. CopyIt (). j--. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. } break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf ().COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } } break. break. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). break. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. k--.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . j = pEdit->iRowMax . while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. fScreen = TRUE. k = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. i = pEdit->iRowMax. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. fScreen = TRUE.pEdit->iRowMin.

} fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iCol = i. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. } break. j = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufLast+1). fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). default: MMURTL V1. } } break.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. } break.pEdit->iLine++. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. pEdit->iLine = j. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). i = pEdit->iCol. } break. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. coordCursor_oBuf (). } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. fModified = TRUE. pBuffWork. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. else fOvertype = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLast--. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--.

131071. &i)).1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*sBuf . erc = AllocPage(32. fh = 0. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. fModified = 0. 0)). WriteBytes (fh. pBuf1. pEdit = &EdRec. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. } CloseFile(fh). 0x20. pBuf2. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. U8 *argv[]) { long i. i. pEdit->oBufLast. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). ClrScr().0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. } *pbExitRet = b. 1. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. SetFileLFA(fh. 0). pEdit->sLine+1. SetFileSize(fh. SetJobName("Editor". i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. erc = AllocPage(32. 23. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. 6). cbFilename = 0.pEdit->oBufLast)). i <=pEdit->iRowMax. return. 0. &pBuf2). 79. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. 80. and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. &pBuf1).break. FALSE.

80. 0.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY.. EDVID. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. Listing 16. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob. 0x20). 0. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. ExitJob(0). } Editor(&b). 0..h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. EMPTY.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler.h> #include <string. 0.3. struct statRecC com. i = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. 4. i<NLINESMAX.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver. fModified = 0. MMURTL V1.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid.sLine-1 */ cursor. 0.h> #include <ctype. for (i=0. 0. fOvertype = FALSE. i. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . EMPTY.

The structure is defined in commdrv. ClrScr(). com. /* View other params which we could set. ExitJob(erc). erc). CmdOpenC. } /* set the params in the block */ com.0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". if (erc) { MMURTL V1. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. dLBA. but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. com.IOBase). 0. %d\r\n". com. com. /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. 64. = 8. %d\r\n". SetNormVid(NORMVID). dOpNum.XBufSize). &com.RBufSize). NO_PAR. erc). %d\r\n". 0. %d\r\n". if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). &com.IRQNum). lastb. we open the comms port */ /* device.Baudrate com. char fOK. com. printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n".RTimeOut).parity = com. ClrScr(). %d\r\n". printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. com. &i). dnBlocks.unsigned char b. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 64). ExitJob(erc).h */ erc = DeviceStat(6.databits com. = 1. Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). } /* If device init went OK. &i). ClrScr().stopbits = 9600.XTimeOut).

ExitJob(erc). dnBlocks. NORMVID). else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A.. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". CmdCloseC. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". 0. CmdWriteB. } } else { /* device. dOpNum. erc).\r\n"). dOpNum. 0. CmdReadB. &b). &b). erc = DeviceOp(6. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". &b). 0. 0. SetNormVid(CLIVID). 1. 0. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6.. dLBA. NORMVID). CmdWriteB. break. 0. default: break. /* This is it. 0. dOpNum. ClrScr().. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. } } } MMURTL V1.SetNormVid(CLIVID). fOK = 1.0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS .. ClrScr(). */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. lastb = b. 0. dLBA. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. } } } } /* device. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. dLBA. &i). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. dnBlocks. dnBlocks. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. 1. if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. ExitJob(erc).

h> <stdio. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key. Listing 16.4.Display the file while printing \F .h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.2. fBinary = 0.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device.h" "\OSSource\MTimer.h> <stdlib. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.h" "\OSSource\MJob. That's the intention of the design. FILE *f. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). struct statRecL lpt. char name[80].h" "\OSSource\MKbd. NoFF = 0.4 or 8) \D .Binary print. Send with no translations. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1. fDisplay = 0.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver.h" "\OSSource\Parallel. In listing 16. col = 0.h> <string.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B .4.h" "\OSSource\MVid. long long long long long tabstops = 4. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n .h> <ctype.

0x30. exit(1).No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. } MMURTL V1. exit(1). case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. char fdone. printf("/B Binary print. case 'B' : /* BINARY . case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. argv[i]. printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). break. cl. 79). break. break. default: printf("Invalid switch").void main(long argc. NO translation. no FF\r\n\n"). break. SetJobName("Printing". *ptr. i < argc. Version 1. for(i=1. 8). printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). erck. break. i. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). unsigned char b. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc.Tab stop translation value\r\n"). lastb. printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . name[0] = 0.0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n").0\r\n").

cl = fgetc(f). } printf("Printing %s . b = 0. lastb = b.. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. ExitJob(erc). -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". ExitJob(erc). name). &lpt. 0. dLBA. dOpNum. 0. if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". dnBlocks. "r"). name). &i). 64. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. CmdOpenL. */ erc = DeviceStat(3. The structure is defined in parallel. } col = 0.\r\n". printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". 0. */ f = fopen(name. b = (cl & 0xff). erc). dOpNum. fdone = 0.0 1. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. ExitJob(erc). i = 0. dnBlocks. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. we open the printer port */ /* device. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. 0. &i). CmdCloseLU. } else { MMURTL V1. 0. &i). /* This is it. dLBA... } /* If device status went OK. if (!f) { /* device. erc). &lastb).h We do this just to see if it's a valid device./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver.. CmdWriteB.

1. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. &b). 0. 0. &i). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. /* device. CmdWriteB.switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. 1. %d\r\n". col++. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. break. "\f"). 0). erc = 4. b). erc). 0. break. 1. 1. CmdWriteB. dOpNum. } fclose(f). CmdWriteB. if (erc) MMURTL V1. " "). CmdWriteB. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). 1. erc = DeviceOp(3. } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. CmdCloseL. &lastb). /* reset */ break. &b). } while (col % tabstops). 0. col = 0.0 1. dnBlocks. 0. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. col++. -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . } erc = DeviceOp(3. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. CmdWriteB. dLBA. 0. lastb). } } &b). CmdWriteB. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c".

printf("Done\r\n"). Error: %d\r\n". Service.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc).printf("Can't close LPT.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2]. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. “Systems Programming. keycode. ErrorToUser. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. run the TestSvc. While this program is running. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl.RUN program to exercise the service.h> "\OSSource\MKernel. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. MMURTL V1. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. Listing 16.h" "\OSSource\MVid. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.h" "\OSSource\MJob.” It has been expanded some. long *pDataRet. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. ExitJob(erc).5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service.

} DeAllocExch(MainExch).if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). 0. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). 4. /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". 1.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS .. SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK).\r\n"). Respond(pRqBlk. MainExch. } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. ErrorToUser). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. 0. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed.. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. Message). /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). *pDataRet = NextNumber++. 0. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). &keycode. &rqHndl. ClrScr().\r\n". } pRqBlk = Message[0]. OSError). printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. ErcNoSuchSvc). while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. MainExch). 0). 1. /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. NextNumber-1).\r\n"). /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0].

\r\n". rqhndl. Exch.\r\n". 0. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1.0.h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel. 4. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange.\r\n". else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. Error = Request("NUMBERS ". Execute this from a CLI while the service is running.\r\n". /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. Error). 0.C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. Error = AllocExch(&Exch). Listing 16. if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. 0. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. Message[1]). unsigned long Message[2]. 1. void main(void) { unsigned long Error.0). You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. Error). } } DeAllocExch(Exch). Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. unsigned long Exch. TestSvc.h" unsigned long Number. Message). &rqhndl. Error).C Listing The program in listing 16. if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS . Number).\r\n".6. 0.6 exercises the sample system service listed previously.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. Also try it when the service is not running.

ASM . The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. By including the comments. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. All source files are located in one directory. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor. There are also header files for the C source. MPublics. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right.. but it is not used by the processor. MAIN. The ordering for MMURTL V1. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them.This is the first assembler file that contains code.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. This is the first file in the source. Also some data is defined here. which means its data will be at the lowest address.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). MOSGDT. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. however. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules.ASM . sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. In fact.This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed).This is also a table. and structures together. Quite a few of them. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. You may find some of the source files rather large. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. MOSPDR. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. In fact. This file should be left in the order I have it in.ASM . You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function.. I hope I’ve met this goal. the human becomes a compiler of sorts.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler.Chapter 17. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. The GDT is 6K in size. and used by the processor. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. as you look through the code. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. use the stack just as a compiler would. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (.). because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. common variables. I just expend the time up front instead of later. It helps me think. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). MOSIDT.ASM .ASM .

JobCode.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() .C . It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. MemCode. It's not very pretty.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver.C .ASM . so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will.Request block management code is in this file. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file. DMACode.ASM . if needed.ASM .C . SVCCode. Keyboard.This file is the debugger disassembler. how much to move.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa.In many systems. when a device driver writers need DMA. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled. Keyboard.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC.ASM .C .C are contained in this file. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.ASM . but I don't have any more to test it. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work. and it works rather well.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. You have to see what you're doing. and the mode. even in the earliest stages of a project. but can be modified for four.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. If you have MFM drives. Video. I was surprised.This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system.the remainder of the modules is not as important.ASM .C . FSys. MiscCode. This file has routines that handle DMA for you.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service.The simple parallel port driver is contained here. someday). Debugging a debugger is even less fun. Device driver writers will appreciate this. It supports the 16550. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions.ASM .The code memory allocation.are in this file. they must handle it themselves. NumCnvrt.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . but you never know where to put. Floppy.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need.ASM . I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either. undoubtedly. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. IntCode.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file.ASM .C . You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. Debugger.ASM . you're on your own.ASM . UASM.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers. It drives two channels. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. is in this file. This is one complicated driver.C . It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. Parallel.ASM was one of the first files written.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. DevDrvr. On the other hand. as well as port I/O support. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. but it's effective and accurate. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. RQBCode. RS232. It think it still works with MFM drives. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps). TmrCode. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. JobC. HardIDE. MMURTL V1.ASM . You only need to know the channel.

. Keyboard ISR and Service .Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1. Indirect calling address table .5 minutes on a 486/33. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28.ASM . The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).ASM . This takes about 1.5 Pages.INCLUDE Video.INCLUDE MPublics. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28. a C source file and must be compiled first with . Main OS code and some data & START address .ASM . you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL. Video code and data MMURTL V1. An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . and the DASM assembler (also included). You could replace quite easily.” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces). Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. specify /E on the command line after the name. 6K) .Kernel. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.ASM . but it really isn't part of the operating system.ASM . This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. .ASM . CM32 (no switches needed). DASM produces the operating system RUN file.INCLUDE MOSPDR. Except. Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table .Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. If you want an error file. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor.INCLUDE MOSGDT.The monitor program is contained in this file.ASM .ATF It's truly that simple.ASM . OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) .BAT) will build the entire operating system.C After all the C source files are compiled. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL.INCLUDE Keyboard.0 . /L on the command line after the name.0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS . InitCode. Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files.ASM . Assembler Template File .This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! .DATA . It provides a lot of the OS functionality. Monitor.All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. .INCLUDE MOSIDT.C .1. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM.ASM . Listing 17.INCLUDE MAIN.

ASM InitCode. you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments . .INCLUDE . Otherwise. ..INCLUDE .INCLUDE . Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files. The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.INCLUDE . I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way.INCLUDE . The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system.ASM Kernel. .ASM RS232.ASM DevDrvr. CM32 packs all structure fields completely.INCLUDE . You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures.* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc.ASM UASM.INCLUDE . For instance.ASM NumCnvrt. .* . MMURTL V1.* . The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language. use another compiler for your project. .INCLUDE .* .INCLUDE . The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.ASM DMACode.INCLUDE . .* .0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM Floppy. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention.ASM HardIDE.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . code (string. In fact.ASM RQBCode.ASM . . .ASM MiscCode.* :* . it is placed into the code segment in that order. As each piece of code is assembled.ASM FSys. This is one thing you should watch. you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier). You will. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies. If your C compiler allows it.* .code and data.ASM MemCode.INCLUDE . but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.INCLUDE .ASM Parallel.INCLUDE . the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler. .array.INCLUDE .C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort. .INCLUDE .ASM Except.ASM Monitor.INCLUDE .ASM IntCode. This is because DASM doesn't support structures. no doubt. . .ASM JOBC. you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack.I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one.ASM SVCCode. .ASM JobCode.END Debugger. and they will work fine. CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding.INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular.ASM TmrCode.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . you can take the file system code (FSYS.INCLUDE .

the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. See listing 18. Being an old "structured" programmer.INCLUDE . The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). the scheduler. The bulk of them are in the file Main. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them. so I could get to them with the monitor program. job control blocks. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. Kernel data segment source . For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications.INC RQB. and offsets into structures and tables. These all change with respect to the task that is running. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady).1. These are things such as the task state segments. I think it will make more sense to you. Listing 18. a single underscore will be prepended to the name.INCLUDE .Chapter 18.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables.INC JOB. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. The actual message handling functions. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C).ASM.1. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives.INCLUDE . two underscores will be prepended to the name. local helper functions. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations. and memory management tables.INC TSS.INC DD 0 . Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.DATA .0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . internal public functions. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). and kernel publics functions.

The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. and if a task is waiting there. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). It's not that the routines are called so often.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. for example. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. and therefore. pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead].FLAGS . This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. This is strictly a speed issue.EDX. REGISTERS : EAX. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. OUTPUT : NONE . This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.ESI. which means interrupts must be cleared.2. and exchanges. This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . . In MMURTL. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: .0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS .. See listing 18. and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. 0 . I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. Listing 18.EAX .2. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. pointed to by the ESI register. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. 0 . XCHG ESI. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. pExch => EAX. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. .Next <= NIL. JZ eqMsgDone . This is important. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. MODIFIES : EDX .EAX . Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . is coded in-line. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. OR EAX.EAX . link blocks. When a message is sent to an exchange. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. .CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. pLBin^. if . INPUT : ESI.

deMsgDone: RETN .msg.ESI .ESI . deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. EAX . As stated before.ESI . . Listing 18.4... De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: .head and EBX . exchanges can hold messages or tasks.FLAGS .. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.MsgTail <= pLBin. 1 . EAX . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the . If not.MsgTail^. If not. If not. . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.NextLB <= pLBin. Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . 1 .ESI. MMURTL V1.3.JNE eqMNotNIL .Next. then MOV [EAX+EHead]. MOV EAX. JZ deMsgDone . but not both. deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone .MsgHead^. Get Msg Flag OR EAX. .[ESI+EHead] .MsgHead. . MOV [EDX+NextLB].[EAX+ETail] . If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. MOV EBX.ESI . if pLBout = NIL then Return. OR EAX. . No! (return 0) MOV EAX. You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS .. INPUT : ESI . See listing 18. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. OUTPUT : EAX .. MOV [EAX+ETail].ESI . . ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. MOV [ESI+EHead].3. REGISTERS : EAX.[EAX+NextLB] .MsgHead <= pLBin. . MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI].[ESI+fEMsg] . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.ESI .EBX..EBX . See listing 18. . you return NIL (0).MsgHead <= . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. pLBout <= .. MOV [EAX+ETail].MsgTail <= pLBin. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN .

. MOV [ESI+EHead]. XOR EAX. deTSSDone: RETN . MOV EBX. JZ eqRdyDone . enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. REGISTERS : EAX. Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: . See listing 18. if pTSSout = NIL then Return. register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX.TSSHead. This . Listing 18. OUTPUT : NONE .Next <= NIL. pTSSout <= .RdyQ . .EAX .EBX . if pTSS = NIL then return. This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue.EDX. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. INC _nReady . MODIFIES : EAX. algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority..TSSHead <= . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS].4. . OR EAX.EDX . EBX JNZ deTSSDone .[ESI+EHead] .EBX.EBX . one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL. .5. EAX . MODIFIES : EAX. 0 .EBX. Priority => EAX..EBX .Next. OR EAX. Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX.FLAGS . It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX. 3 . .EBX .TSSHead^.[EAX+Priority] . OUTPUT : EAX . REGISTERS : EAX. You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. . The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists.EBX. XOR EBX. Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. . Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI .[EAX+NextTSS] . pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX.Listing 18. JZ deTSSDone . . De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . if Head = NIL MMURTL V1.5..FLAGS .EAX . INPUT : ESI . in EBX XCHG EAX. head & tail per QUEUE). pTSSin^. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers. get the priority MOV BL. .ESI. INPUT : EAX .EDX . 0 .[ESI+fEMsg] .0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS .

sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. . . IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. OUTPUT : EAX . . EAX is returned as NIL. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. REGISTERS : EAX..[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS]. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. .Tail <= pTSSin. MODIFIES : RdyQ .FLAGS .nPRI .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . this returns NIL (0). . .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. . See listing 18.Tail <= pTSSin. . RETURN Otherwise. .Tail^. . Listing 18. Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . . .EBX. Keep in mind. .ECX. else . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. .JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head]. This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . If there was no task queued. . . De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: .EBX eqRdyDone: RETN .RdyQ . EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX. .. that 0 is the highest priority.6. . MOV ECX. MMURTL V1.ECX deRdyDone: RETN .[EBX] OR EAX. .NextTSS <= pTSSin. deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . . and 31 is the lowest. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. . then ..Head <= pTSSin. queued on the RdyQ.EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. INPUT : NONE .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX]. If none is found.6.. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX. The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list.

" See Listing 18. This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode.8. Listing 18. Listing 18. EAX is returned as NIL. They are located in Kernel. Point to the next Priority Queue .EBX.sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN .7. check the next priority. OUTPUT : EAX . "It's a nasty job. MOV ECX. .0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . is queued to run. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. If there was no task queued. See listing 18. . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX.ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. .7. . This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. . .FLAGS . without actually removing it from the queue.RdyQ . When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. . . It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. MODIFIES : RdyQ .[EBX] OR EAX. INPUT : NONE . Removing a terminated task from the ready queue .ASM because they work closely with kernel structures. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .ECX.nPRI .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. This why it's specified as PUBLIC. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. . Get pTSSout in EAX . EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . REGISTERS : EAX. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation.8. but someone's got to it. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX.

0 . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . a job. pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. EDI OR EAX. . . No error .EBX . [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. Yes.pFreeTSS . INC _nTSSLeft . Make EAX point to new head TSS . RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. MODIFIES : RdyQ . PUSH EBP . . . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . deQueue the TSS .RdyQ .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.nPRI . MOV ECX. . EDI PUSH EBX . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . EDI ADD EBX. REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed .Next <= pFreeTSS.ESP . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. No MOV EDI. Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . . MOV [EAX+NextTSS].EAX . . All done (clean stack) . Point to the next Priority Queue . . OUTPUT : NONE . . .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EBP. POP EBX MOV EAX. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. Procedureal Interface : .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. pTSSin^.Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. Is it Zero? . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. 0 . EAX OR EAX. Fix link in Queue list . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue ..

INC _nTSSLeft .Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . . See listing 18.EAX points to crnt TSS . SetExchOwner().This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. No. .Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI.Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. Listing 18. char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1.0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX. pTSSin^. . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. .EDI points to prev TSS . The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. . Yes. This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. ESI PUSH EBX . EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. . ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program.EAX . deQueue the TSS .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.EBX .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. This is not so if it's for a new job. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB].9. Next Queue please . [EAX+NextTSS] . . POP . . Next TSS . .Next <= pFreeTSS. ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 .Yes. .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. Finding the owner of an exchange .pFreeTSS . Trash it. . 0 . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. .9.Jump the removed link . These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). This function is used with the next one. back to check next at head of list .JMP RemRdy0 .

ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No.0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . continue Yes. ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. .nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX.10. . . . Changing the owner of an exchange . . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . . . See listing 18. . . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch .ESP MOV EAX.. Exch is . . . is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). . Exch . char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. pJCBRet . Valid Exch (Allocated) . [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. . . SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). . . EAX XOR EAX.Where to return pJCB of Exchange . MMURTL V1.prgExch ADD EDX. . . No. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch. [EBP+12] CMP EAX.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . .10. pJCBRet the exchange number. . . EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. not allocated . Listing 18. . mentioned previously. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX.EAX MOV EAX. .

. .11. . The error it returns is of no consequence. Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . . . .ESP MOV ESI. .0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . . other services.11. . .OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. . Listing 18.nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. . EBX XOR EAX. . . the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. .. . .prgExch ADD EAX. The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself.ESP MOV EAX. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). or the operating system itself. telling them that a particular job has died. Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. We ignore the kernel errors. [EBP+12] MOV EDX. . If a program sent a request. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. Get the address of rgSVC . . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). If a service is holding a request from the job that died.EDX MOV EBX. . . pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . Notifying services of a job’s demise . . . Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. . EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . See listing 18. it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX.

NO.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .dData1 PUSH 0 .Abort Service Code MOV EAX. A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it.pData1 PUSH 0 .CMP DWORD PTR [ESI]. Request kernel primitive code . and code for it is in the file SVCCode. 0 JE SAB05 .Next Service name . Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive.pData0 PUSH 0 .12. . .Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . The function that searches the array is GetExchange(). A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model. [EBP+12] . Listing 18. sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX. Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates.cbData1 MOV EAX. Valid name? . The procedural interface to Request looks like this: . next service PUSH ESI . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.pHandleRet PUSH 0 .pName PUSH 0 .npSend PUSH 0 . These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate.asm.Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk .12. The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block. [EBP+8] .JobNum PUSH EAX . . EAX MOV ESP.0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS .Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI .Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI.cbData0 PUSH 0 . except this function requires several more parameters. See listing 18. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. These are functions such as GetPriority().dData0 PUSH 0 .

continue Yes. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0]. [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX.put . EAX MOV EAX.Get . [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode].Get .pServiceName CALL GetExchange .Get .Get . .Get . ..Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB .ESP .put . Sorry. ErcNoMoreRqBlks .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.No JMP ReqEnd .EAX . [EBP+56] . Save the Previous FramePtr . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2].Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 . . . EAX .No.Put . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch]. ESI MOV EAX. . JMP ReqEnd .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. [EBP+48] CMP EDX. EAX MOV EAX.put ..EBX . .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX. .Validate exchange MOV EDX. EAX MOV EAX. .Yes.Put . . . .Get . dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESI still has the exchange for the service . .0 .EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.put . AX MOV [EBX+RespExch].EDX still has the response exchange .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX. . Req04: .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . Error in EAX register .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- . EAX MMURTL V1.. EAX MOV EAX.Yes. Set up New FramePtr . [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob].Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 . return error Req02: .Put .

pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^. .Number of Send PbCbs . . EAX MOV EAX. . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX.Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) . . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . . [EBP+40] CMP EAX. . Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO.The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it.EBX DEC _nLBLeft .put in RqBlk .EDX ESI. . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1].Ptr to return handle to .put in RqBlk .Next <= NIL. . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. AL [EBX+npRecv].put in RqBlk . 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend].Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user.ESI EDX. EBX .EDX .. . RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].Get cbData2 . EAX MOV EAX.REQLB .. .Get cbData1 . 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. sEXCH EDX EDX.Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX.Give it to them .Must be 2 or less .pFreeLB OR EAX.Next .Leave in CL .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use . .Put npRecv in RqBlk . 2 CL. No interruptions from here on . AL CL.ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.Data PUSH EAX . .prgExch EAX.it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. MOV [EAX+DataLo]. EAX <= pFreeLB.ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX. EAX MOV EAX.MOV EAX. . CL . . EBX MOV EDX. 0 .[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB. Save pLB on the stack . [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2].0 .EAX . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. Store zero in upper half of pLB^. 0 . .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk . pLB^. DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+44] MOV [EDI].Get pData2 . .

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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. CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS .EDX . . . See listing 18.18. MOV ESI.The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. . message should be sent.ercNoMsg MOV ESP. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI .EBP . CheckMsg(exch. .ESI . . Procedureal Interface : .prgExch . in the EAX register. Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX.REQLB MMURTL V1. Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner]. Listing 18.EAX . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories.sEXCH . .ercOutOfRange .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. CheckMsg kernel primitive code . . MOV ESI.ChkExchange . If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . MOV EBP. in the EAX register.18. the return to caller with error MOV EAX. PUSH EBP . return with erc no msg . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 . return to the caller with error MOV EAX.pdqMsg):ercType . . POP EBP . As with WaitMsg().EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. . . 0 . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the .nExch . . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. . Chk01: MOV EAX. . . .We can be interrupted again . Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . A result code is returned in the EAX register. . MOV EDX. RETF 8 .0 -270- . MOV ESP.ercNotAlloc MOV ESP.ESP .

is cbData2 0? .pLB. ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX.Linear Address of PData1 . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.Offset to pData2 in RqBlk .Yes . continue .cbMem . ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX.pMem . . .[EAX+DataLo] .is pData1 NULL? .Set up params for AliasMem . EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP. dJobNum.[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX.Yes .Linear Address of pData1 .DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX.Restore ptr to Link Block . .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 ..is cbData1 0? . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.Return Error. . Get pRqBlk into EBX .Error?? .. dcbMem. [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX. Save ptr to Link Block .Return Error.cbMem .Yes .Set up params for AliasMem . MMURTL V1.Now we set up to alias the memory for the service . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX. .Yes .dJobNum . [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.Make stack right . (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .pMem . continue .is pData2 NULL? .Make stack right . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP. Get pRqBlk into EBX .dJobNum ._AliasMem(pMem.No.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX.Save again ..Second Pointer (pData2) . Treat it as a data link block .JNE Chk04 . . .Error?? . No. .No..Offset to pData1 in RqBlk . . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX. EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.

MOV [EAX+NextLB]. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. MOV pFreeLB. Get pLB^.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] .EAX . This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in. Listing 18. . The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. . or page fault. Procedural interface: .19. ESP. EIP): dErcRet . NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . In future versions.x. Priority.Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . XOR EAX. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. .ErcOK! (0) .Restore Ptr to Link Block .8 for OS. .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. .pCkMessage [EDX]. . . 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] .Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. STI . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs. Exch.ECX . and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation.Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] .pFreeLB .EBX . . stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code.Data in specified memory space (EDX) . For MMURTL version 1.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX. NewTask(JobNum. NewTask kernel primitive code .19.EAX MOV ESP. . .[EAX+DataHi] EDX. See listing 18.Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] .Next <= pFreeLB. pFreeLB <= pLBin.EBX [EDX+4]. CodeSeg. . . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] .ESP MOV EDX.0 . fDebug.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^. . pLBin^.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . INC _nLBLeft .[EAX+DataLo] ECX.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

Exch in range? PUSH EAX .0202h .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX.Next .0 .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS]. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^. .Set up to call GetpJCB .EAX now has pJCB .Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 .Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .pNewTSS into EAX . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. . . [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch].ercOutOfRange NTEnd .put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. ECX. nExch NT0001 EAX..EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg.Save pNewTSS .mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP]. NTS_CS .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].EBX EBX. ECX . NTS_ESP .Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].CX ..we can't be interrupted . .DL .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS. ECX.EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.Set up to call LinToPhy . NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. NTS_Exch ECX.Get Physical Address for PD into EAX . 0 MMURTL V1.pFreeTSS OR EAX. . .ECX now has pJCB .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP]. NTS_EIP .Save pNewTSS again . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.Restore pNewTSS to EAX .ECX MOV EBX.Put pJCB into TSS . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX.EBX .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].No.

BL .Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority].20.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. . See listing 18. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick. As with NewTask(). .Yes . NTS_Pri .Save New TSS . pStack.EAX MOV BX.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .Save time of this switch for scheduler .Move new TSS into pRunTSS .EAX . fDebug.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX. . .0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .pRunTSS .We can't be interrupted MOV EDX. pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] . Listing 18.EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP.ercOk JMP NTEnd .ErcOk MMURTL V1.Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX.Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .New TSS -> EAX .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. .JE NT0004 .EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space.New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs. .20.Get priority of new task CLI . . dPriority. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.CrntTSS -> EAX. SpawnTask(pEntry. New TSS -> EDX . fOSCode). 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it. . SpawnTask kernel primitive code . .Jump to new TSS . Procedural Interface: .

No.mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. EAX .EAX JNZ ST0002 STI . nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.. pStackST .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch].Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.Yup. EAX JNZ STEnd .pFreeTSS OR EAX. .Allocate exchange . .ESP SUB ESP.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .EDX .ercNoMoreTSSs . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. bad news .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].0202h .Next . .PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Priority OK? .pEntryST .EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].we can't be interrupted .see if we got an error . [EBX+TSS_CR3] .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS. JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX. JobCodeSel .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 . 8 CMP dPriST.EBX MOV EBX.EDX MOV EDX. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. ..EBX MOV EBX. NewTSSST.two local DWORD vars . 1 .0 . 0 .Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. .EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX. . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Save new TSS EBX. NewExchST .Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1. .mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP]. pRunTSS MOV EDX.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.

. . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES). . returned.Jump to new TSS . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESP XOR ESI. .put in TSS .New TSS -> EAX . Procedural Interface : . Allocate exchange code .Who got the highest Pri? .Return to caller .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.we can't be interrupted .EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() .ErcOk .Old guy does. . dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority].Save time of this switch for scheduler .mov priority into BL . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.prgExch MOV ECX.21. It is property of a Job (not a task). Get number of exchanges in ECX .pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority].ESI MOV EBX. New guy does (lowest num) . The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages. Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. 0 MMURTL V1. . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . . See listing 18. . EBX <= ADR rgExch .CrntTSS -> EAX.BL CLI MOV EDX. .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. New TSS -> EDX .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .21.If crnt >. This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. Listing 18.0 . .Place crnt TSS on Q . just put new guy on Q. .Get who's running .MOV EBX. AllocExch(pExchRet):dError .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. .New TSS -> Stack .ercOk . . . Zero the Exch Index .EAX MOV BX.Move new TSS into pRunTSS .nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner].

0 . Make the Exch owner the Job STI . and link blocks. MMURTL V1.EDX . Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. . . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. . Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. RETF 4 . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector. .EBP . .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. . Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange. .EAX EDX.ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. . DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: .sEXCH EDX EDX. .EAX . JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX. See listing 18. . .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] . . .sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX.0 . Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner].EDX ECX.EAX . . Listing 18.22. . .pRunTSS EBX.pRunTSS . . . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). . DEC _nEXCHLeft .[EBP+0CH] EAX. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX.[EAX+Owner] EBX. Stats XOR EAX. PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Those link blocks may also contain requests.JE AE001 ADD EBX. Deallocate exchange code .22. . . Procedural Interface : .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. . and request blocks are freed up as necessary.ESI . it may have left over link blocks hanging on it.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. Messages are deQueued. however. TSSs. POP EBP .ESI EDX. .[EBP+0CH] . If we found a Free Exch. This function has a lot more to do.prgExch EAX.0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS .

XOR EAX. RETF 4 . Yes. These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface.EBX . Reset msg Flag.EAX . JMP DE001 .EBX .ercNotOwner MOV ESP. Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. ECX . MMURTL V1. MOV pFreeLB.0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner].instructions or a service crashes! .EAX . 0 .Next <= pFreeTSS. INC _nEXCHLeft . Go And Check for more.JE DE000 CMP EBX.0 .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. INC _nTSSLeft . Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . pLBin^. Get the TSS off of the Exchange . Go free the Exch. yes . POP EBP . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. Go And Check for more. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. EAX JZ DE002 . 0 . Free up the exchange. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 . pTSSin^. INC _nLBLeft . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . See listing 18. CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. CLI . Nothing there.23. 0 . If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . ECX . NIL = Empty.Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. .only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow . pFreeLB <= pLBin.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. yes . is this the OS??? .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. 0 . . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. . if not owner.pFreeLB . JMP DE000 . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. No. .EBP . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin.Next <= pFreeLB.EAX . MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. Stats STI . .with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . JUMP MOV ESI.pFreeTSS .

PUSH EBP . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. PUBLIC __SetPriority . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. . See listing 18. bPriority is a byte with the new priority. ErcOK POP EBP . PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . returned.Listing 18.pRunTSS . Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX.24 Listing 18. to the priority specified in the single parameter.[EBP+0CH] . [EAX+TSS_Exch] .pRunTSS . If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. Set priority code .24.No error. EAX . . RETF 4 . Procedural Interface : .EBX . ErcOK . . . This doesn't really affect the kernel. MOV EBP. MOV EAX. GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. BL . . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX.23.This sets the priority of the task that called it . MMURTL V1. 01Fh .ESP . EAX . MOV EBP. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . . . POP EBP . GetTSS exchange code . .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task.Put it in the TSS XOR EAX.ESP . The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES).[EBP+0CH] . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. . SetPriority . MOV EAX. . PUSH EBP . SetPriority(bPriority):dError . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. . Procedural Interface : .

PUSH EBP . MOV EBP. Listing 18. .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . . MMURTL V1.25. Get priority code . . MOV EAX. See listing 18. . BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX].pRunTSS . and passes it to bPriorityRet. . EAX .ESP . Get the MOV DL.This gets the priority of . Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. ErcOK POP EBP . GetPriority . bPriorityret is a pointer to a . PUBLIC __GetPriority . priority returned. Procedural Interface : .25.GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. XOR EAX.[EBP+0CH] . . DL . RETF 4 . Get the MOV EBX. SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error.

User Readable (Code) .Number of free physical pages left .0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS . As with all assembler files for DASM.INCLUDE MOSEDF. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM). Memory management constants and data .Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt . The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .Chapter 19. The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .INC . 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .Max is 2048 (64Mb) . The task state segments are also used extensively.User Writable (Data) . the code section must start with the .We alloc the "next" page table .INCLUDE TSS. Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode. I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.CODE command.in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language. page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs).INC .DATA . MMURTL V1.INCLUDE JOB.System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections. I call these internal support code.User Writable .2048 bytes = 64Mb .Page Allocation Map .Default to 1 MB . It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code. Listing 19.INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h . The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.ASM. Listing 19.1 bit/4Kbytes . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .1.

3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data.Read test string into EBX . It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: . in megabytes. We assume 1MB to start. Now you must fill in bits used by OS.1FFFFCh XOR EBX.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. .Set oMemMax .Next Meg . Listing 19.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].Are we above 64 megs . oMemMax must be last byte .Make it the last DWord again .IN: . .3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX. . EAX CALL MarkPage . PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.Move in test string . 4 . by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.Another megs worth of pages .2.EBX MOV ECX. OFFSET pTbl1 . which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh). neither of which you consider free.2. EAX . The code in listing 19.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . 0FFFFF000h .3 ADD EAX.Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed.3 MOV _oMemMax.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].3. MOV EDX. 256 ADD sPAM.See if we got it back OK . Memory management initialization code . It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax.1 Mb of pages = 256 .NO! . 0001h .'mrtl' test string value for memory . which was just loaded.ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX.Increase PAM by another meg . Continuation of memory management init.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.OUT: .Yes! .Yes.Next table entry MMURTL V1. You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree.Supervisor. you have.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].100000h ADD _nPagesFree.EAX SUB EAX.top of 2 megs (for DWORD) . Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.ECX MOV EBX.USED: . See listing 19. 256 MOV EAX.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX.InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. Its the law! Listing 19. 32 CMP EAX. EAX . Present MOV EBX.0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. and makes PTEs.Set it to zero intially .

Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. EDX. 80000000h . 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . Continuation of memory management init.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX . finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM.5.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. 0101b .No.5.Next page please CMP EAX. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM. 4 . EAX. Listing 19.Set paging bit ON CR0.1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 .Make it index (SHR 12. EAX .Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used. See listing 19. The routine in listing 19.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. OFFSET PDir1 .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. EAX . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte.Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 . After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots. Several chip sets on the market. and then writing it again. 100000h . 0FFFFF000h . 4096 .0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . CR0 . ANDing it with 8000000h. EBX. nor can I provide instructions to everyone. EBX. Listing 19.EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . such as the 82C30 C&T. C0000h –FFFFFh. EAX .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. See listing 19.Physical address of OS page directory CR3. EAX .Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. Turning on paged memory management EAX. The initial page directory and the page table are static. but I can't be sure everyone can do it.Get Control Reg 0 EAX. . SHL 2) .4.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) . then reading CR0.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. Now we can go into paged memory mode.6. EDX. go back for more . 4096 EAX.Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage .Store in Control Reg 3 EAX.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX. IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX].Next PTE entry ADD EAX.

. See listing 19. 0 .6.no memory left.EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. Listing 19. Finishing memory management init. This reduces nPagesFree by one. Listing 19.0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS . Allocation of memory management exchange .Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn .Listing 19. MMURTL V1. .. 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX.All 8 pages used? FHP2 .Page Allocation Map .IN : . sPAM DEC EAX .7. OFFSET pNextPT .0FFh .Where we are in PAM . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. Find highest physical page code . I'm afraid.Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch . Of course.OUT : . See listing 19. PUSH 1 . LEA EAX.8.8. assuming that you will allocate it.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. or 0 if error EBX.No EAX. It also marks the page as used. MemExch . PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage .Done initializing memory managment . This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated.7. FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. Get 'em! RETN . this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it.

assuming that you will allocate it.Next bit ..no memory left. .Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller.Set page in use .Get the byte with a whole in it.. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX. OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX.FOUND ONE! (goto found) .All 8 pages used? .DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX.Start at first byte in PAM .0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. See listing 19.0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX. . Once again. EDX MOV DL. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. DL SHL EAX. 7 XOR EDX. This reduces nPagesFree by one.No .One less available . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . EAX .Page Allocation Map .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.. EBX FHPf EBX.At the bottom of the Byte? . . It also marks the page as used.Another Byte lower .9. ..Back for next byte .9.Are we past at TOP of PAM? . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX.Set the bit indexed by EBX .\ Listing 19.Add page number in byte . 3 ADD EBX. EAX SHL EBX. or 0 if error EBX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX. Find lowest physical page code .OUT : . sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 .Test bits . if we call FindLoPage and don't use it.IN : . we must call UnMarkPage to release it.Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1.Another Byte lower .Error (BAD CPU???) .

EBX .End of the Byte? . This reduces nPagesFree by one. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX. See listing 19.FOUND ONE! (goto found) . DL . Listing 19.Get the byte into DL BTS EDX.Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree ..Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . EAX SHL EBX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX.Set the bit indexed by EBX . EBX SHR ECX.Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. EBX XOR EDX.One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.IN : .10. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . 8 FLPn FLP3 . EBX FLPf EBX EBX. OFFSET rgPAM .BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX]. Code to mark a physical page in use .OUT : .XOR EBX.Error (BAD CPU???) .Test bits .Page Allocation Map AND EBX. This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.Next bit . DL SHL EAX.One less available .0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS . 07h . [EAX+ECX] . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX.10. EDX MOV DL.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL. 3 ADD EBX.Add page number in byte . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX.Set page in use .Get the byte with a whole in it.Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX. MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. 15 .. 0FFFFF000h . . . . 12 .

12. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1. Listing 19.11.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. [EAX] BTR EDX. This increases nPagesFree by one.Round down to page modulo .Page Allocation Map . OUTPUT: EAX -. Code to free a physical page for reuse .POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . 12 AND EBX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM .0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS .Physical Address . USED: EAX.IN : . This function supports the similarly named public routine. Code to convert linear to physical addresses .OUT : . ESI. This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. . ESI -. See listing 19.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM .Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . EBX -. . . EBX. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages.Linear address . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.11. INPUT: EAX -.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. 15 SHR EBX. EBX MOV [EAX]. DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN .12. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. EFlags . . 07h ADD EAX. EBX SHR ECX. etc. ECX MOV DL. See listing 19. Listing 19. DMA operations. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.BitReset instruction . .

PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX. Save in EBX .Get original linear back in EBX .Get original linear . See listing 19. 2 ADD EBX.13. 22 SHL EBX. EBX MOV EAX. [EBX] AND EAX.Physical base of page is in EAX . The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.Save Linear .Get rid of upper 10 bits .Copy number of pages to ECX.EBX/EAX now points to shadow . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. . the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. EBX . 00000FFFh OR EAX. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI.Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .EAX now has ptr to PD! .Index into shadow addresses from EAX . .13.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . EAX MOV EAX.EAX now has Linear of Page Table .Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX.0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .get rid of lower 12 to make it an index . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX. EBX RETN FindRun . EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . or the 1Gb address mark for the user. EBX MOV EDX.Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset . EBX . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1. Listing 19.Save it again . 2048 SHR EBX. This is either at address base 0 for the operating system.mask off lower 12 . This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing.*4 makes it byte offset in PT .ESI now has ptr to PD .Leaves pJCB in EAX . .Save this address for caller .Index into PD for PT we are working on . 2 ADD EBX. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.Move to shadow addresses in PD . OUT: EAX . USED: EAX. The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist. Code to find a free run of linear memory . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS. .EBX now points to Page Table entry! . 003FFFFFh SHR EBX.Keeps count of how many free found so far .*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow . . EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. in which case we return 0. IN : EAX .Address of PD saved here . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables. 12 SHL EBX. EAX MOV ESI.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) .

The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. . EAX.EBX still has count of pages.MOV EDI.Times size of page (* 4096) .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 . FR1: XOR EAX.One less page (0 offset) . Next PTE Please.14.We found enough entries goto OK .empty (available) .This is the linear address we ended at .The starting linear address is equal to number of the last . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . [ESI+EDX*4] .From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX .Not empty. .If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and .we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request.If . 12 OR EAX.Yes. . 12 SUB EAX. 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 . .Zero means it's .EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .EDX was index into PD.Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. See listing 19. and the count of pages should be in EBX.In use . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system. . This is the way FindRun left them. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection.Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT . EAX . 22 SHL EAX. EBX . . keep testing . or tables. EDI .go INC MOV JMP FROK: . while EAX was index into PT.PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . if the run spans two or more tables.Not done yet.EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. .One more empty one! . Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. The linear address of the run should be in EAX. EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4].EAX is next 10 bits of LA . EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . .Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 . SHL EDX. .Next PT! . next PTE please ECX.0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS .No. go for it XOR EAX.

[ESI] . MEMSYS CMP EAX. AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. EDX. .EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX.ESI now has ptr to PD! .LinAdd to EDX . ARDone: MMURTL V1.14. go do next PTE ADD ESI.Offset to shadow address of PD .then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .EDX .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX.Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . IN : .SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.No. OUT: .See if it's a user page .Make it index to DWORDS . . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. EDI is pointing the next PT.and OR in the appropriate control bits.Set PTE to present. . . EDX.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .LinAdd into EDX again . Adding a run of linear memory . 10 AR0: MOV EDI. USED: . . .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX.ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) .Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS .Restore linear address .Next PTE please. EAX AND EDX. . 4 . 4096 . CMP EDX. 2048 ADD ESI. EBX EAX 22 2 . AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX. EDX MOV EDX.Listing 19.0 .Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 . [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. 003FF000h SHR EDX. . . 4 . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. . EDX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . EBX .(save for caller) . next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX. THEN store it in PT.At this point.Get index into PD for first PT .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.Yes. User ReadOnly .EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) .

AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table . if the run spans two or more tables .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . (from find run) . See listing 19. [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. EDX.15.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .or tables. . .ESP SUB ESP. Listing 19. .15. . . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . EDX. .This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . . . . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. this is the way FindRun left them. The new linear address of the run should be in EAX.Make it index to DWORDS . EBX Number of Pages to alias . OUT: Nothing .adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). USED: EAX.LinAdd to EDX .(save for caller) . EDX. . 8 MOV AliasLin. . ESI MOV AliasJob. AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. and the count of pages should be in EBX.we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX.POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun . EFlags . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . EBX EAX 22 2 . ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) .Get index into PD for first PT . Once again. . Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS .

ESI now points to first PT of interest .LinAdd into EDX again . 2048 ADD ESI.SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum . . .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI .Next PTE please. EDX MOV EDX. .No. .POP EAX ADD ESI.This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE.Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) .EDX is index to exact entry . to get a physical address into EAX. 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . . . next PDE (to get next PT) . . 0FFFFF000h OR EAX.Restore linear address .Set system bits as ALIAS . AliasLin ADD AliasLin.Are we done?? .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . . [ESI] .mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . . AND EAX. 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI. ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. MOV ESP.Job we are aliasing . AliasJob MOV EBX.Start at the entry 0 of next PT .EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX .cut off system bits of PTE . .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) . go do next PTE . EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.EAX now has physical address for this page . . 4 CMP EDX.At this point.Yes. .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Set up for next loop (post increment) .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1.Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. .Address we are aliasing .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX AND EDX.Offset to shadow addresses in PD . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX. MEMALIAS POP ESI . 4 XOR EDX. 10 ALR0: MOV EDI.

(save for caller) PUSH ECX . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX.Physical address in lower half .pJCB in EAX .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. PUSH EDI . EAX MOV ESI. . [EDI] ADD ESI. This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write.EDI points to UserPD Address . ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. 2048 EBX. initializes it.16. EBX .Sorry. 2048 MOV ECX. out of physical mem . . . Listing 19. EAX ESI. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .Move to shadow . AddUserPT: PUSH EBX .Set user bits (Read/Write) . No! (Try again) . . pNextPT [ESI].See if have enuf physical memory .Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. Next possible empty entry . PUSH EDX .Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . See listing 19. MEMUSERD [ESI]. . Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .no free phy pages!) .ESI now points to PD . 4 MOV EBX. 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. This will be in user address space above 1GB. EFlags . Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. _nPagesFree OR EAX. Adding a page table for user memory . PUSH ESI . EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. Is it empty? .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD . IN : Nothing . Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow). .EAX will have Physical address . as shown in the following. USED: EAX. JcbPD ADD EDI. and sticks it in the user's page directory. MOV EAX.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .Linear add back into EBX . This is easier than AddOSPT.Offset to PcbPD in JCB . because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. [ESI] OR EBX.16.0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS .

AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running. You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. IN : Nothing . Adding an operating system page table . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow).(save for caller) PUSH ECX . OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX. Find first empty slot MOV ESI.EAX will have Physical address . . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .Sorry. .See if have enuf physical memory . . USED: EAX. 511 MMURTL V1.17.OS Job Number (Monitor) . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . See listing 19.save pNextPT (the linear address) . . . 1 MOV EBX.17. Listing 19. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. PUSH EDX .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. PUSH EDI .size of request . MOV EAX.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . out of physical mem .no free phy pages!) . . _nPagesFree OR EAX. ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . .. EFlags . PUSH ESI . 1 XOR EAX. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT.0 . ESI points to OS Pdir .was there an error (0 means no mem) . . in many cases.next time.

Next possible empty entry . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. 2048 . .Destination 1024 .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX . EAX ADD ESI.AOPT02: ADD ESI.Source EAX . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . . The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) . . pNextPT MOV [ESI].Save values on stack MOV EDX. # of dynamic JCBs . Get back JCB number . 2048 . Not a valid JCB (unused) .Save nJCB we are on .Next JCB . JcbPD MOV EBX. .Set present bit . 4 MOV EBX. [ESI] OR EBX.EAX NOW points to PD of JCB .0 . ESI EAX Get and .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX.No. . EBX . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) .Get values from stack ADD EBX. PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI]. .Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX.See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) .Linear add back into EBX .Move to shadow . 2048 MOV EBX. Is it empty? .Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX.Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX. 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1. . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX .Physical address in lower half .Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all.Source of Copy .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.

EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. . EFLAGS MMURTL V1.18. EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. . EBX. . .was there an error (0 means no mem) .18. EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. OUT: EAX Returns Errors.Set ErcOK (0) . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . . USES: EAX. AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate.size of request .0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS . IN: AX . (x = count of DWord params 0-F) .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. 1 XOR EAX.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . ESI. DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) .At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . .AddRun . . Listing 19.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: .next time. The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. allowing access to OS procedures. . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . ECX. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. Adding a call gate to the GDT . Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . else 0 if all's well .save pNextPT (the linear address) . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . . DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number.. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. . See listing 19.

. GDTBase . AX SHR EAX.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . MOV EAX. the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task.Put Offset 15:00 into gate . ESI.call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX. 3 ADD EDX. . ECX.Yes. EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX. CX SHL EDX. SI .Put Gate ID into gate . RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. . ercBadGateNum . ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX. BX MMURTL V1.Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. . OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4].NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].0 . USES: AX .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. .No.0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap.Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) . IN: . EBX. . AX .Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 .19.Extend INT Num into EDX . CX SUB EBX. 40h . . CX . . EDX. 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. AX MOV EAX. 40 . MOV EAX.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. . The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX]. AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. EAX . .Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . or task gate.EDX now points to gate . SI . See listing 19.see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . nCallGates .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.Put Offset 31:16 into gate . Listing 19. 16 .make index vice selector CMP EBX.19. interrupt.not too low. 3 . Adding entries to the IDT .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. .PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . 8 . for a task gate.

ppMemRet): dError .size of request . _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate. .n4KPages XOR EAX. pRunTSS ADD EAX.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Procedureal Interface : .Can't be zero! .RETF .n4KPages EAX. EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .20.EAX ALOSP00 EAX. See listing 19. The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree. placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request. AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. we're maxed out EAX. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] .size of request . Allocating a page of linear memory . Allocate each physical page.More than 0? .Yes! Serious problem. The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.No Error! EAX.20.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. .See if have enuf physical memory .Yes . .Yes . ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit . A result code is returned in the EAX register.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . Listing 19.Wait at the MemExch for Msg . we add another page table to the operating-system page directory.Sorry boss. .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX. . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. . .(0 = No Runs big enuf) . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space. but not close enough to easily combine their code.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. This allows runs to span table entries.Kernel Error?? .

if it crosses page boundaries. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Go back & try again . EAX . dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access.Add a new page table (we need it!) .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. .dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: . . .ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] . Exit.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . . The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. . Even if the address is only two bytes.21. . dJobNum.CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. POP EBP . AliasMem(pMem. . ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. PUSH EAX . Code to alias memory .See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) .EBP .pMem EQU [EBP+24] . . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. . ppAliasRet): dError . No alias is needed. dcbMem. The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed. AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. . however .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . EAX .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. ppMemRet .Does not return error . pMem is the address to alias.ERROR!! . .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX.EAX now has linear address .0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Only an entry in a table. This wastes no physical memory. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .No error ALOSPExit: . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. POP EAX . Listing 19. See if they are available. Procedureal Interface : . This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around. MMURTL V1. RETF 8 .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX].Save last error PUSH MemExch . If so. you need two pages.

we're done ALSPBegin: .No.EAX has 0 or 256 .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX .Yes . pRunTSS ADD EAX.Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .EAX is nPages-1 .Yes. User memory .Yes . PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.EAX is 256 for user space. EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX.See if it is OS based service .Yes! Serious problem.See if it is OS based service . . . . 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX. ECX CALL FindRun . [EBP+24] .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. No Error .No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .OS Job? .EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough .dcbMem EBX . . .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .Save nPages in ECX .PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1. EAX.Puts Current Job Num in EAX . EAX JMP ALSPDone . alias it . [EBP+16] CMP EAX. .pMem into EAX 0FFFh . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX.Exit. EBX.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . EAX. EAX ECX.Add to dcbMem 12 .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.OS Job? . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Yes .Was there enough PTEs? . 0 for OS . .0 .EBX still has count of pages OR EAX. EAX.Set up for OS memory space .Kernel Error?? . EAX.Number of pages we need into EBX . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.No. We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX.0h JNE ALSPDone .Are they the same Page Directory?? . .Now wait our turn with memory management .Get Job number for pMem .

JobNum):ercType . See listing 19. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call. This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines.Address to alias .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI.EBX . pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" .pAliasRet . EAX MOV ESI. DeAliasMem(pAliasMem.We are done ALSPExit: . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: .Go back & try again . 0FFFh EDI. Listing 19.and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. Code to remove alias PTEs . dcbAliasBytes. .Get remaining bits . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .22. .22.ERROR!! . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun .original pMem .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX.Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address . PUSH MemExch . EDI EAX.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .EAX .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+24] EAX. .Save alias page address base . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . . Procedureal Interface : . [EBP+24] MOV EDX. dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1.Save last error . EAX ESI. .Set . . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. [EBP+12] [ESI]. . . PUSH EAX .Set to 0 (no error) .Now.Job number . . EAX .0 = NO Error .Returned address to caller! .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .

EAX is now nPages we need! ECX. .pAliasMem .DO not zero it! . EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX.but less than you asked for! ECX. [ESI] TEST EBX.0 .We dealiased what we could.Add the remainder of address EAX.DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX. .None at all! .If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias . if so just ZERO PTE.and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS).Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX.NO! (did we do any at all) . EAX MOV [ESI]. XOR EAX.Address of next page to deallocate .so we zero out the page. [EBP+20] . .See if PTE is an alias. [EBP+20] . it's page is present .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .ECX .Is page an ALIAS? .AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX. ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX.NO . . . 12 . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP. . . 0FFFh .dcbMem EAX. PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.EBP MMURTL V1. EAX . .ESP ..Is page present (valid)??? . EBX .Linear Mem to DeAlias .dcbAliasBytes .Add to dcbMem EAX. [EBP+16] .Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) .Get PTE into EBX . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI. PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX.ZERO PTE entry .EAX is nPages-1 EAX . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .Yes.pMem into EAX EBX. ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . EDI DALM011 EAX. [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy . EDX MOV EAX.Next linear page .We did some.

. this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. [ESI] TEST EBX.Linear Mem to deallocate .23.Now we have Physical Address in EAX . Even if you specify more pages than are valid. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy . . . .Yes! .Number of pages to deallocate .Is page present (valid)??? .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg . n4KPages):ercType .Error?? . .23. pRunTSS ADD EAX. . because we deallocate 4K pages. PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. if so just ZERO PTE. .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX.Address of next page to deallocate . pOrigMem AND EDX. See listing 19. providing it is valid.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Get PTE into EBX . Listing 19. its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS .POP EBP RETF 12 . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem. . It will always free linear memory. n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate . Deallocating linear memory . DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls.0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1.Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy .Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . . . pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . Procedureal Interface : .and pointer to PTE in ESI.See if PTE is an alias. . The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. deallocate. .0 .Yes. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.

pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1. See listing 19. AND EBX.ZERO PTE entry .Kernel error has priority .NO! (did we do any at all) .Next linear page .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated.Yes. . . . 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX.None at all! MOV EAX.get rid of OS bits .We did some.0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . over memory error . .24.Send a dummy message to pick up . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .but less than you asked for! .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias . .so we must unmark (release) the physical page.get Memory error back .save Memory error . EAX ADD EDX.. . . Code to find number of free pages . 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX. ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX.We deallocated what we could. so next guy can get in . Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left. Listing 19. Procedureal Interface : .Is page an ALIAS? . it's an Alias .24. You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. . EAX MOV [ESI]. . . 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP. ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX.

LinAdd. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. . EAX MOV ESP. [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. . pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. No Error . Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes.ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. EAX EAX. . . Procedureal Interface : .ESP MOV EBX. EAX XOR EAX. left available returned . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . See listing 19.END OF CODE MMURTL V1.25. . . pMemLeft EAX.No Error .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . MOV ESP. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . . Linear Address . Public for linear to physical conversion .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . . .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .25. pPhyRet . . [EBP+16] MOV EAX. Listing 19. pPhyRet):ercType . GetPhyAdd(JobNum..LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . be returned . . Job Number . EAX . . . _nPagesFree [ESI]. . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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my worries were unfounded. however. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth.2 percent. which works out to about 1. preemptive multitasking. along with a piece of the kernel.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. especially synchronous. It's at the end of the timer ISR. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. I was consuming less than 0. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing. Listing 20. It was 0. But even with these calculations. The average is was far less. etc. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. Back when I started this project. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. Even more important than total bandwidth. I ended up with 10ms. MMURTL is no exception. Somewhere between these two was the average. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead.1. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. See listing 20. memory wait-states. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. divided by the total clocks for the same period. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly.6 percent for the worst case. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . I experimented with several different intervals.1. In a 10ms period we have 200. As you well know.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. Two of them will come in at 260us. a slow machine.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. A single communications channel running at 19.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX.. or 3000 clocks. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. which is very conservative. The average really depends on program loading. with 100-MHz machines around.2 percent of available bandwidth. was the effect on interrupt latency. actually the scheduler.Chapter 20. as well as the fastest one possible. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions.

The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone.INCLUDE TSS.DD 00000000h . including the 10 percent overhead. The Timer Block is a structure that contains .FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 .DATA . EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 .Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt.2. plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop.2.320 clocks. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time.INCLUDE MOSEDF. Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . and finally with test programs. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium. SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. Listing 20. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16.INC . The odds of this are truly astronomical.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 . .0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . But. Data and constants for timer code . and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. . sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long . TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks .ALIGN DWORD . or one that has requested an alarm. This doesn't cause a problem at all. A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1.2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. See listing 20.INC . These are the offsets into the structure . or 20us.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. the exchange number of a task that is sleeping. This I could live with.

Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? .ASM. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more.No. allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel.Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] .Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 .ISend Message MOV EAX. If so.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR .4. the first things defined in this code segment.goto decrement it PUSH EAX .INTS are disabled automatically .EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . yet very important part. which is the one you interrupted.3. The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. At all times on the system. It is a small.Timer Tick.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds.No . They may have been placed there by other ISRs. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task. It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested..rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.Yes .0h . Listing 20. you switch to it. The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. -1 .4. The three external near calls.Yes! . You have now interrupted that task.ECX has count of Timer Blocks .is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 . Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do.FALSE .nTmrBlks CLD . only one task is actually executing. priority than the task that is now running. If it is the same or higher.Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX .0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS . The timer interrupt service routine . See listing 20. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative. Listing 20. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.3. INT 20 .. . and they may be of an equal. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches.ASM. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs.No . or higher. External functions for timer code . See listing 20. The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.Yes . PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX.

Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. If the Queued Pri is LOWER .tell him his times up! POP ECX .If current is higher(lower num). Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick. CMP EAX. MOV ESI.if we got a CARRY on the subtract.bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg .bogus msg PUSH EAX . TimerTick . EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX...for more then 30ms (3 ticks). we will ..FALSE .switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri . MOV EBX. we want to Switch. EAX MOV EAX. Put current one in EAX ..PUSH EAX .DL is pri of current . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices . .Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .unless were done . MMURTL V1.number was higher and we DON'T .BX . dfHalted OR EAX. If so. JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone . EAX JZ TaskCheckDone .get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Compare current pri to highest queued .YES.Change this to change the "time slice" .0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS .current pri.next block please! .Is this from a HALTed state? . and save in EDI . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL.is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX. [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.or Equal.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 .get count back POP EAX . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . ESI CALL enQueueRdy . and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS.Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed . Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .keep going . EAX . Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX.EDI . his . no need to check tasks . Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.10ms more gone.Is there one at all?? .[EDI+Tid] ..empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. pRunTSS MOV DL. SUB EAX. PUSH 0 .We will now check to see if this guy has been running .No.skip decrement . That means .Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 .

Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .[ECX+TSS_Exch] . RETF 4 .EBX .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. IRETD . POP EBP .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV EBP.EBX .TRUE . .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.pRunTSS . MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].FAR return from publics MMURTL V1. This requires an exchange.0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .goto next block MOV EBX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].FALSE .sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . 0 . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD . MOV EAX.ESP . out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP. The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task. See listing 20.unless were done MOV EAX.Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.Sorry. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero. Listing 20. TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD . Sleep() .rgTmrBlks .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.Must do this before we switch! .5. JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .ErcOk .Empty block? JNE Delay02 .Count of timer blocks CLD .Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .TSS_Msg .EBP .ErcNoMoreTBs .Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].DelayCnt . PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .5. DelayCnt CMP EAX.No .nTmrBlks .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX.put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX . The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.

MOV EAX.Up the blocksInUse count EBX.Count of timer blocks CLD .6.0 . .It's OK to interrupt now .7. DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].put it in timer block! .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .It's OK to interrupt now EAX. MOV EBP.Sorry. . .AlarmCnt .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.nTmrBlks . See listing 20.No . Procedural Interface: .6.EBX . If the alarm is already queued through the kernel. Listing 20. All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.ESP . Code for the Alarm function . out of timer blocks . It must be set up each time.unless were done .goto next block EBX.FALSE . -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX.ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP.Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed . AlarmCnt):dErc .Get delay count [EAX+CountDown]. 0 . The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each. The message is not repeatable. AlarmCnt CMP EAX.Empty block? Alarm02 . nothing will stop it.EBX . MMURTL V1.rgTmrBlks .ErcOk . Alarm(nAlarmExch. See listing 20. AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].TRUE .all is well Alarm03 . which means the message has already been sent. KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP .

goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc . This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port. so we get out! . .EBX .8. Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1.No . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS . The count is in 15us increments.Count of timer blocks . But it's still very much needed.Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].ErcOk . The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port. The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator. Code for the KillAlarm function .Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . See listing 20.8.sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX. MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers. 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.EAX MOV ESP.No blocks in use .nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .KAlarmExch LEA EAX.TRUE .EAX points to timer blocks .Get exchange for killing alarms to .0 . . KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . Listing 20.clear direction flag .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed. Code for the MicrDelay function .unless were done . . . Procedural Interface: . PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . The task is actually not suspended at all. which drives the processor clock.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX.Block in use? KAlarm02 .Listing 20.7.It's OK to interrupt now . This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds).FALSE .ALl done -. The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled.

ESP MOV ECX. . AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.Get system status port . 10h CMP AH. AL SHL EBX.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS .Check toggle of bit .9.00h OUT 70h. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI]. 8 MOV EAX.AL MOV ESI. . Code to read the CMOS time . .get out if they came in with 0! .No toggle yet . [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX. EBX MOV EAX.71h MOV BL.AL SHL EBX. . MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally.Clear time return .71h MOV BL.AL IN AL. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. . AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.9.Seconds .Get delay count . Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). .check refrest bit . See listing 20. the next byte is the Hours in BCD. 8 MOV EAX.Hours . the next byte is the minutes in BCD. EAX MOV ESP.Toggle! Move to AH for next compare . 61h AND AL.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .04h OUT 70h. Listing 20.Minutes .71h MOV BL. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL.AL IN AL.0 .AL IN AL. and the high order byte is 0.ESP XOR EBX. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.MOV EBP. EBX MMURTL V1.02h OUT 70h.

10. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD.Give 'em the time . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12).EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .10.Day of month . . 0-6 0=Sunday). pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP . No Error .AL IN AL.71h MOV BL.0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV ESP.08h OUT 70h. .AL IN AL. 8 MOV EAX. EBX XOR EAX.71h MOV BL.Clear date return MOV EAX.71h MOV BL.XOR EAX.AL MOV ESI. AL SHL EBX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . Listing 20. XOR EBX. EBX . pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI].71h MOV BL. Code to read the CMOS date . No Error . AL SHL EBX. . .AL SHL EBX.AL IN AL. . 8 MOV EAX.ESP . EAX MOV ESP. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99).06h OUT 70h. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). MOV EBP. MMURTL V1.Month .AL IN AL. See listing 20. 8 MOV EAX.09h OUT 70h.07h OUT 70h. Procedural Interface: . GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .Day of week . . GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. .Year .

TimerTick MOV [ESI]. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. this amounts to 262. 10110110b OUT 43h. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep(). Listing 20. which is connected to the system internal speaker.193182 Mhz . . Binary . . Helper function for Beep() and Tone() . . See listing 20. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h.0 . pTickRet MOV EAX. is used to generate tones. . LSB.12.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. divide 1. See listing 20. MSB.1. Code to return the timer tick .000 ticks per month.193182Mhz .11. EAX XOR EAX.DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . Listing 20.193182Mhz by Desired Freq. pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . . AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h. Because it is a dword. . . Hardware timer number 2.No Error . AL IN AL.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS .To find the divisor of the clock.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller.12. AL MOV AL.Timer 2. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down.11.ESP MOV ESI. 61h MMURTL V1. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror . The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. EDX MOV EAX. . AL XOR EDX. The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). With a 10ms interval. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. The procedural interface: .This does all work for BEEP and TONE .The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1.800.

ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. AL PUSH ECX . (Sorry. This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h. AL RETN Beep() . See listing 20. Code to produce a tone . This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. . . . CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier.OR AL.ESP MOV EBX. if it had.13. I couldn't resist. .) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. Listing 20. .0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS .350ms . 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() .14.Freq . See listing 20. 800 MOV ECX. . MMURTL V1. . I would have called it Beep_Beep(). Listing 20.14. Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . .13. 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. 11111100b OUT 61h. Code to produce a beep . . .

0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP MOV EBX. MMURTL V1. . ToneFreq MOV ECX. . ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 .PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

INCLUDE JOB. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin. Kernel Structures . access to the data is faster if it is. Periodically you will see the .INC . I generally try to align data that is accessed often. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main. The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary. The first file is Main. Global Descriptor table (GDT). and I don't worry about the rest of it. .0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS .1. a workhorse for Main. It is the entry point in the operating system. and Public Call Gate table. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) .ALIGN DWORD .See MOSEDF. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.ASM.INCLUDE MOSEDF.INC . Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files. The assembler does no alignment on its own.======================================================= . For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. the first instruction executed after boot up. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). Initial TSS for Debugger NIL .ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 .1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files. OS Global Data Listing 21. Listing 21. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) .ASM.ASM which is presented later in this chapter. The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical. In chapter 7. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process.ALIGN command.Chapter 21.INC .INC for structure details. “OS Initialization. Main Operating System Data . The second file is InitCode. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS.ASM.DATA .INCLUDE TSS. Initial OS Page Table (PT). Initial OS Page Directory (PD).

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. OSCodeSel .Overflow 08F00h . Trap gate MOV EBX. AX .0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS . Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . 08F00h . MOV ESI. . SI . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . software and hardware interrupt handlers. EAX. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. SI . GDTBase . 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . Second. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector. EBX.Single Step MOV EAX.DPL 3.Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. 16 . First.Divide By Zero MOV EAX. 3 .Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX.DPL 3. IN : Nothing . 8 .call DPL & ndParams RETN . handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. . MOV ESI.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. CX .This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . OSCodeSel . . OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. 40 . InitIDT .SUB EBX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. 08F00h . 3 . . Used : ALL registers and flags .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.DPL 3. 4 . 255 . 0 .DPL 3. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.========================================================================= .Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. 1 .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04].make index vice selector MOVZX EBX.Breakpoint MOV EAX.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. Out : Nothing . ESI.DPL 3.

OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . EAX. 6 . MOV ESI.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .Double Exception MOV EAX. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel .GP fault MOV EAX. 08F00h . OSCodeSel . 08E00h .Int Page Fault MOV EAX. 20h . EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. 21h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.DPL 3.DPL 3.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Invalid TSS MOV EAX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. 08F00h .Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . 0Ch . 0Bh . 08F00h . 0Ah . MOV ESI. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. 08F00h . 08F00h . OSCodeSel . 08E00h . 8 .0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . ESI. OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 08F00h . MOV ESI.DPL 3. MOV ESI. IRQ0 IRQ1 22h .Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h .DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int TIMER MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . 08F00h . OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Dh . MOV ESI.Seg Not Present MOV EAX. MOV ESI. 0Eh .

.. MOV ESI.. OSCodeSel .. 08E00h . OSCodeSel ... MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . 2Ah ... 26h . INTERRUPT GATE ... 08E00h .DPL 3.Int .DPL 3. MOV ESI. 25h . MOV ESI. MOV EAX.Int COM1 MOV EAX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int LPT2 MOV EAX. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ .FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel ...DPL 3... 08E00h .. OFFSET IntQ .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h .... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX.Int .. 29h .Int ... EBX. ESI. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3..DPL 3.0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS . OSCodeSel . . OSCodeSel .DPL 3.DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX... IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1. OSCodeSel ..DPL 3. OSCodeSel . 08E00h .IntLPT1 MOV EAX. 27h . MOV ESI... MOV EAX.. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel ...DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int .. 24h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. MOV EAX. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... 08E00h .. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int COM2 MOV EAX... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 2Bh . MOV ESI.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 23h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. 08E00h .. EAX..DPL 3.Int .. 28h . MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.

0EC01h . 2Eh .. before initcallgates.. 2Dh . MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . MOV EAX. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. Out : Nothing . IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! . 40h MOV DX. OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! . Used : ALL registers and flags . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 . OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 2Fh .. 0EC03h . .DPL 3. DPL 0 MOV ECX. 08E00h .DPL 3.. OSCodeSel .. 48h MOV DX.========================================================================== .. DPL 3 MOV ECX. This can't .3 DWord params.....Int . IN : Nothing . InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates. 08E00h .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 0EC02h .. 08C03h .SendMsg -. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.WaitMsg -.3 DWord Params.Int .. 50h MOV DX.ISendMsg -... MOV EAX.. but MUST be called before the first far call to any .. DPL 3 MOV ECX. MOV ESI. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS . 58h MOV DX.DPL 3. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX.1Dword param. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX...2 DWord Params..Set Priority ..Int . MOV ESI. DPL 3 MOV ECX.

RETN MMURTL V1..0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .The rest of the call gate set ups go here.

INC .1 Listing 22. From Main. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out. this is the where you'll end up.================================================================ .InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . the monitor.asm . Pieces of related code in the kernel. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). See listing 22. INPUT : EAX -. request blocks. These calls. TSSs.======= End data. Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . The process of allocating all the resources. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . link blocks. It was every bit as difficult as I imagined.1. JCBs are in allocated memory . many of them public functions.Begin Code ================== . The program loader is in this chapter. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: . Job Management Subroutines .Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1.INC .ASM provides many small helper functions for job management. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. can be a complicated scenario. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD . EBX -. Before I wrote this code. and finally starting the new task. exchanges.INCLUDE MOSEDF. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.INCLUDE JOB.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) .CODE .DATA . and finally the operating system memory.Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in .INCLUDE TSS. the JCB. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources. When things don't work right. are used by almost every module in the operating system.Chapter 22. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. it is usually quite a mess.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs .

Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . ECX is count of JCBs..first byte of name . CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. 0 . This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs).EAX . . .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX. Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs. .Make last one NIL RETN . The JCBs are also sequentially numbered.EAX . . . in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). USED: EAX. .ESI EFLAGS . . while . PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB.EDX .EDI points to JCB . .ECX. 3 .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. . . . EDX.Now to JobName .1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL).Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. EDI. This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run.pbJobName ECX -. EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information.Put Ptr to PD into JCB . EDX is size of each JCB. EBX. ECX . We can't use its position .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB]. OUTPUT : NONE . . MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated. .EDX.EBX.EBX MOV EDI. .Count of JCBs . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. INPUT : EAX . EAX . EDX . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. ESI. . ESI -. InitFreeJCB . MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. ECX. 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. EBX . .0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX points to the first JCB. pJCBs . MMURTL V1. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI].Address of JCBs to be initialized . EAX ADD EDI. . .size is filled in .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols].EAX . 7 MOV EAX.Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX.Move it in . .cbJobName EDX -.Video number is in JCB . .Size of JCBs . . [EAX+JobNum] RETN .============================================================================= .

. JE DispJCBDone . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. . INPUT : EAX . . . pJCBs MOV ECX.Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. INPUT : NONE . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in . the free pool. MOV EAX.================================================================ . . MOV EBX.FLAGS .pFreeJCB .Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . . pJCBs STOSD . 0 . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL.EBX.[EAX+NextJCB] .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX.0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . NewJCBDone: RETN . Get 'em! . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. OUTPUT : EAX . Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. REGISTERS : EAX.IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. . then EAX will contain NIL (0).EBX . 4096 EDI. CMP EAX. . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. REGISTERS : EBX. . EAX ECX. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . . nJCBs MOV EDX. . .. . . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free .0 .Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . . .FLAGS .============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . 0 . . This routine will also . If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX. JE NewJCBDone . OUTPUT : NONE .DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. If none exists.

Move it into newly freed JCB . All TSSs are .MOV EBX.Linear Address of current JCB .============================================================ . 2 MMURTL V1. . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. in EAX. PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. . EFlags . [EAX+JobNum] . EFlags .Current Job Number . Returns the Job number for the currently executing task.============================================================ . . This is based on which Task is executing. assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. GetCrntJobNum .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. INPUT: EAX -. is a field in the JCB structure. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .Current JCB RETN . .EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . GetpJCB . The Job number .EBX MOV pFreeJCB. . . pRunTSS . . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX.============================================================ . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. .Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. . A Job may have more than one Task. This is based on which Task is executing. .pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB]. assigned to a Job. All TSSs are assigned to a Job. All TSSs are . . OUTPUT: EAX -. PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. INPUT: Nothing . OUTPUT: EAX -. GetpCrntJCB . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number .Job Number of desired pJCB . USED: EAX. . EFlags .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . OUTPUT: EAX -. USED: EAX. INPUT: Nothing . USED: EAX.Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS .Pointer to JCB RETN . . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. .EBX has OS ptr to free list .

. . OUTPUT: EAX -.Add in two static JCBs . is a field in the JCB structure. . GetJobNum . EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX.============================================================ . . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet.Current Job Number . .Now points to desired JCB . .Within range of JCBs . . languages. ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. . EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. Many OS functions deal with the Job number.JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. . 3 MOV EDX. Get a new JCB . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . call to support the public job management calls in high level . sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX.============================================================ . pJCBs POP EDX RETN .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. The Job number . . . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. Procedureal Interface : . Sorry. We got one! . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. . INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. EFlags . This is a NEAR . . . . AllocJCB (NEAR) .0 . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX.Times size of JCB . . . USED: EAX. out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . ppJCBRet):ercType . [EAX+JobNum] .Current JCB RETN . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB.

This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). .============================================================ . GetpJCB . . . Procedureal Interface : . call to support the public job management calls in high level .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. Procedureal Interface : . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . pJCB . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. . pJCBRet):ercType .Job Num . EAX XOR EAX. . . EAX MOV ESP. . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. . . . . Get a new JCB . . . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum .ESP MOV EAX. .============================================================ . . . . . . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. . GetpJCB(dJobNum. EAX MOV ESI. . . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble.EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. MMURTL V1. [EBP+8] MOV [ESI].pJCBRet . . EAX MOV ESP.===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== .MOV ESP. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . .No error . languages in the OS code. . . you specifiy. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. . .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is a NEAR . . [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType .============================================================ .

pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Procedureal Interface : .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP.Leave jobnum in EAX . . POP EBP .EBP . RETF 8 .0 is invalid CMP EAX. 0 . . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType .Job Num OR EAX. This is . . ErcBadJobNum . nJCBs + 2. . . POP EBP . RETF 8 . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. . . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBP . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. MOV EAX. . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid .============================================================ . dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI].No Error . . the job that the task that called this belongs to.ESP .EBP . . EAX MOV ESP. .pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. [EBP+12] .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. EAX XOR EAX. .pJobNumRet . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. . RETF 8 . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. ErcInvalidJCB . . . [EBP+16] . . MMURTL V1. EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . GetJobNum . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . . POP EBP . or 0 will be returned with the data. MOV ESP..puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI.

c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). XOR EAX.ESP . pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where . variable _BootDrive defined in Main. It's really not a filesystem function either. .0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. [EBP+12] . MOV EAX.No Error POP EBP . GetSystemDisk . Procedureal Interface : . . PUSH EBP . .c. Listing 22. GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . _BootDrive AND EAX. Jobc.2. pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk .============================================================ . Functions for starting new jobs.asm. And will . EAX . RETF 4 . 7Fh . loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . Jobc. It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. MOV EBP. . This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . This code is here for lack of a better place. ending jobs. contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. disk that the system booted from. . still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. AL . This is from the public . . . . It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) .get rid of high bits MOV ESI. .================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. .. and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. the number representing the system disk is returned.

h" "MJob.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.h" "MMemory. */ static long TmpStack[128].h" #include "runfile.h" "MKbd.. char *ppJCBRet). /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt.0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS .. SetExchOwner(long Exch. char *pJCBRet). GetExchOwner(long Exch.Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB.h" "MTimer. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB).h" "MFiles.). /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it. . static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. SendAbort(long JobNum. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. char *pNewJCB).ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. MMURTL V1.h" "MData. long cb).h" "MVid. long Exch).

*pStack. erc. unsigned long *pPT. we eliminate the user PDEs. *pPDE. offData = 0. 0. BogusMsg[2]. char *pMem. sData. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. static char aFileE[80]. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0.static long JobNum. 0. static long cbFileE. extern unsigned long KillExch. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. When all PTs have been cleaned. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. 0. 0. static unsigned long oCode. static struct tagtype tag. ercE. static long sCode. i<1024. oData. static long offCode = 0. i++) { MMURTL V1. for (i=768. job_fhE. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. filetype. 0. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. iE. 0. j. sStack. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. *pData. k. ExchE.

If all is well. 1. long cbFileName. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. j<1024. reads and validates the run file. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName.id = 0. &fh). nCCFIX = 0. *pfhRet = 0.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. 0. offCode = 0. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. long *pfhRet) { long erc. char fDone. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). nDCFIX = 0. oCCFIX = 0. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. fh. oCDFIX = 0. i. &filetype. while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. nCDFIX = 0. k). &dret). dret. &dret). it leaves it open and returns the file handle. offData = 0. cbFileName. nDDFIX = 0. junk. MMURTL V1.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. for (j=0. 1. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . &tag. oDDFIX = 0. switch (tag. 5. oDCFIX = 0.

if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.len).len). case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. break.len). case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. 4.len). nCCFIX = tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oDDFIX+tag. break. if (tag. &sData. &oCDFIX). &oCode). nDDFIX = tag. 4. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &oCCFIX). oCDFIX+tag. nDCFIX = tag. &sStack. &pStart. &oData). &sCode. /* skip it break. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. break. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4.break.len/4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oCode+tag.len). case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. break. &dret). nCDFIX = tag. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oCCFIX+tag. /* skip it break. 4. &dret). &offData.len/4.len).len). /* skip it break. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &offCode. 4. /* skip it break. oDCFIX+tag.len/4. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile.len/4. case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). &dret). break. &dret). /* skip it break. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . i+tag. &i). &oDDFIX). 4. &oDCFIX). oData+tag.

pRunRet. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. i. i). erc). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. long dcbPath) { long JobNum. return (erc). GetpJCB(JobNum.0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. return(0). else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. *pdcbRunRet = i. pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile.break. long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. MMURTL V1. GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. dcbRunFile). GetJobNum(&JobNum). } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. else { CopyData(pRunFile. &pTmpJCB).

&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. } return(0).else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). return(0). pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. i. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. long dcbUser) { long JobNum. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. dcbPath). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. char *pPathRet. MMURTL V1. else { CopyData(pPath. } return(0). else { CopyData(pCmd. &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. } return(erc). long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. pPathRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. &pTmpJCB). pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. GetpJCB(JobNum. long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. *pdcbPathRet = i. i). i). GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. pCmdRet. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum).0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc. dcbCmd). *pdcbCmdRet = i. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1].

} return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. else { CopyData(pName. &pTmpJCB).0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetpJCB(JobNum. *pdcbFileRet = i. return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. return(0). i. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. dcbUser). GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbName).GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. *pdcbUserRet = i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. pFileRet. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. i). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. else { CopyData(pUser. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } return(0). pUserRet. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. i). GetpJCB(JobNum. i. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. long dcbName) { long JobNum.

pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc.0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned long *pPD.{ long JobNum. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbName) { long JobNum. *pdcbFileRet = i. dret. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). cbFileName. } return(0). U32 PhyAdd. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. long cbFileName. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. return(0). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. dcbName). &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. dcbName). return(0). *pOSPD. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. nPages. else { CopyData(pName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. &fh). } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. long *pFix. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. i). fh. pFileRet. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. *pPT. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). i. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. *pVid.

GetpJCB(1. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. MMURTL V1. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". &pPD). */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". if (!erc) { FillData(pPT.0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. &pNewJCB). /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". 1). pPD = 0. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. /* Job's PD. 4096. pPT = pPD + 4096. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. FillData(pVid. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. 4096. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. pPT = 0. &pStack). nPages = sData/4096. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. &pCode). PhyAdd). PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. &pTmpJCB). &pData). pNewJCB = 0./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. pPD). sStack = nPages * 4096. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". &PhyAdd). pVid = pPD + 8192. pVid = 0. pOSPD[768] = pPT. 0). pPT. pPT). if (sData%4096) nPages++. nPages = sCode/4096. 0).

oCDFIX). &dret). */ CopyData(pOSPD. &i. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh./* Right now.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. pCode. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4096). /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. sCode. 4. &dret). 4. oData). We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. &dret).offData + pData. pPD. oCode). &dret). } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pData + i.offCode + pCode. pFix = pCode + i. pFix = pCode + i. the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. oCCFIX). &i. &i. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . sData.offCode + pCode. oDCFIX). &dret). &dret). oDDFIX). pFix = pData + i. pData. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. } MMURTL V1. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4.offData + pData.

pNewJCB->nLines = 25. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. 25. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). 3). if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. pStack+sStack-4.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Size */ CopyData("VID". pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. 1024. 0x18. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. 3). &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. 0). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. 0). pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. 1024. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. pNewJCB). i. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. pStart+pCode-offCode). /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pNewJCB->nCols = 80.

ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. erc = AllocPage(nPages. sData. &dret). return(erc). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sData%4096) nPages++. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. long fh) { long erc. oCDFIX). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . long *pFix. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pNewJCB = pJCB. &pCode). nPages = sData/4096. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). The PD. i. oCode). sStack = nPages * 4096. /* All Job memory is now allocated. &dret). oData). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. pCode. nPages = sCode/4096. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &pStack). nPages. &pData). sCode. dret. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. pData.

4. &dret). its exchange. oCCFIX). /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. &i.offData + pData.PT and video. pFix = pData + i.offCode + pCode. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. &i. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). oDDFIX). &i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. &dret). } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. pFix = pData + i. pFix = pCode + i. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oDCFIX). &dret). &dret).offData + pData. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. MMURTL V1.offCode + pCode. return(erc). /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack.erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . This task. pFix = pCode + i. &i.

This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. &pTmpJCB). WaitMsg(ExchE. GetTSSExch(&ExchE). ISendMsg(KillExch. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. ErcOpCancel). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). CleanUserPD(pPDE). ercE = 0. &pTmpJCB). This is used to kill run-away jobs. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. BogusMsg). Debugger or the current job. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. ExchE. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. It results in a violent death for the job specified. A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). SetPriority(31). This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated.0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (erc) return(erc). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE.GetpJCB(JobNumE. BogusMsg). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum).

/* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. We send "Abort" messages to all services. CodeSeg. return(erc). iE++. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. &pExchJCBE). /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. Exch. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &pCrntJCB). */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). ExchE). ExchE. GetpJCB(JobNumE. Priority. } ercE = 0. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). pTmpJCB). if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE).ercE = 0. &_KillTask). iE = 0. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. ESP. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. 0. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. 0x08. 3. &TmpStack[127].0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . fDebug. EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum.

ercE = 0. ercE = 0. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). ESP. ercE = 0. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). ExchE). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. iE++. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). EAX.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. &pExchJCBE). CleanUserPD(pPDE). EBP./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. Send Abort messages to all services. iE = 0. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. If no exit run file. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. &cbFileE). /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg).

if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. MOV EBX. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. MOV ESP. BogusMsg).0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. MOV EBP. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. WaitMsg(ExchE.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. SUB EAX. ercE). SetPriority(31). job_fhE). */ #asm MOV EAX. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . cbFileE. ADD EAX. Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. &job_fhE). This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. ExchE. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode.

The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. } CloseFile(job_fhE). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. &pExchJCBE). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . iE++. /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &pCrntJCB). } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. iE = 0. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. Send Abort messages to all services. long cbFileName. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). ercE = 0. long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. cbFileName). aFileE. GetpJCB(JobNumE. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. cbFileName.error loading the Job. &job_fhE). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. */ MMURTL V1. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). cbFileE = cbFileName. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. In other words.

&cbFileE). The original user's job is destroyed. job_fhE). OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. ExchE). Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). ercE = 0. /* Try to load the Chain file.SendAbort(JobNumE. cbFileE. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. If no exit run file. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. job_fhE). EBP.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercE = 0. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. ESP. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. */ MMURTL V1. if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). EAX. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. &job_fhE). and we can't run the chain file (bummer). /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. &job_fhE). cbFileE. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. CleanUserPD(pPDE).

PUSH 18h MOV EAX. ercE). BogusMsg). Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error.#asm MOV EAX. MOV EBX. ExchE. MOV EBP. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. MOV ESP. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . WaitMsg(ExchE.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . ADD EAX. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). SUB EAX.

Get EIP of offender for debugger . Get CS .===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. Get EIP of offender for debugger . If we get here. .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. Get Flags . I have left them as individual procedures. First we copy the Page Dir . one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . See listing 23. . Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. entry from the current job into the debuggers job. Next.1. then it jumped here to enter the debugger.1. This makes the . . This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger.Chapter 23. code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). While writing the operating system.Enter debugger . Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger . which are all debug exceptions. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . .0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. debugger operate in the current tasks memory space.EnterDebug . . . All of the debugger's . on which exception is was. The debugger is a separate task. Listing 23. They are made to match those of the interrupted task. then copy the CR3 . we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. It has grown substantially. . The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. Breakpoints. are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS).Enter debugger . This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same.ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. task (without going through the kernel). but is still very immature. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task.

Listing 23.INC TSS. and restore PUSH EDX .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX .Install Debugger's as current .INCLUDE .Switch tasks to debugger .INCLUDE . EAX EAX.DATA . [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .2.." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code. EAX This switches tasks. caller's registers them before the into the debugger . BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. Debugger Data and Code . [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX.pCrntJCB -> EAX .INC RQB.pRunTSS -> EAX .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX. EBX EAX.INCLUDE MOSEDF. pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave. .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS. .INC JOB. [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].INCLUDE .we MUST save PUSH EBX . [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.current CR3 -> EBX .make his registers right! . pRunTSS.2 presents the debugger code in its entirety.INC . then jump to the debugger's selector.ALIGN DWORD . OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3].Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . EnterDebug: PUSH EAX .Save the current pRunTSS .Set up debugger selector . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS .CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX . with the exception of the disassembler.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX . You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.When the debugger exits.Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23. pRunTSS EBX.External near Variables MMURTL V1.Put the stack back the way it was . EBX EAX.

0B3h. ESC to quit.'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.' ' ' .For ReadDbgKbd .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .Address of instructions we are displaying . DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .'DumpD'.TO save the TSS we interrupted . 0 = Exch ..0B3h.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .0B3h.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.'SetBP'.General use buffers DB '0000000000' .'Tasks'.For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .0B3h.General purpose DDs (used all over) .Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .' '.Has Dbg Video been initialized? .0B3h.Active bytes in buf2 .'ClrBP'.CR LF for Dump etc. 0Ah DB 0 .0B3h.' '.flag 1 = Msg..To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' . . dbgExchMsg .0B3h.0B3h.Address we are dumping .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.Address we are setting as next .'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.Boolean. . . .are we dumping DWORDS? .0B3h.

CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.' FS: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .'EDX: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .' ES: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'EBX: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h. OFFSET DbgVidSave .'CR2: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .'TSS: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h.==================== End Data.'EIP: 0B3h. Begin Code ========================== .' SS: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.'ESI: 0B3h.'EFL: 0B3h.

dbgOldEflgs .dbgOldEIP .Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgOldCS .Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. DbgpTSSSave .0 .REF . 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.EBX . and number at 0 . I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX. . .the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS. the handler is a procedure (NOT a task).interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.EBX . 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit. But we do. so we shouldn't have to reset it.When a fault or debug exception occurs.EBX .See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX.Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. and flags are not the .BX MOV EBX.NO . MOV EBX.NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor . Code Seg.the Instruction Pointer. . when the handler is entered.Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].Display fault message and . MOV EBX. ..Dbgr is Job 2 .[EAX+TSS_EFlags] .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 . .0 . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .procedure was entered. is always entered as a procedure. The debugger .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1..PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! . (we chanage the tasks) .way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the . This only applies if .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX.0FFh .Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX. the values of .

MOV EAX.=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid . EAX MOV dbgX. EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.Color White on black .1 .Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.Set TF in flags for single step .00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags]. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX.ESCAPE (Exit) .F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Display menu PUSH dbgX . 0FFh LEA EAX.Reset X & Y to 0. dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 0FFh .CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX. 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.Set BP (Current Address .=========================================================== . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .reset fault indicator .Single Step (F1) .This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.Fall through to keyboard loop .dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. EAX .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.0 .DbgpTSSSave .Get USER pUserTSS . .

F3) . . 00000002h DR7. EBX EAX.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS .Clear BP (Current Address .Display Exchanges (F5) .Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX.Task array display (F6) . EAX DR6.0 . EAX DR7. . 11h dbg04 EAX. EAX EAX.See if we need to scroll up . 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX.This puts the instruction on the line . 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. .Save it so we know where BP is .Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL. . dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd. .This puts the instruction on the line . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL.Sets NextEIP . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX.Not used yet .See if we need to scroll up . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX. EBX DR0.MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX.DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. EAX dbg00 EAX.Back to where we were . 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Set Disassembly Address (F8) .Return to CS:EIP (F4) . EAX dbg00 . . EAX dbgBPAdd.BP0 Set global .Address displayed .Full display .Clear BP saved address . 00 MMURTL V1.

Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) .Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Query XY . DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .0 . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.EAX must be preserved MOV EBX. dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1.we are about to display. . . . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .This compares the current breakpoint the address . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. BX .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Info Address dump (F12) .Return saved pRunTSS .GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner .============================================================== dbgShowBP: . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL.MOV dbgfDumpD.we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .This puts the instruction on the line . . EAX BX. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL. If they are the same.Back to begining .

dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.Save EAX across call .OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.ESI Display .02 MOV ESI.MOV ECX.01 MOV ESI. ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .3 params to TTYOut .============================================================== .EBP Display MMURTL V1.00 MOV ESI.This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .03 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.BP Address .information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.TSS Display .EDI Display .04 MOV ESI.07 MOV ESI.EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .06 MOV ESI.05 MOV ESI.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.ECX Display .[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX Display .EBX Display .EDX Display .Number of this TSS .[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .

MOV ECX.15 MOV ESI.ES Display .OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.12 MOV ESI.CS Display .20 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.CR0 Display .0 .OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.18 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.19 MOV ESI.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.EFlags Display .OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.11 MOV ESI.16 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.08 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.SS Display .10 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.09 MOV ESI.17 MOV ESI.ESP Display .EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR2 Display .GS Display .DS Display .14 MOV ESI.CR3 Display .CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.FS Display .CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.13 MOV ESI.EIP Display .OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.

0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN . . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .CALL DispRegs RETN . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on .============================================== . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. This is for Debugger Register display .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .========================================================================== .

. .0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .did they exit with CR? . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX. PUSH EAX . cbBufLen2 . PUSH EAX ..PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.length of string . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.Crnt size PUSH 8 .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX.=========================== .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .Goto Query Line .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.ptr to string . EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . dbgChar . dbgChar CMP AL. PUSH EAX .Ignore error if any MOV AL.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .Go home.=========================== . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.ptr to destination DD .. 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Max size LEA EAX. DbgBuf2 . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone .Convert String to DD . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .

0 JNE DumpDone . PUSH EAX . dbgSpace MMURTL V1. 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.length of string . DbgBuf2 . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. 6 LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Go home. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Goto Query Line . PUSH EAX . PUSH EAX .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd .Crnt size PUSH 8 .0 . dbgChar CMP AL.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .ptr to string ..byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .Convert String to DD . dbgChar . .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Ignore error if any MOV AL. 24 .did they exit with CR? .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! . 4 . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.convert address to text LEA EAX. cbBufLen2 . 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. LEA EAX.Max size LEA EAX.line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .ptr to destination DD .. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.

Display First byte . dbgfDumpD . display 1 space . dbgBuf ADD EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX.get dump address MOV EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. [EBX] . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd .0 . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.go to display bytes LEA EAX.Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX . dbgBuf .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgBuf ADD EAX.Display 1 spaces . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. 0 JE DumpB .ignore error .NO .point to second 2 bytes . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.ignore error .display 2st byte . dbgBuf ADD EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.

dbgCRLF . 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars ."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS .NO .NO . dbgBuf ADD EAX.ignore error .Yes .a space . DEC dbgGPdd1 . dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.done with 4 quads?? .Query XY PUSH dbgX .Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.display 4th byte .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut . dbgCont . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .ignore error .go back for next 4 bytes .ignore error LEA EAX.size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .

0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX. 1Bh .Col dbgGPdd1 .Do CR/LF 0 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .prgExch . .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 1 .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with . sEXCH EDX EDX.=========================== .messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. dbgGPdd2 EDX. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. PUSH 54 . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS .Convert Exch number for display . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Exch# we are on . 0FFh .Col PUSH 0 . 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .MOV EAX. DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. 0 RETN . . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .line we are one .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX. Exch number .

Col dbgGPdd1 .MsgFlag -> EBX ..Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. ."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5. [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX. . .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . Go to next Exch .0 . but would be confusing later. MOV EAX. [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX.Is is NIL (no msg or task)? .pMsg -> EBX 20 .pMsg -> EBX . EAX MOV EBX.Convert Job Number 10 . [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . [EAX+EHead] . .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5.For next msg in chain (if it exists) . EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Could have left it on stack.Convert dMsg1 . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX.Save dMsg2 . [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . 0 .Get dMsg2 back POP EDX . .Save for loop .ADD EAX. . EAX MOV EAX. .Get dMsg2 .Is is 1 (a message)? .See if there is a first message MOV EAX. Go check for tasks .Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX OR EBX. [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Flag to indicate we are doing messages .EDX MOV dbgGPdd3.No. EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.pExch -> EAX .Get dMsg1 . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars ..Yes.

Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. .Save ptr to next task if it exists .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Clear pNextTask . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Col .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1. EAX EAX. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. 23 .Col 24 . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. MOV EAX. [EBX+TSSNum] .Is is 0 (no TSS)? .Line . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .pExch -> EAX .Get Number of Task at exch . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Next line please . EAX AX.Lop off key status bytes . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Line OFFSET dbgCont . 31 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5. .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . nDynEXCH .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 0FFh CMP EAX.No .0 .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 . INC dbgGPdd1 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone . MOV EAX. 1Bh JE dbgDEDone .pTSS -> EBX .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Convert Task Number 1 .

0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. we get all the data BEFORE we display it .Set up to loop for next msg/task . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 .line. 0 RETN . 1 dbgDT02 EBX. Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.NonZero if we are doing tasks .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS .Length of message . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX.Displays Tasks that are active along with .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. MMURTL V1.Line for labels .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . PUSH 54 . dbgGPdd2 EAX. 1 . . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) .If so.Col .Col PUSH 0 . .Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .Another pointer in the link? . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX.No . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) . 1 . 2 dbgDT03 EBX. We are on line 1 again . Task number .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .for the next one dbgDT01: .=========================== .line we are one .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. nDynEXCH .If not.Tasks . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX. EAX. .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX. we increment TSS number and go back . Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.

Save pTSS for display XOR ECX. EAX . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . ECX MOV EAX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . nTSS . EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Not used.0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX. DDtoHex 10 . [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.of TSSs . 512 ECX EBX.EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4.Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6.Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array . ECX .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . EAX MOV EBX. 8 .Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5.EAX has pJCB OR EAX.back for next one dbgDT05: . .Save pJCB for display .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgGPdd2 .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 . DDtoHex 20 . 8 . dbgGPdd3 . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd4 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Col dbgGPdd1 . EBX . [EBX+Priority] .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. MOV CL. go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.

Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . dbgGPdd6 .Save it for the top MOV EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.go for next Task number . . continue prompt dbgDT01 .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . go back for next 0 .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .====================================================================== . Call with: . 8 . 0 RETN .Line OFFSET dbgCont .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . 1Bh .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .Col dbgGPdd1 . DDtoHex 30 . 23 .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .No. EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Yes.Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . 31 . 8 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Col dbgGPdd1 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . This is for Debugger Address Info display . EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't .Save number to display MMURTL V1.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. MOV EAX. . 0FFh .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . DDtoHex 40 . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Col 24 .

OFFSET DbgM6 .MonTSS MOV EAX. RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.RdyQ LEA EAX.SVCs LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM2 .OFFSET DbgM5 .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .=============================================== .OFFSET DbgM8 . prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM9 . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgM3 .OFFSET DbgM1 . pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM7 .IDT LEA EAX.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .GDT LEA EAX.DbgInfo .PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM0 .Length of line .pTSS3 MOV EAX. rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1. OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Vid Attribute .OFFSET DbgPA .ptr to line . GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.JCBs MOV EAX.Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.LBs LEA EAX. rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Do it .RQBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM4 .Exchs MOV EAX.

.and the register display.fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .======================================================= .No.Query XY (See what line and Col) . we scroll up the text area by one line.OFFSET DbgMB .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.between colums 0 and 66.Columns 0-65 24 .This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN . . dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX. The other . go back for next key 0 . and line 0 to 24. Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .ignore error RETN . Line 0-24) 0 66 . 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 .MOV ESI.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. Scroll test area (Col 0-64.======================================================= .areas are resrved for the menu.===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1.All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .Col 0.Got to Column 0.Yes. . Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .If so.Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . .Clear the query line (Line 23.Timer Blocks LEA EAX. query line.Lines 0-23 1 .0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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though I would rather have done them in assembler.g. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. Listing 24. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. If you have MFM drives. you're on your own. in addition to those in the code itself. Time was the deciding factor. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. unsigned long int). All of the hardware commands are well documented. but I try not to. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. There are no include files. See listing 24. U32 nDevices. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. S8 *pDCBs. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section.1. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have.. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . Comments.1. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. this device driver should work with MFM drives.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. many device drivers are written in C. They were designed that way. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. In fact. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. U32 dfReplace). This seems to be the best.Chapter 24. but I think you're OK.

Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. InWords(U32 dPort. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 dBytes). U16 InWord(U16 wPort). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataRet). U32 *pMsgRet). void OutByte(U8 Byte. U8 *pDataOut. S8 *pIRQ). U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). Listing 24. /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. U32 dBytes). void MicroDelay(U32 us15count).2.0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dnBlocks. static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA.). U8 *pDestination. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. U32 count). U32 dnBlocks. U32 msg1. static U32 check_busy(void). static U32 hd_wait (void). U32 *pMsgRet). static U32 send_command(U8 parm). static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U32 nBlks). I needed a method to get data to the screen. U8 *pDataIn. While writing the operating system. U16 wPort). /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dnBlocks). OutWords(U32 dPort. static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. U32 dnBlocks. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. U8 *pDataIn). U32 Sleep(U32 count). static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). MMURTL V1. The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). It's called xprintf(). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). U32 msg2). U32 msg2).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). void OutWord(U16 Word. U32 msg1. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA.. See listing 24. U32 HdSect. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). U16 wPort). .2. static void hd_reset(void).. U8 *pDataOut). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dOpNum. U32 dBytes). U32 dLBA.

S8 *pInitData. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set.0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS .U8 static U32 *pData).. bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. S8 * pStatRet. U32 sdInitData). U32 *pdSatusRet).. U32 dStatusMax.

status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.low cyl (1F4h) 5 . then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag. can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1. Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit .Set.sector count (1F2h) 3 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .sector number (1F3h) 4 .. Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. wait 50us.write data (1F0h .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 .error register (1F1h) 2 .read data (1F0h .command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 . head and Sector number.16 bit) 1 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .sector number (1F3h) 4 . and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks. Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.16 bit) 1 .

Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. 0 or 1 */ hd_head.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS .n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. /* Calculated from LBA . hd1_secpertrk. */ /* Current number of heads. /* Calculated from LBA . hd0_cyls. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command.3. /* Current Physical Drive. hd0_heads.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. hd_control. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. statbyte. cylinders. hd1_heads. Listing 24. /* Calculated from LBA .3. hd0_secpertrk. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1.which head */ hd_nsectors. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. hd1_type.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. fDataReq. See listing 24. If I did one member. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type.

S8 type. U32 OS3. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. U32 blocks_done. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. U32 nBlocks. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. U8 type_now. S8 *pDevOp. MMURTL V1. 32 bytes out to here. U32 OS2. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. filler1. U8 fDevReent. LastSeekErc1. ResetStatByte. U8 fSingleUser. LastStatByte0.static U16 hd1_cyls. U32 last_erc. S16 nBPB. LastStatByte1. U32 OS6. LastSeekErc0. S8 *pDevSt. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12].*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. }. S8 sbName. U32 OS1. fIntOnReset. }.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. LastErcByte1. U32 BlocksMax. S8 *pDevInit. S16 wJob. /* Number of bytes per sect. LastErcByte0. U32 OS4. U32 OS5. LastRecalErc1. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. U8 fNewMedia. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead.

'D'. hd1_cyls = 1024.sbName hdcb[0]. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024. '0'.Name[0] hdcb[0]./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16. 3.nBlocks hdcb[1].Name[1] hdcb[0]. &hddev_init. static U32 hd_msg2. 'H'. '1'. static U32 hd_msg.4. &hddev_stat. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17. 1. In a loadable driver. hd1_secpertrk = 17. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver. 1.4.pDevOp hdcb[1]. /* Random */ 512. /* Random */ 512.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.nBlocks hdcb[0]. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19). &hddev_init. See listing 24.nBPB hdcb[0]. 524288.pDevSt hdcb[1].sbName hdcb[1].pDevInit hdcb[0]. static long HDDInt.pDevOp hdcb[0].Name[2] hdcb[1]. this would be the main() section of the C source file.pDevInit hdcb[1]. 'D'.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc.Name[0] hdcb[1]. 3. Listing 24. 524288.Name[2] hdcb[0].type hdcb[0]. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A).nBPB hdcb[1]. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0].0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . &hddev_stat.type hdcb[1]. /* largest disk handled . MMURTL V1. /* largest device handled . hd1_heads = 16.Name[1] hdcb[1].

We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. UnMaskIRQ(14). some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. */ hd_reset(). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. } } /* if we got here. hd1_type = 0. SetIRQVector(14. It seems like a lot of work. /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. then try both physical drives. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). &hdisk_isr). We have to make this sucker work the hard way. MMURTL V1. */ erc = hd_recal(0). In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). erc = hd_recal(0).hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). hd0_type = 0. /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h.last_erc = erc. We have to do it once. but they don't. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0).last_erc = erc. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. */ /* Reset the HDC .erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). */ hd_reset(). If the second drive is not there.0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . They vary from BIOS to BIOS.

1)). } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. &hdcb. ISendMsg(hd_exch.fIntOnReset = 0. &hd_msg).fIntOnReset = 1. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. MicroDelay(4). OutByte(4. Sleep(20).seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. It just waits for an interrupt. 0xfffffff0. HD_REG_PORT). /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. /* 200ms .last_erc = erc. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. The caller should call check_busy and check the error. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. else hdstatus. HDDInt = 1. 2. and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. hdcb[0].erc = hd_recal(0).ResetStatByte = statbyte. EndOfIRQ(14). UnMaskIRQ(14). HD_REG_PORT). } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. if (i) hdstatus. This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. 0xfffffff0). This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them.

/* set max heads. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange.). sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1.5. Sleep(5). /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. hd_Cmd[4] = 0. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk.3 seconds. } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. hd_Cmd[3] = 0. Listing 24. See listing 24. erc = hd_wait().0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. return(erc). nSectors. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. check_busy(void) count = 0. etc.5.

/* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). return(ok). *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. Time-out and return if no interrupt. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt).0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . KillAlarm(hd_exch). 300). else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). &hd_msg). Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. return(erc). if (drive) hdstatus. hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.LastRecalErc0 = erc. KillAlarm(hd_exch).Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL).LastRecalErc1 = erc. /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. else hdstatus. hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0.

if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. &msg) == 0). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). HD_PORT+1). HD_PORT+2). if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk).alarm or int messages before we send a command. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. hd_nsectors = nBlks. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+3). } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. format. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. return(erc). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. HD_PORT+5). MMURTL V1. /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. HD_REG_PORT). seek). write. U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. setupseek(U32 dLBA. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. HD_PORT+7). if (!erc) erc = check_busy().0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. HD_PORT+4). OutByte(hd_control. *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. U16 cyl. } erc = check_busy(). The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. verify. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. HD_PORT+6). msg[2]. if (!erc) erc = check_busy().

j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. /* cyl & 0xff. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. 1). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore./* we now know what cylinder. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. return(erc). Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk.. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. } = = = = = nBlks. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK).LastSeekErc0 = erc.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS .. hdstatus. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. /* hd_sector. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK).

/* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault. else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). default: break. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. MMURTL V1. else hdstatus. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. else hdstatus. After all.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). } return(erc).LastErcByte1 = errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. else return(erc). if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. */ erc = check_busy(). if (hd_drive) hdstatus.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . he interrupted us with status. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. break. else return(erc). if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC.LastErcByte0 = errbyte.U8 statbyte. } else { erc = check_busy(). errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd.

U32 dnBlocks. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. --nleft. } } return(erc). nBPS. erc = setupseek(dLBA. U32 dnBlocks. dnBlocks). and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0.nBPB. nSoFar. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). pDataRet+=nBPS. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head.else erc = ErcBadHDC. pDataOut+=nBPS. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive].0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. nSoFar++. pDataOut. nBPS). erc = check_busy(). nBPS. dnBlocks). /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. erc = setupseek(dLBA. } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. pDataRet. hd_sector. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). nleft. hd_sector. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive].nBPB. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. nBPS).

cyl = Cylinder. return(erc). /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). pDataOut. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* hd_sector. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. dnBlocks). hd_head. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. head and Sector number. U16 cyl. nSoFar++. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA.erc = hd_wait(). return(erc). pDataOut+=nBPS. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE).0 -404- . /* cyl & 0xff. SEC %d\r\n". } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. U32 HdSect. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. erc = hd_wait(). /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. nBPS). cyl. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. HD %d. erc = setupseek(dLBA. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. hd_sector). *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder.

/* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. Listing 24. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. pDataRet. U32 dOpNum. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. “Programming Interfaces. } Chapter 8.blocks_done = 0. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. U32 dLBA.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. See listing 24. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). return(erc).6. erc = 0. 512). else hd_drive = 1. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. 12=0 and 13=1. MMURTL V1. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0.” discussed device driver interfaces. For Hard disk. &hd_msg). erc = hd_wait(). } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface.6. U32 dnBlocks. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks.

break.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. pData). dnBlocks.last_erc = erc. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. pData). */ break.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. break. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. return(erc). Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. break. dnBlocks). pData). erc = 0.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. default: erc = ErcBadOp. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. dnBlocks. break. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). dnBlocks. break. U32 dStatusMax. pData). /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. dnBlocks. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). break. /* Null Command */ break. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. S8 * pStatRet. break.

U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[1]. hdstatus. else i = sStatus. return ok. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax. hdstatus.nCyl = hd0_cyls. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. hdstatus.last_erc.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk.nHead = hd0_heads. hdstatus.nBPB.nCyl = hd1_cyls. The DCB values are updated if this is successful.erc = hdcb[0].nHead = hd1_heads. i).{ U32 i. hdstatus.last_erc. CopyData(&hdstatus. } else { hdstatus.type_now = hd0_type. hdstatus. hdstatus.erc = hdcb[1].type_now = hd1_type. hdstatus. pStatRet. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters. *pdStatusRet = i.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS . *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. hdstatus.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk.nBPS = hdcb[0].). or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. S8 *pInitData. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect.nBPB. } /* Calculate size of status to return. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat). This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.

last_erc = erc. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. i). if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp.nBPB = HDStatTmp.nHead. hdcb[hd_drive].nSectors * HDStatTmp. else hd_drive = 1. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive]. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp.type_now.nSectors.nCyl * HDStatTmp. } hdcb[hd_drive]. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. &HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.nCyl.nHead.last_erc = 0.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . hdcb[hd_drive].nBPS. i.nCyl.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive).type_now. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp. CopyData(pInitData. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. erc = 0. /* If no error. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive). /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0. return(erc).{ U32 erc. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp.nSectors.nHead. else i = sdInitData. } /* If no error. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.

a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. */ It's already open. unsigned long XTimeOut.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open.. Listing 24. as well as by the driver itself. Unlike the IDE disk device driver.. unsigned char IRQNum. unsigned long RBufSize. It needs more work.38400 */ Parity for this port.. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. unsigned long resvd[6]. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. */ It's opened by someone else. which is a sequential byte-oriented device. unsigned long LastTotal. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. unsigned long IOBase. unsigned long XBufSize. 150 .. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. but. unsigned char parity. which is a block oriented random device. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. See listing 24. unsigned char stopbits. 16450. it is a fully functional driver. “MMURTL Sample Software. and this driver. */ 150-38400 */ 0.. as well as status. the driver. RS-232. 1=even. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver.7. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. or 16550 UARTs. They are two different animals with the same basic interface.7.. MMURTL V1. 0=none. other than that. unsigned long LastErc. unsigned long RTimeOut. unsigned long Baudrate. unsigned char databits.

you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. U32 nDevices. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. See listing 24. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. U32 dfReplace). extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum).8.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). U8 **ppMemRet). /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. S8 *pDCBs. Listing 24. All other command are specific to this driver. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). RICHARD A BURGESS -410- .0 *pIRQ).8. U32 nPages). extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. S8 MMURTL V1. extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages.}. Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32.

U8 *pDestination. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). S8 *pMsgRet). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. void OutByte(U8 Byte. S8 *pStatRet. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U8 *pData). U32 dnBlocks. U32 *pdStatusRet). set and reset signal line condition and functions. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U32 sdInitData). U32 msg1. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U32 msg2). U32 msg2). static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U16 wPort). /* local prototypes.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. S8 *pInitData. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dOpNum. U32 dLBA. U32 Sleep(U32 count). static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 dBytes). U32 dStatusMax. U32 msg1. U32 count). These will be called form the device driver interface.

/* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. tail_recv[2]. stat_byte[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. cSendBuf[2]. fExpectInt[2]. FCR[2]. MSR[2]. MCR[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0.#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. head_recv[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. IIR[2]. LSR[2]. mstat_byte[2]. head_send[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. tail_send[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. sSendBuf[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . xmit_timeout[2] = 10. LCR[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. IER[2]. int_id[2].

Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -. Divisor Latch LSB IER -.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char. Listing 24.4 chars 11 .Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS . RX data. \___________ = 0.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.Interrupt Enable.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART.1 char 01 . 1 = Multichar 0. FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 . I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion.9.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0. \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.2 chars 10 . MMURTL V1.TX data. 0. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -.

It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter. MMURTL V1.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints. Listing 24. See listing 24. static struct statRecC *pCS. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232.H.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1.10. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -.Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.10. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2]. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS .Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.

= 'M'. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. U32 OS4. Listing 24. Listing 24. Note that there are two of DCB’s. S8 type. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts.11.12. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. U32 nBlocks.0 = 'C'. }. 8N1. static void interrupt comISR1(void). /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void). the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver.Name[2] MMURTL V1. U32 OS5. S8 sbName.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 last_erc. One for each channel. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc. S8 *pDevInit. U32 OS2. S8 *pDevOp. S16 nBPB.Name[1] comdcb[0]. U32 OS3. = 'O'. U32 OS6.11. and they are contiguously defined. See listing 24. This means it's ready for business.Name[0] comdcb[0]. S8 fDevReent. as is required by MMURTL. S8 *pDevSt. S16 wJob. S8 fSingleUser.12. U32 OS1. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. See listing 24.

&comdev_stat. /* 1 byte per block */ 0. 4. &comISR0).IRQNum = comstat[0].RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. = 100. /* none */ = 8. MaskIRQ(4).comdcb[0]. 3. = 9600.XBufSize comstat[1]. /* none */ = 8. = 4096. &comdcb.Name[2] comdcb[0]. &comISR1).nBlocks comdcb[1].sbName comdcb[1].parity comstat[1].XTimeOut comstat[1].parity comstat[0]. MaskIRQ(3). = 0. = 1. = 4096.RBufSize sSendBuf[1] = 4096.pDevInit comdcb[1].XBufSize comstat[0].databits comstat[0]. /* 1 byte per block *