MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

............... Adding a run of linear memory...........................................................................................314 GetCMOSDate() .......304 Listing 19.............................................316 Beep()................13..................................................................................291 Listing 19......................................................296 AddGDTCallGate ..............21.................................................................................................................................................................317 MMURTL V1..............................................................................................................................................................13...........................................................................308 Listing 20.............. Code for the Alarm function ........................................................................................................................................................................ Public for linear to physical conversion.......................14....................... Allocating a page of linear memory..............................16.....................................................................................................305 Listing 19............... Adding a page table for user memory.......................................................................312 KillAlarm()............................................................................................14....................................................................................290 AddAliasRun ..........309 Listing 20................... Code to find a free run of linear memory.........9.309 Sleep() ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ..................................................................................................316 Listing 20.....................2.................................... Deallocating linear memory.296 AddIDTGate.......................................298 Listing 19.......................................................................................... Code for the KillAlarm function........................... Code to alias memory ........................................................................................................................11................................................................................................ Code to produce a beep........................................................................298 AliasMem .....293 Listing 19...........317 Listing 20...............................................309 The Timer Interrupt ................................................................................................311 Listing 20.................................................................................... Code to remove alias PTEs....................................................................................................................317 Listing 20...7......................................8. Data and constants for timer code................................................................................................................315 Listing 20..............................................................................................................................5.17............... Code for the Sleep function ................... The timer interrupt service routine ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23...294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ........................289 Listing 19..................................................................... Adding entries to the IDT ................. TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ................307 INTRODUCTION ...........................................294 Listing 19..................................1......................................................... External functions for timer code ................316 Listing 20...............305 CHAPTER 20...................................................................317 Tone()..........................................................................................................................................................................................10..................301 DeAllocPage ........................... Code to read the CMOS date .......................................303 QueryMemPages....................................312 Listing 20................................................................................................................................... Code for the MicrDelay function ...........................................................................................................................314 Listing 20..............................................18.........................................................301 Listing 19.24.......................................................................................................................................288 AddRun ........ Adding a call gate to the GDT ..........................................................15...................................................FindRun .............................................................................................................................. Adding an operating system page table .......................315 GetTimerTick()..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6...................................................................................................................................................................25................................................................ Code to return the timer tick ..........................................................................22.......................................................................................................297 AllocOSPage.......307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ............................................................................................................................................................................293 AddOSPT .............296 Listing 19............3............................................................................................................................................316 Beep_Work() .........................313 Listing 20...........................313 GetCMOSTime() ..............................................307 Listing 20..............................................................................................................................303 Listing 19...................................................................................................297 Listing 19.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................299 DeAliasMem.....20.................................................................................................................288 Listing 19.....................................313 MicroDelay() ............................................................. Loop in timer ISR ...............................................................................................................................................................................4............................................... Code to find number of free pages......307 TIMER DATA .................................................................................................................. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ..................................................................304 GetPhyAdd ........ Code to read the CMOS time.................................. Code to produce a tone ................311 Alarm().309 Listing 20...............................................................19................................................................................................................................................................291 AddUserPT ...299 Listing 19............................................................................................................................................................................................................................312 Listing 20.............................................12............................................................ Adding an aliased run of linear memory.........................308 TIMER CODE .............................................

.......................................................................................................................................1...................................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ........................................................................................................... 328 Listing 21...........................................................................................................7.........................................................................................................10....4............................................11.................... KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE........ 390 Listing 24.......... 337 Listing 22.........4....................................................................................6.... OS Initialization Code and Entry Point............................ 321 Listing 21.........................................................................................9........ 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ......................... 344 Listing 22................................. 326 Listing 21...............................3......................... 429 Listing 25....................................................................................................................................................... Initialize call gates amd the IDT. 424 CHAPTER 25............................................................1... 409 Listing 24................................................................................................................. 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 442 Listing 25..........................................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 389 INTRODUCTION ............................................7............. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)........................... Continuation of OS initialization..................................................................................................................................................... 414 Listing 24............................................2...........................................................3.......................................................... 389 Listing 24.............4...................................................................................................................... Initialization Subroutines............................ 393 Listing 24.................................................................. Jobc.. 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ................................................................................................. 344 CHAPTER 23..................... INITIALIZATION CODE ..........................................................................................................1............................................................... 417 Listing 24.............................................................................1..................................................................................................... 436 Keyboard ISR.............................................................. 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ..... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ........... 365 Listing 23............................................................................................................................................................................................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ............................................................................................................................................h Header File .................................. 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ... 389 Listing 24................................................... 325 Listing 21........................ Keyboard ISR Code... 319 INTRODUCTION ............................ Debugger Data and Code......................................... Continuation of OS initialization........................ 337 INTRODUCTION ........ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ................................2............................................................. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) .................................................................................................................................................5.................................................................................................................................................................................................................8.............................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING .............................................................................. 327 Listing 21.................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ........................... End of Initialization Code.................................................. 413 Listing 24...... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ............................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ............................................. 321 Listing 21............ 331 CHAPTER 22......... 409 Listing 24.... 395 Listing 24................. JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ................................. 436 Keyboard Translation.....2................................................................................................................................ 365 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................... 415 Listing 24................................................................................................CHAPTER 21..... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ................................................... 366 Listing 23.... Keyboard Translation Code............................................................................... RS-232...14............ 366 CHAPTER 24.... 442 MMURTL V1...................................................................... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER.....................c source code....6.... 319 Listing 21.........1...........................................................................................3................................................................................................. 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING .............5........................................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ............................................................................... Keyboard Data and Tables ......................................................2............... SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE............................... Job Management Subroutines...... DEBUGGER CODE ........... 415 Listing 24............................................................12............................................................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ................................................... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ............................................................. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger................................... 429 KEYBOARD DATA...................................................2................................................................... 398 Listing 24....................... 410 Listing 24..................... 438 Listing 25.................................................................. 429 INTRODUCTION .............................................13.................... 438 Reading the Final Buffer .................... 436 Listing 25.... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA .................................................... Read Keyboard Buffer Code ...................... Main Operating System Data .............

.......... Code to Get the Current Video Owner.........................................................................................................................457 THE VIDEO CODE ........... FILE SYSTEM CODE...................................................................................................................................11...... Code to Get a Character and Attribute................................................................................................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM .....................................539 INTRODUCTION .............459 Listing 26...443 Listing 25....................................................461 Listing 26...........................................................................................450 Listing 25..........8..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1...................................................................................................................................................................................................465 Listing 26..............................................................................464 Listing 26........ Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ............. Code to Set Cursor Position..................................460 Listing 26........5....................................................................................................................... A More Complicated Template File .........................................................474 CHAPTER 28........................................452 Listing 25................12..................................541 Errors Only Option ................... VIDEO CODE ............542 Device Drivers .....................................15.......................................................................................473 Logical Block Address (LBA).......................................................................0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ...................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to Edit a Line on the Screen.....................................................................................................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ................468 Listing 26............472 CHAPTER 27........541 Command Line Options .................................................................................................................460 Listing 26..........458 Listing 26................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers...........7.....6................................................................ Code to Clear the Screen ........ DASM................................................................................................................................... Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call ...................................................................... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ............................................................................................540 Application Template File.................................................. A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER .............. Code to Screen Video Attributes .........................453 CHAPTER 26............................................................. Low-level Keyboard Control Code...................................................... Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen .....................................................................448 Listing 25................................................ Keyboard system service code............................................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ..............................1....................................................................................3....................................473 INTRODUCTION ........................................ Code to Return Current Cursor Position ..........................13..................................................................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code ...............8............457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT .................................474 Listing 27...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................453 Listing 25...................458 Listing 26.................. Code to Initialize Video ...........................................................................................................................................4..................464 Listing 26...................................................................................461 Listing 26..............................................................................6......................................................................473 Hidden Sectors......The Keyboard Service ...........................................................474 File System Initialization .................................................................................................................457 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................................469 Listing 26...............................9..................................................................................452 Hardware Helpers ..................................................... Code to set Normal Video Attribute ...........................................................................540 Listing 28.......................................................1..................................................................................542 MMURTL V1.....................................................468 Listing 26.......... Code to get the Normal Video Attribute.5......................................................................................................451 Listing 25..................................................................................................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up................................448 Debugger Keyboard......... Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen............................................14...................................466 Listing 26............................................................................................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position..............................................................................................................................462 Listing 26.................... Video constants and data ..................................................................10............ Simple Application Template File ....................................................457 Listing 26....................................................................... MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ...................539 DASM CONCEPTS ..........................................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................539 USING DASM.....................................................................................540 Listing 28...................................................................................... Keyboard Service Initialization ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16.........................7...........................................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ..........................................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ..................................................10................................. Code to Set the Video Owner ............................................................................2..............9...............................................541 List File Option ...........................................................2........................................................................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization .....................................................................................................542 Dynamic Link Libraries ............................

.......................................2..................................................................1...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations .............................................. 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information........ 548 Labels and Address.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 ..................................................................................................... 548 PUBLIC Declarations................................................. 545 DASM Addressing Modes .............................................................................................................3...................................................................CD-ROM CONTENTS ...................................................................................................... 566 Initialization of Static Variables ................................................................................. Standard file I/O for MMURTL ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ..3............................................................................. 543 DOT Commands ......................................................................................................................................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ........................ 552 Table 28.......................................................................................................... A 32-BIT C COMPILER ....................................................... 561 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 556 Tag Descriptions.......................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ................................................................. 570 Listing 29............................................................................................ 563 Library Header File Access.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM .................................................................................................................................................... 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ................................................................................... 562 FAR Calls ................................................................................................................ 568 Library Functions ................................................... 565 Far External Functions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 568 USING CM32.DASM Source Files ................... 558 Your Own Assembler? ..........................Specifying Memory Operands..0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 581 MMURTL V1.............................................................................................................................................. 548 EXTRN Declarations.................................................. 542 Memory Model.................................................................................................................................................................................. 559 CHAPTER 29....................................................... 542 DASM Program Structure .......... 569 Listing 29..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Supported Instructions .................................................................................................... 547 DW (Define Word) ...... 562 Interrupt Functions....................................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING .................................. 569 Library Code Examples ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 545 Storage Declarations........................................................................................................................................................... 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ........................................ 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes .......................................3 .............................. 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ......................................................................................................................... 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers.................................. 568 Command Line Options .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Alternating data and code in a template file .......................................... 575 APPENDIX A -................................................................................................................ 545 Table 28................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 543 Listing 28............... 565 Structure Limitations . 570 Listing 29................................................................................................................................................................................................. 547 DF (Define Far Word) ..................................Tag Usage ................................................. 562 Variable Length Argument Lists ........................................................................................................................... CM32....................................................................................................................... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) .................................................................. 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ............................................................................................................................... 555 Table 28.............................................................. Standard String Functions for MMURTL ................................................... 579 INDEX ....................................................................... 547 DB (Define Byte)........................... Supported Library Functions ............................................................................................... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ........................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). It's up to you. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. If you write something that no one can use. IBM. Unfortunately. and the programming interface. they work with them. I would just make a list. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. If you're an experienced programmer. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . I've learned a lot from all that I've read. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. The most obvious of these. When OS/2 was first developed. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done.Chapter 1. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. In the case of my own operating system. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. That was part of my wish list. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. NOT SO FAST THERE. do some research on each of the desirables. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. Realizing this. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. but very light on specifics. I determined the specifications for the final product. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. not his IQ. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. it's a complete system. As coding began. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. When I started out. it's unlikely they'll use it. In the early days. as viewed by the outside programmer." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. and begin coding. I have documented what it takes to really write one. however. code. You. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. memory model. portability issues size and speed. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. I decided what stayed and what went. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. You don't need to design your own. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. are the tasking model. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. I set the ground rules. MMURTL V1. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. or Sun. They use them. But I wanted a small API.

In fact. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. message based. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. Serial and Parallel Ports. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. size and speed. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. programming interfaces. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model.to 32-bit jump. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. hardware interface. your goals may be different. modify. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. multitasking. But that's not what this book is about. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. Hardware Timers. ideas from it. change it to suit your needs. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. would help me write better application software for it. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. For instance. MMURTL V1. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. redesign it to meet your requirements. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. You may or may not want to do this for your system. It clouds far too many real issues these days.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . Throughout this book. they are effectively super-386 processors. but it was a "must" for me. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. portability issues. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. You can use pieces of it. along with all the tools necessary to build. For this reason. which I felt. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. The source code. This was the 16. or all of it if you wish to write your own. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. I'm sure it won't. 80486 (486). I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. or write your own. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. the memory model. real-time. In my opinion. and some serious "turbo" modifications. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. This was completely intentional. Once again. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. Even though they have added speed. a few more instructions. so I've removed the mystique.

I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. the right mix of capability and simplicity.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . UMBs. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions.Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. General Discussion and Background. but I don't recommend it. or maybe a little less? Of course. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model).The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). “The Hardware Interface. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. but real multi-threading . archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. We want the system to react to us.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. If you don't have this requirement. Client/Server design . I didn't want to do this. but not all the options. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). yet powerful enough to get the job done. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. We. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired.Not just task switching between programs. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. If it is another processor. the humans. Extended. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. calling conventions. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. and what my end result was. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. If you're going to write your own. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. you may have a different platform in mind. and 4 (Interprocess Communications).Keep the system as simple as possible. or start one from scratch. hardware paging. Message agents could be added to any platform.. if we knew how.My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. You may start with my list and modify it. Real-time operation . uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. I use the stack.But not the programmer. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . I discuss this in chapter 6. such as C or Pascal.” Protection from other programs . are outside events.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements. is with a procedural interface. and most of them are grossly under used. HIMEM. “Programming Interfaces.” Simplicity . and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. I'll discuss some of your options. Chapter 5 covers memory management. many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. YOURMOTHERSMEM. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. LIM. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. “Programming Interfaces. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. Easy programming . Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed .” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. MMURTL V1. and also what I decided on.” and chapter 8. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. and for a very good reason. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. “The Hardware Interface. LOMEM. I also wanted to maintain a small.The ability to react to outside events in real time.. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). Power without BLOAT.

make up your own! But. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. x86/Pentium processors. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. or for general reference. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). If you're not worried about memory consumption. And of course. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. If you don't want to start from scratch. no doubt. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. Then again. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. kerneL. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. be of value in your other programming projects as well. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. If you intend to run MMURTL. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. In the educational field. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. Real-Time. If you don't like my acronym. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. Dedicated. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. Multitasking. nor is it intended to directly replace them. the tools. I put together my own operating system. Message based. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. the code. Sections of the source code will. MMURTL V1. or use any of the tools I included. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). I'm sure. expand it to your heart's desire. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. and the initialization entry point jumped to. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). but only a distant cousin. and 64K of data). Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. Real-Time. Yes. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want.

The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification.x (IBM). you can ignore this section. eases the development burden. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. Hence. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required.5" are supported. AMD. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. not at all the same. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. IBM and other clone processors. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. MMURTL V1. EISA (Ed. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you want to run DOS. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. and more importantly. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. The processor must be an Intel 80386. but only out of convenience. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. but still. If yours isn't. but a few are not). The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. (or even MS-DOS). Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. Pentium. One Megabyte of RAM is required. 8250. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. This includes Cyrix. that is. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). 80486. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. IDE is preferred. Both 5. you can change the code as needed. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter).25" and 3. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). Note: PCI bus designs work well. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. also – 2000).

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but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. merged). It does. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. for no apparent reason).000. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. a. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. you might not want to). as well what may influence your design. take away. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. here it is. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. add. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). Burroughs and Sperry.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. In fact. I might add).Chapter 2. improve. etc. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. I would not let this happen.” I covered what my final design goals were. my schooling. affect its design. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. has had an effect. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. It whet my whistle. my reading of various publications and periodicals. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life.). Every little thing you've run across will. In Chapter 1. write your own operating system. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. make a lot of sense. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. MMURTL V1. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. and just make it better if you have the desire. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. however. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). That worked out just about right. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. Borrow from mine. no doubt. It was a 32-bit system. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. Five years later. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. That was 1989. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. As you can see. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. simplified memory management. Far too often.k. and borrowed with great respect. “Overview. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. client server designs.a. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system.

yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. was a must. As you may be aware. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . National Semiconductor's N80000 series. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's.After I got involved with the IBM PC. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. Then those were the 2. MS-DOS was everywhere. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. I'm not a Borland salesman. but it worked nonetheless. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. in the process of using these other tools.. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. however. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. however. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5.. I really had no choice. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. and a few others. It was limited to the small memory model. It's the place to start. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. There was no turning back. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. Again. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. It is just now becoming popular.all but ancient history now. maybe. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. or ported to a system. Once again. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age.0) and later moved to 5. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. Of course. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. or even OS/2. but the tools just worked better.1. In fact. The next major decision was the software development environment. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. compiler. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler.x linker. a lure that could not be suppressed. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. there was no such thing. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. I thought about other processors. but the tools worked. like a bad virus. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. and utilities . Operating system developers. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors.x assembler and 2. but as you well know. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . Memory access was limited.including assembler. Message-based. popular platform. at times it was quite difficult. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway.

Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. in which case.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. That set me back four months. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. Many different books. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. Developing this assembler was. etc. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler.). If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. DMA. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. There is no linker. at least.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. but another port is in the works. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. Parameters are passed left to right. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). I was into Pascal long before I was into C. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. or may not. DC. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. I think many people started there. Needless to say. in itself. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. Communications controllers. I plead the "Fifth" on this. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. These documents are usually free. I do so because its bus. It is tied to the internal bus. want or need.. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. In fact. or even port MMURTL to it. as you may understand. IBM published theirs. such as Chips & Technologies. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. which is 32 bits for the most part. SX MMURTL V1. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. That's right. discreet devices in the IBM AT system.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. no linker. The C compiler produces assembly language. a major task. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). To fully understand this. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler.some tools from the major software vendors. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. It's simply not needed. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). and the called function cleans the stack. articles.” Assembly language has its place in the world. you will need to read chapter 28. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. Computer chip manufacturers. a disassembler. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. which is fed to the assembler. as well as the software control of these devices. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. and a few other minor utilities. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". Besides. etc. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. documents.. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. TTL. but I pretty much built from scratch. interface design. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work.

etc. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system.). OS/2 version 2. gentler" environment I was after. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book.x. but not a fully segmented model .and 16-bit code and data. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. from a 16-bit code segment. MMURTL V1.x. you'll be ahead of the game. All of the early test programs were in assembler. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. I had to meet my design goals.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. but it presented several serious complications. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. It was a "kinder. It has turned out very nicely. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. The thought was rather sickening. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers.g. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. EISA. this is a year you won’t have to go through. but it's not at as complicated. Memory Management. as you will see. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). anyway. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. If you write your own system. aliasing is also required.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution.two segments per program and two for the OS.. But as you may be aware. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. no way to get test programs into the system. all implementations of UNIX). anyway (e. This simple model could allocate and manage memory. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. all based on their own selectors. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. I discuss several options you have. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. "Thunking" was out of the question. timers. This easily consumed the first six months. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. [Thunking is when you interface 32. In chapter 5. of course. This was timeconsuming. If you use Intel-based platforms. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. but instead a lean. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. During this time. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. Windows version 3. etc. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. In a paged system. even the operating system writer. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs.).] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). powerful. but this is transparent to the programmer. The segmented memory idea was canned. as well as the stack storage. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. There was no loader. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM.

hints are about all I CAN give you. Investigate your tools. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. the discoveries .A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. Select your hardware platform. The level of complexity. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . you know that certain items in a project must work. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. You can then “port” the prototype. But I'll try. Know your desired application. how much knowledge you have. There are so many platforms out there. For example. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. I was really interested in communications. get to know it very well. and overall program management – as you see fit. memory model and basic programming interface. Of course. you will no doubt find bugs. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. the actual application may not be so important. I have provided such an operating system with this book. But. It will be worth the time spent. will depend on the memory model you choose. Decide on your basic models. compilers and utilities. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. garbage collection. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. Go for the kernel. of course. It may be RISC. but there wasn’t. The Critical Path Along your journey. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). the rest is real work. Or at least when you get it working. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. "You start here.anything that you think you'll need to remember. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. do it. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. This may sound a little humorous. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. or how much time you really have to invest. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. Document the problems. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. but they just didn't say. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. This is called the critical path. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. Memory management is next. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. you'll NEVER really be done with it. Get to know your assemblers. it may be CISC. I envy you. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. MMURTL V1. I'll tell you the easiest. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. and there will also be background noise. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. you know that it can be a very daunting task. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. I say this from experience. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. This includes the tasking model. If this has never happened to you." It is difficult for me to do this also. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). but I'm very serious. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. but whatever you decide on.

Good luck.Working Attitude Set your goals. Work with small. it's worth the time. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. compilers. Document as you go. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. sweat and maybe some tears. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. But really. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . I moved on from there. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. it won't be luck. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. dependable pickup truck. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. MMURTL V1. As I mentioned above. I write the documentation. and then I write the code. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. Sounds backwards? It is. all the way. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. I had my wish list well in advance.” Once satisfied. But don't set them too high. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). These tools include documentation for the hardware. It will be blood. easily digestible chunks. I lay out my notes for what I want. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had.

and more specifically.Chapter 3. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. be specific about it. Tell the programmers what you mean.g. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. at least temporarily.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). A single computer program can have one or more tasks. Hence. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. Some operating systems call a task a “process. After all. and most people refer to. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. then start another task running. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. In other words. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. KERNEL . but it is. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. It shouldn't be. MS-DOS TSRs . MMURTL V1. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. Generally. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine).0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS .This term is not disputed very much. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). so I imagine most of you will be working with it. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. When a task is suspended from execution. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. it’s PREEMPTIVE. CPU utilization. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. coffee and soda spilled on them. but doesn't expect the interrupt. But this is not cast in stone either. but I hope you will accept them. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords." which means communications between tasks. This makes it a very small kernel. TASK . There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. or at least coming to agreement on them. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. however. In its executable form.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. If you write your own. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. Some documentation. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). An operating system that you use may be preemptive. I admit some guilt here too). but it is used a lot in the computer industry. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you.” while others call it a “thread. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services.. and I'm not talking about programming languages. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. You may not agree with the definitions. save its state. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals.” In most instances I call it a TASK. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL.

It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. Input/Output (I/O) devices. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. It may have memory assigned to it. Quite obviously. or even network connections for logons. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. but it may not be so easy for you. it didn't sit too well with me. and why.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. Tasks crash. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. Nor did I want it to be. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. In other words. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU ." but needless to say. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. memory management. But in almost all of these systems. comms programs). when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. and some are user-oriented software. Managing these resources in a simple. keyboard. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). Single User. One of my friends suggested the motto. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes.). keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. Task Management Tasks begin. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. Tasks end. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself.In other words. DMA. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. How tasks are handled. You may MMURTL V1. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. Multitasking. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. When I wrote these programs. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). good old Albert). then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). Single vs. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. I deal with one user at a time. etc. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. including video. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. or the user was done. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. These are the real resources. This is its only real purpose in life. and hardware (Timers. disk. In each case. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . execute programs as the new users desire. "simple software for simple minds.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. Interrupt Controller Units. Some are communications programs (FAX software. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. "Everything should be as simple as possible. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. when the mission was accomplished. On the other hand.

My first programs were written with that attitude. Then I asked. Microcomputers spoiled me. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. but effective. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. It's actually easier than it sounds. The software state can consist of almost nothing. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. In the case of hardware interrupts. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. "It's 11:00PM. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. this is usually a no-brainer. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. but an important one. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. We were each getting a piece of the pie. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. It was crude. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. MMURTL V1. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. it would seem to return at its leisure. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. This will be the heart and brains of the system. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. If you must do it yourself. When you change tasks. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. I had my very own processor. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. When you restore a task.want to deal with many. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. Yet. In a multitasking operating system. This is where the hardware-state is saved. it was a breeze. The CPU takes care of it for you. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS .

If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). In fact. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. if necessary. Meanwhile. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time." From there. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. For instance. And yes. In a single tasking operating system. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. however. They can. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. This can be for a number of reasons. MMURTL V1. a single threaded system may be the best solution. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). the screen and everything else looks frozen. "Hey . or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). you are cooperating with the operating system. or to pause when it has nothing to do.I'm done with the CPU for now. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. Cooperative and Preemptive. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. or a combination of the two. The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. This may be in milliseconds. A task that has the processor gives it up. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. you basically have a hardware manager. In this case. management of CPU time is easy. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. however. he then monopolizes the CPU. do an adequate job in many cases. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. and in some cases. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. which I cover in this chapter. It may not always be obvious when it happens. With these calls.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function).0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . interrupt servicing. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. In many single tasking systems. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. and basic input/output.

As you can see. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter.). The timer can help determine when to preempt. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. the scheduler. or a few other hardware-related things. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. or it may be for something extremely critical. or monitoring. this adds the requirement of timing. When do we switch tasks.. there is going to be a desire. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). controlling. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. MMURTL V1. As I also mentioned earlier. These parties include the programmer. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. However. or even a requirement. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. after the interrupt is finished. For the preemptive system. outside events. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. when a task is preempted. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. In a preemptive system. The next section is the tricky part. a program. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. we must now decide which task runs next. to which task do we switch. To expand on that definition. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). This is where the scheduling fun really begins. connected to the outside world . Also. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. the task that's running. it doesn't expect it. On most platforms. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. or after a set period of time. It does nothing to prepare for it. etc. and maybe (if we're nice) the user.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . the scheduler simply determines who's next. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. Generally. They are also. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. disk drive. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. Most of the time. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur.communicating. hardware timer. In fully cooperative systems. communications device. quite often. and maybe memory context. When. or the operating system from an external device (e. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up.g. The currently running task is preempted. and how long does that task get to run? Who. is a preemptive system.

The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. In some systems. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. "a slice of time.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. In a time sliced preemptive system. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. This is usually not very effective. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. its complete hardware and software state is saved. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. (the others will be flipping 8. The others may see a slow down. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. only the very highest would ever get to run. A simple queuing system suffices.000 burgers. For example. each task will get a fixed amount of time . When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. Time slicing is an old technique.and they will be executed in the order they were created. each task gets 25 milliseconds. it can serve admirably. Not quite that simple. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. But it has some major drawbacks. In a cooperative system. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. In the simplest time sliced systems. otherwise. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. This gives the scheduler something to work with. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). Who determines which task gets more time. and the next task in line is restored and executed. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important.all tasks will get the same slice . the one with the highest priority will be executed." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. When a task's time is up. and if a user interface is involved. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. For example. but it won't be on their terminals.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). They can be waiting for something such as I/O.

The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. Thus. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. computers are everywhere. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. These are communications and user interface issues. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. but it's not dramatic enough. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. For instance. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time.to go around on the system. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. Now. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. The buffer will overflow. dependable. Therefore. or the user. but one channel is handling five times the data. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. things are never as simple as they seem. But I opted to "get real" instead. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. but it makes the point. and we want our machines responsive to us. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. This IS real-time stuff. This is a simple example (actually a common problem).0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not.g. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. We want good. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical.. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. clean communications. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. come do something with this data before I lose it"). In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. In a message based system. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled.

Fully Time Sliced. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). and even help define the tasking model. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. In addition. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. I can't picture a system without it. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. No doubt. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. based on the number of tasks scheduled. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. even though these methods are very important. you have a few ideas of your own. Users on a larger.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. A very simple. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. all tasks will get to run. A task may. Some Cooperation In this type of model. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). however. In this type of system. it would still be scheduled to execute. MMURTL V1. Time Sliced. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. But even when the task has nothing to do. Primarily Cooperative. See what works for your applications. To be honest. although such systems exist. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods.

"Experience is a wonderful thing. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. much faster. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. if you have 256 priorities. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. After all. goes into a "waiting" state. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. preemptive. To briefly explain my tasking model. I never wanted to miss outside events. The timer-interrupt routine. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. The less time the better. Go for the fastest option . and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. In such a system. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. This is a speed issue. It's faster – actually. file access. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. Keep them short. monitors the current task priority. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. and in reality. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . and limit the functionality if at all possible. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. To me. and the next task with the highest priority executes. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences.PERIOD. This could have presented some protection problems. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. multitasking. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. The task based ISR is slower. timer services. and no." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. For instance. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. I wanted a priority based. Other processors may offer similar options. or whatever. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me.Primarily Cooperative. Limited Time Slicing category. real-time operating system.

An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. who's to say when Mr. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. the problems didn't surface. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit.management headaches. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. In a cooperative environment. For instance. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). or even possibly the users. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. On systems that are primarily time sliced. MMURTL V1. After a period of time has elapsed.only the user knows. or Ms. and they are surely out of your control most of the time.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. you switch tasks. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches.

However. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it.Chapter 4. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. In operating systems that use semaphores. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. only one task can execute at a time. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. where it waits. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. what operation you want to perform. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. On a single CPU. Of course. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. if it's being allocated). nor should they have to. As you will see in this chapter. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). As the name implies. it could cause some serious problems. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. or is suspended when it can't run. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. portions of the code will not be reentrant." MMURTL V1. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. In other words. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. perform operations on the semaphore structures. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. As I described in earlier chapters.

Pipes can be implemented as public devices. a program is made up of one or more tasks. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). or schedule tasks for execution. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. This is much more efficient. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute).In most cases. In my humble opinion. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. ReadPipe(). In fact. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. In fact. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. You will see these commands. on most real-time operating systems. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire.). the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). I didn't. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. tasks are not wholly independent. I refer to a program as a “job. OpenPipe(). But once again. destroy tasks. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. As you can see. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. In a message-based system. If you intend to implement semaphores. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. such as MMURTL. ClosePipe(). If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. OS/2. more powerful. OS/2 is one such system. public pipes are very handy. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. He or she will make a system call for some resource. I have added a second. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. which will consist of one or more tasks. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. but I used a second form of messaging instead. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. In my system. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). or similar ones. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. and WritePipe(). Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. you should study how they are used on other systems. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. such as those procedures that create new tasks.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). etc. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2.

SpawnTask(). It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. long dMsgPart1. a bin. Yes. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . but enough that we can talk about them. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. Now. a task is born. such as. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. "Tell Mr. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. SendMsg(). In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. char *pMsgRet). It returns 0 if all goes well. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. Not too large to move around. but large enough for a couple of pointers. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch.functions. It does just what it says . I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). dExch is the destination exchange. only one task is actually executing instructions. You tell it what exchange. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. WaitMsg(). the answering machine is the exchange. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). I have implemented this as SendMsg(). Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. In an operating system's case. You also need a way to send the message. The task is the human. If you're lucky. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. I called it an Exchange. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. it's a little more complicated than that. provide some other pieces of information. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. an exchange point. Consider the phone again. char *pMsgRet). Now I have some very important terms and functions . Zork to forget it. request() and respond(). You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue." This is an example of a one way message. and VIOLA. or just about any other name you like. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. In MMURTL's case. for which you expect no response. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. CheckMsg(). the message is received right away. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. You can send one way messages to a person. long dMsgPart2). This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. his offer is the pits.not in detail yet.it sends a message. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. MMURTL V1. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. give it the message and away it goes. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. You point to a piece of code. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. or whatever you call it. The most common is the send() function I described earlier.

You start with a single task executing. It's still task 2.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. very small. Just kidding. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. it's not called the kernel zone. Task2 is higher. Table 4. Kernel makes Task1 run. Task2 allocates Exch2. time is passing. None are waiting. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. As we move down the table in our example. None found.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. What it's doing isn't important. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. Task1 is ready to run. Task2 is still running.). just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. I'll try to liven it up some later on.. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. Table 4. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1..I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. In this example. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system.

it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. A fully loaded system may have 5. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. When the service is first installed. Each time an interrupt occurs. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. They are ideal for things like file systems. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. MMURTL V1. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. In fact. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later).1. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. queued file management. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. With MMURTL. keyboard input. they must be waiting for something. FAX services. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. This may not work on all types of processors. If there is one. This way. This can simplify the scheduler.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. It gives task2 the message. Each service can provide up to 65. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. unsigned int wSvcCode. only the service name.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run.. In some systems. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. 10 or even 15 system services. it will be made to run. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . The processing is carried out by the service.. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . . Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. each service installed is given a name.. I didn't do this with MMURTL. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. e-mail services. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. They are dedicated types. printing services. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural.. The name must be unique on the machine. the receiving task is made to run. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. but the name will always be the same. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. From the simple example in table 4. If there is a task at the exchange. BBS systems. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). the list could go on and on. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system.

dData1.is the number (0.Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). although its exact meaning is left up to the service. char *pData2SR. Two questions arise: 1. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. *pData1 . dcbData2 .Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange.This is the same as dcbData1. dnpSend . or pData2 to send data to the service. dStatRet .This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. long dData0. long dStatRet).0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . this would be the size (length) of the filename. and spacepadded on the right. This will be explained later in memory management. This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. In many functions you will not even use pData1. Second. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). it is NOT a response. dcbData1 . If you remember. *pData2 . For instance. These are documented independently by each service. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response.Pointer to the service name you are requesting. dRespExch . Zero (0) usually indicates no error. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. If this is the response. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. dData0. At first glance. but network transport mechanisms do not.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. The service already knows this.the status or error code returned to the requester. If you made more than one request. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). you'll need to know which one is responding. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. long dcbData1SR. *pdRqHndlRet . But. Second. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . Where is the response data and status code? First. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy.How many bytes the pDataSend points to.long dRespExch. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. long *pdRqHndlRet. the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). all capitals. There's still a little work to do. dnpSend would be 1. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. These can never be pointers to data. long dData1. If it is 80000000h or above. in the file system OpenFile() function.the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. long dcbData2SR. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. long dData2 ). They are described below: dRqHndl . you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. Using the Open File() example. The service name is eight characters. wSvcCode . if the request was serviced (with no errors). but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill. Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. and dData2 . If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area.Number of the specific function you are requesting. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply.

A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. Each task that enters the code. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. Not as difficult as you expect. checks the semaphore. or pauses in the middle of them. So. and WHAMO . When each task is done with the allocation routine. To really understand this issue. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry.it's crash time. only one task can really be running at a time. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. lets look at an example.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). For the sake of understanding this. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. it's a mess. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. Also. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. there was only one buffer left. Now. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. Now. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. right? But let me guess . and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. but this would slow things down a bit. but still very important. As you can see.to read or write data. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. pointers are off the ends of arrays. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. It's really quite simple. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. But when it reaches PointX. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. MMURTL V1. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. even in a multitasking system. Not very big. task1 gets to run again. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). and show you what can happen. So the code goes in. Semaphores are used on many systems. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. An exchange is a small structure in memory. As you know. it is preempted. The buffer is gone.

The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. and also "the biggie" . I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. “Memory Management. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs.If the instruction sequence is short enough. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. WHOA THERE . Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38.200 baud in Windows 3. let's look at a real-world example. Don't blame Windows though. In theory.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. The next sections discuss this. I started with one and abandoned it early on. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. You didn't disable interrupts. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. but my testing shows I did OK. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. It will be the only way. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere.task switches. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. it will simplify IPC greatly . but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model.x? You will lose data. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. You will lose data.000 * 3). If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). and maybe even not often enough.” MMURTL V1. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). In the kernel code. Also. This is 1/38. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS .000.

Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. Basic Terms Once again.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. Instead. if available. There are some major differences though. so does an operating system. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. I do make some assumptions about your processor. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. Address 0 is the first. For instance. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. Some do it with internal paging hardware. Either way. or another complicated applications. MMURTL V1. The memory model you choose. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. it's all basically the same. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. This greatly affects the next three items. With the Intel processors. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application.Chapter 5. Whether or not you use paging hardware. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor.

If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. Figure 5. at least for the operating system. As programs are loaded. MMURTL V1. etc. No address translations take place in hardware. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. In this type of system. As programs are loaded. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. You may be restricted from using some of these options. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. and possible partitioning for each program. and bad. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . bottom up. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). chunks of physical memory called pages. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. Figure 5. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement.1. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory.). The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. This can be good. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. With this scheme. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. different memory allocation schemes (top down.

This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. Figure 5. MMURTL V1.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. For example. With paged memory. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 . or even 64 MB). For instance.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. more than likely a hard disk drive.Figure 5. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. With demand-paged memory.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. direct access storage device. With this scheme.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. Figure 5.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. Figure 5. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes.

Look at Figure 5.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique. but it sure looks like it is.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . as in virtual reality. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. all the programs still use the same linear space. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. it means that you're lying to your programs." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system.3 .Figure 5. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. The minute you apply this term to memory management. and the hardware allows it. MMURTL V1. and indeed you are. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. With paging hardware.

demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system.4 . Note the advantages here. In order to allow multiple. memory is NOT flat. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. which is the idea. parallel linear spaces. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. the memory management hardware must support it.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. The options here are almost mind boggling. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. No doubt. you will think of.Figure 5. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. Note also the disadvantages. different data or code). A way around this to use a shared memory area. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. Once again. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. MMURTL V1. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. there are many possible variations. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. and implement some of your own.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. yet. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. In Figure 5.

but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. This means you can save the time rewriting it. They allowed multiple sequential. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386).” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. 80186. OS/2 or Windows). they needed to identify and manage those segments. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. To make this work. The LRU schemes have many variations. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. What they came up with is called Segmentation. All of the Intel products are very well documented. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. MMURTL V1. and the popular Zilog Z80). They used something called a segment register. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. When you use a selector. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. it is usually termed as "dirty. However. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. and you need to understand the implications. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. When a page has been written to. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. They are not limited to 64K. we had some pretty limited address spaces. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. In fact.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. When the 80286 came on the scene. It's just what it sounds like. or even an 8-bit one. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT)." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. This was actually several registers.g. The most common. 20 to be exact. and 80286). 8088. Likewise. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. When this was a 16-bit world.. so I won't go into further detail. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. This is a very handy feature. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. and generally the most efficient. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. one for code and several for data access. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector.

I learned this the hard way. I'll discuss each of these things. This way. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. if your hardware supports it. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. How you store the links in this list can vary. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. But in many systems. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. Allocating memory for applications. Tracking client linear memory allocations. it usually takes the whole system down. MMURTL V1. Allocating memory to load applications and services. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. one person). The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. Other factors include how much memory you have. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. This can be a real hassle. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. They are “linked lists” and “tables. but not in the order I listed them. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. If you do. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. especially if you have a very small programming team (say.” Before you decide which method to use.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. You make the rules. each block holds its own link. I will give you a good idea what it's like. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. With this scheme. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. when one application crashes. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. Remember. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. when one application crashes. the type of applications you cater to. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. which will be defined by the paging hardware. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. You'll have to make a decision. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. you ARE the operating system. and Handling protection violations. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. and it will be based on many factors.With a 32-bit system.

*/ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is another topic entirely.pNext = 0x100000. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL.owner = 0.size is large enough. pMemInUse. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap.size = 0. /* " " */ long Client = 0. char *pPrev. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. struct MemLinkType pFree. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. MMURTL V1. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. which means you can't honor the request. }. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. You now have an idea where they went.pNext until pLink. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . but I'll touch on it some. } When a client asks for memory. pFree. struct MemLinkType *pLink. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. Of course. you would set up the two base link structures.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. pMemInUse. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse).pNext = 0. This is done by following pLink. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. These are the first links in your list. long owner. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. pLink->pNext = 0. pFree. pMemInUse. In the process of memory management initialization. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000.owner = 0. In the following simple linked list scheme. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. or you reach a link where pNext is null.16. pMemInUse. pFree.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory.pPrev = 0. For my description. pLink->owner = 0.pPrev = 0. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. you must remember that pLink.size = 0. pFree and pMemInUse. I haven't disassembled their code. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). No next link yet.

0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. WantSize is the size the client has requested. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches.16. } } return(0). it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. it WILL get fragmented.pNext = &pLink. And believe me. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink.pNext. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. pNewLink->owner = 0. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink.. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. The function returns the address of the new memory. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. If you use this code. Granted.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. pLink->size = WantSize. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. } /* Sorry . fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16). /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16)..*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext.WantSize . Client is the owner of the new block.

int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. change its owner. This is where the fragmentation comes it. validate the link. This makes the most sense to me. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. In other words. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. But you can't depend on this. This will add time to deallocation routines. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes).0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ pNewLink = MemAddress .16. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. depending on the order of deallocation. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order.pNext. but cleanup will be a snap. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. which returns memory to the free pool. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. This will be useful in the following routine. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. or you can do it all after the fact. But we can't add our size to pFree. /* scan till we find out where we go. This provides instant cleanup. if at all possible. You have the linear address. then move it to the pFree list. There are several thoughts on cleanup. and you insert it there.deallocate. Combining blocks can be done at the same time.

pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. In the case of the paging hardware. } } /* If we got here. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0).or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. you will have two memory spaces to track. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. It should give you a great number of ideas. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. you can decide how you want them setup. MMURTL V1. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. The two must be synchronized. we couldn't be combined with the previous. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. */ /* In this case. If you don't use the paging hardware. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. there are physical pages assigned to it. return(0). pNewLink->owner = 0. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. You can expand on them if needed.

This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. This can get complicated. For instance. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. MMURTL V1. You will be allocated these up front. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. it will generally be in a block of addresses. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. you will have to move it all. If your processor gives you these types of options. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. “the Hardware Interface. it becomes allocated memory right away. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. If you use paging. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. trap. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. It will be the page’s size. you will have independent tables for each application. add the translations you need and are already using. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. Wherever you load it. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. You must set up tables. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. But it's up to you. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . In some cases. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. “OS Initialization. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. and you should take that into consideration. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. From there. and turn on the paging hardware. Batteries fail. You must consider where the operating system loads. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it.When you work with paging hardware. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly.” but once the operating system is loaded.

programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. but will have no effect on applications. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. uninitialized data segment. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. This greatly simplifies every program we write. but in a very limited fashion. It can be very complicated to use on any system. This was too complicated for me. The common data segment is 10h. If you have no desire to use them. and one data segment for all programs and applications. I wanted only one program memory model. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. and many others. The operating system code segment is 08h. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. For instance. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. set them all to one value and forget them. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. and I even use the Intel segment registers.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. Compact. and one or more code segments. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. The user code segment is 18h. the application code segment. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. the initialized data segment. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . I use almost no segmentation. and even larger with demand page memory. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. If you are familiar with segmented programming. 32-bit offset). These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. you know that with MS-DOS. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. but nice to have. Medium. the concept of program segments is an old one. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. Small. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. Large. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. This could change in future versions.

This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker.967. Each PTE is four bytes long. but most of the operating system code – specifically. the kernel . The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . The operating system itself is technically not a job. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. Each of the PDEs points to a PT. because I haven't explained it yet. Besides. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing. What you don't see. it has code and data and a task or two. Right? Wrong. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. MMURTL V1. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. If you get our calculator out. Every Job gets its own PD. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). and each application the same thing. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire.294. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. For instance. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. but it’s close." huh?).296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency.runs in the task of the job that called it. Each PDE is also four bytes long. Because of this. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome).1. Sure. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. its not magic. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). If you want just a few bytes. is that you really do need most of this capability. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. No.memory. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. which can have 1024 entries. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. but you need it in pieces.

Table 5. 20. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. In the scheme of things. Code. but it wasn't needed. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. Sounds like a lot of work. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. Likewise. certainly less overhead than this explanation). 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. This is fine for one address per job. Sure. However. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. Of course. Now it's got the PTE. Now that it knows where the PD is. but it does this with very little overhead. yes. Besides. Well. in a word. I wanted to keep the overhead down. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. I could have built a separate table and managed it. But it was for a good cause (No.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. but when you start talking 10. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. When I started the application. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. and it needs it fast. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault).MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. MMURTL V1. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. If you remember. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. the secret is out. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. Read on and see what I did. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. possibly several for each application.1 . each PDE has the physical address of each PT. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do.

AllocOSPage(). in Table 5.. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum). What does this make the page directory look like? Below.. MMURTL V1.. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present..2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 .Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. Table 5. it would be transparent to applications anyway. all the shadow entries are marked not present. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. but you get the idea. AllocPage(). in fact. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. As shown. This is 0 to 1Gb. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL.2. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want..0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . If I desired. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes.. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. and how I use the processor's paging hardware.. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS.1. 512 513 . 256 257 . That would really be a waste. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. If I decided to do it. 768 769 . I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned..

it will create a new PT. but only from this caller's memory space. If the physical memory exists. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. Now comes that easy part . Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). must all be loaded into memory somewhere. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). only that number will be deallocated. and DLLs. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. along with the number of pages to deallocate. MMURTL V1. but the memory will not be available for later use. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. With a 1Gb address space. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). If so.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . System Services. They are simply new jobs. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. the caller passes in a linear address. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. initial stack. They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. you allocate physical memory from the top down. from a previous AllocPage() call. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. there will be no error. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. and data. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). Each application (job) gets it own PD. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system).Managing physical memory. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). or will return an error if it's not available. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. but no stack. It is not important. Device Drivers have code and data. Device drivers. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. nor should it try to find out. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. If it does. which is also my sister's name. The caller will never know. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. It does not tell you whom they belong to. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). It's loaded into these initial pages. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). nor do you even care. and whether or not it's currently in use.

the second job has access to other job's data. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. you should do it before you read this section. Of course. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). There is no new allocation of physical memory. They share physical memory. But this gets away from memory management. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. When an application requests a service. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. They have only code. and no stack. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. but that's trivial (a few instructions). the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. This will make more sense if you do. If it tries to deallocate them. an error will occur. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. how could they be swapped?). I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. They are there to be used as shared code only. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. Instantly. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. With a page based system such as MMURTL. no data.

Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. One or more PTs for the OS. use it. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). When it's done its work. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. it responds. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed).Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. How they see the interface is very important. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. For MMURTL. MMURTL V1.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs.

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The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. aside from the instructions you give it. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can port the operating system to almost any platform. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. in theory. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. The most common. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. The two that are obvious are code size.how it is accessed in memory. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. and speed. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. MMURTL V1. It executes your instructions. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . to interoperability with other systems. But there's always more than meets the eye. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). is the interrupt or trap. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system.Chapter 6. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. jumps where you tell it. and the most significant at the lowest. although I never thought so. there are drawbacks to this idea. You provide a common. or for specific timing requirements. but that doesn't mean that you won't. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. however. As good as it sounds. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. and it simply runs. Therefore.

On the PC-ISA platforms. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. and especially the interface bus. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. and some that are available now. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. I've tried both methods. and most useful. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. Multibus.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. The most common is the relatively low-speed. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). internal bus. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. The second is the address bus. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. I read many books about my target processor. no matter which device you must code. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. For instance. There are many extensions to this bus . and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. Finally. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. in that case. but in some of the processor documentation. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. or ISA Bus. such as those dealing with interrupts. EISA. They are actually very forgiving devices. address. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. just to name a few. This is handy. but I found the most valuable. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. On smaller systems. PCI. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. or CPU bus. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. The first set is the data bus. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. This is called the main bus. ISA. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses.some proposed. Quite honestly. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. MMURTL V1.

you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. but is really a device connected to the bus. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. Unlike UART devices. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. In fact. If you intend to design a true multitasking system.25 (an international link and network layer standard). USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. except for the hardware clock timing.. but still very important. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. the infamous Centronics interface). Quite often. or network card). the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). which is available on some processors such as the Intel series.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . SDLC. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. Therefore. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. and tape drives. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. Parallel buses can move data faster. They work with frames or packets of data. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle.g. They have no way. to name a few. network frame handlers. Another way is programmed I/O. MMURTL V1. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. and on some systems. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. in many cases. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. or HDLC. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop.Less commonly found. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. or even memory to memory. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts.

However. Video Like the keyboard.On many systems.g. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). In most cases. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). is worth more than I can indicate to you. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. this video memory will contain character codes (e. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. this only consumes 4000 bytes. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. This could consume a vast amount of memory. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. On the PC-ISA platform. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. If you want 16 colors for each bit. All the output would be via a serial port. In character-based systems. If this is the case. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. and MMURTL V1. This is known as planar pixel access. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. On an 80-column-by-25-line display.. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. This consumes the least amount of your address space. In fact.500 bytes of memory space. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. Then they break video memory into four or more sections.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each bit array is on its own plane. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. This requires an interrupt service routine. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. or Unicode. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. Quite often. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. but you must realize the importance of this device.

I did. This includes cursor positioning. interprocess communications. In many cases. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management.allow you to switch between them.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. multiple.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). however. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). That equates to 600. this would be 16 planes at 37. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). have to research hardware cursor control. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. Your requirements will more than likely be different. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. and to query the status of the move. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. “Memory Management. “Video Code. non-overlapping video users. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. This is known as packed pixel access. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. Chapter 26. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. and GetDMACount(). except maybe an embedded system board. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. and your tasking model. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware.. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. MMURTL V1. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. I took this into consideration also. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems.000 bytes. and timing when you write to the video display area.g. For a 256-color system. you'll have no problems. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. In some cases. I was interested in character-based. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. The code for these two calls is shown below. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first.

With word. DACK1 (etc.Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h .Read/Write Mode register .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Ch 2 Word Count . while 23-17 are put in the page register.Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h . DMA moves (channels 5-7).Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware. Optimize it as you please. DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . etc.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch . etc.The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Read/Write DMA Rq Register . This is called a cascaded device. .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller. . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h .INC . the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.Ch 3 Address .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .Ch 0 Word Count . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .DMA DACK0 Page register .INCLUDE MOSEDF.Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah . but the standard include file MOSEDF.Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Read Command/Write Single bit mask .Ch 0 Address .0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .) MMURTL V1.Read Status/Write Command .Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h .CODE With 8-bit DMA.DATA . There really is no data segment for DMA.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) . There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.Ch 3 Word Count .DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Ch 1 Address . Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.Ch 1 Word Count .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .Ch 2 Address .

AL OUT DMA2StatCmd.Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. we do math) MMURTL V1.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . Verify).CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . AL OUT DMA2Mode. even on word moves. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. 0C0h DMA2Mode. . If they do. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. AL OUT DMA2Mode. . .CH 0 DMA 2 . AL XOR AL. AL XOR AL. the segment is wrapped around. Out. dChannel.Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. AL MOV AL. 40h DMA1Mode. AL OUT DMA1Clear.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . AL MOV AL. . This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. 04 . dType. sdMem. . 42h OUT DMA1Mode. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL AL. For channels 5. . I do this for the caller. which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. so they always specify byte count for the setup call. AL . AL XOR AL. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. AL RETN .All commands set to default (0) . 41h OUT DMA1Mode. as you might assume). .CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . AL OUT DMA2Mode.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. .CH 0 DMA 1 . The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. AL OUT DMA2Clear. AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. or 128K boundaries for a word move. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. . The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . . . DmaSetUp(dPhyMem.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . (Cascade Mode) MOV AL.6 and 7.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels .

2 Block. 3 Cascade .0 Demand Mode. BL DMA1Mode. Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. 00000000b AL. 0C0h . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. Lo byte address . Yes CMP EAX. In? (Write) JE DMAWrite .5. dChannel (0.7) . dMode CMP EAX. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. dMode .3. AL EAX. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . [EBP+12] . Hi Byte . AL . 00001000b . get dType AND BL. 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX.1. [EBP+28] DMA10Add. Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . Put it in BL MOV EAX. AL EAX. OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. dPhyMem . ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. 00000100b . 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm.0 = Verify. MOV EBP. . 8 DMA10Add. dType . 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. . AL DMA1FF.6. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . [EBP+20] CMP EAX. OR with MODE . 1 = In (Write Mem). 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. MOV EAX. [EBP+16] . Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . 04 . (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. 1 Single Cycle. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX.. 0 . AL AL.Jump table for channel selection . 2 = Out (Read memory) . 6 .0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 . MMURTL V1. AL .ESP .2.

AL EAX. CH1 . CH2 . AL AL. AL EAX. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. 8 DMA10Cnt. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA11Add. AL EAX. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. OR with MODE/TYPE . dPhyMem . 8 DMA12Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. AL AL. 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. 8 DMAPage2. Hi Byte . sdMem . AL EAX. BL DMA1Mode. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. sdMem . AL EAX. 00000010b AL.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. 8 DMA11Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. OR with MODE . BL DMA1Mode. 8 DMA12Add. EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. dPhyMem . 8 DMAPage1. AL AL. EAX DMAEnd . Lo byte address . Highest byte (to page register) . 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMAPage0. Highest byte (to page register) . [EBP+28] DMA11Add. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Highest byte (to page register) .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . 00000001b AL. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL . AL EAX. AL AL. AL DMA1FF. Lo byte address . Hi Byte .

15 DMAPage5. . [EBP+28] EBX. 00000001b AL. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. EAX DMAEnd . BL DMA2Mode. [EBP+28] DMA13Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. AL EAX. AL AL. AL EAX. . 8 DMAPage3. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . MMURTL V1. AL EAX. EBX EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA21Cnt. CH3 . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . 00000011b AL. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL DMA1FF. 1 DMA21Add. sdMem . AL EAX. OR with MODE . AL AL. . 8 DMA21Add. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. . AL EAX. CH1 on DMA 2 .NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . Hi Byte . AL AL. AL DMA2FF. AL EAX. . . AL EAX.XOR EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . AL AL. OR with MODE . dPhyMem . BL DMA1Mode. EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX.0 AL. Hi Byte . EAX EAX. AL EAX. . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 0FFFFh EAX. 8 DMA13Add. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . [EBP+24] EAX. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. 8 DMA13Cnt. . AL EAX. We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . Lo byte address . EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. .

0FFFFh EAX. 0FFFFh EAX. 00000010b AL. 8 DMA23Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX. AL DMA2FF. 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. 8 DMA22Add. EBX EAX. AL AL. 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . EAX . AL EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX. EAX DMAEnd . Lo byte address . EBX EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. Hi Byte . 1 DMA23Add. Highest byte (to page register) . channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP.DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. Hi Byte . -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . Rid of all but lower 16 . 15 DMAPage6. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL AL.EBP MMURTL V1. AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA22Cnt. sdMem . 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. 15 DMAPage6. dPhyMem . AL EAX. AL EAX. CH2 on DMA 2 . Rid of all but lower 16 . 8 DMA23Add. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . CH3 on DMA 2 . AL EAX. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . sdMem . 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. AL DMA2FF. AL AL. AL EAX. 00000011b AL. AL EAX. BL DMA2Mode. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . dPhyMem . AL AL. OR with MODE . EAX EAX. OR with MODE . AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. [EBP+28] EBX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) .0 AL. EAX EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. Lo byte address . 1 DMA22Add.

1. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. In this case.6. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. GetDMACount(dChannel. GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified.. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. dChannel (0. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX.5.0 . On some devices. you actually set the channel byte count 65.Return address for count . . DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3.2. 7 MMURTL V1. For channels 0 through 3. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where . . 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX.535: . . .ESP MOV EAX. You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. the count will be returned.3. For channels 5 through 7. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. . . [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. . DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. To move 64K. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX.7) . -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . no error from the floppy controller). you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. this is bytes. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . [EBP+16] MOV ESI. EBP+ 16 12 . DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk.Channel .POP EBP RETF 20 .g. pwCountRet) . . 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. this will be the number of words. . DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. . . DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. The count is number of WORDS-1 .

however. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. This is not very complicated.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). The PICU takes care of this for you. or even hours in some cases. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. EAX MOV ESP.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .No such channel! . . some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. Internally. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero.DX MOV CH. 20 bytes of junk to dump . As you can imagine (or will have realized).CX has words/bytes left in DMA . No Error . . or at set intervals. Usually. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. Therefore. . One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. The operating system may. . These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. many devices interrupt the processor. Quite often. . Your job is to know how to program the PICU. . Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer.DX MOV CL. be responsible to program these dedicated timers. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. and read as required. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. CX XOR EAX.AL IN AL. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. . but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. In the process of an interrupt. which determines the interrupt interval.JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. . program. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. but it is critical that it's done correctly. .AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI].0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.

MMURTL V1.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will need the hardware manual for code examples.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

If you're using another platform. The question is. it executes from a reset state. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed." that's exactly what I mean. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. To be honest. then execute it. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. then jumping to the first address of the sector. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. and important structures. I've done all your homework. be organized with a file system. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. you'll have to do some research. tasks. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. and it's not exactly easy. including hardware. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. This can be done in more than one step if required. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. where boot ROMs usually reside.Chapter 7. we start with loading the operating system. no doubt. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. This device will. This is known as a multistage boot. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. When I say "just enough code. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. MMURTL V1. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. For this reason. In other words. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. more complicated. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. the boot sector code may load another. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. If this is true. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. memory. In the PC world. then go through each section of the basic initialization. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual.at least not as a file from the file system. In this chapter.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM.

I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes.g. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. 5. This was the case with my system. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. 7. 3. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. which they store in a small work area in RAM. such as a fixed track or cylinder. First. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. This was a double problem. In an ISA system. 6. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. the hardware commands. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). 4. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. then life is easy. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h).. Second. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. Where your operating system will reside in memory. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). because they provide the BIOS. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. 8. then Drive C. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. 7. 3.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). 5. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. This lead to two relocation efforts. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. so you can begin execution. 1. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. 8. In my case. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. But it gets more complicated. 2. MMURTL V1. then executed the next instruction at the new address. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. 2.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. such as a whole track). then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. 6. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. 4. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. and where you stored it.

media desc.This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.Padding to make it 3 bytes .LIMIT 768 slots . .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk.nSect in FAT . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG . The OS must .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors.Drive boot sector came from . . (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single . and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) .instructions.nTotalSectors if > 32Mb .386P directive is required because I use protected . This contains additional information about the file system . The boot sector code also .386P .on this disk that the operating needs to know.nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .BASE (Linear) .nSectors/track .nBytes/Sector .The . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG. Why not? I do own it. It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.Resvd sectors .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.11 bytes for volume name . (worthless) .nFATs . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) .Root Dir entries max . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible .Sect/Cluster . Examine the following code: . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors. DS:CSEG. IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h .disks.LIMIT 256 IDT Slots . There's no operating system here now.The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.nHeads .

vector location. some of the parameters to it from the boot sector.Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS .This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . SI CX.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. 8000h . 7C0h DS. 512 MOVSB . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. Push the . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX..This is done by finding out where it is and writing . at the beginning of this code CLI .The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . MOV CX.Clear interrupts . nSectPerTrack .Destination segment . return address.Segment for new location . Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it.Get this while DS is correct XOR AX.Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. then "return" to it.9000h SS. 0Fh . It works. DI AX. 09000h ES. Its pseudo jump . MOV AX. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. AX MOV BX. AX SP. AX SI.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: . 6Fh PUSH AX RETF . .Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . that I calculated after assembling it once. AX DI. . Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS .Make DS correct again . AX MOV DS. table so it can read the disk for us.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. 0078h .Source segment .

Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) .0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS ..Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX.to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or . OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated .so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be. OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot .0020h .Save in CX . but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist .on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in . ADC DX.The controller is reset. Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX..logical sector order. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) . AX MOV AL.Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . CX . MOV SI.STI MOV DL. FATS (1 or more) . now let's read some stuff!! . nBytesPerSect BX AX. Hidden Sectors (optional) . bBootDrive XOR AX.CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root .waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.Required for Disk System Reset .AX is at sector for cluster 0.What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster . nOSSectors .The layout of the Disk is: . POP DS .stage one of the a two stage loader should be). nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX. AX .Must set interrupts for BIOS to work . . We need the space for other code. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX.Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. MOV CX. nRsvdSect MOV CX. Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . WORD PTR nHidden .really IS the OS.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file .Reset failed. AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot . cluster because the first 2 are unused).

nSectPerTrack SI .AX 16h 19h . ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI. 6 .Next Sector MMURTL V1.This is a single sector read loop . MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC . DX .Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . .AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH. BX AX . BYTE PTR ResvdByte .Leaves Head in DL. 0Eh MOV BX.Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI. 1 .512 bytes for segment .Head to DH.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte.OR with Sector number AL. 06000h MOV ES.Read 13h . AX has .0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX.Sector to read DX. DH .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH.Number of sectors AH. Drive to DL CX. DL .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads . It's slow.Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL. ES BX. before we move it down to 0000h . CH . OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX.XOR INT INT AX.0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . AX .BX will be zeroed at top of loop . . but works well. Read a . Hi 2 bits to CL CL. 2 . 20h ES. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL.I increment ES and leave BX 0 .Cyl into CX CL. bBootDrive DL. BX .This is segment where we load the OS. Cyl in AX DH.Wait for keystroke . BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX.

02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL. 8000h . Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX.AX DI.64h TEST AL.0DFh OUT 60h. BX SI. SI MMURTL V1. SI AX.AL XOR CX.0 .DI CX.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS .64h TEST AL.AL XOR CX.AX DI. . Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS. AX ES.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .WORD move . BX SI. DX MOVSW .LOOP NextSector .the OS down to address 0.0D1h OUT 64h.Now we disable interrupts.1000h ES.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL. DX XOR SI.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear. 07000h DS.64h TEST AL.So move the OS MOV DX. DX MOVSW .CX IBEmm2: IN AL.WORD move . move . 06000h DS.DI CX. SI AX. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 . turn on the A20 line.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.CX IBEmm1: IN AL.A20 line should be ON Now . Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.

DI CX.Set protected mode bit .map).lst). The segment and code size escape .'. EDX MOV DL. 10h DS. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.BX GS.CR0 OR AL.asm <Enter> This will make a .We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually .EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS . and a map file from the link (Bootblok. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh.Load Processor ITD Pointer . 00h 0Dh. It's worthless. BX XOR EDX. I left it in.1 MOV CR0.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are . such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction. 00h '.EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX. As you change and experiment with the boot sector.Control Register .Load Processor GDT Pointer .EXE header.Set up segment registers .call JMP FAR 08h:10000h. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector. 9000h MOV DS. DX MOVSB . 'Loading MMURTL'. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.BX SS. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok. The first 512 bytes is the .OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .AX DI. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END . 0Ah.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump . 'Bad Boot Disk!'.BX .BX ES. 0Ah.2000h ES.Clear prefetch queue with JMP .MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.MS-DOS used this. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.BX FS.BYTE move MOV BX.

From the MS-DOS prompt. It's quite easy to do with the Load. logical sector number. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. you should not do this to your active development drive. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. To read the boot sector from a disk.bin in the root directory of drive C. and Name commands. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. Register. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. then write it to the disk. This is easy to do. and number of sectors following it. This will show you a segmented address. Then copy the operating system image to the disk. They may do this as they format the disk. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. To find where Debug loaded it. C:\>Debug BootBlok. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. you can use Debug to load it as a . such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. After you have assembled your boot sector. Write.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. or after the fact. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. Keep in mind. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. The results can be disastrous.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. you can use the Dump command to display it.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS .

” MMURTL V1.asm on CD-ROM. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. With MMURTL.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). It is all contained in the source file Main. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment.00 loader.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . up to the point we jump the monitor program. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. “The Hardware Interface.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. At this point. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. understands. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. It should help give you a picture of what's required. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. Chapter 21. “Initialization Code. Good luck. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. This includes setting up the OS stack.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. and basic timers . I'm happy. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. This single source file program (MMLoader. Additionally. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. but it's not necessary.C:\> Copy OS. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series).c) to properly build it. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. It is called MMLoader.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. If it is in an executable format from a linker. Hopefully. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. They must simply be initialized to their default states. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. the Direct Memory Access hardware. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. It does everything that the boot sector code does. I couldn't. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. If so. All of the hardware that is resident in the system .

you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. and also some basic variables. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. the A20 address line serves no purpose. This depends on the platform. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. as well as one to switch to. you just learn to live with it. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. MMURTL V1. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. The option is usually up to you. is not trivial. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. “the Tasking Model. you've got your job cut out for you. you can address above 1Mb. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). Being a little conservative. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. Either way. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. Chapter 3. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. While in real mode. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. I just left it alone. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls).0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. on the Intel processors. This leaves you with a few options . If you want to eliminate it. setting up for multitasking. In all of the cases that were discussed. If you desire. For instance. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. If you use one more bit. It's not that big.

0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. otherwise. some which didn't work on all machines. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). If your machine doesn't support this method. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. This seems to work on most machines. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). back to the initialization (already in progress). Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. Meanwhile. “Memory Management Code. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management.My goal was not to discover why it existed. You don't know how much you have. This piece of code may have a lot to do. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. At this stage of the initialization. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. although some people may still have problems with it. but one I'm glad I didn't face. where the address match will occur. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. or is at least loaded. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. Chapter 19. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. I tried several methods. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. The point is. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. and you can't manage or allocate it. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). you may have to do some tweaking of the code. If you chose not to do this. The following list is not all-inclusive. or any number of things. It's not that much of a headache. MMURTL V1. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services.

Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. life was easy in this respect. what order are they in? If the stack is used. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. that on occasion. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. the function does its job and returns. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. public distribution. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. they do. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). may be similar to another documented call on the system. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. This may sound like a no-brainer. Quite often though. an embedded system. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. “API Specification. What could be easier? I can't imagine. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. If the parameters are on the stack. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me.Chapter 8. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. In any and all of these cases. because the call they add. No kidding! With UNIX. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. I found. I'm still not entirely happy with it.” shows you how I documented my calls. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. The call is made. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. UNIX was written with C. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. and leave undocumented. In the following sections. or your own consumption and enjoyment. Chapter 15. If this happens to me. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache.

The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. some use both. and it required a fixed number of parameters. has three or four calling conventions. this is MMURTL V1. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. However. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). some use the stack. It's up to you. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. no doubt. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. First. Some use registers. Your opinion may vary on this. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. Pascal . will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. Many systems use an intermediate library. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. the interrupt vector table). code size..g. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates).0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. I'm sure you know of several. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. or at least every time it's rebuilt. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. In other words. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. especially when it comes to speed. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. but the stack is not used for parameters. as if you couldn't guess).junkies). An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. Second. Execution speed. faster. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. There are two reasons this library may be required. OS/2. This device is extremely hardware dependent. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. support several conventions.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. for example. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it.

However. However. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. This may be a personal issue for me. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. I really hope not. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. the procedural interface is the key. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. When you need to return data from the call. MMURTL V1. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). If portability is near the top of your wish list. then execute the interrupt instruction. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. For application source code portability. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. The intermediate library would fill in this value. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work." Yeah. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. right. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. the hardware will be obsolete.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. For the operating system source. and the call gates are really not a problem. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment.

naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. and Statusing the driver. They work with the hardware. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. I set out to design the simplest.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . timers. For instance. You need to consider these requirements in your design. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. and this wasn't my original plan. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. and certain memory-management functions. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. that it's almost impossible to separate them. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. Suddenly. You more than likely will. If this is the case. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. Do you see what I mean? Internally. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds.

pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. pStatRet. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). dOpNum. nDevices MMURTL V1. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. This will give you a good place to start in your design. pInitData. dLBA. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). “Systems Programming. EBP+24 . You'll see certain validity checks. InitDevDr(dDevNum. For example. . This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. EAX MOV EAX. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. The first call listed in this section.Set up local vars .InitDevDr(dDevNum.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. In a multitasking system. When you look at the code. EAX MOV EAX.ESP SUB ESP. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. . I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. 16 MOV EAX. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. . when one user is doing serial communications.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . so I won't go over it here. ndBlocks. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. pDCBs. InitDevDr(). . This is a common requirement on many systems. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable).0 . sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. nDevices. . and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. EBP+20 nDevices.ASM. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

All went OK so far. [EBP+20] .Next devnum .Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.Next caller DCB . we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX. 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . 2 ADD EBX.Point EBX to rgpDCB .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX. 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.12 . OK to use . 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12]. 2 .Empty.device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.nDevices .Now check to see if device is already installed . dExchTmp . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: . EAX EBX. 0 .Set nDev to number of devices again .If we got here. 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 .pDCBx = 0 if not used yet .Yes . ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX. rgpDCBs MOV EAX. and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].No .NONE left .Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX.Decrement nDevices .OK to replace existing driver? . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs.dDevNum .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX. dDevX SHL EAX.0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+16] nDevs. prgDevs .dDevNum MMURTL V1. EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX]. . ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: . rgpDCBs EAX. [EBP+24] EAX.error exit .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].

loop through each . nDevices . EAX EBX. MOV EBX. or reset it after a failure. 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX. EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . PUSH EBP . SHL EBX.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. 0 . and . DeviceInit(dDevNum.for all devices that one driver controls. dExchTmp .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. ADD EAX. -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. 4 EAX. You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB.Any more DCBs?? . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . .If the device driver was NOT reentrant . . sdInitData). [EBP+20] . are almost identical to DeviceInit().device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX .ESP . [EBP+20] MOV ECX. [EBP+20] . ErcBadDevNum .ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh .ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: . EAX and ECX are set up.DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it. EBX . ECX [EBX].Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX. MOV EBP. EAX MOV EAX.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. EAX . and are not presented here. 0 JNZ InitDev06 .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. . MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch].also place Exchange into DCB.Set up for no error .EBX now points to correct pointer . 2 .next DCB .Now that EBX.0 .next p in rgp of DCBs . MOV EBX.EAX points to first DCB . DeviceOp() and DeviceStat().EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .ADD EBX. pInitData. .Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. [EAX] . . This is the same exchange . The other two calls.the first customer to use. rgpDCBs MOV EBX.

so we check to see if driver is reentrant. The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.Bogus Message . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.No.Ptr to message area . Send semaphore message to Exch . . ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd . If not we .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket. .Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] . adding the procedural call examples is a good idea.Get semaphore ticket .save ptr to DCB . CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Get device error back .Ignore kernel error . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX .Push all params for call to DD ..Push exchange number .Save ptr to DCB .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 . 0 DevInit02 EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . MMURTL V1. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP. This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .NO driver! .Is there a physical device? DevInit02: .All looks good with device number .Get DCB ptr back . . It you use assembly language and provide code examples.. ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType]. but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.Device IS reentrant .Yes . 0 .dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.

Same as Procedure. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. Before writing your first MMURTL program. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. Terminology Throughout this section. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. Function .A Function in C or Pascal. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls.g. the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. WORD. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. I think you will find it useful.1 . usually passed on the stack. Argument . and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . If I were a perfectionist.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter .This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. “Interprocess Communications. This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application.. It may even be entertaining. and DWORD.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word . MS-DOS).Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e. but alas.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. though. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. Call .” and Chapter 5. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems.Chapter 9.1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. or a Procedure in Assembler. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. and a dword is also accessed at the same address.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. Look at the table 9. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values).0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS .A value passed to a function or procedure. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE. “Memory Management. Byte . or a Procedure in Pascal.

even the assembler or processor itself. All parameters are pushed from left to right. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). It is also very easy to use from assembly language. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. or simply convey information that may. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. This will be done by the compiler. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. It may indicate an error. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. In some C compilers. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. and are expanded to 32-bit values. and in some cases. and assembly language. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). “API Specification.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Pascal. erc. not the real address of the SetXY function. or dError.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some do not. MMURTL V1. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. But the address is really a call gate. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call.

you should deallocate it. but she would much rather that you did it. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . She may pick up your dirty socks. MMURTL V1. you simply allocate it. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated).. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it.” describe this in great detail.. The operating system resides at address 0. MMURTL is a Paged memory system.2: Table 9.. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another.2 . MMURTL is kind of like your mother.g. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). malloc() in C). The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). “Interprocess Communications. In fact. “The Tasking Model. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. Chapter 3. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. There are no far data pointers.. . dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. If you need a 2Mb array. you allocate it. . The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like.. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages..0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller.” and Chapter 4.. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you.. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system.. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. When you are done with it.Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested.

Now you allocate 4 pages. The operating system Code. protect programmers from themselves. pData1. pData2. This is not a problem.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). Address 40100000h is returned to you. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. dData1. so long as you know it can't be addressed. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. MMURTL does NOT. Data. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. SendMsg (dExch. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). pRqHndlRet. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. npSend. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). however. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. dMsg1. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). This means that in a multitasking environment. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . or you will need to know of one you send messages to. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). dData0. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. You allocate 5 pages. wSvcCode. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. However. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. cbData2. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. dRespExch. Of course. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. cbData1.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space.

such as data communications. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). char sbJobName[14]. but you don't want that either. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. only your program will be trashed. For instance. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. The pointer is read-only. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business.LString */ MMURTL V1. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. Messaging is very powerful. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. MMURTL is not a mind reader. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. you need to know your job number. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). struct JCBRec { long JobNum. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. printing. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. Prior to calling SpawnTask().Normally. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. Other than that. This eats all of your link blocks. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. /* User Name . In order to use the GetpJCB() call. and user interaction. If you do. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task.

To change data in the JCB.LString */ std output . char JcbSysOut[50]. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet.char sbPath[70]. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. }. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. editing. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. pPathRet. char fCursOn. char JcbSysIn[50]. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. char JcbExitRF[80]. The keyboard interface is a system service. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. with unused portions padded. char *pVidMem.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. char fCursType. Chapter 13. unsigned char ScrlCnt. long CrntX. long nCols. “Keyboard Service. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath.LString */ std input . The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. long ExitError. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. For most applications. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. char JcbCmdLine[80]. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. long CrntY. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. long nLines. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. MMURTL V1. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. char *pVirtVid. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. char fVidPause. long NextJCB. and special keys. long NormVid.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. long VidMode. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName.

Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes).0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS .Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. Background colors describe the attributes. character placement. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. Background. only the least significant byte is used.4 . and Blink if desired to form a single value.4096 bytes). The colors for TTYOut().Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. In this byte. The high bit of each. Tables 9. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24.4. Foreground colors. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down).3. and low nibble is the foreground. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. the high nibble is the background. and cursor positioning. Table 9. logically OR the Foreground.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs.3 . is the intensity bit. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. and 9. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword.

0. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). MMURTL V1. 17. exchanges.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL has to hunt for them.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. This includes any memory. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. and other things allocated while you were running. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint.". all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. "This is a test. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. This is done by calling the Chain() function. Remember. or system calls. If no file is specified. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. BGBLUE|WHITE). Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program.

Client programs make a Request. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. Service names are casesensitive. such as: Additional memory.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. as well as for other services. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. if needed. use messaging. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. and Assembly language programmers. Additional exchanges. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. MMURTL V1. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. and memory management operations. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. the service does the processing and Responds. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. It's not very useful. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. Wait for messages. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. Pascal. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. then Respond. if required. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. service them. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. or provide services to application programs. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. Additional tasks if required.Chapter 10.

long dData1. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". long RQBRsvd1. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch).1. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. long dData0. long cbData2. ErrorToUser. char *pData2. char *pData1. char npSend. long cbData1. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. NextNumber = 0. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.pData1 = NextNumber++. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. }.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. int ServiceCode. long RQBRsvd3. long RespExch. long RQBRsvd2. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. char npRecv. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. MainExch.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. long dData2. Message[2]. char *pRqHndlRet. long ServiceRoute. MainExch).0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . Message). A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. long RqOwnerJob.Listing 10. else if (pRqBlk.

These items are dData0. or any data movement back to the caller. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. In fact. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. As a system service writer. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. dData1. and how much information a program must pass to you. because the operating system does not alias them as such. one number represents OpenFile.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . in the File System. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. and another RenameFile. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. The memory address of the Request Block. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. cbData1 and cbData2. and dData2. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. For all other values of the service code. This is the number 1 (one). A prime example of their use is in the File System service. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. The complexity of your service. For larger data movement to the service. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. another CloseFile. and what service you provide. This is called the service code. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. They are 32-bit values. you define the data items you need. As a system service. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. In the simple example above. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. the service only defines one service code that it handles. For example. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. The operating MMURTL V1.The Request Block As you can see. when you receive a Request.

The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. the file may not exist. MMURTL uses this concept. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. Synchronous services wait. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. MMURTL is built in layers. If this happens. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. Disk drives. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. cbData1 and pData2. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. cbData2. The first is the request block handle. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. and moves it to another exchange. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. In each of these cases.system is “aware” of this. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. RAM disks. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. but carries it one step farther. In the keyboard service. When you write system services. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. before responding to any other requests you are holding. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. tape drives.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. This is the easiest way to handle requests. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. you must respond to it immediately. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. receive a request. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). which is a valuable system resource. If so. until you respond. communications ports (serial and parallel). However. then respond before waiting for the next request. If so.

which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. This means message. to handling complex devices such as hard drives. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. the PICUs.. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. or is included in the OS code at build time.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. multitasking.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. RAM DISK). interrupt vectors. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space.g. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB).. timer hardware. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. as well as where the data is on the device. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). It does not directly access hardware.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. C and Pascal). The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. MMURTL V1. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. Block Size. powerful. keyboard. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. The interface is non-specific. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. or network frame handlers (i. For example. the file system is at user level (3). keyboard. hard disk. I have made it rather painless to build fast. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. Things like Device name. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths.g. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. or a processor protection violation will occur. network link layer devices).and sequential-oriented. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. SCSI ports. basic video. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. or any OS structures. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). If a device driver controls more than one device. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. multi-threaded environment. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. With InitDevDr(). Sequential devices are things like communications ports. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control.e.

if needed. like any application in MMURTL. In C this would be main(). You can name them anything you want in your program. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). The device driver looks. Set up interrupt service routines. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. This layer of code performs several functions for you. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. Call InitDevDr(). This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. or in Pascal. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. Do anything else you need before being called. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. Check or set up the device’s. if required. The generic steps are described below. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. and is programmed. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. it's the main program block. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. The main entry point will never be called again. Allocate exchanges. InitDevDr() never returns to you. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). if needed. just like any other program. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. At this point. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS.

or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. If you use MMURTL V1. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. In other operating systems. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. especially if the driver controls two devices. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. specifically DOS. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). direction. and size of a DMA move. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. although it’s not a requirement. device drivers are very close to the hardware. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. Timer Facilities Quite often. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. Two calls provide these functions.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU).”API Specification. This is often called an interrupt vector. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. MMURTL uses paged memory. or how much was transferred. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. mode. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage().

or assembler to construct the DCB.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. and KillAlarm() functions. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned.1-. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. Table 10. Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. Table 10. a structure in C. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. Alarm(). IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. If you use SendMsg().Alarm(). If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. and how to implement them in your code. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). you can use SendMsg().) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. but easy to figure out. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task.

defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. For example.this indicates whether the device is addressable. ndDevBlocks . In other words.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. Each sector is considered a block. znBPB . not the next track. usually an unexpected one. and you read one sector past the end of that track. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . this is device dependent.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. DevType . fDevReent . The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters).0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). sector zero.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. and WaitMsg() primitives. we then move to the next head. For instance. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. sbDevName . it should set this variable with the last error code it received. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. For devices that are not re-entrant. head zero.Each driver names the device it serves. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. This reduces disk arm movement which. dLastDevErc . and handle device conflicts internally.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. where several devices are controlled though one access point. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. If it is another device.When a driver encounters an error. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. If the device is sequential. the SendMsg(). but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . The Hard disk driver operates the same way. then this should contain a 2. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. increases throughput. if you are on track zero. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. In assembler. Disk drives are divided into sectors.number of bytes per block. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. pDevInit.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. RETN is the proper instruction. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. MMURTL V1. pDevOp. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. but this is not much of a limitation.This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. Each device name must be unique.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant.

6 . If this is zero.pData).dOpNum. Your function implementations must do the same. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice.4. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. and format. ndBlocks. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. this flag should be true (non-zero). The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here.dnBlocks. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice.If the fSingleUser is true. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32). All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time.dLBA. wJob . If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. pStatRet. dOpNum. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller.2. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. no job is currently assigned the device. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved.5.3. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. write. dLBA. OSUseONLY1. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver.fSingleUser . verify. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. They equate to standard device operations such as read. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. pInitData.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS .

For sequential devices. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. parity. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice.pInitData.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS .dStatusMax. Not all devices will return status on demand. and so on. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. this will simply be the number of bytes. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored.pdStatusRet).dInitData).pStatRet. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status.

and so on. pDCBs. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. If more than one device is controlled. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. and one DMA channel if applicable. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. This means the devices are number consecutively. This is because one controller. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. such as a disk or SCSI controller. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. MMURTL V1. nDevices. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. this is the first number of the devices. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. fReplace If true. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. the second at pDCBs + 128. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If this is not the case. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. After the Device driver has been loaded. If the driver controls more than one device. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy.

MMURTL V1.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. then use it. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file. or terminate.. the keyboard. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1. is assigned to the new job or is terminated. (e.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS .JOB file.RUN) . A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. the job he is currently viewing.1 shows a sample INITIAL. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. When the user presses these global keys. Listing 11.Chapter 11. No spaces. as well as the video display. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up.after each entry.Maximum line length is 80 characters total.RUN <---. No parameters are passed . tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name.INITIAL. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. In future versions of MMURTL. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. One run file name per line. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete.to the run file.This is the initial jobs file. Any spaces. The format is very simple. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. The file name must contain the FULL . The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. If it's displaying video data.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . .JOB. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. Even when a Job is not being displayed.system boot in this file.the run file name are ignored. C:\MSamples\Service\Service.g.Job file . The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. .file name including path.1. Drive:\DIR\NAME. Listing 11. tabs or comments after . a buffer in memory. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want.run C:\MMSYS\CLI.JOB . Sample Initial. .Comment lines begin with a semi-colon . If you intend to write an operating system. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. The name must start in the first column of a line.

The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. and the parallel port (LPT) driver. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second.1 describes the function of each assigned key. job display.1. Table 11.RUN. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations).This is the total count of task switches since boot up. Once the initialization is complete.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI.. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. They are displayed as typed. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. any errors returned are displayed. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization.1. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. During this process. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. Table 11. and access to the built-in debugger. priority task. Task switches total . RS-232 serial communications. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display.

This is the number of free job control blocks left. Free Link Blocks . Each job uses one. that don't get picked up right away.2. Listing 11. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do.These are task-management structures. Each new task uses one of these. the C library code can be used.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. Tasks Ready to Run . Response is made by the service.CPU idle ticks (no work) . There were no tasks ready to run. Free Exchanges . Free Task State Segments . If this number is greater than zero. including requests. but the count is fixed at OS build time. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".h" "MFiles.h" "MVid. the request block is returned for re-use. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory.A small structure used by all messages sent and received. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks. but have a fixed count at OS build time. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time.h" "MJob. I include no C library code in the operating system itself.h" "MData. Free Job Control Blocks .This is the number of tasks currently queued to run. See listing 11.2.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated. MMURTL V1. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.h" "MTimer. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time.h" "MDevDrv.h" "MMemory. even in the same job. This number may seem a little high.h" "MKbd.

static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . MngrHndl. static unsigned long GP1Exch. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. Real-Time kerneL". MngrMsg[2]. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". All Rights Reserved". LastRecalErc1. KillError. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. static long time. LastErcByte0. LastErcByte1. fIntOnReset. U32 blocks_done. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. LastSeekErc1. LastSeekErc0. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. MMURTL V1.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. Burgess. KillJobNum. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. date. U8 type_now. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. LastStatByte0. 1990-1995.static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. U8 fNewMedia. MngrExch.Message based. static unsigned long GPHndl. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. gcode. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". MUltitasking. unsigned long KillExch. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK.A. LastStatByte1. fKilled. U32 BlocksMax. tick. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R.

U32 resvd1[2].c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. static unsigned long nMemPages. nJCBLeft.U8 ResetStatByte. nTSSLeft.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . nHalts. nReady.c */ Fsys. /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). fdisk_setup(void). char *pJCBRet). /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. lpt_setup(void). nRQBLeft.c */ HardIDE. #asm MMURTL V1. char *ppJCBRet). hdisk_setup(void). extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. nEXCHLeft. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1.c */ Parallel. /* out to 64 bytes */ }. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB.c */ RS232. coms_setup(void). extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. nSwitches. static long StatStack[256]. nSlices. InitFS(void). xsprintf. /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. nLBLeft. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256].asm */ Floppy. BootDrive.

total.No CMP AL. zero. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . value. 30h . EAX MOV ESI.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. *ptr. unsigned long width. long *argptr) { char numstk[33].[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. width = value = i = 0. chr = *fmt++. i. #asm XOR EAX. 39h . ptr = &numstk[32]. *ptr = justify = minus = 0.0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . minus. zero = ' '. total = 0. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr.[EBP+8] CMP AL. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1.0 JL isdigit0 . justify. char *fmt. chr.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. JLE isdigit1 . } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'.EAX .MOV EAX.

} value = *--argptr. case 'b' : i = 2.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. case 'o' : i = 8. } case 'u' : i = 10. break. *--ptr = chr. case 's' : ptr = value. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. ++total. ++minus. default: *--ptr = chr. case 'c' : *--ptr = value. break. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. break. break. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. chr = *fmt++.width = (width * 10) + (chr . if(width) --width.'0'). switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. break. } while(value /= i). ++argptr. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1.

char buffer[S_SIZE].{ for(i = strlen(ptr). long total. fmt. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. ++total. ++i. return total.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . just move into string *outptr++ = chr.) { va_list ap. ++i. ++total. strlen(buffer). } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. TTYOut(buffer.. } } } else { /* not format char. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. . return total. } } *outptr = 0. ++total. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. Color). va_end(ap. fmt). va_start(ap. value = width . } /************************************ MMURTL V1. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. ap). } /* move in data */ i = 0. ++total.1. i < width.. fmt).

1). } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. &iLine)..) { va_list ap. BLUE|BGWHITE). va_start(ap. SetXY(0.80.Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. BLUE|BGWHITE). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. va_end(ap. 25. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. iLine. fmt). MMURTL V1. Exch. long total. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. rgMonMenu1. GetXY(&iCol. "%d". PutVidChars(0. return. ap). char *fmt. i. WHITE|BGBLUE)..0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . tick). When it gets one.23. 26. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). SetXY(0. BLUE|BGWHITE). 24. Msg[2]. return total. 80.22).0. 24. rgStatLine. rgMonMenu3. it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. fmt). it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. 26. rgMonMenu2. . PutVidChars(27. 24.1). total = _ffmt(s. PutVidChars(54. PutVidChars(0.1. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. fmt.

5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. KillJobNum.. /* Day */ 0x0f). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. (time & 0x0f). TSSExch in it. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). PutVidChars(0.. WHITE|BGBLUE). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].) { GetCMOSTime(&time). Sleep(50). "%d". rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). 0x0f). 80. CheckScreen(). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). tick). &pJCB). */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f).0. Sleep(50).0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . ((time >> 8) & 0x0f).. KillMsg). *pVid.U8 *pPD. for(. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. "%d".*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. 80. /* sleep 0.50).0. WHITE|BGBLUE). PutVidChars(0. rgStatLine. /* sleep 0. /* year */ 0x0f). KillError). Error: %d\r\n". rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate. pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum.5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). xprintf("Job number %d terminated. 0x0f). The message has Error. tick). Tone(440. GetTimerTick(&tick). pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. rgStatLine. /* month */ 0x0f).

..GetVidOwner(&i). MngrExch. 4. 0. 0. /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". &gcode. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). 0). /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". i. char *pJCB. 1. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. */ DeAllocPage(pPD. fKilled = 1. 1). erc = WaitMsg(Exch. 2. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. 0. Msg). DeAllocPage(pVid. &MngrHndl.. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). Also. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. DeAllocJCB(pJCB). 0. &i. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. 2). We don't actually switch jobs. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). j. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. if the debugger has the video.) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. Exch. fDone. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS .. 0. 0. MMURTL V1. 0. /* We're done (and so is he.

0). &gcode. &MngrHndl. MngrExch. else if (i>34) i = 1. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 0. erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. MngrMsg). 0. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). 4. 0). 0. i = j.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0. 0. &MngrHndl. 0). erc = GetpJCB(i. 0. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j).0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (i==2) i = 3. 0. 0.. MngrExch. erc = KillJob(j). MngrMsg). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. 0. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . 0. for(. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). i. 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". fDone = 0. &pJCB). } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 4. 0. 0. 0. while (!fDone) { i++.4. 2. 0. #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1.

while (!fdone) { i = 0. #asm CLI MOV ECX. j. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk).AL STI #endasm return. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. sjobfile.JOB\0".Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. 2=C etc. job. do MMURTL V1. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. fh. cbrunfile. char arunfile[80]. 20).Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial.Read Status Byte into AL .check port up to 64K times . CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. &fh). sjobfile. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). 1=B. sdisk += 0x41. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. &ajobfile[1]. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . } .Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . char ajobfile[50]. 0. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. sdisk &= 0x7F. 1. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. fcli = 0. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . char fdone.run and the last job loaded.return. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. unsigned char sdisk.first we clear interrupts .0FEh OUT 64h. job = 0. fcli. /* 0=A.64h TEST AL. i.

0. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). &arunfile[i++]. 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. CheckScreen(). } } } else fdone = 1. "cli. 1. xprintf("Loading: %s. GP1Exch.0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS .') continue. job). 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. erc = 0. CheckScreen(). /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. Sleep(50).. MMURTL V1. CheckScreen(). job = 0. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n".\r\n".{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. &j). if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. 4.. cbrunfile. else fcli = 0. arunfile). &job). erc). /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. &GP1Hndl. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. } CloseFile(fh).run". assign the keyboard and video to it. Sleep(50).

0. 0.\r\n"). erc = LoadNewJob(acli. 16).. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. 0. GP1Msg). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". job. sdisk += 0x41. job. 0. CheckScreen(). CheckScreen(). GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). ccode1. 0. i. acli). char text[70].0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . k. 0). MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. } return erc.JOB file not found in system directory. 2=C etc. 1=B.". if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". iLine. strlen(acli). sdisk &= 0x7F. job). &acli[1]. GP1Msg). 0. */ acli[0] = sdisk. } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. acli[40]. *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. Sleep(50). iCol. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. 0). unsigned long ccode. unsigned char sdisk..RUN\0". InitScreen(). unsigned char c. 0.0. 4. &job). j. /* 0=A. job. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. 0. &GP1Hndl. 0. 0. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. xprintf("Loading: %s. SetVidOwner(job). GP1Exch.

xprintf("Copyright (c) R.15). i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n".. /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. &StatStack[255].0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n".33). i). xprintf("Init floppy device driver. erc). xprintf("%d\r\n". Error: ").Message based. xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). erc). xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". 24. erc). erc = lpt_setup(). MUltitasking. /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). c). Tone(1000. xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. erc = InitKBDService(). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . erc). erc). xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". erc = fdisk_setup(). erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. 0. erc = coms_setup(). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n".Burgess. c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). 1 ). /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n".Tone(250. if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n".A. erc).. i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). erc). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc).. i).. erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). erc). Error: "). Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. erc = hdisk_setup(). erc).

10. Tell it to wait for a key. &ccode. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). i<nMaxJCBs. */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc). /* Line */ k = 0. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. erc = InitFS(). 4. 1. case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen().. 0. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n".j). GPExch. xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". erc).. j++. /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40. &GPHndl. GPMsg). c = ccode & 0xff..xprintf("Initializing file system. pJCB->JobNum).) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. Error: %d\r\n".. /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. erc). 0). text. 0. 1 ). if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". for (.\r\n"). text). if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n"..j). MMURTL V1. /* Col offset */ for (i=1. erc). &pJCB).0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . xprintf("File System. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. */ LoadJobFile(). 0. j = 2. 13). 0. erc = GetpJCB(i. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. SetXY(k+10. 0. 1. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". &MngrStack[255]. break.

GREEN|BGBLACK).. 1. nMemPages). "|". GREEN|BGBLACK). PutVidChars(29. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). nSlices). " ". PutVidChars(29. if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). "-". /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. nJCBLeft). nEXCHLeft).. PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". Sleep(9). Sleep(12).loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). nReady). 1. "|". break. 1. SetXY(0.} } break. "\\". Sleep(9).. "\\". nTSSLeft). any other key to cancel"). "/". GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. PutVidChars(29.1). case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . xprintf ("\r\n"). 1). 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. 1.Cancelled\r\n"). 1. break. } SetXY(0. Sleep(9). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. "/". nHalts). 1.0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot.. GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. 1. xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". 1. nLBLeft). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. \r\n"). Sleep(9). break. nSwitches). xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n".1). Sleep(12). 1. 1. case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3).future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. 1. xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. Sleep(9). while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. case 0x12: /* F4 . xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n".12). PutVidChars(29. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). xprintf(". "-". PutVidChars(29. Sleep(9). nRQBLeft).

SetXY(0. else TTYOut (&c. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. WHITE|BGBLACK).1.TTYOut (CRLF. WHITE|BGBLACK).23.80. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1. &iLine). 2.1). 1.22). } } GetXY(&iCol.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS .

.

Certain debugger display functions. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. along with the exception number that caused it. such as dumping data. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. non-symbolic debugger. and a red banner is displayed. MMURTL V1. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. the debugger is entered. will clear the screen for display. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. the debugger is an assembly language. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. function keys are across the bottom. and why.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . It is not a separate run file. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. When this occurs.Chapter 12. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. If the debugger was entered on a fault.

Global Descriptor Table. F4 CS:EIP .Request Block Array. TSS1 . F10 . The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. low order).Services Array. The abbreviations are given in the following list. F6 Tasks . and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger.Set Breakpoint.Goto CS:EIP. F5 Exch . RQBs . IDT . This requests a linear address.Display Tasks. next. with the down arrow key.Job Control Blocks. This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. MMURTL V1.Dynamic TSSs. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). F9 DumpB . “Application Programming.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS . The GDT contains many items. These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. F8 CrntAdd . This is an array of 512-byte structures. The address is displayed on the left. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. as most of them are. that will be somewhere in this array. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. TSS3 . F2 SetBP . after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed.Dump Bytes.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. The address is displayed on the left. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. the address of the TSS. F12 AddInfo .Dump Dwords. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. next.Address Information. This displays all active tasks on the system. This clears the single breakpoint. Each TSS is 512 bytes. This returns to the application and executes one instruction. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. . LBs . This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. TSSs are numbered sequentially. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. The task number. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address.First TSS. RdyQ . without executing them.Interrupt Descriptor Table. This requests a linear address.Single Step. the address of the task's JCB. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. GDT . The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. This is the address of the Monitor TSS.Ready Queue. the associated Job number.Link Blocks. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. JCBs . This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. F3 ClrBP . and then dumps the bytes located at that address. a linear address.” SVCs . The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. You may move down through the instructions.Clear Breakpoint. This becomes the active address.Change Current Address. These values are hard coded at system build.Display Exchanges.

whenever any linear memory location is accessed. listed in your ATF file.Exchanges. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set.START in an assembly language program. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. or for . You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. without having to fill in special registers. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . For applications. Each exchange is 16 bytes. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. With near calls like you would make inside your program. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. it is the index of that exchange in the array. aTmr . its down and dirty troubleshooting. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. locking up. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). ESP .Exch . EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. or whatever). The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. This is the address of the array of timer blocks. or at the beginning of any instruction. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. such as [EBP+12]. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. MMURTL V1. entering the debugger. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. There are four debug address registers in the processor. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. like the older processors.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks.and displayed as an unsigned number. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. Lots of code here MOV ESP. and also how local variables are accessed. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use.ASM files. actually a trap. When it occurs. but for right now. In some cases. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing.Timer Blocks. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. In MMURTL.

The debugger becomes the active job. Instead. you will see that there are many interrupts. Traps. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. including allocated memory. If you are going to debug a task. usually a blank screen and nothing else. a page fault is fatal to a task. The debugger cannot debug itself.Processor exceptions. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). If you have problems before the debugger is initialized.. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. the current pRunTSS. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction.. that can occur. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. is saved by the debugger.1. you must be able to access all of its memory. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. called exceptions. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. When the debug interrupt activates. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. This return address is used by the debugger entry code.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right.1. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. No other task operates at a priority that high. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. but not quite. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. MMURTL V1. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. Table 12. a pointer to the currently running TSS. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. or faults. When writing an operating system. It almost. just like applications do.

setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. While you are in the debugger. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. MMURTL V1.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. you should kill the offending job and restart. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. To do this. which is exactly what you want. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). This makes the debugger transparent. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. These contain the address of the exception handler. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. When the debugger is entered. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. If the debugger was entered because of a fault.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. it displays the registers from the interrupted task.

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As described in chapter 10. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. 0). Available Services Table 13.Not used (0) */ dData2 . Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. 0. MyExch.Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. 0 0. 0. this is true multitasking).” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes.fWait for Key */ dData1 . 1. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always).0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service.1 shows the services provided by the service code. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD".Chapter 13. “system programming. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . but not as powerful. 1. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . It's easier to use. &KeyCode 4. &MyRqhandle.

Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 .0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS .Return with error if no key waiting 1 . the error should be 0. Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. even if a key is not available. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1. described in detail later.1.Not used 0 . The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. Unlike regular keystrokes. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications.Wait for Key = 0 . The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available.Not used. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. This allows for "hot-key" operation. If you have an outstanding Notify request. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys.Not used = 0 . In this case. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3).Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 .Table 13. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered.Count of bytes in the code 0 .

The low-order byte is the actual key code. and Scroll). (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. Locks. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C). The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key.). This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application.3. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . this cancels it. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. as shown in table 13. If you have an outstanding Notify request. as shown in table 13. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value.2. etc. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. Alt & Ctrl.4. shown in table 13. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. Num.

Table 13. Table 13. This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . Num or Scroll).. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. Alt or Shift). Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps.2 .Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. Table 13.3 shows how the bits are defined. This bit (Bit 0. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code.If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. shows how the bits are defined.2.3 . Table 13.

1h to 7Fh).4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard..4 . Key Codes Table 13. Ctrl. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. or Locks). Table 13. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . If a shift code is not shown. For example. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned.main keyboard.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS . Alt. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. A description is given only if required. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active.

5 . ' . Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS .5 shows the key code value returned.Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values. Table 13. comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. Table 13. .

The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13. (Period) Cursor.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.6 .Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1.7.7. Caps lock does not affect these keys. Edit. 13. Table 13.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS .

”Keyboard Code. as I have tried to do in this chapter. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. Chapter 25. when all else fails. or you may want more. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. the programmer will read the documentation. MMURTL V1.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS .” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. if you desire. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. Pieces of it may be useful for your system. Remember. such as international key translations.

0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. the default name NETWORK is used. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. but none as wide spread. just how we access it. For example. there isn't anything new about the format. a network name. When a network file is opened. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. then up to three more characters.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". and optionally. will be routed to the service with the same name. The third part is the filename as described above. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters.Chapter 14. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. filename. a period. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies.and finally the filename itself. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. This ties its hands so to speak. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. the network service receives the request from the file system. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). and a node name is specified. MMURTL V1. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }.

in any mode or type. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. MMURTL V1. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. Make no assumptions about this number. 4096 byte buffer. This is a one page. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. a number called a file handle is returned to you. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. When a file is opened in Read mode. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. or just reading alone. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. This number is how you refer to that file until closed.File Handles When a file is opened.

This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. You can make a request.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA). 0.1 . It meets all the requirements. Table 14.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -.1. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking). or file pointer.ptr to name */ cbData1 -.Size of a handle */ dData0 -. The file system actually runs as a separate task.returned handle */ cbData2 -.ModeRead */ dData1 -. This is called a file pointer in some systems.1 shows the service codes the file system supports. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. &"AnyFile. Listing 14. 11. 1. &MyRqhandle. Listing 14. MyExch.Block Type Access */ dData2 -. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ".size of name */ pData2 -. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware. For Stream files. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. Table 14.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS .1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. no matter what Mode the file was opened in. All message-based services use the same request-based interface. &FileHandle 4.doc". File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service. 1. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. 1. 0).Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes.

It is easier to use because it has less parameters.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. Table 14. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. Table 14. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. The Request interface will not allow device access. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. but only through the procedural interfaces. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. KBD and VID devices only. MMURTL V1.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. The request is transparent to the caller.2 . High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access.

Procedural parameters: dHandle . If a file is open in ModeRead.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . all buffers are flushed and deallocated. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType .pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you.Block = 0. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName.pointer to the filename or full file specification. Procedural parameters: pName . A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. dOpenMode. Stream = 1. pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. dcbname. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users. pdHandleRet . dAccessType.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS .File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available. dcbName . If stream access type was specified.a dword that was returned from OpenFile().READ = 0.

SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size.DWord with number of bytes to read.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData. pDataRet.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle.Pointer to the data to write nBytes . pdnBytesRet . pDataRet . MMURTL V1. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. dLFA. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512).pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. This must be a multiple of the block size. Procedural parameters: dhandle .DWord with number of bytes to write. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. See the SetFilesize() section. One Block = 512 bytes. nBytes. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs. Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. nBytes. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle.Logical File Address to write to. This must always be a multiple of 512. nBytes .Logical File Address to read from. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file. dLFA. This will always return a multiple of 512. pdnBlkRet . dLFA .pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. pData . Procedural parameters: dHandle . dLFA .Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read.

The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. nBytes.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. Parameters: dhandle . pDataRet . pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. The bytes are read from the current LFA. pdnBytesRet .pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned.Dword with number of bytes to read. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). pDataRet. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. nBytes . The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file. pData. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. nBytes.

Procedural parameters: dHandle . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle.Dword with number of bytes to write.Dword with a valid file handle.Procedural parameters: dHandle . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet . as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: dhandle . The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF).Dword with a valid file handle. nBytes .a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.Pointer to the data to write. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. pdnBytesRet .Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C). Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files. pData .

Procedural parameters: dhandle . The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1.Dword with a valid file handle. The file length. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode.Dword with a valid file handle.a Dword with the new size of the file. as returned from OpenFile() dSize . 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File.a Dword with the LFA you want to set. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle.dLFA . as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . Procedural parameters: dHandle . and allocated space on the disk.a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned.

and ready to be opened and accessed. dcbName . dcbNewName . pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file.A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden.Dword with length of the filename dAttributes . The file is closed after creation. Procedural parameters: pName . The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName.pointer to the current filename or full file specification. empty file in the path specified. dcbname. dcbName . Procedural parameters: pName .pointer to the filename or full file specification to create.Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1.pointer to the new filename or full file specification.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS . dAttributes): dError This creates a new. dcbName.

specified in the Job Control Block. dcbPath . Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. empty directory for the path specified.Dword that was returned from OpenFile.Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. If only the new directory name is specified. No further access is possible. and the filename is available for re-use. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). Procedural parameters: dHandle .pointer to the path (directory name) to create. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. Procedural parameters: pPath .0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS .pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. as opposed to a full path. the directory is created in your current path.

dcbPath . This call returns one sector from a directory. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. If only the existing directory name is specified. Procedural parameters: pPath . all subdirectories. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . as opposed to a full path. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. The directory must exist in the path specified. Each sector contain 16 directory entries.If set to non-zero.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified.pointer to the path. or directory name to delete. The path must contain the directory name as the last element. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. to read tj sector from dcbPath . the path in your JCB will be used. pSectRet.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. or directory name. dcbPath.pointer to the path. Procedural parameters: pPath . dcbPath. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). If no path is specified. the name is appended to the path from your job control block. all files in this directory.

File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. Each FCB is 128 bytes. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. while others are part of the operating system data segment.pSectRet . FCB. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. Each opened file is allocated an FCB. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). the FCB is deallocated for re-use. The FUBs contain the file pointer.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. Because it is a pointer. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. the open mode. If the file is opened in Stream mode.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. MMURTL V1.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . Quite a few of them use this same name. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. buffer pointers. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. Some structures are dynamically allocated. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. it's not allocating files. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. When it reaches 0.

A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. vector. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). If so. Directories are stored as files. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. The fourth entry points to the fifth. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. they use what is called a FAT16. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. However. The file is open. which is cluster size. On most hard disks. From this. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. and raster image files. because of the design of the FAT file system. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. source files for compilers. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. L = Last entry in your file. the user will strike next. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. or three entries. X = not your file. return an error ErcFileInUse. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. This is in itself is time-consuming. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT).The disk is allocated in clusters. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. MMURTL V1. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. Run files being executed. In this example. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. you can usually do it quite rapidly. The list could go on and on. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . That's a lot of FAT (or file). If opened in Block mode. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. Load FAT buffer if required. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. If it's open in ModeWrite. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. allocate an FUB and attach it. inside of a 400 Mb file. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. Large database files are the major random users. the fifth points to the sixth. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. and the sixth is marked as the last. Usually. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. That's 128Kb.

you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. It sounds simple. and depends on how the file was opened. but much overhead is involved. If opened in block mode. Close This is the easy part. MMURTL V1. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. attach them to the chain. then write the data. If the file is being extended. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . you must find unallocated clusters. Both copies must be updated.

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or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. They are listed by functional group first. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e.1 lists the prefixes. “File System Service”). Table 15.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. The offset should be 0. If you are going to write your own operating system. These are known as compound descriptions.g. I might add. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. Chapter 14. An improperly.0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS .. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. Table 15. Table 15.Chapter 15.2 . Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes .Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. Table 15.1 .2 lists these additional prefix characters. The call address consists of a selector and an offset.

the most common returned value shown. Bytes and words (8.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. dcbFileName . Each compound set of prefixes . if a value is returned by the function. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl. Table1 5. or should be. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. be returned. If a parameter is a byte. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls.3 . dcbDataRetMax . The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. Pascal. The dError. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. It is processor (hardware) enforced.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. Max means Maximum. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. Ret means Returned. dMsg1.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. and finally. or Assembler. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned.3.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15.and optionally suffixes .pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. and Min means Minimum. dMsg1. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. pdDataRet . Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. a colon with the returned value. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS .accurately describes the provided or expected data types. The function name is followed by the parameters. grouped by type. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch.

dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. pDestination. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. dcbMem. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. pStatRet. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. cbData2. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. pS2. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. pS2. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. dOpNum. pData2. dJobNum. npSend. dfDebug. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. pData1. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. pPathRet. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dcbFileName.Request( pSvcName. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. LinAdd. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. fDebug. dRespExch. nDevices. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. pDestination. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. dData0. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. dData1. dLBA.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . pRqHndlRet. pInitData. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. dcbFileName. ppMemRet. dESP. dPriority. pStack. wSvcCode. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dnBlocks. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. dcbAliasBytes. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. dPriority. cbData1. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. dBytes) MMURTL V1. pDCBs. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. dStatusMax. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dExch. cBytes. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. wCodeSeg.

dPort) OutWords(dPort. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dULline. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. pDataIn. dChannel. nChars. pbExitChar. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. Speaker. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. fdRead. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. pbCharRet. ddLine. pDataOut. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. nChars. dMaxLen. sdMem. dTextOut. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. pbChars.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . nCols. pdLenRet. dLine. nLines. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dLine. dCrntLen.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dPort) OutWord(Word. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel.dBytes) OutByte(Byte.

Parameters: AX . They are passed in registers. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. This must be zero (0) for task gates. Parameters: AX .0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. or 0 if all went well.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . They are passed in registers.Returns an error.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . Unlike most other operating system calls. exception gates and interrupt gates. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. the parameters are not stack-based. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . and interrupts. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). Unlike most other operating system calls. exceptions. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . EAX Returns Error. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use. dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. the parameters are not stack based. but can be used by experienced systems programmers.

The message that is sent is two dwords. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. even though it's very close. Parameters: nPages . ppAliasRet . The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. MMURTL V1. dcbMem . etc. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use.). pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. dJobNum. except it can be used asynchronously. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. This would be for the time-out function described above.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . and don't get placed in a waiting condition. dcbMem. ppMemRet. If you do. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep().Job number from the other application. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). do some other processing.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to.A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory.Dword (4 BYTES). You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. In fact. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. Each application has its own linear address space. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. pdPhyMemRet . ppRet . you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. Parameters: dnTicks . dJobNum . AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. Parameters: pMem . This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. except you provide the exchange. the more precise the timing. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. It will always begin on a page boundary. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. The larger dnTicks is. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. WaitMsg. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. Alarm() can be used for a number of things. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. This means you can set an alarm. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. The overhead included in entry.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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stack. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. Parameters: dIRQnum . Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. Parameters: dn15us .pointer to the filename to run. Interrupts are not disabled. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. although longer periods will work. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. so the time could be much longer.length of the run filename. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. and data pages. dcbFileName.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. MMURTL V1.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS .Parameters: dAlarmExch . Virtual Video. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. pdJobNumRet . dcbFileName . and you call this often enough. Parameters: pFilename . but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. Page Descriptor. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. and the memory required to run code. initial Task State Segment. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. precise.

dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. dExch.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. Parameters: Byte . it is made to run. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address.The address of the port.Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte.Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl .Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . ESP .handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch . DPort .Which code segment. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use.Exchange for TSS. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord. Paramters: Dword . DPort . dCodeSeg. else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order.The dword value to write to the port.The address of the port. Parameters: JobNum . dfDebug. Exch . dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS). NewTask NewTask(dJobNum.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS . OS=8 or User=18 Priority .exchange where the Request is to be sent. No error is returned.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. dPriority.The byte value to write to the port. Parameters: MMURTL V1. dESP.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. OutWord OutWord(Word.

PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol.line (0-24) pbChars .Word . MMURTL V1. dLine.The count of bytes to write to the port address. DPort . pDataOut. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9. PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. “Application Programming. if not displayed.pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . dAttr .The word value to write to the port. DBytes . This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.The address of the port. or virtual screen.” describes all of the attribute values. dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. nChars. pbChars. This is the number of Words * 2. Parameters: pdnPagesRet .number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . OutWords OutWords(dPort. dnChars. PdataOut .Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space.column to start on (0-79) dLine .line (0-24) dnChars .0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS .color/attribute to use during display. Parameters: DPort . dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort.column to start on (0-79) dLine . dLine.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. Parameters: dCol . The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values. You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2).a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned.The address of the port. It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen.number of characters pbChars is pointing to. Each page of memory is 4096 byte. Parameters: dCol .

See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. Parameters: BAddress . If fWait is false (0). pRqHndlRet.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. and padded with spaces (20h). This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. The string must be left justified.If true (non-zero). fWait . or on what machine the request is being serviced. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. Request Request( pSvcName. pData1. wSvcCode. If no key was available. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. cbData1. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . npSend. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. Parameters: pSvcName .A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData2. This call blocks your task until completion. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. if forwarded across a network.the exchange to be associated with the service name. dData1. Service names are case sensitive. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. If fWait is true (non-zero). cbData2.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. dData0.a pointer to an 8-byte string. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . dRespExch.

A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. dData2 . Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. This may be data sent to the service. See Respond(). dMsgLo. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. the value returned from the Request() call itself. MMURTL V1.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. dStatRet .dData0. of the message sent back to the requester of the service. dData1. pData1 . dError. The use of dData0. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. dData0. cbData2 . cbData1 . npSend . Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. are sending data to the service. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. With all kernel primitives. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. wSvcCode . Respond Respond(dRqHndl. is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally.same as pData1. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you.a number (0. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). the value returned from the Respond() call itself. 65534 (0FFFEh). It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. The service must be registered with the operating system.the size of the data being sent to the service. dRespExch . The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. Parameters: dRqHndl . This error is not the error returned by the service. dError.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS .The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. Parameters: pSvcName . if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. service name. 1 and 2. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. pData2 . For example. With all kernel primitives.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). or received from the service. pRqHndlRet . If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. Function Codes 0. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. Zero will be returned if all was well. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. Always assume it will be network-routed. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to.This is the operating system Request primitive. space padded. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. then npSend would be 2.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service.

If it were a Response from a service.80. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange.The lower dword of the message.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. This is an agreed-upon convention. linked with that task.The upper dword of the message. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. DnLines . dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. the new command line string. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange. In this case the top line is lost.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. msg[1].The number of columns to be scrolled. and is not enforced by the operating system. This call stores the command line in the JCB. the message is associated. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. and the bottom line would be blanked.1). If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange.Points to an array of bytes. Parameters: DULCol . you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi.dnLines. dMsgHi.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols .The length of the command line string to store. DfUp . dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. and while Chaining to another application. dMsgLo . The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. it will be into an array of dwords. which is the first dword pushed.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol.The count of lines to be scrolled. Parameters: dExch .a polite term for crashed. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. dMsgHi . msg[0]. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. and it is moved to the Ready queue.0. dcbCmdLine .dnCols. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. Parameters: pCmdLine . the parameters would be ScrollVid(0. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs.25.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS .dULline. MMURTL V1. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index.

Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. pVector .A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. Parameters: pExitJob .The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. Table 15. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . Initially. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. The filename must not longer than 79 characters. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. After the interrupt vector is set.4 . Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB.If installed. dcbExitJob . all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). Built-in device drivers assume these values. When a job exits. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. Parameters: dIRQnum . Table 15. which will happen most often. pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. MMURTL V1.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. and its ExitJob is zero length. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet.

SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. then call ClrScr(). SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. dcbJobName . will clear the job name from the JCB. Parameters: bPriority . The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. Parameters: pJobName . See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. A zero length.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. Refer to the file System documentation). and also used by stream output from high level language libraries.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS .Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. The default foreground color. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. The path is 79 characters maximum. This is a maximum of 13 characters. dcbPath . a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. a text string.This is the new priority (0-31). The path is interpreted and used by the File System. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. The maximum length is 13 bytes. If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. If no job name is set by the application. SetPath SetPath(pPath. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. and background colors may be changed by an application. MMURTL V1. the color of the characters themselves. Parameters: pPath . Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. Typically. dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. Longer values will be truncated.

If you desire to write data from your application to a file. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. is VID. dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. The default name. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. Only ASCII data is returned from this call. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to.points to a text string. and Chaining to another application. which is the user's name. Parameters: pUsername . SetXY SetXY(dNewX. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. Parameters: pFileName .SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. if none is set by the application.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. which is the one to be displayed. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes().The job number for new owner of the active screen.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. WriteBytes(). Parameters: pFileName . If the SysOut name is VID. if none is set. Parameters: DJobNum . dcbFileName . If the SysIn name is set to KDB. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application.is the length of the string to store. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. dcbUsername . dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. The default name. is KBD. dcbFileName . The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism.

A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. If your task is a high enough priority. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. Tone Tone(dHz. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. fDebug. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. fOSCode . 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. Application programs should use priority 25. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. The timer interrupt sends the message. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. should use priorities above 25.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . or make it sleep. and clears the block when it reaches zero. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. Parameters: pEntry . This applies to the virtual screen. fDebug .This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. 1 is accepted. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry.This is a pointer to the function. lower numbers. such as the file system and keyboard. dPriority.The new horizontal cursor position column.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . or the real video screen if currently assigned. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. Certain system services are higher priority.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. pStack. but testing will be required to ensure harmony. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. it is made to run. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it.The new vertical cursor position row. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. Parameters: dnTicks . dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. otherwise. DNewY . dPriority . The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange.This is a number from 0 to 31. Parameters: DNewX .

the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum.The cursor. will be moved down one line. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. The string must left justified. Parameters: pSvcName . When an IRQ is masked in hardware.The attribute or color you want. dTextOut.The number of characters of text. if the cursor is in the last column of a line. Parameters: dHz . from 30 to 10000. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . it will be moved to the first column of the next line. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . Backspace will have no effect. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. If this line is below the bottom of the screen.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. A value of 100 is one second. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. DTextOut .pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. Parameters: dIRQnum .A pointer to an 8-byte string. 08 backspace . DAttrib . dTicks10ms . They will receive an error.A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). the entire screen will be scrolled up one line.The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line.The cursor will be moved one column to the left.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. Service names are case sensitive. The backspace is non-destructive. For character placement. next active character placement. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. If already at column 0. no characters are changed.A near Pointer to the text. Parameters: PTextOut . The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . and padded with spaces (20h).

You've got to send mail to get mail. an array of two dwords. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. you would have had to make the request in the first place. less than 8000000h.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. Of course. so this would be obvious to you. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. Parameters: DError . MMURTL V1. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. dExch . If no message is available. the task will be placed on the exchange specified.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . At that time. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange.A pointer to where the message will be returned.

Directory listing Debug . Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me). MMURTL V1.Clear Screen Copy . job number for this CLI. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . The internal commands are: Cls .Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help . The CLI screen is divided into two sections.RUN files). but it's a good start. it does work and it's useful in its own right. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL.Display list of internal commands Monitor . To see what has been included on the CDROM. However.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter.Chapter 16.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS .Copy a file Dir . use. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. is described in the following sections.Hex dump of a file Exit . “What's On the CD-ROM. The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself.Enter Debugger Del . D:\DIR\) RD . CLI version. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs. time. The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM.Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its. The top line is the status line. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. see Appendix A.Set file access path (New path e.Rename a file (Current name New name) Run .Make Directory Path .Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD .Delete a file Dump .Remove directory Rename . and your current path. It provides information such as date.g. It has been expanded. MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type .

The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. If the character is not ASCII text. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. “The Debugger. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. MMURTL V1. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full. a period is displayed instead.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. Both names must be specified.TXT THATFILE. or the same name in a different directory. Pressing Esc will stop the listing.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. If a file exists with the same name. >Copy THISFILE. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device.

CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen.).) MMURTL V1. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. renaming.. Unlike a single tasking operating system. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . In MMURTL. listing. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. and . This CLI will still be executing. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. In other words. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. etc. With any file-system operation (opening. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. The path must end with the Backslash. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. the tree will only be extend one level. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. or external command that is executed for this CLI. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI.

There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.run New.run . Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.CLI Commands. The contents of the file COMMANDS.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name. The file must not be open by any other job. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number). The File COMMANDS. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS .run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix . The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands. An example of COMMANDS.TXT Run (Execute a . MMURTL V1.RUN).End of Command.CLI File The file COMMANDS. The first item on the line is the command name.CLI follows: . It is a simple text file with one command per line. pausing after each page.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored.Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.

h> #include <ctype.Ver.1.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. CLI Source Code Listing . You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. but other application might.CLI file.CLI.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.h> #include <string. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor. CTRL-ALT-DELETE .h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.Terminates the currently displayed job. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down. Listing 16. 1.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. In this case. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.0 of the Command Line Interpreter.

hlppath[60]. /* "Del". char aCmd[80]. /* "xxxxx". /* "Debug". /* MMURTL V1. /* "Ren".0 { 0 external */ 1 . clipath[60]. char ExitChar. unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. /* "RD". unsigned char Buffer[512].#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. /* "Cls". /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. long cbCmd = 0. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. date. long cbPath. long JobNum. /* "Exit". char fUpdatePath. /* "Dump". /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1.0 Job Path: ". syspath[50]. iLine. /* "Monitor". /* "Path". /* "Copy".not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned long GPHndl. /* "Dir". /* "Help". char text[70]. unsigned long GPExch. cmdpath[60]. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. /* "MD". char char char char sdisk.

U8 Attr. It updates the status line which has the time and path. U32 FileSize. U16 Time.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. U8 Rsvd[10]. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. char *apParam[13].) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. U16 Date. long acbParam[13].. U8 Ext[3]. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. U16 StartClstr. } dirent[16]. "Type"."Run". }. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8].

case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". 80. 40. &aStatLine[47]. case 208: pSt = "File in use". case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". break. case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)".0. /* month */ 0x0f). FillData(&aStatLine[47]. aStatLine. break. /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. 0x0f). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". ' '). break. case 201: pSt = "No such drive". break. break. 30. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). switch (erc) { case 0: return. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). fUpdatePath = 0. (time & 0x0f). } GetCMOSDate(&date). case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". 0). aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". /* year */ 0x0f). break. STATVID). break. case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)".0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. break. 0x0f). break. break. case 1: pSt = "End of file". FillData(st. Sleep(100). break. break. break. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). break. char st[40]. case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". CopyData(aPath. /* Day */ 0x0f). case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). MMURTL V1.cbPath = 30. break. case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". cbPath). break. PutVidChars(0.

} /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). } printf("%s\r\n". unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. addr). iLine). while (cb) { printf("%08x ". j. &iLine). erc = 0. #asm INT 03 #endasm return.0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . break.default: sprintf(st. *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). KeyCode. i. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. 80. aStatLine. iLine = 2. GetXY(&iCol. erc). If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. return. } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. STATVID). long cb. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. ClrScr(). } SetXY(iCol. unsigned char buff[17]. GetXY(&iCol. PutVidChars(0. MMURTL V1. pSt = st. &iLine). *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . pSt). "Error %05d on last command".0.

erc = 0.if (cb > 15) j=16. 1).1).0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS .. any other key to continue.23). ModeRead. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh.*pb). addr+=j. 512. SetXY(0. l. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. buff[i] = *pb++. 0). else j = cb.").80. MMURTL V1.. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. i++) { printf("%02x ". &buff[0]). if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. ++iLine. Buffer. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j.23. &fh). } InitScreen(TRUE). } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. i<j. acbParam[1]. This expects to find the filename in param[1].1). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. erc. 512. else cb=0. SetXY(0. /* ReadKbd. for (i=0. if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. } buff[i+1] = 0. dret. &k). 1. k. iLine =1. fh. if (!erc) { j=0. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer.23). erc = ReadBytes (fh. printf("%s\r\n". if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.1. &dret). printf("ESC to cancel. } return erc.

if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. dret. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n").80. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. } SetXY(0. NORMVID). iLine++. &lfa). j). &dret). SetXY(0.23). KeyCode.iLine). erc = 0. j. 1. SetFileLFA(fh. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. Buffer.1). Buffer. 0). 0. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. 78. } erc = OpenFile(pName. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. j<=i. dret = 1. j+=512. } for (j=0. 512.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. fh. iLine. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. erc. erc = ReadBytes (fh.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. lfa.1. } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. i. dret. cbName. } CloseFile (fh). &fh). return erc. i = 1. long cbName) { long i.23. lfa+i). else l=k-j.

THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer.hr.se. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n".da. CloseFile (fh).").se). sprintf(st. "%02d-%02d-%02d". Use block mode for speed. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . sprintf(st.if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. U16 date. 8). } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS. printf("ESC to cancel. char *pTimeRet. bytesWant. /* ReadKbd. U32 cbFrom.hr. 8). bytesGot. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . 1).. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). erc).1). pDateRet. CopyData(st. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. char *pTo. fhFrom. CopyData(st. bytesLeft. erc. "%02d:%02d:%02d". pTimeRet. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking. char st[15]. MMURTL V1. iLine =1. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time.mi.da.. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. This is used by the directory listing.mo. da = date & 0x001F.mo.mi. return erc. This uses a conservative 4K buffer. InitScreen(TRUE). U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo.1900. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5.yr). any other key to continue. SetXY(0. if (yr > 99) yr -=100.23). char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2.

ModeModify.bytesOut. dLFA. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. 0. cbTo. dLFA. bytesGot. bigBuf. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. KeyCode. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. cbFrom. &size). bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. cbTo. else bytesWant = bytesLeft. size. 1). wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. /* ReadKbd. 0. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. } return(erc). if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. 0). size). dLFA. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). erc = OpenFile(pFrom. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. } MMURTL V1. } CloseFile(fhTo). dLFA = 0. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . bytesLeft = size. &fhFrom). &bytesGot). if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). bigBuf. &fhTo). } dLFA += bytesGot. ModeRead. bytesWant. &bytesOut).

fDone = 1.Date. } InitScreen(TRUE).Name[0]) { erc = 1. 512. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. if (!erc) { for (i=0. iLine =1.Time.FileSize.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1). printf("ESC to cancel. char st[78]./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. printf("%s". SetXY(0. } } } MMURTL V1.23).StartClstr). dirent[i]. KeyCode. &st[33]. dirent[i]. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". SectNum). if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. SectNum = 0. U32 SectNum. dirent[i]. i<16. dirent[i]. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. i.1).Name.Ext.. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4."). fDone = TRUE. dirent[i].1). *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone.Attr. iLine++. } if ((dirent[i]. st). } fDone = 0. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. &dirent[0]. &st[24]).. erc. acbParam[1]. SetXY(0. /* ReadKbd.80.23.1. any other key to continue. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i].23).Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st. dirent[i].

CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. } return(erc). SectNum++. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. iCmd++.. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. fdone. If it finds it. iPrm<nParamsMax. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. *f.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. j. k.. iPrm. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. cmdline[90]. The format for a line entry in Commands. MMURTL V1. rawline[90].0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. i.} else fDone = TRUE. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. for (iPrm=0. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams.

cmdline[j] = 0. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. runfile[k] = 0. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. acbParam[0]). /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. if (f) { fdone = 0. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. "r").') /* a comment line */ continue. rawline. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0].0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1.\r\n"). } } else printf("Commands. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0.CLI not found. /* now move arguments if any. f = fopen(cmdpath. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). return(1). cmdline). 89. return(0).cmdline[0] = 0. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0.

0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . } MMURTL V1. ". &fh). strlen(runfile).CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(runfile). runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. strlen(clipath)). SetCmdLine(aCmd. fh. i = strlen(runfile). erc = OpenFile(runfile. 1. erc = OpenFile(runfile. If so. SetCmdLine(aCmd. } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile.RUN"). 0). erc. if it's not there. strlen(clipath)). SetExitJob(clipath. cbCmd). we first look for a . &runfile[i]. strlen(runfile). we go to the system directory. ModeRead. 0). If we don't find one. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). cbCmd). strlen(clipath)). long i. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). 1. cbCmd). /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. SetCmdLine(aCmd. ". &fh). &fh). strlen(runfile). SetExitJob(clipath. erc = Chain(runfile. /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile.RUN file in the current path.When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. CopyData(apParam[0]. strcat(runfile.RUN"). ModeRead. runfile. we then go to COMMANDS. 0). } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. strlen(runfile). erc = Chain(runfile. 1. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). acbParam[0]). acbParam[0]). ModeRead. syspath). erc = Chain(runfile. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. strlen(runfile).

0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ cbPath = 0. if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol."HELP. syspath[1] = ':'. sdisk += 0x41. strcpy(clipath. 1=B. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. strcpy(hlppath. strcat(syspath. strcat(clipath."CLI. 2=C etc.CLI").RUN"). strcat(hlppath. 24. InitScreen(FALSE). ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. JobNum). /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run./********************************************** Main function entry point.CLI"). 0). syspath). aPath. command file. 8). GetPath(JobNum. "%02d". &cbPath). if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1."COMMANDS. strcpy(cmdpath. i. fh. &iLine). syspath[2] = 0. and help file. syspath). sdisk &= 0x7F. SpawnTask(&StatTask. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). strcat(cmdpath. MMURTL V1. &StatStack[255]. "\\MMSYS\\"). } else { strcpy (aPath. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). 0. Note: No params to CLI. GetJobNum(&JobNum). syspath). j.0". SetXY(0. /* 0=A. iLine). SetJobName("CLI V1. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. syspath). erc = AllocExch(&StatExch).

switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). &iLine). if (!erc) MMURTL V1. cbCmd = 0. 79. &fh). SetXY(0. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. else erc = ErcBadParams. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). acbParam[1]. break. InitScreen(TRUE). if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). apParam[0] = 0. 1. TTYOut ("\r\n". ' '). case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. CmdNum = 0. &ExitChar. } i++. } fUpdatePath = 1. if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. SetExitJob(clipath.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . strlen(syspath)). aCmd[79] = 0. apParam[2]. acbParam[2]). paCmds[i]. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. strlen(clipath)). EDVID). acbParam[1]. cbCmd. TTYOut (">". 79. 2. acbParam[0] = 0.cbPath = strlen(syspath). 1. case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). break. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. break. break. NORMVID). GetXY(&iCol. } erc = 0. iLine). j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. &cbCmd. NORMVID). EditLine(aCmd. SetPath(syspath. 0.

0. acbParam[1]). if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. acbParam[1]). 0). break. cbCmd-i). break. } break. case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. aPath. break. break. break. break. 0. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. else erc = ErcBadParams. default: break. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. break. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0).\r\n"). break. 0. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). 0). GPExch. 4. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. 0. fUpdatePath = 1. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. MMURTL V1. break. 0. break. break. GPMsg). strlen(hlppath)). if (!erc) printf("Done. 1. acbParam[1]. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". acbParam[2]). &cbPath). case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). SetExitJob(clipath. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). 0. strlen(clipath)). ExitJob(0). &GPHndl.erc = DeleteFile(fh).0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . acbParam[1]). acbParam[1]. break. acbParam[1]). SetVidOwner(1). apParam[2].

if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). status and error display. The next 23 lines are the text editing area. The last line is used for data entry. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb. What's On the CD-ROM. SetXY(0.2. The top line provides continuous status information.80.23. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. current filename. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM.1.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line). Table 16.1).} CheckErc(erc).23). The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections. } GetXY(&iCol. See Appendix A.1. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. &iLine). Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands.

2.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 is the editor source code.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16. Listing 16.4 .Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.h> #include <string.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. Editor Source Code /* Edit. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.h" MMURTL V1.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.h> #include <ctype. Listing 16.

h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. }. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13].0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. *pBuf2. U32 iRowMax. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. char fOvertype. b1. char *apParam[13]. U32 iAttrNorm. U8 fVisible. U32 iAttrMark.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. long erc. U32 oBufBound. char aCmd[80]. char *pBuf1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. U32 sLine. long cbFilename.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. unsigned char b.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. char aStat1[80]. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. char fModified. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. U8 *pBufWork. U32 iTabNorm..sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. unsigned char filler[100]. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. U8 bSpace. /* sBuf . /* cursor. U32 iColMax. void clearbuf(void). U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. fh. char aStat[80].. 0. struct EditRecType EdRec.1 */ U32 iColMin. struct EditRecType *pEdit. 0. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. /* cursor.

%05d occured on SetFileLFA". erc). the file will be closed MMURTL V1. long erc) { char st[40]. erc). 0). "Error break. NORMVID). 40. case 6: sprintf(st. } return (erc). "Error break. PutVidChars (40. erc). } for (i=0. "Error break. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. "Error break. erc). i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. %05d occured on WriteBytes". "Error break. 0). If fPrompt is true. %05d occured on last command". case 5: sprintf(st. 39. i<40. erc). default: sprintf(st. erc). case 4: sprintf(st. 80. erc). st. } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. if (erc) { FillData(st. st. PutVidChars (0. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. If fClose. this will prompt you to save.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . %05d occured on ReadKbd". Beep(). case 2: sprintf(st. "Error break. erc).Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. case 3: sprintf(st. 24. FillData(st. "Error break. long i. %05d occured on OpenFile". case 7: sprintf(st. %05d occured on CreateFile". *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. %05d occured on SetFileSize". %05d occured on ReadBytes". 80. 24. STATVID). } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. "Error break.

if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. unsigned char *pBuff. keycode. 24). } fYes = 1. 10. WriteBytes (fh. pEdit->oBufLast)).. SetFileSize(fh. fh = 0. clearbuf(). STATVID). fModified = 0.. ClearStatus(). **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. ". "DONE. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. 0)). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. BLACK|BGCYAN). i <=pEdit->iBufMax. ClearStatus().and the buffer will be closed. cbFilename = 0. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. &i)). PutVidChars (0. SetXY(0. 1). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. ClearStatus(). 24. 43. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. SetFileLFA(fh. fYes. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. } } MMURTL V1. TTYOut("This file has been modified. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". pBuf1.0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . ReadKbd(&keycode. Sleep(150). pEdit->oBufLast. int fClose) { U32 i. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh).

filesize. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. cbFilename = strlen(Filename). EditLine(Filename.". } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). &dret). erc). 24).0). BLACK|BGWHITE). OpenFile(Filename. &fh)). &fh).24). if (!name) { SetXY(0. BLACK|BGCYAN)./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. ModeModify.24). MMURTL V1. else erc = 0. 60. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. SetXY(10. SetXY(50. 29. 0. "Filename: ". CreateFile(Filename. ReadKbd(&keycode.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1). Create?? (Y/N)". cbFilename. If not. strncpy(Filename. name. 26. PutVidChars (0. &b1. erc = 0. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. ReadKbd(&keycode. it will prompts to create. ModeModify. keycode. dret. BLACK|BGCYAN). cbFilename. cbFilename = 0. Beep(). SetXY(50. 1. /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). BLACK|BGCYAN). TTYOut("Doesn't exist. if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. &cbFilename. 13). 10. fh = 0. 0)). 24). pEdit->oBufLast = dret. 1. pBuf1. } else { b1=0x0d.24. SetXY(0. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. 1). cbFilename. &filesize). TTYOut("File is too large to edit.

i.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbFilename = 0. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. even though we word wrap always. *pBuff. return(nEols). nEols = 0. erc).if (erc) { fh = 0. iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. i = 0. } } else CheckErc(1. ClearStatus(). } } else { cbFilename = 0. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). unsigned char *pBuff. iEolMax. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window.

if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. /* now find first non-space . if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. j. if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR.. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. } } return(iEol). while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. i = 0.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1..0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS .1. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. iEol = iBuf. */ iEol = iEolMax. char *pBuff. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i.

iLn. return(j). } while (i < oBufStart). iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. iLn. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.iColStart +1. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. pEdit->iAttrNorm). } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.iColFinish. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . if (i) i++. pEdit->iAttrNorm). MMURTL V1. iColFinish . iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. iMarkLoc. pEdit->iColMax . PutVidAttrs (iColStart. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. iBoundLoc. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] .1. pEdit->iAttrMark). else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin.0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS .pEdit->Line[iLn]. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1.pEdit->Line[iLn].i--.pEdit->Line[iLn] . iColFinish. iLn. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark.

} return (fOK). if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. fModified = 1. cb). *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. pEdit->oBufInsert++. *pBuff.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS .iLn. pEdit->pBufWork. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. pEdit->oBufInsert++. Beep(). char fOvertype. char fOK. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. erc = 40400. CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. pEdit->iAttrNorm). CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. pEdit->sLine. } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. pEdit->oBufLast++. cb). } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . } } } else { fOK = 0.

iBd.pEdit->oBufInsert . MMURTL V1.1.iBd . i<=iMk .void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. iMk. char *pBuff.iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i].0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. iBd. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i]. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. for (i=0. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. *pBuffWork. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. for (i=0. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . pEdit->oBufInsert . if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark.iBd + iMk .1. } } } else Beep(). i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i].1. i<=iBd-iMk. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. i <=iBd-iMk. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk.

(hides it). if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. } } } else Beep(). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk.iMk + 1. *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLast+1). } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. iBd-iMk+1).char *pBuff.iMk + 1. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. pEdit->sLine. pEdit->oBufLast . pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . pEdit->iAttrNorm). *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. i. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. pBuffWork.pEdit->oBufInsert+1). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. MMURTL V1. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert].iMk.

i = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast .iBd + iMk . if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. &pBuff[iMk]. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. iMk. char fProb. } nullMarkBound (). } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). j.might be off screen . if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. char *pBuff. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert . while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. iBd.1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling).0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. else fProb = FALSE. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1].if it is. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.iBd + iMk.normAttr ().

oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. if prev char <> CR. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. j = pEdit->iLine. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. pEdit->iLine = i . is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* if bogus line. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. } i = pEdit->iLine. i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.is.pEdit->iColMin. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. } } MMURTL V1. i. j = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin.i++.1. /* get to potential insert . if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol .

*************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. MMURTL V1. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. j<NLINESMAX. cb. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. k = pEdit->iRowMax. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j].0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. else for (j=i+1. iLn. j. oBuf. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). i<=k. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. */ for (i = k. k. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1].

pEdit->sLine-cb. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. i<NLINESMAX. Called before use and after closure. cb. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. pEdit->iAttrNorm).char *pBuff. for (i=0. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. /* Make size. 0x20). pBuff+oBuf. 80. /* oBufInsert on screen . not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. pFiller.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. FillData(filler. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. iLn. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . doMark (iLn).oBuf + 1. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. char *pBuff.1.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. makeOnScreen (). iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. iLn. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. cb = i . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i = pEdit->iRowMin.

/* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. pEdit->oBufLast).0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . j. unsigned char b. normAttr (). char fSpecInsert. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufLast = 0. pEdit->iCol. char *pBuff. pEdit->iLine). if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07.fModified = 0. fDone = FALSE. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. fOvertype = FALSE. erc = AllocExch(&exch). pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. key. nullMarkBound(). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. 80."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". long exch. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. FillData(aStat. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. 0x20). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). for (i=0. *pBuffWork. fScreen = FALSE. sprintf(aStat. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. fScreen = TRUE. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. k. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. i. normAttr ().

i = pEdit->iLine. 3). fScreen = TRUE. b = key & 0xff. 0. PutVidChars (0. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . &aStat[77]. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++.Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. 80.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. TRUE). &aStat[77].CopyData(Filename. aStat. case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow .End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. fScreen = TRUE. 1)). break. STATVID). 3). else CopyData("INS". pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. break. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7.CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. cbFilename). } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. &aStat[40]. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . i = pEdit->iLine. coordCursor_oBuf (). coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. break. fSpecInsert = FALSE.Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. break. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1.Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". break. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. ReadKbd (&key.

i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. } break. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. break. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20.SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. break. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. } else { for (i=0. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . } break.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. case 0x53: /* ALT S . i = pEdit->iLine+1. FALSE). case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). TRUE). break. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. fDone = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0.pEdit->Line[i]. OpenAFile(0). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. break. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). } fScreen = TRUE. default: break.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE.

} } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). fSpecInsert))) Beep(). pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert).0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS .} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). pEdit->oBufLast+1).1. break.1. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. fOvertype. fScreen = TRUE. default: break. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . findCursor (). break. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. MMURTL V1. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . if (!(putInBuf (b. pBuffWork. if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace.

fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . } break.1. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. FALSE). } break. case 0x12: /* F4 -.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x11: /* F3 -. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x17: /* F9 .MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast . i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. FALSE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--.(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm).0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS .Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). break. case 0x06: /* Home . fModified = TRUE. j = pEdit->iTabNorm . } break. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). moveData (). for (i=1. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast .End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. i <=j.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x10: /* F2 -. fScreen = TRUE.1. MMURTL V1. break. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). fScreen = TRUE.1. if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--.

pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. } } break. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. j--. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. CopyIt (). pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. k--. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. coordCursor_oBuf (). i = pEdit->oBufLine0. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x18: /* F10 . break. i = pEdit->iRowMax. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. fScreen = TRUE. } break.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0.break. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. j = pEdit->iRowMax . k = pEdit->iLine.pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). break.COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k].

case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. } break. j = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. else fOvertype = TRUE. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). pBuffWork. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. } break. } break. pEdit->oBufLast--. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--.pEdit->iLine++. i = pEdit->iCol. fScreen = TRUE.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. pEdit->iLine = j. pEdit->oBufLast+1). case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. coordCursor_oBuf (). } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. } fScreen = TRUE. fModified = TRUE. } } break. pEdit->iCol = i. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). default: MMURTL V1. break. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++.

1. WriteBytes (fh. 131071. SetJobName("Editor". pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. erc = AllocPage(32. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. 23.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . i <=pEdit->iRowMax. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. pEdit->sLine+1. return. SetFileLFA(fh. fh = 0. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). pBuf2. &pBuf1). &i)).0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. erc = AllocPage(32. } *pbExitRet = b. i. pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit = &EdRec. and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. U8 *argv[]) { long i. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. FALSE. 0). fModified = 0. SetFileSize(fh. &pBuf2). 0. /*sBuf . ClrScr(). 79. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. } CloseFile(fh). 80. 6). } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin.break. pBuf1. 0x20.pEdit->oBufLast)). cbFilename = 0. 0)).

0.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. 0. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. 0. 0x20). 80. 4. i = pEdit->iRowMin. ExitJob(0). /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc.h> #include <string.3. 0. struct statRecC com.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv.. EMPTY. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler.h> #include <ctype.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232. 0. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . for (i=0. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. fModified = 0. fOvertype = FALSE.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. i. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). EDVID. Listing 16.sLine-1 */ cursor.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob. MMURTL V1. 0. i<NLINESMAX. EMPTY.. } Editor(&b).

RTimeOut). SetNormVid(NORMVID).Baudrate com. &i).IOBase). printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". &com. %d\r\n". ExitJob(erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). 0. com. NO_PAR.XBufSize). if (erc) { MMURTL V1. dnBlocks. = 8. printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". dOpNum. 0. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). ClrScr(). if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). dLBA.0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. ClrScr(). com. 64. erc). com. but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. com. we open the comms port */ /* device. %d\r\n". %d\r\n". */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". com. ExitJob(erc).parity = com. lastb. The structure is defined in commdrv. = 1. /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. 64). /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. com. CmdOpenC.IRQNum).RBufSize). } /* If device init went OK. } /* set the params in the block */ com. erc). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n").h */ erc = DeviceStat(6.XTimeOut). &com. %d\r\n". char fOK. ClrScr().databits com. /* View other params which we could set. %d\r\n". &i).stopbits = 9600.unsigned char b.

} } } MMURTL V1. CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. 1. erc).. ClrScr(). /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. ExitJob(erc).. dOpNum. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f.. CmdCloseC. 0. &b). ClrScr(). 0. ExitJob(erc). 0. NORMVID). dnBlocks. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". dnBlocks.SetNormVid(CLIVID). lastb = b. &b). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. break. NORMVID). } } else { /* device. default: break. 0. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". } } } } /* device. else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. erc). 0. dnBlocks. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. dOpNum. dLBA. SetNormVid(CLIVID). if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. erc = DeviceOp(6. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n".\r\n"). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. dOpNum. dLBA. 0.0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 1. */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. &b). CmdReadB. dLBA.. fOK = 1. /* This is it. &i). 0.

The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv. char name[80]. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No.2.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B . /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1. fBinary = 0. struct statRecL lpt. That's the intention of the design. Listing 16.Display the file while printing \F . NoFF = 0.h> <stdlib. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.h> <ctype.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSource\MTimer. FILE *f.4. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n .4 or 8) \D . (Compare DumbTerm and this program).h" "\OSSource\MVid. Send with no translations.h" "\OSSource\MJob.4.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1. col = 0.h" "\OSSource\MKbd. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. long long long long long tabstops = 4.h> <string. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device.h" "\OSSource\Parallel.h> <stdio. fDisplay = 0.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver.Binary print. In listing 16.

i < argc. break. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). i. printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). break. for(i=1. no FF\r\n\n"). printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). erck. argv[i]. char fdone. 8). case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1.No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. break. printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). Version 1. NO translation. exit(1). } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. break. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. printf("/B Binary print. case 'B' : /* BINARY . printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . *ptr.0\r\n"). exit(1).0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS .0x30. default: printf("Invalid switch"). name[0] = 0. SetJobName("Printing".Tab stop translation value\r\n").void main(long argc. unsigned char b. lastb. } MMURTL V1. 79). ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. cl. break.

lastb = b. b = 0. } else { MMURTL V1. &lastb). name). "r"). if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". ExitJob(erc). -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. erc). dnBlocks. 0. 0. &lpt. if (!f) { /* device. &i). CmdCloseLU. 64. we open the printer port */ /* device.0 1. } col = 0. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++.h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. dOpNum. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. } /* If device status went OK. cl = fgetc(f).. */ erc = DeviceStat(3.. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n"... i = 0. b = (cl & 0xff). } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. /* This is it. dLBA./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. CmdWriteB. dnBlocks. 0. erc). } printf("Printing %s . dLBA. &i).\r\n". The structure is defined in parallel. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. fdone = 0. &i). dOpNum. 0. CmdOpenL. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. ExitJob(erc). ExitJob(erc). */ f = fopen(name. name).

&i). %d\r\n". dOpNum. 0. -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. } } &b). 1. dLBA. CmdWriteB. " "). 0. col++. if (erc) MMURTL V1. CmdWriteB. dnBlocks. 0. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. break. /* device. CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. &lastb). erc). } while (col % tabstops). if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n".0 1. &b).switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. 1. break. b). "\f"). &b). lastb). 0). erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. 0. erc = 4. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). } fclose(f). } erc = DeviceOp(3. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. 0. 0. 1. case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. col = 0. col++. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". 1. erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdCloseL. 0. if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. /* reset */ break. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB.

h" "\OSSource\MVid. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. printf("Done\r\n"). and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. While this program is running. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl.” It has been expanded some. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2]. run the TestSvc. Error: %d\r\n".printf("Can't close LPT.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. keycode. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). long *pDataRet. ErrorToUser.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSource\MJob. ExitJob(erc). The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. MMURTL V1. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. Service.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. Listing 16.RUN program to exercise the service. erc).h> "\OSSource\MKernel. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service. “Systems Programming.5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service.

Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. MainExch). /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. ErrorToUser).\r\n"). } DeAllocExch(MainExch). ErcNoSuchSvc). Respond(pRqBlk. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . ClrScr(). /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). 0. 0). Message). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1.. 0. while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. } pRqBlk = Message[0]. 0. 0. 1. } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. &rqHndl. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. while (!CheckMsg(MainExch.\r\n". MainExch. 4.if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). &keycode. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". 1. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel).) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. NextNumber-1). OSError). *pDataRet = NextNumber++.\r\n"). printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK)..

\r\n". Also try it when the service is not running. TestSvc. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service. 4. Exch.h" unsigned long Number.6 exercises the sample system service listed previously.\r\n". void main(void) { unsigned long Error. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. 0. /* No Send ptrs */ &Number.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. 1. if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg. 0. Message). &rqhndl. Error = AllocExch(&Exch). 0. unsigned long Message[2]. Error).0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS .0. Listing 16. Error). /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. Number). You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. unsigned long Exch. Error = Request("NUMBERS ".6. Error).C Listing The program in listing 16. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1. } } DeAllocExch(Exch).\r\n".0).h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel. if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. Message[1]).\r\n". 0. rqhndl.\r\n". Execute this from a CLI while the service is running.

it ends up at physical and linear address 0.Chapter 17. Quite a few of them. In fact. but it is not used by the processor. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. All source files are located in one directory. I hope I’ve met this goal. MOSIDT. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. the human becomes a compiler of sorts.ASM . The caller cleans the stack in this convention. however. This is the first file in the source.ASM . sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. and used by the processor. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors..0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS .This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. This file should be left in the order I have it in.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. I just expend the time up front instead of later. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). common variables. as you look through the code. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion.This is also a table.). MOSGDT. which means its data will be at the lowest address.. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. It helps me think. use the stack just as a compiler would. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. In fact.This is the first assembler file that contains code.ASM . MOSPDR. You may find some of the source files rather large. Also some data is defined here. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules.ASM .This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor. There are also header files for the C source. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. MAIN. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. The GDT is 6K in size. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. MPublics.ASM . Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. and structures together. The ordering for MMURTL V1. By including the comments. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics.

The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. UASM.C . they must handle it themselves. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. how much to move. On the other hand.The simple parallel port driver is contained here. This is one complicated driver.ASM . This file has routines that handle DMA for you. It drives two channels. RS232.In many systems. It supports the 16550.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions.ASM . DevDrvr. RQBCode. It's not very pretty. IntCode.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer . I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either.ASM .This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system.C . You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. someday). Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service. NumCnvrt. DMACode.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. undoubtedly.C . HardIDE. You only need to know the channel. but can be modified for four. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa.ASM was one of the first files written.C . It think it still works with MFM drives.This file is the debugger disassembler. and the mode. MiscCode. Keyboard. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. is in this file.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC.ASM . Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea.ASM . Device driver writers will appreciate this. when a device driver writers need DMA. even in the earliest stages of a project. but it's effective and accurate.C are contained in this file.ASM . You have to see what you're doing. as well as port I/O support. Video. JobCode.ASM .C .the remainder of the modules is not as important. Floppy. you're on your own. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. Keyboard. but you never know where to put. FSys.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file.This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps).The code memory allocation.Request block management code is in this file. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled.ASM . Parallel.C .This is the file that collected all the little things that you need. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . JobC. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. SVCCode.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. and it works rather well.ASM . Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work.ASM .are in this file. if needed.ASM . Debugger.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() . Debugging a debugger is even less fun. If you have MFM drives. but I don't have any more to test it. MMURTL V1. I was surprised. MemCode.ASM .C . TmrCode.

All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file.5 minutes on a 486/33.0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS . Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table .BAT) will build the entire operating system.ASM . InitCode. Listing 17. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28.” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM.DATA .ASM . but it really isn't part of the operating system. CM32 (no switches needed).ASM .INCLUDE Video. You could replace quite easily. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces).INCLUDE MOSPDR. Assembler Template File .INCLUDE MOSGDT.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! . Except. Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files. Keyboard ISR and Service . Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.ASM . This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM. specify /E on the command line after the name. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL.1. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM.ASM . The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).ASM . a C source file and must be compiled first with . Indirect calling address table .Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.INCLUDE MAIN.INCLUDE MOSIDT. It provides a lot of the OS functionality. and the DASM assembler (also included). If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses.0 .ASM .Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. 6K) .5 Pages.Kernel. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. Video code and data MMURTL V1.ASM .C . Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. Main OS code and some data & START address . OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) . An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as .ASM .ASM . . DASM produces the operating system RUN file.C After all the C source files are compiled. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler.ATF It's truly that simple. Monitor. . An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor.INCLUDE MPublics. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28. /L on the command line after the name.The monitor program is contained in this file. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. If you want an error file.INCLUDE Keyboard. This takes about 1. Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. .This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions.

You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures.* . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular. you can take the file system code (FSYS.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .INCLUDE . CM32 packs all structure fields completely. . you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc. If your C compiler allows it.array.ASM Except.ASM .INCLUDE .ASM RS232.INCLUDE . .ASM Parallel. Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files.INCLUDE .ASM NumCnvrt.INCLUDE .. you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier).ASM MemCode. no doubt.ASM TmrCode. .ASM FSys. The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language.C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort.ASM RQBCode. CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding. and they will work fine. The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . For instance. you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack.ASM InitCode.INCLUDE .ASM IntCode.END Debugger. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.code and data. . code (string.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . .INCLUDE . As each piece of code is assembled. .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way. use another compiler for your project. .ASM JobCode. .ASM Monitor. .I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one.* .* . You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. .INCLUDE . In fact. The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.* :* .INCLUDE .ASM HardIDE.INCLUDE .ASM Kernel. .ASM DevDrvr.INCLUDE . MMURTL V1.ASM MiscCode. Otherwise. You will.ASM UASM. This is one thing you should watch.ASM JOBC.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .* . it is placed into the code segment in that order. The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location.ASM Floppy.INCLUDE .ASM DMACode. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.INCLUDE . .* . This is because DASM doesn't support structures. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies.INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. . .ASM SVCCode.

and kernel publics functions. local helper functions.ASM. the scheduler. These are things such as the task state segments. Listing 18. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives.1. Kernel data segment source .INCLUDE . The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 18. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes. two underscores will be prepended to the name. The bulk of them are in the file Main. a single underscore will be prepended to the name. For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables.INC DD 0 . the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). and memory management tables. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications.INCLUDE . Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations.1. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C).Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts).DATA .INC JOB. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). Being an old "structured" programmer. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. and offsets into structures and tables.Chapter 18. I think it will make more sense to you. These all change with respect to the task that is running. so I could get to them with the monitor program. The actual message handling functions.INC TSS. job control blocks.INCLUDE .INC RQB. internal public functions.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF.

if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages.Next <= NIL. OR EAX. OUTPUT : NONE . is coded in-line. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!).0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message.EAX .EDX. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used.EAX . The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice.FLAGS .EAX .Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. and exchanges. pointed to by the ESI register. This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange .2. which means interrupts must be cleared. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue.2. if . for example. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. It's not that the routines are called so often. See listing 18. and therefore. . This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.ESI. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. pLBin^. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. REGISTERS : EAX. JZ eqMsgDone . we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. link blocks. pExch => EAX. and if a task is waiting there. This is important. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: .MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1.. This is strictly a speed issue. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. In MMURTL. When a message is sent to an exchange. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. Listing 18. INPUT : ESI. 0 . . an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). XCHG ESI. 0 . . MODIFIES : EDX .CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange.

If not.[ESI+fEMsg] . OUTPUT : EAX . then MOV [EAX+EHead]. Listing 18. . Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . MOV [ESI+EHead].ESI . . . 1 .ESI .MsgHead <= pLBin. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone . if pLBout = NIL then Return. deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there. .ESI . See listing 18. .. No! (return 0) MOV EAX.EBX .[ESI+EHead] .MsgTail^.MsgTail <= pLBin.MsgHead^. OR EAX.msg.MsgHead <= .. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. but not both. If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it.MsgTail <= pLBin. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.. pLBout <= . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .ESI .4.Next. MOV EBX.ESI . EAX . If not.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EAX+NextLB] .JNE eqMNotNIL .ESI . De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: .NextLB <= pLBin. INPUT : ESI . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. you return NIL (0).ESI. If not. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX.. MOV EAX. ..3. exchanges can hold messages or tasks. You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there.. MOV [EAX+ETail]. REGISTERS : EAX. MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. deMsgDone: RETN .EBX. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.. Get Msg Flag OR EAX. As stated before. JZ deMsgDone .[EAX+ETail] . See listing 18.3. . EAX . MOV [EDX+NextLB]. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN .head and EBX .MsgHead. MMURTL V1. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. . 1 . MOV [EAX+ETail].FLAGS .

Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. EAX . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI .EBX . Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: . Priority => EAX. OR EAX.EBX .Next <= NIL.EAX . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS]. Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1. The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. JZ deTSSDone . . Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. pTSSout <= . OUTPUT : NONE . one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL. See listing 18. OUTPUT : EAX .4. REGISTERS : EAX. . .[ESI+fEMsg] . Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. OR EAX.Next. EBX JNZ deTSSDone . . 3 .FLAGS . You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. XOR EAX.TSSHead. 0 . .[ESI+EHead] .. INPUT : ESI .. JZ eqRdyDone .FLAGS . pTSSin^. MODIFIES : EAX. INPUT : EAX .TSSHead^.EBX.EBX. . . .. De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: .EBX.0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers. MODIFIES : EAX.[EAX+Priority] . in EBX XCHG EAX.[EAX+NextTSS] .5. pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. if pTSS = NIL then return.EAX .TSSHead <= .EDX . It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX.Listing 18. 0 .EDX.5.EBX . This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue. get the priority MOV BL. MOV [ESI+EHead]. Listing 18. if pTSSout = NIL then Return.EDX . This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. deTSSDone: RETN . This . register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI . algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority.RdyQ . XOR EBX. INC _nReady . REGISTERS : EAX.EBX .ESI. head & tail per QUEUE). MOV EBX.

INPUT : NONE . RETURN Otherwise. MMURTL V1.ECX deRdyDone: RETN .nPRI .[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS]. . then .sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. . REGISTERS : EAX. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX.RdyQ . . . Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. . . else . De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list.EBX.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. ...6. . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. If none is found.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].Head <= pTSSin.[EBX] OR EAX. . This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task .EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . . . The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list. If there was no task queued.FLAGS . Listing 18.Tail^.EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. MODIFIES : RdyQ . EAX is returned as NIL. IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ. . . .JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head].6. EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX]. this returns NIL (0). Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .Tail <= pTSSin.Tail <= pTSSin. . OUTPUT : EAX . MOV ECX.ECX. See listing 18. Keep in mind. . that 0 is the highest priority.. . . . queued on the RdyQ. . and 31 is the lowest. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. .NextTSS <= pTSSin..

is queued to run.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures.nPRI . IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . This why it's specified as PUBLIC.7. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. INPUT : NONE .EBX." See Listing 18. MODIFIES : RdyQ . Point to the next Priority Queue .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed.FLAGS . They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation. .0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EBX] OR EAX. . . MOV ECX.7. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX. but someone's got to it. Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. without actually removing it from the queue. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job.ECX.8. It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. . They are located in Kernel. Listing 18. "It's a nasty job.RdyQ . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. REGISTERS : EAX. See listing 18. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue . Get pTSSout in EAX . This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . .8. This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. . . OUTPUT : EAX . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX.sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN .ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. . check the next priority. Listing 18. This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. EAX is returned as NIL. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . If there was no task queued. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB.

Next <= pFreeTSS. . EDI OR EAX. Fix link in Queue list . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . EDI ADD EBX. Point to the next Priority Queue . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . OUTPUT : NONE . All done (clean stack) . . pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. 0 . . RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . PUSH EBP .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI.sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. Procedureal Interface : . POP EBX MOV EAX. Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . EDI PUSH EBX . .EBX .0 . Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS .RdyQ . Is it Zero? . MOV EBP.nPRI . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . . EAX OR EAX. No MOV EDI. MODIFIES : RdyQ . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . a job. No error . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head].ESP . Make EAX point to new head TSS . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. .pFreeTSS . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . ..EAX . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . INC _nTSSLeft . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. . pTSSin^. MOV [EAX+NextTSS].EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. deQueue the TSS . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL .Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. Yes.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. MOV ECX.

This function is used with the next one. . [EAX+NextTSS] . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. . SetExchOwner(). . . ESI PUSH EBX .0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS .Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.Jump the removed link .Next <= pFreeTSS.This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. 0 . This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. . [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . .EDI points to prev TSS . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated.Yes. back to check next at head of list . . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI. EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . INC _nTSSLeft . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX.EBX . Next TSS . POP . These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin.Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. .EAX points to crnt TSS . .9. Trash it. deQueue the TSS .pFreeTSS .Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . No.9. .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . This is not so if it's for a new job.JMP RemRdy0 . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. . Yes. pTSSin^. Listing 18. See listing 18. OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program.EAX . . . A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. Next Queue please . Finding the owner of an exchange .

sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. .10. is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. . . .EAX MOV EAX. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . See listing 18. EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). mentioned previously. pJCBRet the exchange number. .prgExch ADD EDX. . No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch. MMURTL V1. EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. .ESP MOV EAX. No. . .ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. . . pJCBRet . Listing 18.. . . Exch . .nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. EAX XOR EAX. . Changing the owner of an exchange . [EBP+12] CMP EAX. Valid Exch (Allocated) . not allocated .0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. . SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. continue Yes. . EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX.10. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). . . [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. Exch is . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. . . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . .

11. . .ESP MOV ESI. . the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services.nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. . .. . Listing 18. .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX.prgExch ADD EAX. .EDX MOV EBX. . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). . . pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. The error it returns is of no consequence. . . If a program sent a request. Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . . . [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. Notifying services of a job’s demise . . telling them that a particular job has died. See listing 18. Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. . . . SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. . other services. . It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message.11. or the operating system itself. then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior.ESP MOV EAX. . . . EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. If a service is holding a request from the job that died.0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. EBX XOR EAX. . . We ignore the kernel errors. . Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . Get the address of rgSVC . [EBP+12] MOV EDX. Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX.

asm. The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS .cbData0 PUSH 0 .JobNum PUSH EAX . except this function requires several more parameters. [EBP+8] . 0 JE SAB05 . . A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it. Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model. EAX MOV ESP.dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . next service PUSH ESI . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.pName PUSH 0 . [EBP+12] . Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates.CMP DWORD PTR [ESI]. The function that searches the array is GetExchange().dData1 PUSH 0 .dData0 PUSH 0 .Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI . Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . .cbData1 MOV EAX.pData0 PUSH 0 . Valid name? .pHandleRet PUSH 0 .npSend PUSH 0 . Request kernel primitive code . sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX.Abort Service Code MOV EAX. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel.12.pData1 PUSH 0 . wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1. . See listing 18.Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI. These are functions such as GetPriority().12. Listing 18. Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive.Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . NO. A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. The procedural interface to Request looks like this: .Next Service name . These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate.Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . and code for it is in the file SVCCode.

ErcNoMoreRqBlks .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX..put . . dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.put . return error Req02: .Get . . .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX. .Get . . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX. AX MOV [EBX+RespExch]. Set up New FramePtr . [EBP+56] .Put . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1].No JMP ReqEnd . EAX MOV EAX. Save the Previous FramePtr . Req04: .EDX still has the response exchange . .Validate exchange MOV EDX. .Put . .put . [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. EAX .ESP . EAX MOV EAX.ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0].ESI still has the exchange for the service . continue Yes..EAX .put . . [EBP+48] CMP EDX.Get . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch].0 . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2].EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.EBX . ..put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- .pServiceName CALL GetExchange . .Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 .Yes. Error in EAX register . .Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB . . EAX MOV EAX.No.EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. EAX MOV EAX.Get . ESI MOV EAX. Sorry.Get .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX. EAX MMURTL V1. JMP ReqEnd . .Put .Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No.Yes.Get .

[EBP+40] CMP EAX. . CL . [EBP+44] MOV [EDI].Next .Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) .ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB. No interruptions from here on .Get pData2 . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB].EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX. .EDX . AL CL. .pFreeLB OR EAX. . [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2].ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. .Must be 2 or less .prgExch EAX.Put npRecv in RqBlk .0 . 0 . . EBX . EAX MOV EAX. RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi]. 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend]. .REQLB . . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . .The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it.At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.Give it to them .The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .put in RqBlk . sEXCH EDX EDX. pLB^.. EAX MOV EAX.Leave in CL . . EAX <= pFreeLB.Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. AL [EBX+npRecv].Get cbData2 . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2]. . . .MOV EAX.EAX .Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.Next <= NIL. EBX MOV EDX. . .Data PUSH EAX .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI.EDX ESI.ESI EDX.ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.put in RqBlk . 2 CL. EAX MOV EAX. pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. 0 . DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1].put in RqBlk .EBX DEC _nLBLeft .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX. Save pLB on the stack . Store zero in upper half of pLB^. .Number of Send PbCbs . Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. MOV [EAX+DataLo]..Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk .Get cbData1 .Ptr to return handle to .

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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return to the caller with error MOV EAX.ercNoMsg MOV ESP. message should be sent.ESP . . If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. CheckMsg(exch. . MOV EDX.ChkExchange . A result code is returned in the EAX register.nExch .ercOutOfRange .EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. 0 . the return to caller with error MOV EAX.EDX .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . Procedureal Interface : . CheckMsg kernel primitive code . return with erc no msg .sEXCH . in the EAX register. Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner].We can be interrupted again . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . .EBP .0 -270- .18. Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. .ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories. in the EAX register. POP EBP . Chk01: MOV EAX. . PUSH EBP . See listing 18. Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . . As with WaitMsg().prgExch . .pdqMsg):ercType . . . . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 .REQLB MMURTL V1. MOV ESI. . CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. . Listing 18.18.ESI . . MOV ESI.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. RETF 8 . MOV EBP. . MOV ESP. Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return . pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. .EAX .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated.

. .JNE Chk04 .Yes .is cbData1 0? .Offset to pData2 in RqBlk .Return Error. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. ..Error?? . Get pRqBlk into EBX .Now we set up to alias the memory for the service . (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) . [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX. continue . continue .Restore ptr to Link Block .is pData1 NULL? .Yes .is pData2 NULL? . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.Return Error.Set up params for AliasMem .Make stack right .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.No.Make stack right . No. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.cbMem .pLB.Save again .. EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.Yes . dJobNum. . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP.Second Pointer (pData2) . Treat it as a data link block . Save ptr to Link Block .Error?? .Set up params for AliasMem . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX.Yes .dJobNum . ._AliasMem(pMem.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX. EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. dcbMem.is cbData2 0? .0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX.pMem .cbMem .dJobNum . .. . MMURTL V1.pMem . EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.Linear Address of pData1 .[EAX+DataLo] . .[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX.Offset to pData1 in RqBlk . pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.Linear Address of PData1 .No. . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX. Get pRqBlk into EBX ..

EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . In future versions.EAX MOV ESP. . See listing 18.19. or page fault. NewTask kernel primitive code .pCkMessage [EDX].19. . . .ESP MOV EDX.Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] . Exch.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1.EAX . For MMURTL version 1.Restore Ptr to Link Block . . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. CodeSeg. . The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs.Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code.8 for OS. ESP. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. .ErcOK! (0) .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. pLBin^. STI .pFreeLB .Next <= pFreeLB.[EAX+DataLo] ECX. Get pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX) .Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] .Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EIP): dErcRet . . .Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] .[EAX+DataHi] EDX.x. pFreeLB <= pLBin. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation.EBX [EDX+4]. NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter. MOV [EAX+NextLB]. NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] . Procedural interface: . 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] . . Priority. XOR EAX. NewTask(JobNum. .0 . The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection. MOV pFreeLB. INC _nLBLeft .ECX . The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.EBX . This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in. Listing 18. .Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . . fDebug.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX.

Restore pNewTSS to EAX .Set up to call LinToPhy .ECX MOV EBX.ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX. ECX. NTS_Exch ECX.Save pNewTSS .CX . 0 MMURTL V1.No.Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.EBX EBX.mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS].Save pNewTSS again . . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg. ECX. NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.EBX . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.JBE NT0000 MOV EAX.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI .. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].Exch in range? PUSH EAX .Next . NTS_CS . nExch NT0001 EAX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can .Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .Put pJCB into TSS .ercOutOfRange NTEnd .0202h . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS..Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch].Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 .EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].0 .Set up to call GetpJCB . .DL .EAX now has pJCB .ECX now has pJCB .pNewTSS into EAX . . .EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.pFreeTSS OR EAX.mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP]. . ECX . .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP].[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.we can't be interrupted . NTS_EIP . NTS_ESP .

[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.BL . .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX. 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. dPriority. See listing 18.EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it. . Listing 18. .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority]. fDebug. fOSCode).No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].ercOk JMP NTEnd .New TSS -> EAX .pRunTSS . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .Get priority of new task CLI . pStack.0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .CrntTSS -> EAX.ErcOk MMURTL V1.EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space.Move new TSS into pRunTSS . . SpawnTask(pEntry.20. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. .Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 . . .We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.EAX . New TSS -> EDX .JE NT0004 . pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] .20. NTS_Pri .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX. As with NewTask(). Procedural Interface: . . SpawnTask kernel primitive code .Save time of this switch for scheduler .Jump to new TSS .Yes .EAX MOV BX. . .Save New TSS .

0 .EBX MOV EBX. .two local DWORD vars . 8 CMP dPriST. EAX .mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].Yup. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .Allocate exchange .Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS . pRunTSS MOV EDX. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].see if we got an error . NewTSSST.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS. .Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX. EAX JNZ STEnd . JobCodeSel . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. 0 .EBX MOV EBX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. .we can't be interrupted .Priority OK? . [EBX+TSS_CR3] . pStackST .0202h .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.EAX JNZ ST0002 STI . OSCodeSel .ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX.EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. . .ESP SUB ESP.Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST..pEntryST .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.EDX MOV EDX. .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. 1 .pFreeTSS OR EAX.ercNoMoreTSSs . JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.EDX .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.Next .Save new TSS EBX.. nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX. .No. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^. NewExchST . bad news .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 .mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch].PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

mov priority into BL . 0 MMURTL V1. .ErcOk .Who got the highest Pri? . It is property of a Job (not a task).ESI MOV EBX.CrntTSS -> EAX. Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .put in TSS .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages.New TSS -> Stack . .Old guy does. EBX <= ADR rgExch .EAX MOV BX.If crnt >. . .EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX.pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority].Save time of this switch for scheduler .nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. New TSS -> EDX .Return to caller . Allocate exchange code .Move new TSS into pRunTSS .21. dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority]. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . Procedural Interface : .BL CLI MOV EDX. .we can't be interrupted . .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . returned.Jump to new TSS . AllocExch(pExchRet):dError .prgExch MOV ECX. .ercOk .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. Listing 18. .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.21.EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() .Get who's running . New guy does (lowest num) . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. Zero the Exch Index . .ESP XOR ESI. .MOV EBX. just put new guy on Q. . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES). Get number of exchanges in ECX . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.New TSS -> EAX .Place crnt TSS on Q .EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. See listing 18. . .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX. . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange.

.pRunTSS EBX.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. TSSs.22.0 .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. . .[EBP+0CH] EAX. Procedural Interface : .EAX .ESI EDX. .ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI.ESI . . . however. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX. MMURTL V1. . . .JE AE001 ADD EBX. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. Deallocate exchange code .EDX ECX. POP EBP . . . . . JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX.0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. Those link blocks may also contain requests. it may have left over link blocks hanging on it. RETF 4 . . Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. This function has a lot more to do. Make the Exch owner the Job STI .EAX EDX. Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector.EAX . See listing 18. . When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. DEC _nEXCHLeft .22. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner].EDX . Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange.prgExch EAX. .0 . Messages are deQueued. . Stats XOR EAX. . DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType .[EBP+0CH] . and link blocks. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. .sEXCH EDX EDX. . If we found a Free Exch.EBP . . and request blocks are freed up as necessary. . Listing 18.ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. . .sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX.ercOK (0) MOV ESP.pRunTSS .[EAX+Owner] EBX.

0 . .EAX . MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. Stats STI .JE DE000 CMP EBX.Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX.0 .with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will .pFreeLB . EAX JZ DE002 . XOR EAX.ercOK (0) MOV ESP. Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. if not owner.EAX . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. Free up the exchange. These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. . Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. INC _nTSSLeft .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . Reset msg Flag. INC _nEXCHLeft . RETF 4 . DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead].EBX .EBP . yes . ECX . . INC _nLBLeft . JMP DE000 . pFreeLB <= pLBin.Next <= pFreeLB. Go free the Exch. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. Go And Check for more. is this the OS??? . yes .pFreeTSS . . MOV pFreeLB. No. JMP DE001 . Go And Check for more. Nothing there. GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. 0 . POP EBP . MMURTL V1. . NIL = Empty. OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. CLI . 0 . See if a message may be queued JE DE001 .0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. Yes. CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. JUMP MOV ESI.23. 0 .EAX . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. pTSSin^.instructions or a service crashes! .only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow .Next <= pFreeTSS.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. pLBin^.EBX .ercNotOwner MOV ESP. See listing 18. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . Get the TSS off of the Exchange . ECX .

POP EBP . . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . EAX . . . EAX . Procedural Interface : . See listing 18. This doesn't really affect the kernel.This sets the priority of the task that called it . . MOV EBP.[EBP+0CH] . SetPriority . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. . ErcOK .pRunTSS .pRunTSS .ESP . . PUSH EBP . MMURTL V1. MOV EAX. Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. PUBLIC __SetPriority . . [EAX+TSS_Exch] . BL . bPriority is a byte with the new priority. SetPriority(bPriority):dError .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBX . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . 01Fh .[EBP+0CH] . Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX.Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. .ESP . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task.Listing 18. MOV EAX. Set priority code .24. If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority.24 Listing 18. MOV EBP. PUSH EBP . RETF 4 . . . Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. to the priority specified in the single parameter. returned. The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . Procedural Interface : .23. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. GetTSS exchange code .No error. ErcOK POP EBP .

ErcOK POP EBP . MMURTL V1. PUBLIC __GetPriority . bPriorityret is a pointer to a . Get the MOV DL. . . MOV EAX. Procedural Interface : . . See listing 18.GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. DL . XOR EAX. priority returned. SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError .pRunTSS . Get the MOV EBX. PUSH EBP . Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over.25. the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error.0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 18.[EBP+0CH] . GetPriority . . MOV EBP. . RETF 4 . EAX .This gets the priority of . and passes it to bPriorityRet.25. . Get priority code .ESP . BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX].

Memory management constants and data . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT . As with all assembler files for DASM.System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections. I call these internal support code. The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.ASM.Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .Max is 2048 (64Mb) .0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 19. The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code. Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode. MMURTL V1. It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.Page Allocation Map .CODE command. 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU . Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).2048 bytes = 64Mb . page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs).INCLUDE MOSEDF.INCLUDE TSS. I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code. the code section must start with the . Listing 19. The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .Number of free physical pages left .INC .INC .Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt .INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h .Default to 1 MB .1 bit/4Kbytes . The task state segments are also used extensively.in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language.We alloc the "next" page table .User Writable (Data) .DATA .1.INCLUDE JOB.Chapter 19.User Readable (Code) .User Writable .

Set it to zero intially . Its the law! Listing 19.Increase PAM by another meg . by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.1FFFFCh XOR EBX.IN: .Another megs worth of pages .Are we above 64 megs .Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX]. in megabytes. neither of which you consider free. which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh). 32 CMP EAX. .2.EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .3 ADD EAX.3. PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED. 256 ADD sPAM. EAX .06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.100000h ADD _nPagesFree.ECX MOV EBX.InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree. It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax. oMemMax must be last byte . EAX CALL MarkPage .Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed. EAX . you have.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.top of 2 megs (for DWORD) . 0FFFFF000h .Move in test string . Listing 19.0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].Yes! . Continuation of memory management init.2.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].Supervisor.Yes.NO! . OFFSET pTbl1 .Read test string into EBX . Now you must fill in bits used by OS.See if we got it back OK . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX.OUT: .Make it the last DWord again .Set oMemMax . Present MOV EBX. MOV EDX. See listing 19. The code in listing 19.3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data.'mrtl' test string value for memory .1 Mb of pages = 256 . 4 .ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX. .3 MOV _oMemMax. We assume 1MB to start. and makes PTEs.EBX MOV ECX. which was just loaded. 256 MOV EAX.USED: .Next Meg .EAX SUB EAX. 0001h . Memory management initialization code .EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have. .Next table entry MMURTL V1.

30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 .No. 100000h . Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used. The routine in listing 19. and then writing it again.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . such as the 82C30 C&T.6.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) .Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . 80000000h . EAX . 0FFFFF000h . This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. 4 .EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. EAX.Set paging bit ON CR0.Next PTE entry ADD EAX.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.Physical address of OS page directory CR3.Next page please CMP EAX. See listing 19. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh.5. CR0 . OFFSET PDir1 .Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. See listing 19.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. go back for more .Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. EDX. IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX].Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. Now we can go into paged memory mode. EAX . Listing 19. EBX.4.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. then reading CR0. EBX. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses. C0000h –FFFFFh. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM. but I can't be sure everyone can do it. ANDing it with 8000000h.Get Control Reg 0 EAX.Store in Control Reg 3 EAX. Continuation of memory management init. Several chip sets on the market. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX . EAX . 4096 . nor can I provide instructions to everyone.Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage .Make it index (SHR 12. 4096 EAX. .1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . SHL 2) . Turning on paged memory management EAX. EDX. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM. The initial page directory and the page table are static. 0101b .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. Listing 19. which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . EAX .5.Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 .

.7.OUT : . OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX.8. FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller.Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch . Allocation of memory management exchange .no memory left. Listing 19.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.7. OFFSET pNextPT . Of course. I'm afraid. assuming that you will allocate it. or 0 if error EBX. MemExch . PUSH 1 . This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated. 0 . MMURTL V1. this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD.IN : .0FFh . See listing 19.Page Allocation Map .All 8 pages used? FHP2 . See listing 19. .Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn .0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .No EAX.Listing 19. It also marks the page as used.. Finishing memory management init. sPAM DEC EAX .Where we are in PAM . This reduces nPagesFree by one. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage . Find highest physical page code . 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. Get 'em! RETN . Listing 19.6. LEA EAX. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Done initializing memory managment .EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].8.

0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX. . . or 0 if error EBX.Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .9.\ Listing 19. It also marks the page as used.Back for next byte . EDX MOV DL.9.Add page number in byte .. EAX .Set page in use .IN : .DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX.. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX. .Next bit .Another Byte lower .At the bottom of the Byte? . 3 ADD EBX.Error (BAD CPU???) . This reduces nPagesFree by one. sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .Another Byte lower .Page Allocation Map . if we call FindLoPage and don't use it. 7 XOR EDX.0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. we must call UnMarkPage to release it.Are we past at TOP of PAM? . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX.Test bits . OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 .OUT : .no memory left. Once again.FOUND ONE! (goto found) .One less available .Get the byte with a whole in it.No .Start at first byte in PAM ..All 8 pages used? . Find lowest physical page code . DL SHL EAX. assuming that you will allocate it.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. EBX FHPf EBX. EAX SHL EBX. See listing 19.Set the bit indexed by EBX . .. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .

EAX SHL EBX. EDX MOV DL. EBX SHR ECX. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX.Add page number in byte ... 8 FLPn FLP3 .Test bits .10. DL . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. [EAX+ECX] . 15 . This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.Error (BAD CPU???) .Get the byte into DL BTS EDX.Set the bit indexed by EBX . OFFSET rgPAM . Listing 19. This reduces nPagesFree by one.Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].XOR EBX. .End of the Byte? .One less available . .10.BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX].FOUND ONE! (goto found) .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL.Set page in use .Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree . See listing 19.Next bit . EBX .0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0FFFFF000h . 07h . DL SHL EAX. MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .Get the byte with a whole in it.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX. 3 ADD EBX. Code to mark a physical page in use .IN : . EBX XOR EDX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX. 12 .Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address. EBX FLPf EBX EBX.Page Allocation Map AND EBX.OUT : . . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX.

Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. [EAX] BTR EDX. This function supports the similarly named public routine. 12 AND EBX. EBX MOV [EAX].OUT : . EFlags . See listing 19. USED: EAX. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1. This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.12. This increases nPagesFree by one. EBX -.BitReset instruction .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX.Physical Address .ECX is now byte offset into PAM . . . DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.Page Allocation Map .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM .Linear Address of PTE for this linear address .12.11. Listing 19.Linear address .IN : .POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address. 07h ADD EAX. See listing 19. . Code to free a physical page for reuse . Listing 19. . ESI. EBX SHR ECX. .0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS . The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. DMA operations.11. OUTPUT: EAX -. INPUT: EAX -. etc. 15 SHR EBX. ECX MOV DL.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages. EBX. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . ESI -.Round down to page modulo .

[EBX] AND EAX.Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset .Save Linear . the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. 22 SHL EBX.Copy number of pages to ECX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .mask off lower 12 . 2048 SHR EBX.*4 makes it byte offset in PT . See listing 19. 2 ADD EBX.Save this address for caller . USED: EAX. EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI. This is either at address base 0 for the operating system. Save in EBX . EBX . EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI .13.Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX. 12 SHL EBX. EBX MOV EDX.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . IN : EAX . 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. Listing 19. The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX.0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX now points to Page Table entry! . The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory. .Get rid of upper 10 bits . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS.Physical base of page is in EAX .EAX now has ptr to PD! .EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables.Keeps count of how many free found so far .get rid of lower 12 to make it an index . EBX MOV EAX. 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1. or the 1Gb address mark for the user.Move to shadow addresses in PD .ESI now has ptr to PD .EBX/EAX now points to shadow .EAX now has Linear of Page Table . This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing.13. 00000FFFh OR EAX. .Index into shadow addresses from EAX .Index into PD for PT we are working on . . .Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. in which case we return 0.Save it again . 003FFFFFh SHR EBX. OUT: EAX .Get original linear back in EBX . EBX RETN FindRun .Leaves pJCB in EAX . EAX MOV EAX. Code to find a free run of linear memory . EBX .*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow . 2 ADD EBX.Get original linear . .Address of PD saved here . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX. EAX MOV ESI. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.

Times size of page (* 4096) .Not empty.EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .Yes.This is the linear address we ended at . . EBX .The starting linear address is equal to number of the last .If . FR1: XOR EAX.Are we past last PTE of this PT? . 22 SHL EAX.From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX . .Next PT! . Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed.Zero means it's .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 .Not done yet.In use . and the count of pages should be in EBX.If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . SHL EDX.go INC MOV JMP FROK: . .EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. or tables.empty (available) .Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 . EDI . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system. .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . 12 SUB EAX.EBX still has count of pages. 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . Next PTE Please. .PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . The linear address of the run should be in EAX. . 12 OR EAX. next PTE please ECX.We found enough entries goto OK . while EAX was index into PT. EAX. See listing 19.Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 .MOV EDI. The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add.we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. . EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.No. if the run spans two or more tables.Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .14. This is the way FindRun left them. keep testing .EAX is next 10 bits of LA . Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection.One more empty one! . .EDX was index into PD.One less page (0 offset) . . . [ESI+EDX*4] . EAX . go for it XOR EAX. EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4].

.ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) .then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .and OR in the appropriate control bits.Offset to shadow address of PD . CMP EDX.Make it index to DWORDS . Adding a run of linear memory . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). EAX AND EDX. . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. . go do next PTE ADD ESI.Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX.Restore linear address .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .Set PTE to present. [ESI] . EDX. 4 .Get index into PD for first PT .Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS . MEMSYS CMP EAX. IN : .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) .(save for caller) .14.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . ARDone: MMURTL V1. .Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 . [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. EBX EAX 22 2 .Yes.Next PTE please. AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. EBX .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . User ReadOnly .LinAdd to EDX . .EDX . next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX. .LinAdd into EDX again . . . . . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. 4096 .No.See if it's a user page . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX. EDI is pointing the next PT.Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX. EDX. OUT: . THEN store it in PT. USED: . 2048 ADD ESI.Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . 4 .0 .ESI now has ptr to PD! . EDX.Listing 19. 10 AR0: MOV EDI.At this point. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX. EDX MOV EDX.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX .

15. this is the way FindRun left them. The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. EBX EAX 22 2 .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .Make it index to DWORDS .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . . Listing 19. IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. . if the run spans two or more tables . .POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun .or tables. Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. OUT: Nothing . 8 MOV AliasLin. USED: EAX. . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . Once again. and the count of pages should be in EBX. ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) .adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries.LinAdd to EDX .Get index into PD for first PT . .15. AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . ESI MOV AliasJob. .This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . . See listing 19. AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table . .we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX. . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . EDX. EFlags . EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI .ESP SUB ESP. EDX.(save for caller) . EBX Number of Pages to alias . (from find run) .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). . EDX.ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. .

ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) .Set system bits as ALIAS . 0FFFFF000h OR EAX. 003FF000h SHR EDX.At this point. EDX MOV EDX.LinAdd into EDX again . to get a physical address into EAX. .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) .Offset to shadow addresses in PD .Set up for next loop (post increment) .Are we done?? .Job we are aliasing . .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .No.ESI now points to first PT of interest .POP EAX ADD ESI.Start at the entry 0 of next PT . AliasJob MOV EBX. . . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX.Yes.Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum . MOV ESP. . . .EDX is index to exact entry .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . . . .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1.This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE.Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . AND EAX. AliasLin ADD AliasLin.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . next PDE (to get next PT) . 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI.EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . go do next PTE . 2048 ADD ESI. EDI is pointing to the PT we are in. .Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].Restore linear address .EAX now has physical address for this page . .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4 XOR EDX. 4 CMP EDX. 10 ALR0: MOV EDI. [ESI] .cut off system bits of PTE .Next PTE please.Address we are aliasing . MEMALIAS POP ESI . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . EAX AND EDX.mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT.

EBX .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table.pJCB in EAX . initializes it.no free phy pages!) . . out of physical mem . This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. . because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV ESI.16. [EDI] ADD ESI. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . and sticks it in the user's page directory. [ESI] OR EBX. AddUserPT: PUSH EBX .Sorry. Listing 19.Linear add back into EBX . See listing 19.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . Next possible empty entry . PUSH ESI . 4 MOV EBX.ESI now points to PD . USED: EAX.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .Offset to PcbPD in JCB .EAX will have Physical address . This is easier than AddOSPT.Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code. . JcbPD ADD EDI. 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI.Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. MEMUSERD [ESI].16. Adding a page table for user memory . EAX ESI.Set user bits (Read/Write) . IN : Nothing .Move to shadow . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX. 2048 EBX. . EFlags . pNextPT [ESI]. .EDI points to UserPD Address .Physical address in lower half . This will be in user address space above 1GB. ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. as shown in the following.See if have enuf physical memory . PUSH EDX . No! (Try again) . Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. 2048 MOV ECX. Is it empty? . EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . PUSH EDI . MOV EAX. _nPagesFree OR EAX. Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow).

EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX.AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running.0 .17.Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for .save pNextPT (the linear address) .EAX will have Physical address . 1 MOV EBX.no free phy pages!) .17. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . in many cases. 511 MMURTL V1. EFlags . . .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . See listing 19. IN : Nothing . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. PUSH EDX . PUSH ESI . Adding an operating system page table .. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow). . Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. . MOV EAX.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .size of request . Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 XOR EAX. _nPagesFree OR EAX.was there an error (0 means no mem) . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. Find first empty slot MOV ESI.next time.OS Job Number (Monitor) . . out of physical mem . . USED: EAX. EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX.Sorry. . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . ESI points to OS Pdir . Listing 19. .See if have enuf physical memory . You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . PUSH EDI .

Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) . 4 MOV EBX.Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX. The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) .0 . EAX ADD ESI. . Is it empty? . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir .Save values on stack MOV EDX. JcbPD MOV EBX.EAX now has pointer to a job's PD .Set present bit . . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. .Physical address in lower half .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) .Move to shadow . Next possible empty entry .Source of Copy . 2048 MOV EBX.Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX .AOPT02: ADD ESI.Next JCB .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX . Get back JCB number . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI]. EBX . # of dynamic JCBs . . .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.Get values from stack ADD EBX.Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX. ESI EAX Get and . [ESI] OR EBX. ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all.Linear add back into EBX . .Destination 1024 . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX.No.Source EAX . 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1. 2048 . Not a valid JCB (unused) .Save nJCB we are on . pNextPT MOV [ESI]. 2048 .

ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . ESI.AddRun . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) .was there an error (0 means no mem) . allowing access to OS procedures. . .. .next time. EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) .Set ErcOK (0) . Listing 19. Adding a call gate to the GDT . See listing 19. DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . . The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition.We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . 1 XOR EAX. EFLAGS MMURTL V1. . Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate.18. .18. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. USES: EAX. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar.At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . IN: AX .save pNextPT (the linear address) . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) .size of request . EBX. ECX. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. . . . OUT: EAX Returns Errors. else 0 if all's well .0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined.

make index vice selector CMP EBX. . 16 . the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. ECX. or task gate. GDTBase . SI .not too low. . AX . EDX. CX . for a task gate. 40h . . Listing 19. 8 . 40 . EBX.sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. AX SHR EAX.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX].0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap.Put Gate ID into gate . AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. .Extend INT Num into EDX . 3 .call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX.Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. IN: .No.see if too high! JBE AddCG02 .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. USES: AX . nCallGates . 3 ADD EDX. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX. EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX. ercBadGateNum . See listing 19. Adding entries to the IDT .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . . RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX.Put Offset 31:16 into gate .19. .Yes.19.EDX now points to gate . .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 . . SI . BX MMURTL V1. .0 .Put Offset 15:00 into gate . The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap. CX SHL EDX. .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . AX MOV EAX.Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. CX SUB EBX.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . .Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) . MOV EAX. MOV EAX. EAX . ESI. .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. interrupt. OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4].

PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.20.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS .Sorry boss.Yes .ppMemRet): dError . The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree. . pRunTSS ADD EAX.More than 0? . AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage. . Listing 19.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. This allows runs to span table entries. Allocating a page of linear memory . n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] .n4KPages XOR EAX.(0 = No Runs big enuf) . . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.n4KPages EAX.No Error! EAX.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space. Procedureal Interface : . we're maxed out EAX. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit .EAX ALOSP00 EAX.Yes! Serious problem.20.size of request .size of request . EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 . _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX. Allocate each physical page.These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] . .See if have enuf physical memory . See listing 19.0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX. AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate. . If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request. The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. . A result code is returned in the EAX register. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory.Yes .Can't be zero! .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Kernel Error?? .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . but not close enough to easily combine their code. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.RETF .

. The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. . This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around.21. ppAliasRet): dError .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: .Add a new page table (we need it!) .0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS .dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] . PUSH EAX . Exit. EAX .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . Listing 19. AliasMem(pMem. ppMemRet . . . dJobNum. .Save last error PUSH MemExch .No error ALOSPExit: .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed.Go back & try again .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. Code to alias memory . .CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. POP EAX . . .See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) . Even if the address is only two bytes. MMURTL V1. No alias is needed. If so. . however . pMem is the address to alias. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . if it crosses page boundaries. . you need two pages.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun .ERROR!! .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. dcbMem. This wastes no physical memory. RETF 8 . . . POP EBP .Does not return error . The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .pMem EQU [EBP+24] . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to.EAX now has linear address . Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to.EBP . See if they are available.ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] .Only an entry in a table.Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. Procedureal Interface : . EAX . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified.

No.See if it is OS based service . .Yes. No Error . EAX.Was there enough PTEs? .Now wait our turn with memory management .EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough . PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Exit.No.Save nPages in ECX . EAX JMP ALSPDone .Yes! Serious problem. 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.Set up for OS memory space .dcbMem EBX .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Number of pages we need into EBX .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. 0 for OS . alias it . .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX . ECX CALL FindRun .OS Job? . .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.EBX still has count of pages OR EAX. EBX. 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.Puts Current Job Num in EAX .EAX is nPages-1 . EAX.Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . [EBP+24] . .OS Job? .0 .No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .See if it is OS based service . pRunTSS ADD EAX. . . we're done ALSPBegin: . . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX. 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.Kernel Error?? . EAX ECX. .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] .Are they the same Page Directory?? .EAX is 256 for user space. [EBP+16] CMP EAX.Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias .Yes .0h JNE ALSPDone . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. .PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX. User memory . .Get Job number for pMem .Yes .EAX has 0 or 256 . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.pMem into EAX 0FFFh . We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX. EAX.Add to dcbMem 12 .Yes .

Job number . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Returned address to caller! . . DeAliasMem(pAliasMem.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines. dcbAliasBytes. JobNum):ercType . 0FFFh EDI. PUSH EAX . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time.Set .EBX . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address .and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. See listing 19.0 = NO Error .22.Save alias page address base . [EBP+24] EAX. . .ERROR!! . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call.0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now.original pMem . . Code to remove alias PTEs .EAX . pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1.pAliasRet . EAX MOV ESI.We are done ALSPExit: . EAX .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun .22.Go back & try again . [EBP+24] MOV EDX.Address to alias . .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: . . PUSH MemExch . EAX ESI. . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP. Listing 19.Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing .Get remaining bits . EDI EAX.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) .Save last error . Procedureal Interface : .Set to 0 (no error) . . [EBP+12] [ESI]. .

If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS . 12 .ECX . .Add to dcbMem EAX.so we zero out the page.dcbMem EAX.pMem into EAX EBX. . if so just ZERO PTE. it's page is present .EAX is nPages-1 EAX .Yes.Job num into EAX for LinToPhy . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 . [EBP+20] . EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit . 0FFFh .Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.ESP .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.Is page present (valid)??? . EBX . ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX. . . .MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX. .but less than you asked for! ECX.DO not zero it! . EDI DALM011 EAX. .. [ESI] TEST EBX. EAX MOV [ESI]. PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+16] . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX.Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) .Next linear page .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX.AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.EBP MMURTL V1.We dealiased what we could.dcbAliasBytes . EAX . EDX MOV EAX. DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .None at all! .EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.ZERO PTE entry . . [EBP+20] . XOR EAX. 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP.We did some.See if PTE is an alias.and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS).Add the remainder of address EAX.0 .NO . [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy .Get PTE into EBX .pAliasMem .Is page an ALIAS? .Address of next page to deallocate .Linear Mem to DeAlias .NO! (did we do any at all) .

0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem. Procedureal Interface : .Get PTE into EBX .Now we have Physical Address in EAX . .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. It will always free linear memory. .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX. n4KPages):ercType . deallocate.23. See listing 19. This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias.and pointer to PTE in ESI. because we deallocate 4K pages.See if PTE is an alias. providing it is valid.Yes! .POP EBP RETF 12 .Yes. [ESI] TEST EBX. . The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored . . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX. pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls.Address of next page to deallocate .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy .Is page present (valid)??? . . Listing 19. .Number of pages to deallocate . its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS . . n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Error?? . pRunTSS ADD EAX. pOrigMem AND EDX.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . if so just ZERO PTE. .0 . .23. . Deallocating linear memory .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Linear Mem to deallocate .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . Even if you specify more pages than are valid.

Code to find number of free pages .We did some.We deallocated what we could.CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP.but less than you asked for! . . ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . .24. Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left.Send a dummy message to pick up . .save Memory error . over memory error . Procedureal Interface : . so next guy can get in .so we must unmark (release) the physical page. . . pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1. n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX. See listing 19. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .Next linear page .Yes.NO! (did we do any at all) . 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. .Is page an ALIAS? . it's an Alias .Kernel error has priority . .None at all! MOV EAX.0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS .ZERO PTE entry . 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX. ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX. AND EBX. . EAX MOV [ESI].get Memory error back .. EAX ADD EDX. .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated.24.get rid of OS bits . . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias . Listing 19.

be returned . Public for linear to physical conversion .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS .. [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. pPhyRet):ercType . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. . EAX EAX. .ESP MOV EBX. . . left available returned . pPhyRet . pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . . EAX MOV ESP. Job Number . .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . . No Error . See listing 19.ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. EAX . . .END OF CODE MMURTL V1. . EAX XOR EAX. . _nPagesFree [ESI]. pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. GetPhyAdd(JobNum. pMemLeft EAX.25.LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. Linear Address .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] .No Error . [EBP+16] MOV EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . MOV ESP. . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . Listing 19.25. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. LinAdd. Procedureal Interface : .

.

The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. as well as the fastest one possible.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. a slow machine. along with a piece of the kernel. especially synchronous. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. But even with these calculations. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. It was 0. or 3000 clocks. Two of them will come in at 260us.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. I experimented with several different intervals. The average is was far less. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. Somewhere between these two was the average. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. my worries were unfounded. actually the scheduler. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing.2 percent of available bandwidth.1. A single communications channel running at 19.. memory wait-states. which works out to about 1. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly. Even more important than total bandwidth.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events.2 percent. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. I was consuming less than 0. Back when I started this project. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. See listing 20.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. In a 10ms period we have 200. As you well know. Listing 20. however. I ended up with 10ms. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. was the effect on interrupt latency. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. etc. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands.Chapter 20. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS .1. The average really depends on program loading. divided by the total clocks for the same period. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. preemptive multitasking. It's at the end of the timer ISR. with 100-MHz machines around. MMURTL is no exception. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. which is very conservative.6 percent for the worst case.

and finally with test programs. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long .ALIGN DWORD .2.320 clocks. SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time. TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . Listing 20. The Timer Block is a structure that contains .Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt.INC . sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . .DATA . including the 10 percent overhead. or 20us. But. 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet.INCLUDE TSS. or one that has requested an alarm. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 .INC .2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. These are the offsets into the structure .2. plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . Data and constants for timer code . The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 .DD 00000000h . the exchange number of a task that is sleeping. This I could live with.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. . See listing 20.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. The odds of this are truly astronomical. This doesn't cause a problem at all. A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386.0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium.FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 .INCLUDE MOSEDF. Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16.

See listing 20.EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.No .Yes! . or higher. See listing 20.3.FALSE .3. It is a small.ISend Message MOV EAX.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR . only one task is actually executing. . The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it.goto decrement it PUSH EAX .INTS are disabled automatically .No.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 . The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown].Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 .Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.ASM. The three external near calls. the first things defined in this code segment. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. They may have been placed there by other ISRs.Timer Tick. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.ASM. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? .4. Listing 20. You have now interrupted that task.No . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX. The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS . External functions for timer code .nTmrBlks CLD .Yes . Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. If so. If it is the same or higher. At all times on the system.ECX has count of Timer Blocks . you switch to it. priority than the task that is now running.save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] . The timer interrupt service routine .Yes .Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].. and they may be of an equal. INT 20 . which is the one you interrupted. -1 . allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel. It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested.0h .save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX . yet very important part.4. Listing 20.

we will .number was higher and we DON'T .BX . and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS..for more then 30ms (3 ticks).tell him his times up! POP ECX . SUB EAX.Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed .[EDI+Tid] . no need to check tasks .current pri.or Equal. If the Queued Pri is LOWER .FALSE .Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ . and save in EDI .keep going . dfHalted OR EAX. . EAX .if we got a CARRY on the subtract.switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri ..get count back POP EAX .bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg .Is this from a HALTed state? . CMP EAX.next block please! .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . TimerTick . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL.bogus msg PUSH EAX . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. That means ..get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Put current one in EAX .YES.EDI . PUSH 0 .10ms more gone.Is there one at all?? .. If so. EAX JZ TaskCheckDone . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . we want to Switch.We will now check to see if this guy has been running .PUSH EAX .No. pRunTSS MOV DL. MOV EBX.empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX.Change this to change the "time slice" . Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX.0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone . Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick.skip decrement . Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .unless were done .Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) . Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 .If current is higher(lower num). ESI CALL enQueueRdy . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI. MOV ESI. his .DL is pri of current ..Compare current pri to highest queued . EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX.

Count of timer blocks CLD .FALSE .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].[ECX+TSS_Exch] . Listing 20. MOV EAX. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.5. out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP. MOV EBP.goto next block MOV EBX.unless were done MOV EAX. DelayCnt CMP EAX.Sorry. POP EBP .Empty block? JNE Delay02 .EBP .ErcOk .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD . Sleep() .all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .rgTmrBlks .Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown]. The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.clear direction flag Delay01: CLI .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX. The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg . IRETD . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .TRUE .sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .pRunTSS .nTmrBlks . . See listing 20.5.Must do this before we switch! . RETF 4 . This requires an exchange.DelayCnt .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.No .TSS_Msg .ErcNoMoreTBs .Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX. Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .FAR return from publics MMURTL V1. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero.EBX .0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX . TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD . 0 .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.ESP .

-312- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EAX.Get delay count [EAX+CountDown].ErcOk .rgTmrBlks . AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . Procedural Interface: .6.clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].put it in timer block! . AlarmCnt CMP EAX.Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.It's OK to interrupt now EAX. . MOV EBP. See listing 20.AlarmCnt .nTmrBlks . AlarmCnt):dErc .6. .It's OK to interrupt now . PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP .Empty block? Alarm02 .EBX .all is well Alarm03 . KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. See listing 20.Count of timer blocks CLD . .ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP. MMURTL V1.goto next block EBX.sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX. 0 .0 .FALSE . The message is not repeatable. It must be set up each time. Listing 20. which means the message has already been sent.ESP . Alarm(nAlarmExch. The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.7.Up the blocksInUse count EBX. DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].unless were done .TRUE .No . nothing will stop it.See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX. AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch]. All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.EBX . If the alarm is already queued through the kernel.Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .Sorry.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . out of timer blocks . Code for the Alarm function .

No . so we get out! .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Count of timer blocks . KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] .Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers.sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX.7. The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled.ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.EBX .8. The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator.It's OK to interrupt now . .ALl done -. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.Block in use? KAlarm02 .Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds).ErcOk .clear direction flag .0 .8. Code for the KillAlarm function . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX points to timer blocks .FALSE .Listing 20. Listing 20. Code for the MicrDelay function . 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX. . .nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .unless were done . This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port. which drives the processor clock.TRUE .EAX MOV ESP. PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Procedural Interface: .No blocks in use .Get exchange for killing alarms to .goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. . The count is in 15us increments.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX. But it's still very much needed.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.KAlarmExch LEA EAX. Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1. The task is actually not suspended at all. . See listing 20. .

MOV EBP. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL.Clear time return . 8 MOV EAX. Code to read the CMOS time . AL SHL EBX. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.Toggle! Move to AH for next compare . . EBX MMURTL V1.AL IN AL. [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.04h OUT 70h.02h OUT 70h.Hours . See listing 20.AL SHL EBX. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.ESP MOV ECX.Minutes .Check toggle of bit . 10h CMP AH. . Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .71h MOV BL.0 . the next byte is the minutes in BCD. . EBX MOV EAX.71h MOV BL. MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally.Seconds .00h OUT 70h. . pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI].ESP XOR EBX. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).9.AL IN AL.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get delay count . . 61h AND AL. the next byte is the Hours in BCD. Listing 20.AL IN AL.AL MOV ESI. . 8 MOV EAX.Get system status port . EAX MOV ESP.get out if they came in with 0! . GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines.71h MOV BL. and the high order byte is 0.No toggle yet .9.check refrest bit . AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.

MMURTL V1.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . Listing 20. GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .Day of month . MOV EBP.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .08h OUT 70h.AL IN AL.AL SHL EBX.71h MOV BL.AL MOV ESI.AL IN AL.71h MOV BL.ESP . No Error . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12).AL IN AL. AL SHL EBX. GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. EBX XOR EAX. EAX MOV ESP.Give 'em the time .10.AL IN AL.0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS .Day of week .09h OUT 70h. EBX . . 8 MOV EAX.06h OUT 70h. See listing 20. Procedural Interface: . the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. .71h MOV BL. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. . and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99).71h MOV BL. AL SHL EBX. Code to read the CMOS date . 8 MOV EAX. 0-6 0=Sunday). .Clear date return MOV EAX. XOR EBX. No Error .07h OUT 70h. .10.Year . 8 MOV EAX. . EAX MOV ESP.Month .XOR EAX. . pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP .

. Binary . See listing 20. divide 1.No Error .Timer 2. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. AL XOR EDX.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller.1. Listing 20. AL IN AL.193182Mhz by Desired Freq.DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . . EAX XOR EAX.193182Mhz .12.0 .ESP MOV ESI. pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. With a 10ms interval. The procedural interface: . Code to return the timer tick . this amounts to 262. . MSB.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS .11. The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. TimerTick MOV [ESI]. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror . 10110110b OUT 43h. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs.000 ticks per month. EDX MOV EAX. Hardware timer number 2. .To find the divisor of the clock. pTickRet MOV EAX. . See listing 20. Listing 20. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down.This does all work for BEEP and TONE . The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). Helper function for Beep() and Tone() .12. is used to generate tones. . .The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h. 61h MMURTL V1.800.11. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep(). . AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h.193182 Mhz . LSB. which is connected to the system internal speaker. Because it is a dword. AL MOV AL.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ .ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL.

35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . I would have called it Beep_Beep().Freq . Listing 20. . See listing 20. CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. . I couldn't resist. Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . This function has nothing to with the Road Runner.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user.14. . . 11111100b OUT 61h. . Listing 20.13. 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. . This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier.ESP MOV EBX. MMURTL V1. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier.14.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS . . if it had. Code to produce a tone . .13. (Sorry. 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h.ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. See listing 20. 800 MOV ECX.OR AL. AL RETN Beep() . Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq. Code to produce a beep .350ms . dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . AL PUSH ECX . .

0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 . .ESP MOV EBX.PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. ToneFreq MOV ECX. .

ASM. Kernel Structures .ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main. the first instruction executed after boot up.INCLUDE JOB. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 . a workhorse for Main. It is the entry point in the operating system.INC .ALIGN command. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL . The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). OS Global Data Listing 21.INCLUDE TSS. The first file is Main. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files.INC . In chapter 7. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin. Main Operating System Data .ASM which is presented later in this chapter.See MOSEDF. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . The second file is InitCode. I generally try to align data that is accessed often. Initial OS Page Directory (PD). Global Descriptor table (GDT).1. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . Periodically you will see the .Chapter 21.ASM. It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. “OS Initialization.======================================================= . and Public Call Gate table.INC for structure details.DATA . The assembler does no alignment on its own.ALIGN DWORD . Listing 21. For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1.INC . and I don't worry about the rest of it.INCLUDE MOSEDF. .ASM. Initial OS Page Table (PT). Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) . The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files. access to the data is faster if it is. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) .0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary.

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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EBX.Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX.0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic .Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. 3 . InitIDT . OSCodeSel .Breakpoint MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector. PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX. 08F00h . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . First. . 08F00h .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].========================================================================= . IN : Nothing .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . . EAX. CX .Divide By Zero MOV EAX. Second. Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. 255 .DPL 3.DPL 3. 1 . 40 . 16 . adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . 3 . 8 . Trap gate MOV EBX.DPL 3.sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.SUB EBX. . OSCodeSel . 4 . OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. MOV ESI. SI .Overflow 08F00h . MOV ESI. software and hardware interrupt handlers. handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called.Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. 08E00h .Single Step MOV EAX.make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. AX . ESI. .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. 0 .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. Used : ALL registers and flags .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. SI . GDTBase .call DPL & ndParams RETN . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. Out : Nothing .

0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . OSCodeSel . 8 . IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h .DPL 3. 08F00h . 08F00h .DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . 21h . 0Eh . MOV ESI.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. OSCodeSel .Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. 08F00h . OSCodeSel .GP fault MOV EAX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. EBX. 0Bh . MOV ESI.Int TIMER MOV EAX.DPL 3. 08E00h . 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h . OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3.Invalid TSS MOV EAX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .Int Page Fault MOV EAX. EAX. OSCodeSel . 08F00h . 0Ch . 0Dh . 08F00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Double Exception MOV EAX. 08F00h . 0Ah . MOV ESI. 20h .Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Seg Not Present MOV EAX. MOV ESI.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. MOV ESI. 6 .DPL 3. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.

INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h .Int COM1 MOV EAX..DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1..DPL 3.... INTERRUPT GATE . OSCodeSel . 26h . MOV ESI.Int . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..... OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel .IntLPT1 MOV EAX.. 08E00h . MOV ESI.DPL 3. MOV ESI. 2Ah ..DPL 3. 2Bh ..DPL 3.DPL 3. 24h . 08E00h .Int ..DPL 3.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..Int . 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 25h . 08E00h ...0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX.. OSCodeSel ..Int COM2 MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . 28h . .. MOV EAX. MOV EAX..... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV EAX...CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX.Int .. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.. 29h .. OSCodeSel .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.. 08E00h . 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV EAX. 27h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. EAX.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 23h ... MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. MOV ESI.. 08E00h . 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ .DPL 3.Int LPT2 MOV EAX.. MOV ESI... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... OSCodeSel .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..Int .

. MOV EAX..2 DWord Params. MOV ESI. DPL 0 MOV ECX.1Dword param. InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates.. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 08C03h .. MOV ESI.. OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! .Int ... 0EC01h . DPL 3 MOV ECX. DPL 3 MOV ECX. DPL 3 MOV ECX. 08E00h . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Set Priority ... MOV ESI.ISendMsg -. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1... OSCodeSel . MOV EAX. 40h MOV DX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.3 DWord params. Out : Nothing . . This can't . Used : ALL registers and flags . 08E00h . 2Eh .SendMsg -. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! ..DPL 3. MOV EAX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX...========================================================================== .DPL 3. 0EC03h . 2Dh . 58h MOV DX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 . IN : Nothing . 50h MOV DX.Int . 0EC02h .0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS .3 DWord Params.Int .... OSCodeSel MOV ESI.. 48h MOV DX. but MUST be called before the first far call to any . OSCodeSel .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 2Fh .WaitMsg -.. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX.... 08E00h .. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.DPL 3. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. before initcallgates.. OSCodeSel .

. RETN MMURTL V1.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .The rest of the call gate set ups go here.

From Main. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in . Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. TSSs. exchanges. the monitor.Chapter 22.1 Listing 22.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . it is usually quite a mess. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out.asm . Before I wrote this code. It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. the JCB. EBX -.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs . can be a complicated scenario. Pieces of related code in the kernel.INCLUDE MOSEDF.================================================================ .INCLUDE JOB. pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. These calls. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD . was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system.INC . are used by almost every module in the operating system.======= End data. See listing 22. request blocks. The process of allocating all the resources. JCBs are in allocated memory .CODE .INC . The program loader is in this chapter. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. Job Management Subroutines . For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB .DATA . Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . link blocks.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) .ASM provides many small helper functions for job management. and finally the operating system memory.1.Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1. INPUT : EAX -.Begin Code ================== . many of them public functions.INCLUDE TSS. this is the where you'll end up. In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). and finally starting the new task. When things don't work right. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: .

.Make last one NIL RETN . .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB]. .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. .Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . OUTPUT : NONE . EDX.EDX. . . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs.Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run.ESI EFLAGS . . EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols].Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. . EAX .Address of JCBs to be initialized .Count of JCBs . MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. . The JCBs are also sequentially numbered.Move it in . 7 MOV EAX. .EBX MOV EDI. . EDX is size of each JCB. ESI. . ECX is count of JCBs.EDI points to JCB .cbJobName EDX -..Size of JCBs .size is filled in . [EAX+JobNum] RETN . . CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. EBX. . PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB.EDX . We can't use its position . while . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines].EAX . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated. MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. . InitFreeJCB .Now to JobName .Video number is in JCB . . 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. EAX points to the first JCB. ESI -. .EAX . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. EDX . .Put Ptr to PD into JCB . EDI. pJCBs . EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information.1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. 3 .EAX . . . MMURTL V1. EAX ADD EDI. EBX . .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX.ECX.Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX.EBX. USED: EAX.pbJobName ECX -. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI].============================================================================= . The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL).first byte of name . 0 . . INPUT : EAX .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. ECX. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). .0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . ECX .

. If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. INPUT : NONE . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in .============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: .FLAGS . nJCBs MOV EDX. Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX. . EAX ECX. Get 'em! .pFreeJCB . 0 .EBX . JE NewJCBDone . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD].Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . REGISTERS : EBX. . . . The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). . MOV EAX.============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . .FLAGS . . pJCBs STOSD . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. CMP EAX. 4096 EDI.Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. . then EAX will contain NIL (0). Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs .EBX. OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. OUTPUT : NONE . . JE DispJCBDone . .. . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. REGISTERS : EAX. .Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . NewJCBDone: RETN . .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX. . 0 .================================================================ . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . pJCBs MOV ECX.0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . the free pool. INPUT : EAX . OUTPUT : EAX . . Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures).0 .[EAX+NextJCB] . If none exists. MOV EBX. This routine will also . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . . Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . .IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return.DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb.

Pointer to JCB RETN . .EBX MOV pFreeJCB.EBX has OS ptr to free list . . USED: EAX. . OUTPUT: EAX -. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .Current Job Number . This is based on which Task is executing. The Job number .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . USED: EAX. . INPUT: Nothing . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX. GetpCrntJCB . GetCrntJobNum .============================================================ . OUTPUT: EAX -.Current Task State Segment MOV EAX.EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN .============================================================ . PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX.Linear Address of current JCB . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. A Job may have more than one Task. . INPUT: Nothing . . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . . is a field in the JCB structure. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. All TSSs are . PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. All TSSs are . . Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX.MOV EBX. . assigned to a Job. 2 MMURTL V1. in EAX.Move it into newly freed JCB . USED: EAX. EFlags . pRunTSS . [EAX+JobNum] .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . . All TSSs are assigned to a Job. . GetpJCB .============================================================ . INPUT: EAX -. 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. . OUTPUT: EAX -. EFlags . This is based on which Task is executing. . .Job Number of desired pJCB . EFlags .Current JCB RETN .pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB].

pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. . OUTPUT: EAX -.JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. 3 MOV EDX. . .Current JCB RETN .0 . call to support the public job management calls in high level . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB. . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .Current Job Number . . . ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. . . Sorry. PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. Get a new JCB . out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . . AllocJCB (NEAR) .============================================================ . .Within range of JCBs . .Add in two static JCBs . USED: EAX. . The Job number . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. This is a NEAR . is a field in the JCB structure.Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. [EAX+JobNum] . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. Procedureal Interface : . EFlags .Now points to desired JCB . . . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. . pJCBs POP EDX RETN .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. . languages. GetJobNum .============================================================ . EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. We got one! .Times size of JCB . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. ppJCBRet):ercType . . .

[EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. EAX MOV ESP. pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. . .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . . . .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. .ESP MOV EAX.============================================================ . [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. . . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. pJCB .No error .MOV ESP. . .pJCBRet . . . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . .Job Num . . EAX XOR EAX. dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. . . languages in the OS code. Procedureal Interface : . pJCBRet):ercType . you specifiy. EAX MOV ESI. . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . EAX MOV ESP. .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . . . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). . . GetpJCB(dJobNum.============================================================ . Get a new JCB . Procedureal Interface : . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. . . . . GetpJCB . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI].============================================================ . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . call to support the public job management calls in high level . . MMURTL V1. . This is a NEAR . .

[EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . .============================================================ . 0 . EAX MOV ESP.0 is invalid CMP EAX. . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB .EBP . . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . MMURTL V1. [EBP+16] . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. Procedureal Interface : . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. POP EBP . POP EBP . .EBP . . . .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. . . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . . . . nJCBs + 2. GetJobNum . POP EBP .Leave jobnum in EAX .Job Num OR EAX. . ErcBadJobNum . RETF 8 .. RETF 8 . MOV EAX. RETF 8 .EBP .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX.pJobNumRet . This is .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 . ErcInvalidJCB . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX XOR EAX. or 0 will be returned with the data. . .No Error .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. EAX JZ GetpJcbBad .pJCBRet MOV [ESI].Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job.ESP . .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. the job that the task that called this belongs to. MOV ESP. . [EBP+12] .

MOV EBP. . Jobc. loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS .pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. Procedureal Interface : . [EBP+12] . And will . . It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . RETF 4 . . and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module.get rid of high bits MOV ESI. pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk . This is from the public . the number representing the system disk is returned. . .No Error POP EBP .asm. AL . This code is here for lack of a better place. Listing 22.c. PUSH EBP . still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. _BootDrive AND EAX. It's really not a filesystem function either. EAX . XOR EAX. It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. ending jobs. disk that the system booted from.0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. Jobc.c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . variable _BootDrive defined in Main. GetSystemDisk . pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where .============================================================ . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . . MOV EAX. . . 7Fh . .================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file.. Functions for starting new jobs. .2.ESP .

. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB.). SetExchOwner(long Exch. char *pNewJCB).h" "MTimer.h" "MJob. MMURTL V1. long Exch). static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. long cb).h" "MMemory.Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel. SendAbort(long JobNum.h" "MKbd. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB).h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. char *ppJCBRet). /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. .0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ static long TmpStack[128].h" "MData. GetExchOwner(long Exch.h" "MFiles.h" #include "runfile.. char *pJCBRet).h" "MVid. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it.

filetype. offData = 0. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. static long offCode = 0. iE. we eliminate the user PDEs. sStack. static long cbFileE. static struct tagtype tag. *pPDE. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. *pData. 0. extern unsigned long KillExch. static long sCode. 0. ExchE. erc. for (i=768. job_fhE. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. static unsigned long oCode. oData. sData. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. 0. 0.static long JobNum. static char aFileE[80]. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . char *pMem. j. unsigned long *pPT. When all PTs have been cleaned. k. *pStack. i++) { MMURTL V1. BogusMsg[2]. 0. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. i<1024. ercE. 0. 0. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD.

nDDFIX = 0. nDCFIX = 0. j<1024. oDDFIX = 0. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. oCDFIX = 0. If all is well. switch (tag. oCCFIX = 0. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &dret). while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. junk. k).0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . 5.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. reads and validates the run file.id = 0.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. offCode = 0. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. fh. *pfhRet = 0. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. &dret). dret. long *pfhRet) { long erc. 1. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. 0. offData = 0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. i. cbFileName. MMURTL V1. oDCFIX = 0. char fDone. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). nCDFIX = 0. nCCFIX = 0. &filetype. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. long cbFileName. for (j=0. &fh). &tag. 1. while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag.

&pStart. oCode+tag.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. oCDFIX+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCCFIX+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len/4. /* skip it break. &dret). &offCode. /* skip it break. &oData).len). case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. &dret). &oDDFIX). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.len/4.len). 4. oDDFIX+tag. &oDCFIX).len/4. nCDFIX = tag. break. 4. oDCFIX+tag. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &oCCFIX). case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. i+tag. MMURTL V1.len). &sStack. &dret). &sData. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. break. &sCode. if (tag. &dret). break. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. 4. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.len).len). 4. &i).0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4. &offData.len). case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. break. oData+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.break.len). case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. nDCFIX = tag. nDDFIX = tag. break. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. &oCDFIX). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len/4. &dret). nCCFIX = tag. /* skip it break. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &oCode). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.

pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. i). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pdcbRunRet = i.0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbRunFile). long dcbPath) { long JobNum. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. GetpJCB(JobNum. MMURTL V1. return(0). } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. else { CopyData(pRunFile. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. erc). } return(0). &pTmpJCB). pRunRet. return (erc). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. &pTmpJCB). i. GetpJCB(JobNum.break. &pTmpJCB). } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum.

else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0). erc. pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath.0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. *pdcbCmdRet = i. GetpJCB(JobNum. pPathRet. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. i). &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. MMURTL V1. else { CopyData(pPath. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. &pTmpJCB). i). GetpJCB(JobNum. dcbPath). long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. } return(0). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. pCmdRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. } return(erc). char *pPathRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. long dcbUser) { long JobNum. return(0). /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pCmd. dcbCmd). &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). *pdcbPathRet = i. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. GetJobNum(&JobNum). i. long *pdcbPathRet) { long i.

&pTmpJCB). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. *pdcbUserRet = i. i.GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pName. else { CopyData(pUser. return(0). *pdcbFileRet = i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. i). long dcbName) { long JobNum. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. dcbUser). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. pUserRet.0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. i). GetJobNum(&JobNum). return(0). &pTmpJCB). pFileRet. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. i. dcbName). GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbName) MMURTL V1.

} return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet.0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . *pVid. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbName). erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). dret. pFileRet. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. unsigned long *pPD. return(0). if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. GetpJCB(JobNum. long *pFix. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. i. cbFileName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). U32 PhyAdd. *pdcbFileRet = i. i. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. fh. dcbName). GetJobNum(&JobNum).{ long JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. *pPT. &fh). &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. long cbFileName. *pOSPD. nPages. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). long dcbName) { long JobNum. i). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. else { CopyData(pName.

if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. GetpJCB(1. &pData). pPT = 0. 0). &pCode). 0). */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). pNewJCB = 0. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. &pPD). sStack = nPages * 4096. xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". pPD). nPages = sData/4096. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pPT = pPD + 4096. &pNewJCB). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. pOSPD[768] = pPT. nPages = sCode/4096. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". pPT. 4096. &pStack). pVid = pPD + 8192. FillData(pVid. /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". &pTmpJCB)./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. pPD = 0.0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". 4096. 1). PhyAdd). if (sData%4096) nPages++. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. MMURTL V1. /* Job's PD. pPT). pVid = 0. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. &PhyAdd).

if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . pFix = pData + i.offCode + pCode. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. sCode. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. */ CopyData(pOSPD. oCode). &dret). pData. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pPD. &i. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). oDCFIX).offCode + pCode. oDDFIX). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. } MMURTL V1. pFix = pCode + i. &dret). &dret). &i. 4096). oCCFIX)./* Right now. &dret). &i.offData + pData. &i. pFix = pData + i. 4. 4. 4. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oData). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret). sData. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. pFix = pCode + i. pCode. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCDFIX).offData + pData.

pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. 0). 0x18. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. pNewJCB->nCols = 80. pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. 3). &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* Size */ CopyData("VID". we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). pStart+pCode-offCode). pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. 0. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. 0). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). 3). pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. pNewJCB). i.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. 1024. 1024. pStack+sStack-4.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. 25. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0.

&pCode). sData. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. long *pFix. return(erc). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. dret. sStack = nPages * 4096. oData). pCode. erc = AllocPage(nPages. long fh) { long erc. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. if (sData%4096) nPages++.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData. &pStack). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. erc = AllocPage(nPages. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. i. oCDFIX). &dret). nPages = sCode/4096. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). sCode. &pData). nPages. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. pNewJCB = pJCB. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. /* All Job memory is now allocated. nPages = sData/4096. oCode). This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. &dret). ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. The PD.

&i. /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. 4. pFix = pData + i. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. &dret). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offData + pData. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pFix = pData + i. return(erc). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. oCCFIX).erc = ReadBytes (fh.offCode + pCode. This task. &dret). pFix = pCode + i.offData + pData.offCode + pCode. &i. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. its exchange.PT and video. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. &dret). oDDFIX). oDCFIX). /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. &i. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pCode + i. &i. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. MMURTL V1. 4.

WaitMsg(ExchE. This is used to kill run-away jobs. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated.GetpJCB(JobNumE. BogusMsg). &pTmpJCB). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE).0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . ISendMsg(KillExch. ercE = 0. while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. &pTmpJCB). ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. CleanUserPD(pPDE). GetTSSExch(&ExchE). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. ErcOpCancel). The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. ExchE. */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). if (erc) return(erc). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. It results in a violent death for the job specified. BogusMsg). Debugger or the current job. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. SetPriority(31).

iE++. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNumE. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). ExchE). /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. We send "Abort" messages to all services. ESP. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. return(erc). pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ExchE. &pExchJCBE). &TmpStack[127]. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. fDebug.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). Exch. 0. pTmpJCB). } ercE = 0. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). CodeSeg. &_KillTask).ercE = 0. iE = 0. Priority. 3. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). 0x08. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. &pCrntJCB).

*/ GetExitJob(aFileE. EBP. iE++. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. &cbFileE). } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. ercE = 0. ercE = 0. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. ercE = 0.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . CleanUserPD(pPDE). ESP. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. iE = 0. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). ExchE). if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. EAX. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg)./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. If no exit run file. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. &pExchJCBE). Send Abort messages to all services. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE).

MOV EBX. cbFileE. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. WaitMsg(ExchE. MOV ESP. BogusMsg). ADD EAX. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. ExchE. &job_fhE). job_fhE). SetPriority(31). /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). */ #asm MOV EAX. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. MOV EBP. ercE). SUB EAX. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. PUSH 18h MOV EAX.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob.

******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. cbFileE = cbFileName. Send Abort messages to all services. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE).error loading the Job. &job_fhE). iE = 0. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. } CloseFile(job_fhE). if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. &pCrntJCB). */ MMURTL V1. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). In other words. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. cbFileName. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). iE++. aFileE. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). cbFileName). long cbFileName. &pExchJCBE). long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetpJCB(JobNumE. ercE = 0. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE).

If no exit run file.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). cbFileE. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. &job_fhE). */ MMURTL V1. ExchE). Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). ESP. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX.SendAbort(JobNumE. ercE = 0. job_fhE). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. EBP. CleanUserPD(pPDE). cbFileE. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. /* Try to load the Chain file. ercE = 0. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. The original user's job is destroyed. &cbFileE). EAX. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. job_fhE). &job_fhE). if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob).

Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. MOV EBX.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. MOV ESP. WaitMsg(ExchE. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart .#asm MOV EAX. BogusMsg). ADD EAX. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. MOV EBP. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). SUB EAX.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercE). ExchE.

then copy the CR3 . Get CS . register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. but is still very immature. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. . This makes the .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. . then it jumped here to enter the debugger. so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. While writing the operating system. See listing 23. Listing 23. It has grown substantially.Enter debugger . This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. . Next. If we get here. You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1.1. Breakpoints. . small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. Get EIP of offender for debugger . Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger .Enter debugger .EnterDebug . on which exception is was. . Get Flags . This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS).Chapter 23. code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. Get EIP of offender for debugger . entry from the current job into the debuggers job. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. . which are all debug exceptions.===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . . First we copy the Page Dir . They are made to match those of the interrupted task.0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. task (without going through the kernel). All of the debugger's . debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. I have left them as individual procedures. and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger.1. The debugger is a separate task.

pRunTSS -> EAX .Set up debugger selector . Debugger Data and Code .Install Debugger's as current . .INCLUDE . EBX EAX.INC JOB.External near Variables MMURTL V1." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code.pCrntJCB -> EAX . task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX. EAX EAX. You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23. [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.INC RQB. pRunTSS EBX. Listing 23. EAX This switches tasks.INCLUDE .. [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].Switch tasks to debugger .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. .CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX .Put the stack back the way it was .DATA .current CR3 -> EBX .INCLUDE . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3]. caller's registers them before the into the debugger .INCLUDE MOSEDF.2. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave. with the exception of the disassembler.Save the current pRunTSS .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX .we MUST save PUSH EBX . and restore PUSH EDX . then jump to the debugger's selector. EnterDebug: PUSH EAX . pRunTSS.ALIGN DWORD .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS . we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .2 presents the debugger code in its entirety.make his registers right! . EBX EAX. BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX.When the debugger exits.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX . .INC TSS.INC .

0B3h.40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .Address we are setting as next .General use buffers DB '0000000000' .0B3h.flag 1 = Msg.For ReadDbgKbd ..Active bytes in buf2 .'DumpD'.0B3h.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .0B3h. .ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .' '.' ' ' .0B3h.0B3h. .General purpose DDs (used all over) .' '. .'Tasks'.Address we are dumping .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .are we dumping DWORDS? . . ESC to quit. dbgExchMsg . 0Ah DB 0 .'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.0B3h.'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.0B3h.'ClrBP'.For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .CR LF for Dump etc..Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses . 0 = Exch .For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.TO save the TSS we interrupted .0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .Boolean.Address of instructions we are displaying .0B3h. dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .'SetBP'. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.Has Dbg Video been initialized? .

' GS: 0B3h.' ES: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .'CR0: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX. OFFSET DbgVidSave .'EAX: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .' SS: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.'ESI: 0B3h.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.'TSS: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.'EFL: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'EBX: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .==================== End Data. Begin Code ========================== .'EIP: 0B3h.

when the handler is entered. the values of . CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. and number at 0 . is always entered as a procedure. But we do. I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .[EAX+TSS_EFlags] . This only applies if . 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX. Code Seg.Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.dbgOldCS .0FFh . (we chanage the tasks) .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 .Dbgr is Job 2 .Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX.procedure was entered..We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .EBX .When a fault or debug exception occurs. .. . and flags are not the .PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit.REF .0 .the Instruction Pointer. .dbgOldEIP .the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS.See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX.NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor . .EBX .NO .0 .NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .BX MOV EBX. so we shouldn't have to reset it.Display fault message and .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. DbgpTSSSave . 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit. MOV EBX. MOV EBX.dbgOldEflgs .way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. The debugger .EBX . the handler is a procedure (NOT a task).

EAX .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.=========================================================== .=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid . EAX MOV dbgX.F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP.dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX. 0FFh .Single Step (F1) . MOV EAX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Get USER pUserTSS .00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .Set BP (Current Address . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX. 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1.reset fault indicator .dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX. 0FFh LEA EAX. EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.0 .Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .Reset X & Y to 0.ESCAPE (Exit) .Fall through to keyboard loop .Display menu PUSH dbgX .Color White on black .1 .DbgpTSSSave .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll . .Set TF in flags for single step .

0 . 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL.Set Disassembly Address (F8) .Clear BP saved address .This puts the instruction on the line .Save it so we know where BP is .BP0 Set global .F3) . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL.Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd. EAX DR6. EAX dbg00 .This puts the instruction on the line . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. . .MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX.See if we need to scroll up . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. .Task array display (F6) . EAX dbg00 EAX.Not used yet . EAX EAX. EAX DR7. 00000002h DR7. 11h dbg04 EAX.Sets NextEIP .Display Exchanges (F5) . .See if we need to scroll up . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX. EBX DR0.Return to CS:EIP (F4) . 00 MMURTL V1. EAX dbgBPAdd.Full display .Back to where we were . . . 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX.Clear BP (Current Address .Address displayed . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX. 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX.

============================================================== dbgShowBP: .Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) . . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL. . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.This puts the instruction on the line . If they are the same.Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) .Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.we are about to display. 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD.GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.MOV dbgfDumpD. 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint . BX . .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .Query XY .Back to begining .This compares the current breakpoint the address .0 .Return saved pRunTSS . dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1.See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX. .EAX must be preserved MOV EBX. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS.Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Info Address dump (F12) . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL. EAX BX.

EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EBP Display MMURTL V1.Save EAX across call .[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.BP Address .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Number of this TSS .OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.MOV ECX.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .05 MOV ESI.02 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EBX Display . ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.============================================================== .OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.04 MOV ESI.06 MOV ESI.00 MOV ESI.information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .EAX Display .OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.ESI Display .EDX Display .EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .TSS Display .3 params to TTYOut .01 MOV ESI.ECX Display .07 MOV ESI.03 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.EDI Display .OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .

EIP Display .OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR2 Display .17 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CS Display .[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.DS Display .EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.12 MOV ESI.CR0 Display .[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.19 MOV ESI.ESP Display .EFlags Display .[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.18 MOV ESI.08 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.SS Display .GS Display .Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR3 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.13 MOV ESI.FS Display .ES Display .OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.09 MOV ESI.10 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.14 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.16 MOV ESI.15 MOV ESI.0 .[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.MOV ECX.11 MOV ESI.20 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.

Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.CALL DispRegs RETN .========================================================================== . This is for Debugger Register display .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1. This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN . . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .============================================== . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .

=========================== . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX. EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.length of string . 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX. PUSH EAX .Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .Convert String to DD .did they exit with CR? . . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX..Go home.Goto Query Line . PUSH EAX .=========================== .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .Max size LEA EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. . dbgChar .ptr to string .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. DbgBuf2 ..Ignore error if any MOV AL.Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone . PUSH EAX . cbBufLen2 .ptr to destination DD . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgChar CMP AL.

PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! .0 . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Goto Query Line .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 . dbgSpace MMURTL V1.. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. 24 . dbgChar . dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. LEA EAX.ptr to string .ptr to size returned LEA EAX. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . 6 LEA EAX. PUSH EAX . PUSH EAX .convert address to text LEA EAX.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .ptr to destination DD .Crnt size PUSH 8 . DbgBuf2 .line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. cbBufLen2 . PUSH EAX . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Convert String to DD .byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 JNE DumpDone .length of string .Max size LEA EAX..Go home. 4 .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. dbgChar CMP AL.Ignore error if any MOV AL. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.did they exit with CR? .

dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. display 1 space . dbgfDumpD .0 . 0 JE DumpB .Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL. [EBX] . dbgBuf . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.get dump address MOV EAX. dbgDumpAdd .Display First byte . dbgBuf ADD EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.NO .display 2st byte .Display 1 spaces .PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS .ignore error . dbgBuf ADD EAX.ignore error . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.point to second 2 bytes . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.go to display bytes LEA EAX.

dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. LEA EAX. 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .go back for next 4 bytes .NO . dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .a space . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.Query XY PUSH dbgX .ignore error .23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .ignore error LEA EAX.done with 4 quads?? .Yes . dbgCont .Display 2 spaces LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut . dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 4th byte . DEC dbgGPdd1 .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS .Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.ignore error .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.NO . dbgCRLF .

First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Convert Exch number for display . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .prgExch . 0 RETN . .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.MOV EAX. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. 1 .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX.line we are one .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .Col dbgGPdd1 . 1Bh . sEXCH EDX EDX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .Do CR/LF 0 . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Col PUSH 0 . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. Exch number .=========================== . 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX. PUSH 54 . 0FFh .Exch# we are on .messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. dbgGPdd2 EDX.

Save dMsg2 . .pMsg -> EBX . . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . EAX MOV EAX.Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.ADD EAX. [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. but would be confusing later.pMsg -> EBX 20 . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX. . 0 .For next msg in chain (if it exists) . Go to next Exch . EAX OR EBX. EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX.Convert Job Number 10 . MOV EAX. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5. EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) . [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX.Could have left it on stack.Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .Yes.Is is 1 (a message)? . ..Line OFFSET dbgBuf . ..Convert dMsg1 .Flag to indicate we are doing messages .EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. .No.Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. [EAX+EHead] . Go check for tasks .Col dbgGPdd1 . [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. .Is is NIL (no msg or task)? . [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX.Get dMsg1 .pExch -> EAX .MsgFlag -> EBX .0 .See if there is a first message MOV EAX.Save for loop . .Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX MOV EBX. EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Get dMsg2 .

. 23 .Get Number of Task at exch .No .pTSS -> EBX . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EAX. INC dbgGPdd1 .Col dbgGPdd1 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Is is 0 (no TSS)? .Col .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0FFh CMP EAX.Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.0 . nDynEXCH . [EBX+TSSNum] .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. 31 .Col 24 .Convert Task Number 1 .Line . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX.Next line please .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Save ptr to next task if it exists . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Clear pNextTask . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1. EAX AX.CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .pExch -> EAX .Line OFFSET dbgCont .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5. PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 . EAX EAX. . MOV EAX.Lop off key status bytes .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.

. EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: . we increment TSS number and go back . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Length of message .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX. .If so.Line for labels . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX. Task number . EAX.Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .NonZero if we are doing tasks . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX.Col . OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX. Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Tasks .Displays Tasks that are active along with . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) . 0 RETN .Another pointer in the link? .Set up to loop for next msg/task . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . PUSH 54 . 1 dbgDT02 EBX.Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .line.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX.Col PUSH 0 .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. nDynEXCH . 2 dbgDT03 EBX. Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. 1 . MMURTL V1. 1 .No .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid .If not.for the next one dbgDT01: . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 .=========================== .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . we get all the data BEFORE we display it .line we are one . . We are on line 1 again . dbgGPdd2 EAX.

Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf . 512 ECX EBX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . ECX . EBX . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . MOV CL. [EBX+Priority] . DDtoHex 10 . JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX.TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EAX . ECX MOV EAX. DDtoHex 20 .Not used.Save pTSS for display XOR ECX. EAX .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. EAX MOV EBX. dbgGPdd4 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .back for next one dbgDT05: . go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX. EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 .Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 .EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4.Col dbgGPdd1 .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5. dbgGPdd3 . dbgGPdd2 .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .of TSSs . 8 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6. 8 . [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .Save pJCB for display .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . nTSS .Col dbgGPdd1 .EAX has pJCB OR EAX.

Yes.Col dbgGPdd1 . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.go for next Task number .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 0 RETN .Line OFFSET dbgCont .Save number to display MMURTL V1. nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 1Bh .No. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.====================================================================== . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX. continue prompt dbgDT01 .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . This is for Debugger Address Info display .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 .Save it for the top MOV EAX. .Col 24 . EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) . DDtoHex 40 . 8 .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgGPdd6 . 8 .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. MOV EAX. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. go back for next 0 . . 23 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 0FFh . 31 . Call with: .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf . DDtoHex 30 .Col dbgGPdd1 .

SVCs LEA EAX.GDT LEA EAX.RQBs MOV EAX. GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.ptr to line .OFFSET DbgM0 . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Exchs MOV EAX.MonTSS MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgPA . prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM6 .OFFSET DbgM8 .Vid Attribute . OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM3 . IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .OFFSET DbgM1 .OFFSET DbgM5 .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.pTSS3 MOV EAX.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.=============================================== . pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.DbgInfo .IDT LEA EAX.JCBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM7 .0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .RdyQ LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM2 .Do it .Length of line .OFFSET DbgM9 .OFFSET DbgM4 .PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.LBs LEA EAX. rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1. rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.

Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .areas are resrved for the menu.MOV ESI. . go back for next key 0 .Timer Blocks LEA EAX.Query XY (See what line and Col) . query line.between colums 0 and 66.If so.Got to Column 0. dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.======================================================= .This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23.fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 . The other .Clear the query line (Line 23.OFFSET DbgMB . .All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .Yes. 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . .ignore error RETN . rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN . and line 0 to 24. 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 . Scroll test area (Col 0-64.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. we scroll up the text area by one line.No. .0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .Col 0.===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1.Lines 0-23 1 .and the register display. Line 0-24) 0 66 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.Columns 0-65 24 .======================================================= .

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I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file.g. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. but I try not to. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry.1. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. They were designed that way. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. If you have MFM drives. unsigned long int). in addition to those in the code itself. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . but I think you're OK. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. This seems to be the best. Listing 24. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. All of the hardware commands are well documented. Comments. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. There are no include files. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. In fact. this device driver should work with MFM drives. U32 dfReplace). U32 nDevices. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. you're on your own. though I would rather have done them in assembler.1. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). See listing 24. Time was the deciding factor. S8 *pDCBs.. many device drivers are written in C.Chapter 24. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers.

I needed a method to get data to the screen. U32 dnBlocks. U8 *pDataOut). U32 *pMsgRet). /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U32 *pMsgRet). See listing 24. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 count). void OutByte(U8 Byte. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). static U32 send_command(U8 parm). Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt.). Listing 24. static U32 check_busy(void). U32 dnBlocks. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U32 dLBA. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. void OutWord(U16 Word.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). . Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum.0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 msg2). U8 *pDataOut. U16 wPort).2. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. MMURTL V1. U32 dnBlocks). U32 HdSect. U8 *pDataIn). U8 *pDataIn.2. U8 *pDestination. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 dOpNum. static U32 hd_wait (void). It's called xprintf(). U32 dBytes). U32 dBytes). U8 InByte(U16 wPort). static U32 hd_init(U8 drive).. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). U32 msg1. U32 nBlks). U32 dBytes). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. U16 wPort). U32 msg1. U32 msg2). U16 InWord(U16 wPort). U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U8 *pDataRet). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. While writing the operating system. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. static void hd_reset(void). InWords(U32 dPort. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. S8 *pIRQ). static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA.. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). U32 dnBlocks. OutWords(U32 dPort.

S8 * pStatRet. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set.. U32 sdInitData).0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS .. S8 *pInitData. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. U32 *pdSatusRet). U32 dStatusMax. bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. hddev_stat(U32 dDevice.U8 static U32 *pData).

sector count (1F2h) 3 .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives. then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag. head and Sector number.Set. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 . Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.error register (1F1h) 2 .16 bit) 1 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 . Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .read data (1F0h . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.sector number (1F3h) 4 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver.high cyl (1F5h) 6 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.low cyl (1F4h) 5 . can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .write data (1F0h .. wait 50us.16 bit) 1 . and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .sector number (1F3h) 4 . */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 .

or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. See listing 24.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. cylinders. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. /* Calculated from LBA . I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. hd0_cyls. /* Current Physical Drive.which head */ hd_nsectors. If I did one member. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command. fDataReq. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. hd1_secpertrk.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. hd0_secpertrk. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1.3. hd_control. Listing 24.3. hd0_heads. hd1_type.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd1_heads. statbyte. */ /* Current number of heads. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Calculated from LBA .

/* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. U32 OS1. U32 OS3. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. LastRecalErc1. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS.static U16 hd1_cyls. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. }. U8 type_now. S8 type. U32 last_erc. S8 *pDevInit. fIntOnReset. U32 OS6. S8 sbName. U8 fSingleUser.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. LastSeekErc0. U32 blocks_done. S16 nBPB. /* Number of bytes per sect. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. S8 *pDevSt. U32 OS5. U32 nBlocks. U8 fDevReent. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. LastStatByte1. LastStatByte0.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. LastErcByte1. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. U32 OS4. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. }. LastErcByte0. S8 *pDevOp. U32 OS2. 32 bytes out to here. U32 BlocksMax. LastSeekErc1. filler1. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. S16 wJob. U8 fNewMedia. MMURTL V1. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. ResetStatByte.

The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver. &hddev_stat. &hddev_init.4. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A).nBlocks hdcb[1]. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0]. 1.sbName hdcb[0]. 3.nBPB hdcb[0]. 'H'. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17. hd1_secpertrk = 17./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch.nBlocks hdcb[0]. 524288. this would be the main() section of the C source file. hd1_cyls = 1024. '0'.pDevInit hdcb[1]. 1. &hddev_stat. static U32 hd_msg. /* Random */ 512. static U32 hd_msg2.pDevOp hdcb[0]. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.Name[2] hdcb[0]. static long HDDInt.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* largest device handled .pDevSt hdcb[1].type hdcb[1]. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19).Name[1] hdcb[0].pDevOp hdcb[1]. /* largest disk handled . MMURTL V1.pDevInit hdcb[0]. Listing 24. hd1_heads = 16. /* Random */ 512.Name[0] hdcb[1]. 'D'. 524288.sbName hdcb[1].nBPB hdcb[1]. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read. 'D'. 3.Name[2] hdcb[1].pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'.type hdcb[0].2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.Name[0] hdcb[0].4. &hddev_init. '1'. See listing 24. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc. In a loadable driver.Name[1] hdcb[1]. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024.

erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. MMURTL V1. */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1).last_erc = erc. /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. */ erc = hd_recal(0). It seems like a lot of work. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. } } /* if we got here. but they don't. &hdisk_isr). /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). erc = hd_recal(0). some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). SetIRQVector(14. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work.0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ hd_reset(). */ /* Reset the HDC . but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. We have to make this sucker work the hard way. /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. hd0_type = 0. UnMaskIRQ(14). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset().last_erc = erc. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. then try both physical drives. We have to do it once. If the second drive is not there. They vary from BIOS to BIOS. */ hd_reset(). hd1_type = 0. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives).

2. /* 200ms . 1)). hdcb[0]. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. &hdcb. This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. HDDInt = 1. OutByte(4. EndOfIRQ(14). Sleep(20).fIntOnReset = 0. and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. &hd_msg).seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. HD_REG_PORT). If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1.last_erc = erc.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . HD_REG_PORT). MicroDelay(4). else hdstatus. It just waits for an interrupt. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. if (i) hdstatus. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. The caller should call check_busy and check the error.erc = hd_recal(0). } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. 0xfffffff0. /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. ISendMsg(hd_exch. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. UnMaskIRQ(14).ResetStatByte = statbyte. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).fIntOnReset = 1. 0xfffffff0). } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting.

/* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. Listing 24. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. Sleep(5).5. return(erc). if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. etc. check_busy(void) count = 0. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. nSectors. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0.3 seconds.). while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). erc = hd_wait(). hd_Cmd[4] = 0. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. hd_Cmd[3] = 0. See listing 24. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS).0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* set max heads. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise.5.

/* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). KillAlarm(hd_exch). hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.LastRecalErc1 = erc. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. 300). return(erc). } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). Time-out and return if no interrupt.0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. KillAlarm(hd_exch). else hdstatus. return(ok). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc).Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. &hd_msg). if (drive) hdstatus. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch).LastRecalErc0 = erc.

if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). OutByte(hd_control. &msg) == 0). HD_PORT+4). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. } erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_REG_PORT). verify. U16 cyl. MMURTL V1. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. HD_PORT+3).alarm or int messages before we send a command. if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch.0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. seek). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). hd_nsectors = nBlks. U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. HD_PORT+1). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+6). if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. msg[2]. /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). setupseek(U32 dLBA. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. write. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. return(erc). format. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. HD_PORT+5). HD_PORT+2). HD_PORT+7).

/* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0.LastSeekErc0 = erc. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk./* we now know what cylinder.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* hd_sector. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. return(erc). if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). 1). /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. } = = = = = nBlks. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore.. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. hdstatus. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. /* cyl & 0xff.. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk).

else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. else hdstatus. */ erc = check_busy(). /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault. if (hd_drive) hdstatus.U8 statbyte. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. break. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). After all. MMURTL V1.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . errbyte. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. default: break. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. else return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. } return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. else return(erc).LastErcByte0 = errbyte. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. else hdstatus.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. } else { erc = check_busy(). if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. he interrupted us with status.

hd_sector. nleft. } } return(erc). while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. nSoFar++. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. erc = setupseek(dLBA. dnBlocks). pDataOut+=nBPS. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. nBPS). /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. nBPS. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA.nBPB.else erc = ErcBadHDC. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. pDataOut. U32 dnBlocks. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. --nleft. nBPS). pDataRet+=nBPS. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). nBPS. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT.nBPB. nSoFar.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dnBlocks. hd_sector. pDataRet. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. dnBlocks). erc = check_busy(). erc = setupseek(dLBA.

/* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. dnBlocks). /* cyl & 0xff. erc = setupseek(dLBA. U16 cyl. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. return(erc). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. SEC %d\r\n". /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). U32 HdSect.erc = hd_wait(). hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. nBPS). *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. cyl. return(erc).0 -404- . hd_sector). and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). nSoFar++. erc = hd_wait(). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. hd_head. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. /* hd_sector. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. cyl = Cylinder. HD %d. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. pDataOut+=nBPS. pDataOut. head and Sector number.

U32 dnBlocks. 512).0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS .” discussed device driver interfaces. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. &hd_msg). else hd_drive = 1. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. See listing 24. For Hard disk. erc = 0. pDataRet. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). “Programming Interfaces. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. U32 dOpNum.6. MMURTL V1. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. Listing 24.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). return(erc). The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. erc = hd_wait(). Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. } Chapter 8. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. U32 dLBA. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command.blocks_done = 0. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. U8 *pData) { U32 erc.6. 12=0 and 13=1. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice.

default: erc = ErcBadOp. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA).last_erc = erc. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. dnBlocks. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. pData).0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. break. U32 dStatusMax. */ break. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. break. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. break. /* Null Command */ break. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. return(erc). break. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. pData). pData). dnBlocks. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). break. break.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. dnBlocks. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. erc = 0.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. break. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. dnBlocks). dnBlocks. S8 * pStatRet. pData).

hdstatus.). } /* Calculate size of status to return. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat). i).nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.last_erc.nBPB. hdstatus.nHead = hd1_heads. } else { hdstatus. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus.nCyl = hd0_cyls. hdstatus.type_now = hd0_type. hdstatus. hdstatus. hdstatus. hdstatus. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters. hdstatus.nHead = hd0_heads. return ok. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect.nBPB. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.{ U32 i. else i = sStatus. CopyData(&hdstatus.nCyl = hd1_cyls.erc = hdcb[1].erc = hdcb[0].nBPS = hdcb[0]. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS . hdstatus. The DCB values are updated if this is successful.type_now = hd1_type. *pdStatusRet = i.last_erc. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. S8 *pInitData. pStatRet.nBPS = hdcb[1]. hdstatus.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk.

erc = 0. return(erc). if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive). } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp.nSectors * HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive].nSectors.nHead. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0. /* If no error. else hd_drive = 1. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nBPB = HDStatTmp. } /* If no error. &HDStatTmp.nCyl * HDStatTmp. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp. } hdcb[hd_drive].0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS .nCyl.nSectors.last_erc = 0. CopyData(pInitData.last_erc = erc.type_now.{ U32 erc. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive].nHead. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. i. hdcb[hd_drive]. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus. else i = sdInitData.nCyl. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nHead. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive).nBPS.type_now. i). } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.

unsigned long Baudrate. unsigned char parity. */ It's opened by someone else. as well as by the driver itself. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. unsigned char databits. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize... 0=none. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. See listing 24. other than that. unsigned char IRQNum. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. 150 . unsigned long RTimeOut. It needs more work.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. unsigned long resvd[6].” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. RS-232.. unsigned long LastErc. “MMURTL Sample Software. or 16550 UARTs.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port.. unsigned long XBufSize. unsigned long LastTotal...0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. 16450. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . it is a fully functional driver. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. the driver. which is a block oriented random device. and this driver. 1=even. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. unsigned long IOBase. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port.7. Listing 24. as well as status. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. */ 150-38400 */ 0. which is a sequential byte-oriented device. unsigned char stopbits. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file.38400 */ Parity for this port.7. MMURTL V1. unsigned long RBufSize. but. */ It's already open. unsigned long XTimeOut.

you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again.}. All other command are specific to this driver.8. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). U32 dfReplace). The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. See listing 24. S8 *pDCBs. U32 nDevices.0 *pIRQ). RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . Listing 24. U8 **ppMemRet). U32 nPages). S8 MMURTL V1. extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages.8. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum.

void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. These will be called form the device driver interface. U32 msg2). U32 msg2). #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 count). S8 *pMsgRet). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 Sleep(U32 count). static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. U32 dOpNum. U32 dLBA. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U32 msg1. S8 *pInitData.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . U32 dnBlocks. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 *pdStatusRet). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 dStatusMax. U32 sdInitData). U8 *pDestination. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. U32 msg1. U32 dBytes). U16 wPort). */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. U8 *pData). S8 *pStatRet. set and reset signal line condition and functions. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). /* local prototypes.

xmit_timeout[2] = 10. fExpectInt[2]. MCR[2]. tail_recv[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. LSR[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. mstat_byte[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . head_recv[2]. cRecvBuf[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. MSR[2]. FCR[2]. head_send[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. LCR[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. IIR[2]. sRecvBuf[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. tail_send[2]. stat_byte[2]. sSendBuf[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. cSendBuf[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. IER[2]. int_id[2].

You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART.1 char 01 . 1 = Multichar 0. Divisor Latch LSB IER -.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char. FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 . Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -.4 chars 11 .I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.Interr