MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

MMURTL V1.0

-i-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

www.SensoryPublishing.com

MMURTL V1.0

-ii-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

Richard A. Burgess Alexandria Virginia, 2000

MMURTL V1.0

-iii-

RICHARD A BURGESS

CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
MMURTL V1.0

-iv-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
MMURTL V1.0

-v-

RICHARD A BURGESS

PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
MMURTL V1.0

-vi-

RICHARD A BURGESS

ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
MMURTL V1.0

-vii-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
MMURTL V1.0

-viii-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
MMURTL V1.0

-ix-

RICHARD A BURGESS

GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
MMURTL V1.0

-x-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
MMURTL V1.0

-xi-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

-xii-

RICHARD A BURGESS

............... Allocating a page of linear memory......................................313 GetCMOSTime() ....................................................317 MMURTL V1..............296 Listing 19.......................................311 Listing 20..........................................................................................................................................................................13........................................................304 GetPhyAdd ..........................................317 Tone().............................24................................................................314 Listing 20............................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to remove alias PTEs................................................303 Listing 19.................................................2...................299 DeAliasMem.............. Adding a call gate to the GDT .................................................... The timer interrupt service routine ........................................................................315 GetTimerTick()....................... Adding an operating system page table .............309 Listing 20.16.............................................. Code for the Alarm function ........................................................13............288 Listing 19..... Helper function for Beep() and Tone() .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................307 INTRODUCTION ..................................298 Listing 19.........................................................................................................5...................... Code to find number of free pages...............................14..21.......15................... TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ............................309 Listing 20...............................................................................316 Beep().........................................................................................................................................................................................................................8...............................................................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ...........................................289 Listing 19........................3.................................................................................................................................................................................................. Code to produce a beep..........................................................312 Listing 20..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10................ Code to alias memory .....................317 Listing 20........... Data and constants for timer code.......................................305 Listing 19.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25......................................................................................................................................301 Listing 19............................................................................................................................................316 Beep_Work() ..........................................296 AddGDTCallGate ............................................................................................................19..........................................317 Listing 20............................................................288 AddRun .................................................................................................................22................312 KillAlarm().... Code for the Sleep function ...................................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory........ Public for linear to physical conversion................................................316 Listing 20.......................................... Code for the KillAlarm function...................................................... Code to find a free run of linear memory....................................................................................... Code for the MicrDelay function ....................................................................... Adding a run of linear memory..................................309 Sleep() ....................................................................................................................314 GetCMOSDate() .................................................................................................................................................290 AddAliasRun ............7..................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL .............................................................................293 Listing 19...............................................................................................................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ............................297 Listing 19.........................................................................304 Listing 19........................................................................................312 Listing 20.......................................................................................................... External functions for timer code ............................................................................................................................................................................................................315 Listing 20...........................................................................................................................308 Listing 20.......................................................................... Code to return the timer tick ..................... Adding a page table for user memory............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Adding entries to the IDT .............................297 AllocOSPage................................................................................................................14........................307 Listing 20.....................................................................313 MicroDelay() ..296 AddIDTGate.......................................................................................................................................................................12.293 AddOSPT ................................................................................................................................................................18................................................................................................................................................................9.....................................298 AliasMem ....................316 Listing 20.....................................................................291 AddUserPT ........................................................... Deallocating linear memory.FindRun ............................................................17...............................................................303 QueryMemPages....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Loop in timer ISR ..................1...............................................................................................305 CHAPTER 20..............................................................................6......................................................................................................... Code to read the CMOS time..................................................................................................311 Alarm()................................23......................307 TIMER DATA .................... Code to produce a tone ...............................................................308 TIMER CODE .................................................301 DeAllocPage ....................................................................................................................................................313 Listing 20...... Code to read the CMOS date ........................4................................299 Listing 19....................................................11.................................................................................309 The Timer Interrupt .....20......294 Listing 19..............291 Listing 19.....................................................................................

............... 429 INTRODUCTION ................................. Read Keyboard Buffer Code ..............................7..6........................ Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ..................... 389 Listing 24......... 442 Listing 25...........................6........... 389 INTRODUCTION ........................ 409 Listing 24.......... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING .................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ............................................................................................................................................. Job Management Subroutines...............5.................... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ....... Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ......................................................... Debugger Data and Code............................................1.....2................................................................. 331 CHAPTER 22............... 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ........................................1.................................................................................................................. 429 Listing 25.............................................................3...........................................................................................................................................8......................... 442 MMURTL V1..... INITIALIZATION CODE ...................................................................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) .................................................................................................. 395 Listing 24.............11..................................... Initialization Subroutines.............................................................................c source code............................................................ IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) .................................................................................................................................................. 429 KEYBOARD CODE ..... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER... 436 Listing 25.....................................4..................................... 436 Keyboard ISR................... 325 Listing 21..................3......................................................................... Initialize call gates amd the IDT.............3......................................................................14................................................. 337 Listing 22............................................................................................................................................................h Header File .................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ......................... 415 Listing 24.................................... Keyboard ISR Code............................................................... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA ......................... 413 Listing 24................................................................................. 415 Listing 24....................................................................................... End of Initialization Code................. 410 Listing 24...............5.....................................................................................................................................1...................1........................................ 337 INTRODUCTION .................................................................... 321 Listing 21................................................. SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 319 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... Main Operating System Data ..........................4.............................. 429 KEYBOARD DATA...................................................... 389 Listing 24.....................................................................................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ................................................................ 393 Listing 24.. 438 Listing 25........................ 344 Listing 22............................................. 417 Listing 24......................... KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE........ Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ........................................ OS Initialization Code and Entry Point................................................................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ................ 327 Listing 21................................................................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ................... 321 Listing 21........................................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ......................................................2....................................................................................................................................................... 328 Listing 21............................................................. 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING .................................................. 344 CHAPTER 23...7.............................................. 414 Listing 24................................................................................................................................ 365 Listing 23.4. 390 Listing 24........... 326 Listing 21.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Keyboard Translation Code............................................................................................................................................................................................. 398 Listing 24................................................................................................ 409 Listing 24............................................................................................CHAPTER 21......................... Continuation of OS initialization............ Keyboard Data and Tables ......................... 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ..................................................................... 366 CHAPTER 24.................................................................................................................................................................. JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ....................13............................................................................................................................................................................................ DEBUGGER CODE .................................... 424 CHAPTER 25......................................................................................................................... 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ..2..... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) .............................................................................................12................................. RS-232............................................ 319 Listing 21...........................................1.............................2..................... 365 INTRODUCTION ..................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)........................................ 366 Listing 23........................................................................................................................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ......9..........................................................................2......................................................... 436 Keyboard Translation................................................................. Continuation of OS initialization.....................................................................................................10...... Jobc...................... 438 Reading the Final Buffer .......... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ............................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ...

............................................................... Video constants and data .................................472 CHAPTER 27..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................458 Listing 26...................4...............................................................................................452 Listing 25.............................. Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen .........................................1...............540 Application Template File............464 Listing 26..........................................................................................3........... Code to Return Current Cursor Position ....................................................................................................................................................6.............................................................................................................................................................................466 Listing 26....................................................................................5.470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ......................7.................................................................. Low-level Keyboard Control Code...........................................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up................................................................................................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ......................................................................................................................452 Hardware Helpers ....................................................469 Listing 26.....................................................................................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector ................................................................................................................16....................................................................................................................................................................541 List File Option ........ DASM.......................................................................................453 CHAPTER 26.........540 Listing 28..............................................................................................................................................................539 DASM CONCEPTS .................................. VIDEO CODE .........................15...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................474 File System Initialization ....................474 Listing 27.......................................................................................12............................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to Get the Current Video Owner................................... Code to Set Cursor Position........................................................................................................9..............539 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers.................................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO .............1........... Code to Screen Video Attributes ..................................................................................7..........................................................................................................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ................................ Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ..............................................................................................................................................................................................468 Listing 26..........................................................................................542 Dynamic Link Libraries ............................ Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen.............................................................................................473 Hidden Sectors.....................465 Listing 26............................................11................................................................................. Code to Clear the Screen ......... FILE SYSTEM CODE...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................459 Listing 26.......................................... A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER .............................................................................5...........462 Listing 26.................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code ...................................................................................451 Listing 25.............. Keyboard system service code..............................................................................................................464 Listing 26.............473 Logical Block Address (LBA)................... Code to get the Normal Video Attribute...............1..................................................................................................................................................................................................8.......................................................................................458 Listing 26......................................................The Keyboard Service ..............................................................................................................................10........................542 MMURTL V1......................................................................................................473 INTRODUCTION ...540 Listing 28.............. A More Complicated Template File ...........................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization .................................................................................448 Debugger Keyboard............................................10........ Code to Set the Video Owner ....................... Keyboard Service Initialization ...........................................................9...................461 Listing 26...........................460 Listing 26........................................................474 CHAPTER 28.........................................................................................460 Listing 26...........2..........453 Listing 25.......................................................461 Listing 26...................................................................................................450 Listing 25.6......................................... Code to set Normal Video Attribute .................................2......................................................... Code to Get a Character and Attribute.................8.....................0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ..................................................... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ...................................................................................................................539 USING DASM.......................................................................................................541 Command Line Options ...................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position..................................13........443 Listing 25................................................................................................................... Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call ..474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ...................541 Errors Only Option .................... Code to Initialize Video ...................14..................................................... MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ........................ Code to Edit a Line on the Screen...............................................................................................................................................................................................................457 Listing 26...........443 Keyboard Procedural Interface .....542 Device Drivers .................................448 Listing 25................................................................................................................457 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................457 THE VIDEO CODE ............................................................................................................. Simple Application Template File ....................................468 Listing 26...................

......................... 568 Library Functions ......................CD-ROM CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 543 DOT Commands ............................................ 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ........DASM Source Files .............................................................................................................................. 575 APPENDIX A -......................................................................................................................................... Standard file I/O for MMURTL .................................................................................................................... 570 Listing 29........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 548 EXTRN Declarations................................................................................. 547 DW (Define Word) .....................................................1 ......................................... 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ................................................... 545 Table 28.......................................... 555 Table 28............................................................................................................................................ 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... A 32-BIT C COMPILER .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 547 DB (Define Byte).. 556 Tag Descriptions.............................................Supported Instructions ..................................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations .................... 565 Far External Functions ............... 542 DASM Program Structure ...............................................1.............................................................................................................. 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 558 Your Own Assembler? ....................................................................................................................................... 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ................... 569 Listing 29....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 569 Library Code Examples ........................................................................................................ 548 PUBLIC Declarations................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 545 Storage Declarations................................................. 563 Library Header File Access........................................ 542 Memory Model................................................................................................................................................................................. 579 INDEX .......... 548 Labels and Address............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 562 Variable Length Argument Lists ....................................... 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ..................................... 563 Supported C Language Features .......................3 ............................................ 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) .................................................................................................................... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT .................. 581 MMURTL V1..................................................................................... 568 USING CM32.................. 547 DF (Define Far Word) .....................................................2 ............. 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ..............................................................................................................Specifying Memory Operands...............................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ........................................ 552 Table 28........................... 565 Structure Limitations ............................................................................................................. Standard String Functions for MMURTL ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................3............ 547 DD (Define Double Word) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 Interrupt Functions.............................................................. 568 Command Line Options ........................................................................................................ 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information..................................................2.......................................................................................................................................................................................... Supported Library Functions ............................................................................... 559 CHAPTER 29..............................................................................................................................Tag Usage .................................................. 543 Listing 28..................................................................................... Alternating data and code in a template file .........3.................. 566 Initialization of Static Variables ...... 570 Listing 29.................................................................................................................................................... 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ............. CM32......... 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 561 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 545 DASM Addressing Modes .................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 FAR Calls ....................................................................................................................................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

.

because source-code compatibility was the main objective. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. In the early days. I have documented what it takes to really write one. You don't need to design your own. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. Realizing this. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. portability issues size and speed. Unfortunately. As coding began. If you write something that no one can use. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. MMURTL V1. In the case of my own operating system. I would just make a list. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. or Sun. They use them. When OS/2 was first developed. not his IQ. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. It's up to you. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. I decided what stayed and what went. and begin coding. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. code. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. memory model. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. But I wanted a small API. That was part of my wish list. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. and the programming interface. they work with them. however. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. it's a complete system. When I started out. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. The most obvious of these. You. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. I set the ground rules. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. do some research on each of the desirables. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. Even though I refer to it as unfinished.Chapter 1. I determined the specifications for the final product. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. If you're an experienced programmer. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. IBM. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. are the tasking model. as viewed by the outside programmer. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. NOT SO FAST THERE. it's unlikely they'll use it. but very light on specifics.

and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. MMURTL V1. but it was a "must" for me. which I felt. message based. Hardware Timers. so I've removed the mystique. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. In my opinion. You can use pieces of it. ideas from it. Serial and Parallel Ports. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). the memory model. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). It clouds far too many real issues these days. your goals may be different. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. size and speed. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. In fact. programming interfaces. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. multitasking. modify. redesign it to meet your requirements. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. and some serious "turbo" modifications. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. change it to suit your needs. or all of it if you wish to write your own. This was the 16. Once again.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS .to 32-bit jump. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. would help me write better application software for it. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). I'm sure it won't.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. For this reason. real-time. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. For instance. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. Even though they have added speed. 80486 (486). This was completely intentional. or write your own. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. The source code. they are effectively super-386 processors. along with all the tools necessary to build. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. Throughout this book. You may or may not want to do this for your system. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. hardware interface. a few more instructions. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. But that's not what this book is about. portability issues. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors.

We want the system to react to us. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. If you're going to write your own.. you may have a different platform in mind. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. I discuss this in chapter 6. but real multi-threading . such as C or Pascal. Message agents could be added to any platform. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software.” Simplicity .” Protection from other programs . You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2.Not just task switching between programs. If it is another processor. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. Power without BLOAT. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. but I don't recommend it. I use the stack. if we knew how. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. the humans.The ability to react to outside events in real time. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. and also what I decided on.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). yet powerful enough to get the job done. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. “Programming Interfaces. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. Chapter 5 covers memory management. Easy programming . hardware paging. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. Real-time operation . and what my end result was. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. “The Hardware Interface. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). I also wanted to maintain a small. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. YOURMOTHERSMEM. If you don't have this requirement. many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there).0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . or maybe a little less? Of course. “Programming Interfaces. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. and most of them are grossly under used.” and chapter 8. or start one from scratch.But not the programmer. HIMEM. and for a very good reason. MMURTL V1. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model).” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . but not all the options. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. You may start with my list and modify it. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system.My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced.Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. Extended. are outside events. LOMEM.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. Client/Server design . The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. “The Hardware Interface. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. We. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. is with a procedural interface. I'll discuss some of your options. the right mix of capability and simplicity. UMBs. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). General Discussion and Background. LIM. calling conventions. I didn't want to do this.Keep the system as simple as possible..

It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. or for general reference. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. Dedicated. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. but only a distant cousin. or use any of the tools I included. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. Sections of the source code will. And of course. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. and 64K of data). The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. Then again. expand it to your heart's desire.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. the tools. x86/Pentium processors. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. If you don't want to start from scratch. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. and the initialization entry point jumped to. In the educational field. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. nor is it intended to directly replace them. If you don't like my acronym. Multitasking. MMURTL V1. I put together my own operating system. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). If you're not worried about memory consumption. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). If you intend to run MMURTL. I'm sure. Message based. be of value in your other programming projects as well. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). no doubt. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. Yes. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). the code. Real-Time. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. make up your own! But. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. kerneL. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). Real-Time.

that is. but still.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. 8250. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. Pentium. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. The processor must be an Intel 80386.5" are supported. not at all the same. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. If yours isn't. If you want to run DOS. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. you can ignore this section. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. and more importantly. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. Note: PCI bus designs work well. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). MMURTL V1. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used).x (IBM). IBM and other clone processors. 80486. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. Hence. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. Both 5. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. One Megabyte of RAM is required.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. also – 2000). AMD. This includes Cyrix. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. but a few are not). you can change the code as needed. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). IDE is preferred. but only out of convenience. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. EISA (Ed.25" and 3. (or even MS-DOS). If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. eases the development burden. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. 2 MB (or more) is recommended.

.

as well what may influence your design. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. make a lot of sense. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. affect its design. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time.” I covered what my final design goals were. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. no doubt. I might add).a. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). or even just use MMURTL the way it is. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. It does. Far too often. Burroughs and Sperry. As you can see. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. MMURTL V1. It whet my whistle. here it is. In fact. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 2. and borrowed with great respect. a. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. you might not want to). The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20.). I would not let this happen. merged). simplified memory management. has had an effect. etc. write your own operating system. for no apparent reason). It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. take away. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). It was a 32-bit system. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. my schooling. client server designs. Borrow from mine. In Chapter 1. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. Every little thing you've run across will. improve. and just make it better if you have the desire. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. my reading of various publications and periodicals. however. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). That worked out just about right. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer.000.k. add. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. Five years later. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. “Overview. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. That was 1989.

these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. and a few others. The next major decision was the software development environment. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. at times it was quite difficult. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. As you may be aware. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. Memory access was limited.all but ancient history now. popular platform. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. however.x linker. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. like a bad virus. in the process of using these other tools. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development.0) and later moved to 5. and utilities . people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. or ported to a system. It's the place to start. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. There was no turning back. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. MS-DOS was everywhere. I thought about other processors. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler.. there was no such thing. It was limited to the small memory model.After I got involved with the IBM PC. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . Of course. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. a lure that could not be suppressed. but it worked nonetheless. but the tools worked.x assembler and 2. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. I really had no choice. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). maybe. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. It can be a little confusing and frustrating.including assembler. was a must. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. Again.1. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages..yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. however. Then those were the 2. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. In fact. but as you well know. I'm not a Borland salesman. It is just now becoming popular. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. compiler. but the tools just worked better. Operating system developers. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. Message-based. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. or even OS/2. Once again.

0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). at least.. I do so because its bus. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits.some tools from the major software vendors. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. TTL. and the called function cleans the stack. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). or may not. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint.). Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. want or need. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. such as Chips & Technologies. a major task. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. Computer chip manufacturers. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. and a few other minor utilities. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. documents. a disassembler. DMA. articles. In fact. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. There is no linker. Parameters are passed left to right. as well as the software control of these devices. Besides. etc. IBM published theirs. Needless to say. you will need to read chapter 28.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. These documents are usually free. That's right. The C compiler produces assembly language. in itself. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. DC. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). SX MMURTL V1.” Assembly language has its place in the world. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits.. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. which is fed to the assembler. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. Developing this assembler was. as you may understand. That set me back four months. in which case. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. I think many people started there. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. It is tied to the internal bus. Many different books. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. but another port is in the works. To fully understand this. Communications controllers. which is 32 bits for the most part. It's simply not needed." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. etc. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. interface design.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. or even port MMURTL to it. I plead the "Fifth" on this. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. but I pretty much built from scratch. no linker. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers.

] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). as you will see. etc. In chapter 5. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. This simple model could allocate and manage memory.). all based on their own selectors. The thought was rather sickening. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). I had to meet my design goals.and 16-bit code and data. etc. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. from a 16-bit code segment. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. If you write your own system.. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions.x. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. you'll be ahead of the game. all implementations of UNIX). The segmented memory idea was canned. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. It was a "kinder. This was timeconsuming. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. but instead a lean. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. During this time.). but it's not at as complicated. gentler" environment I was after. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. MMURTL V1.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. of course. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. even the operating system writer. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. OS/2 version 2. no way to get test programs into the system. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book.g. as well as the stack storage. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. anyway (e. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. [Thunking is when you interface 32. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. aliasing is also required. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. "Thunking" was out of the question. This easily consumed the first six months. but this is transparent to the programmer. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . I touched on what I wanted in the overview.x. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. It has turned out very nicely. There was no loader. timers. EISA. anyway. but it presented several serious complications. In a paged system.two segments per program and two for the OS. Windows version 3. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. powerful. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. But as you may be aware. this is a year you won’t have to go through. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. All of the early test programs were in assembler. but not a fully segmented model . An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. If you use Intel-based platforms. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. I discuss several options you have. Memory Management. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test.

If you've ever done any large-scale project management. I envy you. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. but I'm very serious. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. but there wasn’t. Get to know your assemblers. "You start here. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. Investigate your tools. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. I say this from experience. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. and overall program management – as you see fit. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). you will no doubt find bugs. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). Or at least when you get it working. I have provided such an operating system with this book. it may be CISC. you know that certain items in a project must work. Memory management is next. If this has never happened to you. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use.anything that you think you'll need to remember. I was really interested in communications. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. For example. This is called the critical path. The Critical Path Along your journey. But I'll try. It may be RISC. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. There are so many platforms out there. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. This includes the tasking model. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. memory model and basic programming interface. the rest is real work. You can then “port” the prototype. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. the actual application may not be so important. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. you'll NEVER really be done with it. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. of course. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. and there will also be background noise. compilers and utilities. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. hints are about all I CAN give you. Of course. But. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. will depend on the memory model you choose. Decide on your basic models. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. garbage collection. Go for the kernel. I'll tell you the easiest. This may sound a little humorous. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. how much knowledge you have. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. but whatever you decide on. get to know it very well. The level of complexity. Select your hardware platform. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished." It is difficult for me to do this also. Document the problems. or how much time you really have to invest. MMURTL V1. the discoveries . study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. Know your desired application. do it. but they just didn't say. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. It will be worth the time spent. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. you know that it can be a very daunting task.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system.

Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. compilers. But really. all the way. Work with small. But don't set them too high. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. It will be blood. Good luck. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). I lay out my notes for what I want. MMURTL V1. I had my wish list well in advance. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. Sounds backwards? It is. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them.Working Attitude Set your goals. I write the documentation. Document as you go. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. I moved on from there. As I mentioned above. and then I write the code.” Once satisfied. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. dependable pickup truck. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. These tools include documentation for the hardware. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. sweat and maybe some tears. it won't be luck. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. easily digestible chunks. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. it's worth the time.

" which means communications between tasks. TASK . I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor.g. I admit some guilt here too). How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). This makes it a very small kernel. at least temporarily. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. but it is. You may not agree with the definitions. Tell the programmers what you mean.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. however. MMURTL V1. coffee and soda spilled on them. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. In its executable form.” In most instances I call it a TASK. Some documentation. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. and more specifically. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. be specific about it.” while others call it a “thread. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU).0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS .Terminate and Stay Resident programs). If you write your own. But this is not cast in stone either. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. Hence. but doesn't expect the interrupt. then start another task running. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed.This term is not disputed very much. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts.. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. It shouldn't be. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. MS-DOS TSRs . it’s PREEMPTIVE. When a task is suspended from execution. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. Some operating systems call a task a “process. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. KERNEL . but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. After all. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. but I hope you will accept them. or at least coming to agreement on them. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. and most people refer to. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. Generally. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. CPU utilization. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. and I'm not talking about programming languages. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL.Chapter 3. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. In other words. save its state. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model.

and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. I deal with one user at a time.In other words. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. You may MMURTL V1. Managing these resources in a simple. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. On the other hand. "simple software for simple minds. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. disk. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). Task Management Tasks begin. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. But in almost all of these systems. Tasks crash. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. and hardware (Timers. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. but it may not be so easy for you. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!).). To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . etc.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. In each case. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. keyboard. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). This is its only real purpose in life. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). Multitasking. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. or even network connections for logons. Quite obviously. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission." but needless to say. How tasks are handled. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. Some are communications programs (FAX software. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. Single User. execute programs as the new users desire. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. including video. it didn't sit too well with me. These are the real resources. memory management. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. "Everything should be as simple as possible. and some are user-oriented software. Single vs. and why. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. When I wrote these programs. One of my friends suggested the motto. when the mission was accomplished. or the user was done. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. Interrupt Controller Units. It may have memory assigned to it. Tasks end. DMA. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. Input/Output (I/O) devices. good old Albert). each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. In other words. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. comms programs). Nor did I want it to be.

The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management.want to deal with many. It's actually easier than it sounds. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. The software state can consist of almost nothing. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. When you change tasks. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. This will be the heart and brains of the system. but an important one. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. The CPU takes care of it for you. If you must do it yourself. Yet. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. It was crude. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. Then I asked. I had my very own processor. "It's 11:00PM. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. but effective. this is usually a no-brainer. Microcomputers spoiled me. MMURTL V1. it would seem to return at its leisure. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. In the case of hardware interrupts. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. When you restore a task. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. In a multitasking operating system. My first programs were written with that attitude. We were each getting a piece of the pie. This is where the hardware-state is saved. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. it was a breeze. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them.

and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). and basic input/output. This may be in milliseconds. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). however. and in some cases. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. however. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. And yes. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. interrupt servicing. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). the ability to cut a task off at the knees. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. It may not always be obvious when it happens. a single threaded system may be the best solution. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. or a combination of the two. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. Cooperative and Preemptive. you are cooperating with the operating system. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. management of CPU time is easy. In this case. "Hey . a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. which I cover in this chapter. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done.I'm done with the CPU for now. With these calls. In a single tasking operating system.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. This can be for a number of reasons. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. They can. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. In fact. For instance. if necessary. the screen and everything else looks frozen. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. A task that has the processor gives it up. you basically have a hardware manager. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. MMURTL V1. Meanwhile. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. or to pause when it has nothing to do. he then monopolizes the CPU. do an adequate job in many cases. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. In many single tasking systems. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups." From there.

or after a set period of time. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. MMURTL V1. is a preemptive system. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. outside events. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. and maybe memory context. hardware timer. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. the scheduler simply determines who's next. As you can see. this adds the requirement of timing. As I also mentioned earlier. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. Most of the time. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. and how long does that task get to run? Who. etc. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver.g. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. Also. In a preemptive system. disk drive. there is going to be a desire. The timer can help determine when to preempt. When do we switch tasks. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run.communicating. connected to the outside world .Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. it doesn't expect it. the scheduler. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. or the operating system from an external device (e. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. the task that's running. It does nothing to prepare for it. In fully cooperative systems. The next section is the tricky part. To expand on that definition. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. These parties include the programmer. or a few other hardware-related things. When. or monitoring. we must now decide which task runs next. For the preemptive system. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. communications device. when a task is preempted. controlling. The currently running task is preempted. or it may be for something extremely critical. On most platforms. Generally. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. a program. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. or even a requirement. They are also.). This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. it's only the hardware state which includes registers.. quite often. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. However. after the interrupt is finished. to which task do we switch. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later).

and they will be executed in the order they were created. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. otherwise.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. In a cooperative system. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. Time slicing is an old technique. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. In a time sliced preemptive system. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks.all tasks will get the same slice . only the very highest would ever get to run. In some systems. each task gets 25 milliseconds. but it won't be on their terminals. This is usually not very effective. the one with the highest priority will be executed. it can serve admirably. In the simplest time sliced systems. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. For example. and the next task in line is restored and executed. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). each task will get a fixed amount of time . Many early multitasking operating systems were like this.000 burgers. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. and if a user interface is involved. "a slice of time. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. (the others will be flipping 8. The others may see a slow down. A simple queuing system suffices. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. Who determines which task gets more time. Not quite that simple. For example." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. But it has some major drawbacks.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . This gives the scheduler something to work with. When a task's time is up. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. its complete hardware and software state is saved.

and we want our machines responsive to us. but it's not dramatic enough. dependable. come do something with this data before I lose it"). Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. For instance. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. In a message based system. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. But I opted to "get real" instead. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example.g. or the user. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. Therefore. Now. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. but one channel is handling five times the data. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. clean communications. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. These are communications and user interface issues. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). we definitely want to be able to preempt a task..to go around on the system. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. We want good. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. but it makes the point. The buffer will overflow. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. This IS real-time stuff. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. computers are everywhere. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. things are never as simple as they seem. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. Thus.

A task may. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. Time Sliced. Fully Time Sliced. and even help define the tasking model. although such systems exist. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. But even when the task has nothing to do. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. you have a few ideas of your own. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. all tasks will get to run. No doubt. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. MMURTL V1. based on the number of tasks scheduled. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. To be honest. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. Some Cooperation In this type of model. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. In this type of system. even though these methods are very important. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). Users on a larger. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). however. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. Primarily Cooperative. I can't picture a system without it. it would still be scheduled to execute. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. A very simple. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. In addition. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. See what works for your applications. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time.

as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. multitasking. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. I never wanted to miss outside events. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. real-time operating system. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. This is a speed issue. Keep them short. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. Go for the fastest option . and the next task with the highest priority executes. which provides a piece of the scheduling function.Primarily Cooperative. I wanted a priority based. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. or whatever. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. The timer-interrupt routine. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. file access. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. In such a system. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. and in reality. The less time the better. The task based ISR is slower.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. After all. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. Limited Time Slicing category. monitors the current task priority. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. Other processors may offer similar options. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. if you have 256 priorities. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. "Experience is a wonderful thing. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. and limit the functionality if at all possible. For instance. much faster. To me. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. and no. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. timer services. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state.PERIOD. preemptive. This could have presented some protection problems. To briefly explain my tasking model. goes into a "waiting" state. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. It's faster – actually." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences.

MMURTL V1. who's to say when Mr. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it.management headaches. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). or even possibly the users. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . or Ms. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. On systems that are primarily time sliced. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). the problems didn't surface.only the user knows. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. For instance. you switch tasks. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. After a period of time has elapsed. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . In a cooperative environment.

semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. In operating systems that use semaphores. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. perform operations on the semaphore structures. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. As I described in earlier chapters. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. Of course. only one task can execute at a time.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . this task could be suspended and another task could be started. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. In other words. As the name implies. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. On a single CPU. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it.Chapter 4. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. portions of the code will not be reentrant. nor should they have to. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. However. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. where it waits. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). As you will see in this chapter. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). what operation you want to perform. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. if it's being allocated). How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. or is suspended when it can't run. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter." MMURTL V1. it could cause some serious problems.

I refer to a program as a “job. I have added a second. you should study how they are used on other systems. or similar ones. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. more powerful. I didn't. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. OS/2. I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. destroy tasks. a program is made up of one or more tasks. In a message-based system. ClosePipe(). I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. public pipes are very handy. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. tasks are not wholly independent. and WritePipe(). and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. In fact. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. such as MMURTL. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. If you intend to implement semaphores. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. You will see these commands. OS/2 is one such system. which will consist of one or more tasks. such as those procedures that create new tasks. He or she will make a system call for some resource. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). In my humble opinion. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. In my system. But once again. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you.). which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place).0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . etc. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. on most real-time operating systems. or schedule tasks for execution. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). only the basic form of messaging is implemented. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. In fact. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. OpenPipe(). These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. ReadPipe(). but I used a second form of messaging instead. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. As you can see. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1.In most cases. This is much more efficient.

One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. an exchange point. Zork to forget it. You point to a piece of code. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). WaitMsg(). Now. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. SendMsg(). Yes. Consider the phone again. only one task is actually executing instructions. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. char *pMsgRet). The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. You tell it what exchange. long dMsgPart1." This is an example of a one way message. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. a bin. In an operating system's case. such as. If there is no task waiting at that exchange.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . "Tell Mr. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. long dMsgPart2). a task is born. MMURTL V1. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. The task is the human. the answering machine is the exchange. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. or just about any other name you like. It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. but enough that we can talk about them. You can send one way messages to a person.functions. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. Not too large to move around. SpawnTask(). The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. it's a little more complicated than that. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. It does just what it says . I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). dExch is the destination exchange. give it the message and away it goes. You also need a way to send the message. and VIOLA. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). char *pMsgRet). In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). provide some other pieces of information. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. request() and respond(). or whatever you call it. CheckMsg(). but large enough for a couple of pointers. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. Now I have some very important terms and functions . dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue.it sends a message. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. If you're lucky. I called it an Exchange. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. his offer is the pits.not in detail yet. for which you expect no response. the message is received right away. In MMURTL's case. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. It returns 0 if all goes well. I have implemented this as SendMsg().

0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . As we move down the table in our example. Task2 is higher. I'll try to liven it up some later on.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish.). None are waiting. it's not called the kernel zone. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. What it's doing isn't important. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. Task1 is ready to run. Task2 is still running. very small. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. In this example. Table 4.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. Task2 allocates Exch2. Table 4.. time is passing. Kernel attaches message to Exch1.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. None found. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. It's still task 2. Just kidding.. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Kernel makes Task1 run. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. You start with a single task executing.

. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. When the service is first installed. The name must be unique on the machine. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference).. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. This can simplify the scheduler. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . Each service can provide up to 65.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it .Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. they must be waiting for something. The processing is carried out by the service.1. Each time an interrupt occurs.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. In fact. If there is a task at the exchange.. unsigned int wSvcCode. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. From the simple example in table 4. MMURTL V1. FAX services. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. it will be made to run. In some systems. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. They are ideal for things like file systems. This may not work on all types of processors. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later).0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. the receiving task is made to run. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. If there is one. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. BBS systems. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. . you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. queued file management. keyboard input. printing services. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. It gives task2 the message. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. each service installed is given a name.. I didn't do this with MMURTL. 10 or even 15 system services. e-mail services. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). They are dedicated types. only the service name. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. With MMURTL. This way. the list could go on and on. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. but the name will always be the same. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. A fully loaded system may have 5. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. From the example you can also see that when you send a message.

or pData2 to send data to the service.Number of the specific function you are requesting. This will be explained later in memory management. dData1. The service name is eight characters. *pData2 . but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords.Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated).long dRespExch. long *pdRqHndlRet. long dData1. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. in the file system OpenFile() function. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). dRespExch . This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. if the request was serviced (with no errors). Second. long dData0. Where is the response data and status code? First. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). dnpSend . Zero (0) usually indicates no error.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . and spacepadded on the right. all capitals. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). dData0. and dData2 . Using the Open File() example.is the number (0. Second. But. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). These are documented independently by each service. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). If this is the response.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. char *pData2SR. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill. pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. *pData1 . There's still a little work to do.This is the same as dcbData1. Two questions arise: 1. They are described below: dRqHndl . the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. dcbData2 . The service already knows this.the status or error code returned to the requester. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. dcbData1 . the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message.the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. dStatRet . If it is 80000000h or above. If you remember. *pdRqHndlRet .Pointer to the service name you are requesting. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName .Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). wSvcCode . the second dword is the status code or error from the service. long dStatRet). These can never be pointers to data. long dcbData1SR. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. For instance. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. If you made more than one request. In many functions you will not even use pData1. At first glance. long dcbData2SR. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. but network transport mechanisms do not. long dData2 ). Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. you'll need to know which one is responding. dnpSend would be 1. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. it is NOT a response.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. this would be the size (length) of the filename.

Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. So.to read or write data. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. only one task can really be running at a time. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). Not very big. checks the semaphore. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. An exchange is a small structure in memory. right? But let me guess . Also. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. When each task is done with the allocation routine. task1 gets to run again. The buffer is gone. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. pointers are off the ends of arrays. and show you what can happen. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. Not as difficult as you expect. Semaphores are used on many systems. Each task that enters the code. or pauses in the middle of them. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . Now. lets look at an example. Now. As you can see. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. It's really quite simple. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. it's a mess. there was only one buffer left. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. and WHAMO . You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. To really understand this issue. MMURTL V1. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. but this would slow things down a bit. even in a multitasking system. For the sake of understanding this. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. but still very important. it is preempted. But when it reaches PointX. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. So the code goes in. As you know. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange.it's crash time.

You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. let's look at a real-world example.task switches. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. Also.200 baud in Windows 3. and also "the biggie" . but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). it will simplify IPC greatly .000 * 3).If the instruction sequence is short enough. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. WHOA THERE . they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). and maybe even not often enough. I started with one and abandoned it early on. You didn't disable interrupts. This is 1/38. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. In theory. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based.x? You will lose data.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check.000. Good tight code in the kernel is a must.” MMURTL V1. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. “Memory Management.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. It will be the only way. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. In the kernel code. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. You will lose data. The next sections discuss this. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. Don't blame Windows though. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. but my testing shows I did OK. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem.

Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. Whether or not you use paging hardware.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. Address 0 is the first. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. Basic Terms Once again. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor.Chapter 5. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. it's all basically the same. Either way. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. or another complicated applications. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). MMURTL V1. Instead. There are some major differences though. This greatly affects the next three items. so does an operating system. if available. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. For instance. I do make some assumptions about your processor. Some do it with internal paging hardware. With the Intel processors. The memory model you choose. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes.

1. at least for the operating system. As programs are loaded. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. chunks of physical memory called pages. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. With this scheme. No address translations take place in hardware. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. different memory allocation schemes (top down. MMURTL V1.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. In this type of system. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. and bad. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. bottom up. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. Figure 5. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. This can be good. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement. and possible partitioning for each program. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. You may be restricted from using some of these options. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows.). Figure 5. As programs are loaded.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . etc. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations.

With demand-paged memory.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. For example. With paged memory.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. or even 64 MB). your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. direct access storage device.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. more than likely a hard disk drive. Figure 5. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory.Figure 5. Figure 5. For instance.2 . Figure 5.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. With this scheme. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has.

Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. Look at Figure 5.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique.Figure 5. The minute you apply this term to memory management. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. as in virtual reality. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system. but it sure looks like it is. all the programs still use the same linear space." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS .3 . it means that you're lying to your programs. MMURTL V1. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. and the hardware allows it. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. and indeed you are. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. With paging hardware.

You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. parallel linear spaces. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not.4 .Figure 5. Note the advantages here. MMURTL V1. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. The options here are almost mind boggling. A way around this to use a shared memory area. No doubt. you will think of. Once again.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. yet. the memory management hardware must support it. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. In order to allow multiple. different data or code). The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. which is the idea. In Figure 5.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS ." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. and implement some of your own. Note also the disadvantages. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. memory is NOT flat. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. there are many possible variations.

This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. one for code and several for data access. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. What they came up with is called Segmentation. This is a very handy feature. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. Likewise.g. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. All of the Intel products are very well documented. The LRU schemes have many variations. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. we had some pretty limited address spaces. and you need to understand the implications. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. OS/2 or Windows). They allowed multiple sequential. they needed to identify and manage those segments. The most common. it is usually termed as "dirty. When a page has been written to.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. They used something called a segment register. When this was a 16-bit world." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. MMURTL V1. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. so I won't go into further detail. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. In fact. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. It's just what it sounds like. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. and the popular Zilog Z80). This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. 8088. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. They are not limited to 64K. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. When you use a selector. 20 to be exact. and 80286). This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. and generally the most efficient. 80186. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. This means you can save the time rewriting it. When the 80286 came on the scene. or even an 8-bit one. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. To make this work.. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. However. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. This was actually several registers.

This way. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. one person). One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. If you do. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. if your hardware supports it. you ARE the operating system. With this scheme. but not in the order I listed them. Allocating memory to load applications and services. and it will be based on many factors. Other factors include how much memory you have. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . But in many systems. You'll have to make a decision. it usually takes the whole system down. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management.With a 32-bit system. I learned this the hard way. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. Allocating memory for applications. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. when one application crashes. I'll discuss each of these things. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. Tracking client linear memory allocations. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. MMURTL V1. Remember. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. when one application crashes. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. I will give you a good idea what it's like. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. This can be a real hassle. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. which will be defined by the paging hardware. How you store the links in this list can vary. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. You make the rules. They are “linked lists” and “tables. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. each block holds its own link. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. the type of applications you cater to. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. you should decide on your basic allocation unit.” Before you decide which method to use. and Handling protection violations. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model.

This is another topic entirely. pFree. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic.size = 0. which means you can't honor the request. pMemInUse. but I'll touch on it some.owner = 0. In the following simple linked list scheme.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . pFree and pMemInUse. Of course. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree.pNext until pLink. long owner.owner = 0. pMemInUse. struct MemLinkType *pLink. pLink->owner = 0. No next link yet.size = 0. struct MemLinkType pFree. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. char *pPrev. This is done by following pLink.size is large enough. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. I haven't disassembled their code. pMemInUse. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . pLink->pNext = 0. } When a client asks for memory. MMURTL V1. These are the first links in your list. In the process of memory management initialization. You now have an idea where they went. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. pMemInUse. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. or you reach a link where pNext is null. pFree. pLink->pPrev = &pFree.pPrev = 0. you would set up the two base link structures. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space.16.pNext = 0. For my description.pNext = 0x100000. /* " " */ long Client = 0. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). you must remember that pLink.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. pFree. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. }.pPrev = 0.

pNewLink->size = pLink->size . I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. Granted. The function returns the address of the new memory. WantSize is the size the client has requested. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16).16. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. } } return(0). pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. it WILL get fragmented. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. pLink->size = WantSize. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client..pNext = &pLink. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS .. And believe me. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink.pNext. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. Client is the owner of the new block. The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. pNewLink->owner = 0. If you use this code. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB.WantSize .*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. } /* Sorry . This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. The following example code is expanded to show each operation.

if at all possible. This will add time to deallocation routines. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. This will be useful in the following routine. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. change its owner. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. validate the link. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. This makes the most sense to me. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. In other words. But you can't depend on this. This provides instant cleanup. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. /* scan till we find out where we go. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. or you can do it all after the fact. and you insert it there. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. But we can't add our size to pFree. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway.pNext. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. then move it to the pFree list. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. This is where the fragmentation comes it. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. You have the linear address. There are several thoughts on cleanup. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS .deallocate. depending on the order of deallocation. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. but cleanup will be a snap.16. which returns memory to the free pool.

pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. The two must be synchronized. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. there are physical pages assigned to it. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. In the case of the paging hardware. You can expand on them if needed.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . It should give you a great number of ideas. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. return(0). you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). we couldn't be combined with the previous. */ /* In this case. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. you will have two memory spaces to track. MMURTL V1. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. } } /* If we got here. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. pNewLink->owner = 0. If you don't use the paging hardware. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). you can decide how you want them setup.

Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. You must set up tables. This can get complicated. Batteries fail.When you work with paging hardware. you will have to move it all. For instance. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. trap. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. it will generally be in a block of addresses. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. MMURTL V1. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. It will be the page’s size. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. You will be allocated these up front. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. Wherever you load it. If you use paging. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. If your processor gives you these types of options. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. From there. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. add the translations you need and are already using. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. and turn on the paging hardware. But it's up to you. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. “OS Initialization. “the Hardware Interface. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. In some cases. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. and you should take that into consideration. it becomes allocated memory right away.” but once the operating system is loaded. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. you will have independent tables for each application.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. You must consider where the operating system loads.

The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. 32-bit offset). It can be very complicated to use on any system. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. The operating system code segment is 08h. but will have no effect on applications. I use almost no segmentation. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. you know that with MS-DOS. and one data segment for all programs and applications. For instance. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. The common data segment is 10h. If you have no desire to use them. set them all to one value and forget them. This could change in future versions. the initialized data segment. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. uninitialized data segment. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. and I even use the Intel segment registers. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. but nice to have. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. and many others. but in a very limited fashion. and one or more code segments.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . One is for code and the other is for data and stack. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. Large. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. The user code segment is 18h. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. the concept of program segments is an old one. If you are familiar with segmented programming. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. Compact. I wanted only one program memory model. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. Medium.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. This greatly simplifies every program we write. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. This was too complicated for me. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. Small. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. and even larger with demand page memory. the application code segment. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems.

(Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . Each of the PDEs points to a PT. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. Besides. its not magic." huh?). The operating system itself is technically not a job. Because of this. Every Job gets its own PD. Each PTE is four bytes long. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4.1. and each application the same thing. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. If you want just a few bytes. the kernel . I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. but you need it in pieces. but most of the operating system code – specifically. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. What you don't see. Each PDE is also four bytes long. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. Sure.294.memory. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory.967. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. MMURTL V1. because I haven't explained it yet.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon.runs in the task of the job that called it. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). is that you really do need most of this capability. No.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. but it’s close. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). it has code and data and a task or two.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). For instance. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. If you get our calculator out. Right? Wrong. which can have 1024 entries.

It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. in a word. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. I wanted to keep the overhead down.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. Code. This is fine for one address per job. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). Sure. but when you start talking 10. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. But it was for a good cause (No. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. Besides. I could have built a separate table and managed it.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . When I started the application. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. yes. In the scheme of things. possibly several for each application. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. but it does this with very little overhead. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). MMURTL V1.1 . CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. 20. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). the secret is out. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. Read on and see what I did.Table 5. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. Well. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. Of course. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. However. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. If you remember. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. Now it's got the PTE. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. certainly less overhead than this explanation). The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. Now that it knows where the PD is. and it needs it fast. Likewise. Sounds like a lot of work. but it wasn't needed.

but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. Table 5. but you get the idea.. This is 0 to 1Gb. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. That would really be a waste. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. As shown. If I decided to do it.. 256 257 . AllocPage(). The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. all the shadow entries are marked not present.1. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory.. in Table 5. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized... 768 769 . Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. What does this make the page directory look like? Below.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . 512 513 . If I desired. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum).Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. in fact. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned..0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS ...2. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present. AllocOSPage(). but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors. it would be transparent to applications anyway. MMURTL V1.

with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. Device Drivers have code and data. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. Now comes that easy part . it will create a new PT. but the memory will not be available for later use. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). System Services. from a previous AllocPage() call. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. there will be no error. If so. and data. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. If it does. which is also my sister's name. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. but only from this caller's memory space. nor should it try to find out. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life).0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. They are simply new jobs. or will return an error if it's not available. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). MMURTL V1. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. but no stack. Device drivers. Each application (job) gets it own PD. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). and whether or not it's currently in use. It does not tell you whom they belong to. and DLLs. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. you allocate physical memory from the top down. The caller will never know. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). must all be loaded into memory somewhere. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. the caller passes in a linear address. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. along with the number of pages to deallocate. With a 1Gb address space. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. initial stack. only that number will be deallocated. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). If the physical memory exists. It's loaded into these initial pages. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. It is not important. If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. nor do you even care. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system).Managing physical memory. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM.

The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. This will make more sense if you do. you should do it before you read this section. There is no new allocation of physical memory. But this gets away from memory management. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. an error will occur. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. Of course. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. the second job has access to other job's data. how could they be swapped?).0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. but that's trivial (a few instructions). Instantly. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. and no stack. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. They have only code. They are there to be used as shared code only. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. They share physical memory. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. no data. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. If it tries to deallocate them. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. When an application requests a service. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. With a page based system such as MMURTL. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space.

Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. When it's done its work. Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. it responds. How they see the interface is very important. The programmer tracks his own memory usage.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . Places the message on the caller's response exchange. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. use it. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. For MMURTL. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. One or more PTs for the OS. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. MMURTL V1. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job.

.

and it simply runs. It executes your instructions.Chapter 6. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. and speed. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files.how it is accessed in memory. and the most significant at the lowest. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). As good as it sounds. to interoperability with other systems. is the interrupt or trap. or for specific timing requirements. But there's always more than meets the eye. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . however. aside from the instructions you give it. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. jumps where you tell it. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. MMURTL V1. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. You provide a common. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. although I never thought so. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. in theory. there are drawbacks to this idea. Therefore. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. The most common. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. The two that are obvious are code size. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. but that doesn't mean that you won't. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. Hardware Interface As a resource manager.

You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. The first set is the data bus. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. address. or CPU bus. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. Finally. This is called the main bus. in that case. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. MMURTL V1. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. but in some of the processor documentation. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. Multibus. They are actually very forgiving devices. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. On the PC-ISA platforms. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. but I found the most valuable. ISA. and some that are available now. Quite honestly. such as those dealing with interrupts. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. The second is the address bus. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). I read many books about my target processor. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. and especially the interface bus. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. There are many extensions to this bus . and most useful. On smaller systems. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . I've tried both methods. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. no matter which device you must code. PCI.some proposed. For instance. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. or ISA Bus. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. just to name a few. EISA. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. The most common is the relatively low-speed. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. This is handy. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. internal bus. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down.

Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. but still very important. or even memory to memory. SDLC. to name a few.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). in many cases.25 (an international link and network layer standard). Another way is programmed I/O. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion.. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. They have no way. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. MMURTL V1. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. They work with frames or packets of data.g. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. and tape drives. Therefore. Quite often. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. but is really a device connected to the bus. the infamous Centronics interface). This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. and on some systems. Unlike UART devices.Less commonly found. or HDLC. In fact. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). or network card). Parallel buses can move data faster. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. network frame handlers. except for the hardware clock timing. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical.

and can consume a much larger area of your address space. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. This is known as planar pixel access. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. This requires an interrupt service routine. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. On the PC-ISA platform. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. this only consumes 4000 bytes. but you must realize the importance of this device. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports.On many systems. Quite often.. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. However.500 bytes of memory space. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. and MMURTL V1. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. Video Like the keyboard. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. If this is the case. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. All the output would be via a serial port. In most cases. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. This could consume a vast amount of memory. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. this video memory will contain character codes (e. This consumes the least amount of your address space. or Unicode. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. In character-based systems. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. is worth more than I can indicate to you. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes.g. In fact. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). On an 80-column-by-25-line display. Each bit array is on its own plane. If you want 16 colors for each bit.

I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). non-overlapping video users. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. “Memory Management. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. “Video Code. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware.allow you to switch between them. I took this into consideration also. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM.000 bytes. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. and GetDMACount(). taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. and your tasking model. MMURTL V1. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. however. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. For a 256-color system. The code for these two calls is shown below. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. multiple. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. Your requirements will more than likely be different. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. That equates to 600. have to research hardware cursor control. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . and to query the status of the move.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). interprocess communications. I did. In some cases. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system.g. except maybe an embedded system board. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. In many cases.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. Chapter 26. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. this would be 16 planes at 37. This is known as packed pixel access. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. I was interested in character-based. and timing when you write to the video display area. you'll have no problems.. This includes cursor positioning. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. it is still a vast amount of memory to access.

Ch 3 Address .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h . while 23-17 are put in the page register. One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.Read/Write Mode register .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .Ch 1 Address .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah . etc.========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Read/Write DMA Rq Register . Optimize it as you please.Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch . With word.INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller. Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.INC .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h . .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .DATA .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Ch 0 Address . There really is no data segment for DMA.Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h .DMA DACK0 Page register .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .) MMURTL V1. DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh . There are two 4-channel DMA devices. The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware. the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA. DMA moves (channels 5-7). This is called a cascaded device.Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Ch 2 Word Count .Ch 3 Word Count .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .CODE With 8-bit DMA.0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS .Ch 2 Address .Read Command/Write Single bit mask .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh . but the standard include file MOSEDF.Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .Ch 1 Word Count .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .Read Status/Write Command .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h . etc. .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers. DACK1 (etc.INCLUDE MOSEDF.The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 0 Word Count .

AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. AL XOR AL. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. .Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. For channels 5. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. dChannel.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . . .CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 .Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . AL OUT DMA2Mode.All commands set to default (0) . . . 0C0h DMA2Mode. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode.6 and 7. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . sdMem. even on word moves. . or 128K boundaries for a word move. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. 40h DMA1Mode. AL OUT DMA2Mode. If they do. AL . 41h OUT DMA1Mode. AL XOR AL. AL MOV AL. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. the segment is wrapped around. . AL OUT DMA2Mode. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. AL MOV AL. 42h OUT DMA1Mode. AL AL. .DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. AL XOR AL. Out. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. AL OUT DMA2Clear. . Verify). AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. we do math) MMURTL V1. AL RETN .CH 0 DMA 1 . . I do this for the caller.Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. dType. . 04 . AL OUT DMA1Clear. as you might assume). so they always specify byte count for the setup call.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: .CH 0 DMA 2 .

3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. Put it in BL MOV EAX. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. AL . CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. dChannel (0. AL . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. 0 . 00000000b AL. 0C0h . BL DMA1Mode. 3 Cascade . OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . 04 . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. MMURTL V1. 6 . In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . AL EAX. [EBP+16] .0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. OR with MODE . get dType AND BL. 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . [EBP+20] CMP EAX.2. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. dMode CMP EAX. 8 DMA10Add. AL DMA1FF.0 = Verify. dPhyMem . . MOV EBP. Yes CMP EAX. 2 = Out (Read memory) . AL AL. 1 . 00000100b . ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. Hi Byte .Jump table for channel selection ..0 Demand Mode. 2 Block. [EBP+12] .7) . 1 = In (Write Mem). [EBP+28] DMA10Add. dType .1. Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . . MOV EAX. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. 1 Single Cycle.3. Lo byte address . AL EAX. dMode . 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX.6. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. 00001000b .5. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ .ESP .

Highest byte (to page register) . 8 DMAPage1. AL AL. CH2 . Highest byte (to page register) . 8 DMA10Cnt. EAX DMAEnd . AL DMA1FF. BL DMA1Mode. sdMem . [EBP+28] DMA11Add. OR with MODE . 8 DMA12Cnt. Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. OR with MODE/TYPE . 8 DMA11Add.0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. 8 DMAPage0. AL EAX. AL AL. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. AL EAX. 00000001b AL. dPhyMem . CH1 .SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Lo byte address . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. BL DMA1Mode. AL EAX. sdMem . AL . 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. dPhyMem . 00000010b AL. AL EAX. Hi Byte . 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. Lo byte address . [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. 8 DMAPage2. AL DMA1FF. AL EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA11Cnt. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL AL. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. AL AL. channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. 8 DMA12Add. Hi Byte . EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX.

AL EAX. OR with MODE . 00000001b AL. 00000011b AL. OR with MODE . EAX DMAEnd . Hi Byte . 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . AL EAX. We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. [EBP+28] EBX. AL EAX. EAX EAX. 8 DMA21Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. BL DMA2Mode.0 AL. AL AL. MMURTL V1. sdMem . AL AL. . Hi Byte . . [EBP+28] DMA13Add. AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL DMA1FF. CH1 on DMA 2 . . . AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 8 DMA13Add. AL AL. Lo byte address . EAX DMAEnd . dPhyMem . 1 DMA21Add. Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. EBX EAX. 8 DMA21Add. AL DMA2FF. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . 8 DMAPage3. . AL EAX. . BL DMA1Mode. AL AL. . 0FFFFh EAX. CH3 . 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm.XOR EAX. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm.NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. 8 DMA13Cnt. 15 DMAPage5. . AL EAX.

dPhyMem . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 8 DMA23Add. BL DMA2Mode. [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . EAX . 15 DMAPage6. EAX EAX. 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. EBX EAX. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. dPhyMem . 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . EAX EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. OR with MODE . AL EAX. Lo byte address . CH3 on DMA 2 . 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX.DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . AL AL. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Rid of all but lower 16 . Highest byte (to page register) . [EBP+28] EBX. AL EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. AL EAX. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL DMA2FF. AL AL. AL DMA2FF. 8 DMA23Cnt. EAX DMAEnd . EBX EAX.0 AL. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA22Add.EBP MMURTL V1. 1 DMA22Add. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL AL. 00000011b AL. OR with MODE . 15 DMAPage6. AL EAX. Lo byte address . 00000010b AL. Hi Byte . 0FFFFh EAX. 8 DMA22Cnt. AL AL. sdMem . Rid of all but lower 16 . CH2 on DMA 2 . Hi Byte . sdMem . 1 DMA23Add. 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. BL DMA2Mode. 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. 0FFFFh EAX. [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX.

On some devices.Channel . This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX. . pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where .Return address for count . To move 64K. DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. . .6. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. . 7 MMURTL V1.5. you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. pwCountRet) . 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. . this is bytes. . GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified.. In this case. The count is number of WORDS-1 .2. you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. . 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX.7) . For channels 0 through 3. You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel.POP EBP RETF 20 . DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. the count will be returned. . .ESP MOV EAX. dChannel (0. . you actually set the channel byte count 65. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX. [EBP+16] MOV ESI. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3.0 .3.1. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. EBP+ 16 12 . In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk.g. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. . DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made.535: . For channels 5 through 7. this will be the number of words. GetDMACount(dChannel. no error from the floppy controller). .

AL IN AL. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. EAX MOV ESP. No Error . they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. . ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. . be responsible to program these dedicated timers. .CX has words/bytes left in DMA .JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. . These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. The PICU takes care of this for you. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. however. these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. but it is critical that it's done correctly. program.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. .DX MOV CL. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. Quite often. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. .0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your job is to know how to program the PICU. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. or at set intervals. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. This is not very complicated. One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. . the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR).No such channel! . There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again.DX MOV CH. or even hours in some cases. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. Therefore. . many devices interrupt the processor. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. As you can imagine (or will have realized).EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. Internally. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. Usually. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. The operating system may. MMURTL V1. 20 bytes of junk to dump . . which determines the interrupt interval. and read as required. In the process of an interrupt. CX XOR EAX.

0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will need the hardware manual for code examples. MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

including hardware. memory. If you're using another platform. and important structures. be organized with a file system. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. where boot ROMs usually reside. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. For this reason. and it's not exactly easy. The question is. I've done all your homework. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. In other words. In this chapter. the boot sector code may load another. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. then jumping to the first address of the sector.at least not as a file from the file system. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. then go through each section of the basic initialization. If this is true. it executes from a reset state. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette.Chapter 7. When I say "just enough code. more complicated. This is known as a multistage boot. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. no doubt. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. In the PC world." that's exactly what I mean. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . This can be done in more than one step if required. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. MMURTL V1. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. you'll have to do some research. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. This device will. tasks. then execute it. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. we start with loading the operating system. To be honest. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code.

so you can begin execution. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. 2. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. because they provide the BIOS. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system.g. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. such as a whole track). 7. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. This lead to two relocation efforts. 8. Where your operating system will reside in memory. 7. and where you stored it. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. 6. This was a double problem. which they store in a small work area in RAM. Second. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM.. 4. In my case. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. 3. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. First. such as a fixed track or cylinder. 8.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . then executed the next instruction at the new address. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. 4. the hardware commands. MMURTL V1. In an ISA system. 5. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. 2. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). 3. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. But it gets more complicated. then Drive C. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. 1. 5. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. 6. then life is easy. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. This was the case with my system. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed.

.The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads .Root Dir entries max . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.media desc. It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.11 bytes for volume name . The OS must .386P .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.386P directive is required because I use protected .nFATs .Resvd sectors .nHeads .disks.nBytes/Sector .on this disk that the operating needs to know.needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk. One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.nTotalSectors if > 32Mb . IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h . DS:CSEG.LIMIT 768 slots .instructions. The boot sector code also . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire. (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk. Examine the following code: .This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above . (worthless) .nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) .Padding to make it 3 bytes .This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single . This contains additional information about the file system .BASE (Linear) .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.Sect/Cluster .nSectors/track .and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' .stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors. and are not part of the above boot sector data structure. Why not? I do own it.nSect in FAT .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .Drive boot sector came from .The . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG . . There's no operating system here now.

8000h .Clear interrupts .Source segment . that I calculated after assembling it once. It works. AX SI.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. . table so it can read the disk for us. .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. DI AX. Its pseudo jump .This is done by finding out where it is and writing . some of the parameters to it from the boot sector.Destination segment .The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt .. AX DI. at the beginning of this code CLI .0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. 09000h ES. MOV CX. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . AX MOV DS. Push the . 512 MOVSB .This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump .Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. then "return" to it. 0Fh . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. AX SP.Segment for new location .Offset to new location (Next PUSH) . return address. AX MOV BX. 7C0h DS. 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF .Make DS correct again . vector location.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: .9000h SS. 0078h .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX. MOV AX. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. nSectPerTrack .Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . SI CX.

MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX.Required for Disk System Reset . FATS (1 or more) .CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root . cluster because the first 2 are unused). nOSSectors .Bad boot goes here and displays a message then .Reset failed. We need the space for other code.Must set interrupts for BIOS to work .What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster . OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot . nRsvdSect MOV CX.Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. bBootDrive XOR AX. .on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in . WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX. AX .Save in CX .really IS the OS..waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.stage one of the a two stage loader should be).to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or . (3rd cluster is really the first allocated . CX . now let's read some stuff!! .. MOV CX.Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) .STI MOV DL.0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS . AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot .0020h . nBytesPerSect BX AX. MOV SI. WORD PTR nHidden .so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) . Hidden Sectors (optional) .Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it .The controller is reset.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file .logical sector order. Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . ADC DX. POP DS . AX MOV AL. OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1.AX is at sector for cluster 0.The layout of the Disk is: . nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX. but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX.

before we move it down to 0000h . ES BX. 0Eh MOV BX.AX 16h 19h . 06000h MOV ES.Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads . DH . AX has .Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL.Sector to read DX. but works well.Wait for keystroke . BX AX . bBootDrive DL.OR with Sector number AL. 6 .Cyl into CX CL. 1 . shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL. Drive to DL CX. nSectPerTrack SI . Cyl in AX DH. .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH. CH .This is segment where we load the OS.Leaves Head in DL. DX . DL . BX . BYTE PTR ResvdByte .512 bytes for segment .0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS .Next Sector MMURTL V1.AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH.This is a single sector read loop . 2 . It's slow.Head to DH. Hi 2 bits to CL CL. . AX .Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte. ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI. BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX.Read 13h .Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI. OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX. 20h ES.BX will be zeroed at top of loop .0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX.XOR INT INT AX. MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC .I increment ES and leave BX 0 . Read a .Number of sectors AH.Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL .

SI MMURTL V1.0D1h OUT 64h. BX SI. 8000h .AX DI. 07000h DS.CX IBEmm1: IN AL.DI CX. DX XOR SI.64h TEST AL.AX DI. Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS. move .1000h ES.0 . set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS . BX SI.LOOP NextSector . AX ES.64h TEST AL.A20 line should be ON Now .0DFh OUT 60h. . turn on the A20 line.So move the OS MOV DX.WORD move .the OS down to address 0.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.WORD move .64h TEST AL. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX. DX MOVSW .At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .DI CX.CX IBEmm2: IN AL.Now we disable interrupts. SI AX. 06000h DS.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL.AL XOR CX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 . DX MOVSW .from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear. SI AX.AL XOR CX.

EDX MOV DL.Load Processor GDT Pointer . 0Ah.Set protected mode bit .Clear prefetch queue with JMP .OS can find boot drive in DL on entry . 0Ah. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. 9000h MOV DS. The first 512 bytes is the .1 MOV CR0. 00h '. As you change and experiment with the boot sector. 10h DS. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX. DX MOVSB .call JMP FAR 08h:10000h.map).AX DI.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS .EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .lst).EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX. The segment and code size escape .DI CX. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.2000h ES.EXE header.BX GS. I left it in. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format.asm <Enter> This will make a .MS-DOS used this. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector.Set up segment registers .'.CR0 OR AL. BX XOR EDX. such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).Control Register . and a map file from the link (Bootblok.We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually . 00h 0Dh. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END .BX FS.Load Processor ITD Pointer . 'Bad Boot Disk!'.BX SS.BYTE move MOV BX. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.BX .by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump . 'Loading MMURTL'.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction.BX ES. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok. It's worthless.

This is easy to do. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. To read the boot sector from a disk. and Name commands. The results can be disastrous. Then copy the operating system image to the disk.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . From the MS-DOS prompt. then write it to the disk. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. you should not do this to your active development drive. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. They may do this as they format the disk. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. or after the fact. After you have assembled your boot sector. and number of sectors following it. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). you can use the Dump command to display it. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. Register. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. To find where Debug loaded it.bin in the root directory of drive C. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. Write. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. logical sector number. This will show you a segmented address.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. C:\>Debug BootBlok. Keep in mind. you can use Debug to load it as a . If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. It's quite easy to do with the Load.

In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). This single source file program (MMLoader. understands.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation.” MMURTL V1. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. and loads the image into RAM then executes it.c) to properly build it.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. but it's not necessary. It is called MMLoader. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. It is all contained in the source file Main. At this point. up to the point we jump the monitor program. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. I'm happy. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. Hopefully. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. the Direct Memory Access hardware.C:\> Copy OS. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. If so.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. With MMURTL. Good luck. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file).asm on CD-ROM. and basic timers . If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. They must simply be initialized to their default states. This includes setting up the OS stack. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. “Initialization Code. I couldn't. I have provided a utility called MakeImg.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . It does everything that the boot sector code does. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. If it is in an executable format from a linker. “The Hardware Interface.00 loader. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. All of the hardware that is resident in the system . It should help give you a picture of what's required.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state).C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. Chapter 21. Additionally.

Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. you can address above 1Mb.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. and also some basic variables. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. If you desire. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. “the Tasking Model. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. on the Intel processors. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. If you want to eliminate it. If you use one more bit. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). as well as one to switch to. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. setting up for multitasking. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. the A20 address line serves no purpose. is not trivial. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). you've got your job cut out for you. For instance. MMURTL V1. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. In all of the cases that were discussed.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. This leaves you with a few options . and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. Chapter 3. Being a little conservative. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. you just learn to live with it. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. Either way. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. This depends on the platform. The option is usually up to you. While in real mode. It's not that big. I just left it alone.

0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). MMURTL V1. back to the initialization (already in progress). you may have to do some tweaking of the code. otherwise. or maybe even load up your windowing environment.My goal was not to discover why it existed. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. and you can't manage or allocate it. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. or any number of things. Chapter 19. This seems to work on most machines. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. I tried several methods. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. The point is. It's not that much of a headache. or is at least loaded. although some people may still have problems with it. but one I'm glad I didn't face. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. some which didn't work on all machines. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. Meanwhile. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. If your machine doesn't support this method. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. This piece of code may have a lot to do. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. At this stage of the initialization. If you chose not to do this. “Memory Management Code. The following list is not all-inclusive. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. You don't know how much you have. where the address match will occur. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available.

The call is made. In any and all of these cases. life was easy in this respect. This may sound like a no-brainer. may be similar to another documented call on the system. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. “API Specification. I'm still not entirely happy with it.Chapter 8. What could be easier? I can't imagine. they do. that on occasion. In the following sections. Quite often though. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. what order are they in? If the stack is used. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. If the parameters are on the stack. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. If this happens to me. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). Chapter 15. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. the function does its job and returns. because the call they add. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. or your own consumption and enjoyment. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. public distribution.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . and leave undocumented. an embedded system. I found. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. No kidding! With UNIX.” shows you how I documented my calls. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. UNIX was written with C. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system.

some use both. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . OS/2. as if you couldn't guess). The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. It's up to you. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct.junkies). You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system.g. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. I'm sure you know of several..Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. Execution speed. Some use registers. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. Pascal . However. In other words. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. for example. There are two reasons this library may be required. support several conventions. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. or at least every time it's rebuilt. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. Your opinion may vary on this. no doubt. but the stack is not used for parameters. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. First.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. code size. some use the stack. faster. especially when it comes to speed. Many systems use an intermediate library. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. this is MMURTL V1. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. has three or four calling conventions. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). and it required a fixed number of parameters. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. This device is extremely hardware dependent. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. the interrupt vector table). Second. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call.

When you need to return data from the call. right. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. This may be a personal issue for me. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment." Yeah. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. the hardware will be obsolete. I really hope not. For the operating system source. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. then execute the interrupt instruction. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. For application source code portability. and the call gates are really not a problem. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. However. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. If portability is near the top of your wish list. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. MMURTL V1. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. However. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. The intermediate library would fill in this value. the procedural interface is the key. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates.

0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . timers. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. that it's almost impossible to separate them. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. They work with the hardware. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. You more than likely will. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. and this wasn't my original plan. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. I set out to design the simplest. Suddenly. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. Do you see what I mean? Internally. For instance. You need to consider these requirements in your design. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. and Statusing the driver. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. and certain memory-management functions. If this is the case. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running.

Set up local vars . pStatRet. pInitData. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX. “Systems Programming. nDevices. dLBA. 16 MOV EAX. InitDevDr(dDevNum. You'll see certain validity checks. For example. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. . nDevices MMURTL V1. This will give you a good place to start in your design. . . The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written.InitDevDr(dDevNum. The first call listed in this section. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs.ESP SUB ESP. so I won't go over it here.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . InitDevDr(). pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice.ASM. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. EAX MOV EAX. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. when one user is doing serial communications. EBP+20 nDevices. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. dOpNum. When you look at the code. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs.0 . fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. In a multitasking system. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. EAX MOV EAX. . you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. This is a common requirement on many systems. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. ndBlocks. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. pDCBs. EBP+24 . is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. . I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it.

0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.12 .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Point EBX to rgpDCB .Decrement nDevices . rgpDCBs MOV EAX.EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].If we got here.OK to replace existing driver? .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: .Next caller DCB .NONE left . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array .Yes . and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX.error exit .Next devnum . . prgDevs . 0 .dDevNum MMURTL V1. EAX EBX.Set nDev to number of devices again .No . OK to use .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX. 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 .All went OK so far. ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: . [EBP+16] nDevs.Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX.Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX . we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX.Now check to see if device is already installed .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.dDevNum . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX]. [EBP+20] . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .nDevices . dDevX SHL EAX. ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: . 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . rgpDCBs EAX. 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12].Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs. 2 . 2 ADD EBX.Empty. dExchTmp .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .pDCBx = 0 if not used yet . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX.0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX.All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].

EAX . DeviceInit(dDevNum. ECX [EBX].Set up for no error .If the device driver was NOT reentrant . EAX EBX. and are not presented here.Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . DeviceOp() and DeviceStat().EAX points to first DCB .0 . loop through each . EAX MOV EAX.the first customer to use.ESP . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . ErcBadDevNum . MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch]. [EBP+20] MOV ECX.also place Exchange into DCB. 0 .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . . sdInitData). 2 . ADD EAX. CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. pInitData. or reset it after a failure. MOV EBX. MOV EBP. 4 EAX. dExchTmp . [EBP+20] . This is the same exchange . rgpDCBs MOV EBX. A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device.Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX. and .DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX.Any more DCBs?? . nDevices . are almost identical to DeviceInit().Now that EBX.ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: . [EAX] .EBX now points to correct pointer . The other two calls.ADD EBX. . EBX . .ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . EAX and ECX are set up. You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB. .next DCB .for all devices that one driver controls.Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. -83- RICHARD A BURGESS . SHL EBX. [EBP+20] . PUSH EBP . 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX.device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. MOV EBX.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . .next p in rgp of DCBs .

It you use assembly language and provide code examples.. adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. .0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Save ptr to DCB .No.Device IS reentrant .Get DCB ptr back .All looks good with device number .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX. This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.Get ptr to DCB back into EBX . 0 DevInit02 EAX. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.Push exchange number .Is there a physical device? DevInit02: .Bogus Message . ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType]. but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP.Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 . Send semaphore message to Exch .Get semaphore ticket . . The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system. . If not we .Ptr to message area .so we check to see if driver is reentrant.Ignore kernel error . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX .Get device error back .save ptr to DCB . 0 .Push all params for call to DD .Yes .. MMURTL V1. CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.NO driver! .Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.

Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). Look at the table 9. I think you will find it useful. It may even be entertaining. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE. and DWORD.1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. or a Procedure in Pascal. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL.1 . Call . Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment.Chapter 9.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. WORD. If I were a perfectionist.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. “Interprocess Communications. and a dword is also accessed at the same address.Same as Procedure. or a Procedure in Assembler. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements.. though. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. Argument . Terminology Throughout this section. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . usually passed on the stack. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word .” and Chapter 5. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes).A Function in C or Pascal. Function . as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. Byte . Before writing your first MMURTL program.A value passed to a function or procedure. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). but alas. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . “Memory Management.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e.g. MS-DOS).

while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. It may indicate an error. and are expanded to 32-bit values. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. erc. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. But the address is really a call gate. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. This will be done by the compiler. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. not the real address of the SetXY function. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. and in some cases. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. MMURTL V1. In some C compilers. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). It is also very easy to use from assembly language. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. and assembly language. “API Specification. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). All parameters are pushed from left to right. or simply convey information that may. Some do not. Pascal. or dError. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. even the assembler or processor itself. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values.

Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span.2: Table 9.2 .. . you should deallocate it. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. If you need a 2Mb array. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . There are no far data pointers. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. MMURTL is a Paged memory system. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0).. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers..” and Chapter 4.. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use.” describe this in great detail.. The operating system resides at address 0. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector. but she would much rather that you did it. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. malloc() in C). while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. “The Tasking Model. . ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. you simply allocate it. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. She may pick up your dirty socks... When you are done with it. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. In fact. “Interprocess Communications. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh .g.. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller.. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. you allocate it. MMURTL V1. Chapter 3.Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh .

The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. protect programmers from themselves. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. dData0. pData1.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. Data. Now you allocate 4 pages. cbData1. However. This is not a problem. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. dMsg1. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. cbData2. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). You allocate 5 pages. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. dRespExch. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. however. pData2. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . SendMsg (dExch. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. Of course. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. This means that in a multitasking environment. Address 40100000h is returned to you. The operating system Code. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. wSvcCode. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. npSend. pRqHndlRet. so long as you know it can't be addressed. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). dData1. MMURTL does NOT. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection.

and user interaction. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing.LString */ MMURTL V1. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. you need to know your job number.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. but you don't want that either. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. Other than that. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. MMURTL is not a mind reader. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. char sbJobName[14]. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. printing. such as data communications. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. The pointer is read-only. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. If you do. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. only your program will be trashed. struct JCBRec { long JobNum.Normally. This eats all of your link blocks. For instance. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. /* User Name . Messaging is very powerful. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business.

dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. editing. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. char *pVidMem. For most applications. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. long NormVid. long VidMode. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. MMURTL V1. }. char JcbSysIn[50]. “Keyboard Service.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. char fVidPause. char JcbCmdLine[80]. long NextJCB. long CrntX. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. char fCursOn. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. char JcbExitRF[80]. with unused portions padded. Chapter 13. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. long nCols. and special keys. To change data in the JCB. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. char JcbSysOut[50].char sbPath[70]. char fCursType. long nLines. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. unsigned char ScrlCnt. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data.LString */ std input . long ExitError.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. They include: SetJobName(pJobName.LString */ std output . pPathRet. The keyboard interface is a system service. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. long CrntY. char *pVirtVid.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS .

These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. Foreground colors. Background. and Blink if desired to form a single value. only the least significant byte is used. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes). character placement. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. The colors for TTYOut(). Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). Tables 9.4. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. Background colors describe the attributes. Table 9. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications.4 .3 . and cursor positioning. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24. is the intensity bit.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. The high bit of each. and 9.3. In this byte. the high nibble is the background. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking.4096 bytes). logically OR the Foreground. PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors.Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. and low nibble is the foreground.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated .

Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. 0. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. or system calls. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit.". The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. MMURTL V1. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. "This is a test.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. MMURTL has to hunt for them. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). This is done by calling the Chain() function. BGBLUE|WHITE). If no file is specified. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). 17. This includes any memory. and other things allocated while you were running.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. Remember. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. exchanges.

If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. and memory management operations. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. It's not very useful. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. as well as for other services.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. Additional exchanges. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. use messaging. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. then Respond. Client programs make a Request.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. or provide services to application programs. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. Service names are casesensitive.Chapter 10. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. MMURTL V1. if required. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. such as: Additional memory. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. and Assembly language programmers. service them. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. Additional tasks if required. if needed. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. Pascal. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. the service does the processing and Responds. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. Wait for messages. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc.

ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. MainExch.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. char *pData1. long RqOwnerJob. long RQBRsvd2. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk.pData1 = NextNumber++. long dData2. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. }. char npRecv. long RespExch. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). long ServiceRoute. long dData1.Listing 10. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. long RQBRsvd1. else if (pRqBlk. char npSend. long RQBRsvd3. char *pData2. ErrorToUser. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. MainExch). /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. NextNumber = 0. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. Message[2]. long cbData2. long cbData1. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ".1. Message). int ServiceCode. char *pRqHndlRet. long dData0.

another CloseFile. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. because the operating system does not alias them as such. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. These items are dData0. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. or any data movement back to the caller. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. For larger data movement to the service. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. The complexity of your service. This is the number 1 (one). The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. and what service you provide. In the simple example above. For example. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. This is called the service code. As a system service writer. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. you define the data items you need. and dData2. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. cbData1 and cbData2. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . and how much information a program must pass to you. As a system service. the service only defines one service code that it handles. one number represents OpenFile. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. The operating MMURTL V1. They are 32-bit values. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding.The Request Block As you can see. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. For all other values of the service code. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. dData1. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. in the File System. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. and another RenameFile. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. when you receive a Request. In fact. The memory address of the Request Block.

Synchronous services wait. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. the file may not exist. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. If this happens. until you respond. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. In the keyboard service. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. This is the easiest way to handle requests. receive a request. cbData1 and pData2. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. cbData2. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. When you write system services. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. However. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. before responding to any other requests you are holding. MMURTL is built in layers. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. RAM disks. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. The first is the request block handle. but carries it one step farther. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. tape drives. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. you must respond to it immediately. then respond before waiting for the next request. which is a valuable system resource. and moves it to another exchange. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. communications ports (serial and parallel). An example of this is how the file system handles errors. Disk drives. If so. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. If so.system is “aware” of this. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. In each of these cases. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. MMURTL uses this concept. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time.

paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. With InitDevDr().0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. or a processor protection violation will occur. basic video. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). it passes in a pointer to its DCB.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. timer hardware. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. Things like Device name.. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). SCSI ports.g. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. It does not directly access hardware. RAM DISK). multitasking. to handling complex devices such as hard drives. MMURTL V1. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. Sequential devices are things like communications ports. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. keyboard. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. C and Pascal). the file system is at user level (3). Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. powerful. multi-threaded environment. interrupt vectors. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. The interface is non-specific. or is included in the OS code at build time. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. I have made it rather painless to build fast. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system.. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. If a device driver controls more than one device. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. or any OS structures. or network frame handlers (i. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. as well as where the data is on the device. the PICUs.and sequential-oriented. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. network link layer devices). Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. hard disk. keyboard. For example. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. This means message. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access.e.g. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. Block Size.

Call InitDevDr(). This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. In C this would be main(). In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. Do anything else you need before being called. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. InitDevDr() never returns to you. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. if needed. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. At this point. This layer of code performs several functions for you. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. The generic steps are described below. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). and is programmed. if needed. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. or in Pascal. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. The main entry point will never be called again. Set up interrupt service routines. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. Check or set up the device’s. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. You can name them anything you want in your program. like any application in MMURTL. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. if required. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. The device driver looks. Allocate exchanges. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. just like any other program. it's the main program block. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls.

device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. MMURTL uses paged memory.”API Specification.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. especially if the driver controls two devices. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. device drivers are very close to the hardware. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. Timer Facilities Quite often. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. If you use MMURTL V1. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. Two calls provide these functions. although it’s not a requirement.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . or how much was transferred. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). In other operating systems. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. and size of a DMA move. specifically DOS. mode. This is often called an interrupt vector. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. direction.

The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned.1-. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). but easy to figure out. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. and how to implement them in your code.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. and KillAlarm() functions. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). If you use SendMsg(). Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. Table 10. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. Alarm(). If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. Table 10. a structure in C. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). you can use SendMsg(). You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). or assembler to construct the DCB.) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper.Alarm(). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true.

This reduces disk arm movement which. dLastDevErc . In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. pDevInit.When a driver encounters an error.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. the SendMsg(). not the next track. but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . usually an unexpected one.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). RETN is the proper instruction. and WaitMsg() primitives.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. where several devices are controlled though one access point. defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. For instance. sector zero. Each sector is considered a block. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. For example. sbDevName . If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. but this is not much of a limitation. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. increases throughput. pDevOp. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. we then move to the next head.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . In other words.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . znBPB .This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. and handle device conflicts internally.Each driver names the device it serves. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. if you are on track zero. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. MMURTL V1. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. fDevReent . and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). If it is another device. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1.this indicates whether the device is addressable. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() .OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. ndDevBlocks . For devices that are not re-entrant. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. then this should contain a 2. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. In assembler. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . and you read one sector past the end of that track. this is device dependent. Disk drives are divided into sectors. The Hard disk driver operates the same way. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. If the device is sequential. head zero. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device.number of bytes per block. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. Each device name must be unique. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. DevType .

6 . OSUseONLY1. dLBA.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored.4. wJob . They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device.2.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr.fSingleUser . They equate to standard device operations such as read. dOpNum. Your function implementations must do the same.dnBlocks. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. ndBlocks. pStatRet. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. verify. this flag should be true (non-zero). The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32).3. no job is currently assigned the device.dLBA. pInitData. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL.dOpNum. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack.pData). The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. and format.5.If the fSingleUser is true. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. write. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. If this is zero. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.

parity. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus.dInitData). The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe.pInitData. and so on. For sequential devices.dStatusMax. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . Not all devices will return status on demand. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice.pStatRet. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. this will simply be the number of bytes.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation.pdStatusRet).

then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. If more than one device is controlled. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. pDCBs. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . the second at pDCBs + 128. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. this is the first number of the devices. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. fReplace If true. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. If this is not the case. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. and so on. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. This means the devices are number consecutively. and one DMA channel if applicable. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. If the driver controls more than one device. After the Device driver has been loaded. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. such as a disk or SCSI controller.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. nDevices. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. MMURTL V1. This is because one controller. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made.

then use it. MMURTL V1. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS .Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call.

.

. (e. If it's displaying video data. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. Listing 11. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL.JOB. as well as the video display. C:\MSamples\Service\Service.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon .g.INITIAL. If you intend to write an operating system. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. In future versions of MMURTL. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. tabs or comments after .Job file .no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . a buffer in memory.Maximum line length is 80 characters total. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . is assigned to the new job or is terminated. The file name must contain the FULL . Any spaces.run C:\MMSYS\CLI.JOB file. The format is very simple. One run file name per line. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. No parameters are passed . the job he is currently viewing. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up.the run file name are ignored. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name. the keyboard.to the run file.This is the initial jobs file. Sample Initial.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon .1 shows a sample INITIAL.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1. The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. ..RUN) . . This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. The name must start in the first column of a line. or terminate. When the user presses these global keys.Chapter 11. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs.file name including path.JOB . the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. Even when a Job is not being displayed.RUN <---.1. Listing 11. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen. No spaces.after each entry.system boot in this file. Drive:\DIR\NAME.

Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. any errors returned are displayed. Once the initialization is complete. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. and access to the built-in debugger. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. and the parallel port (LPT) driver. job display. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . Task switches total . They are displayed as typed. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. MMURTL V1. RS-232 serial communications..RUN. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. Table 11. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display.1.1 describes the function of each assigned key. priority task. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services.1. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. Table 11. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code.This is the total count of task switches since boot up.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. During this process.

h" "MFiles.CPU idle ticks (no work) .A small structure used by all messages sent and received.h" "MDevDrv. but the count is fixed at OS build time. but have a fixed count at OS build time.h" "MMemory. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. the request block is returned for re-use. the C library code can be used. Response is made by the service. Each job uses one. Free Task State Segments .h" "MData. There were no tasks ready to run. Free Exchanges . even in the same job. See listing 11. including requests.This is the number of free job control blocks left. MMURTL V1.These are task-management structures. Tasks Ready to Run .This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. This number may seem a little high. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel. Each new task uses one of these.2. If this number is greater than zero.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system.2. Listing 11.h" "MTimer. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory. Free Link Blocks . Free Job Control Blocks . that don't get picked up right away.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run.h" "MVid.h" "MJob. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.h" "MKbd.

1990-1995. LastErcByte0.static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". KillJobNum. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. LastRecalErc1. U8 fNewMedia. fIntOnReset. U32 BlocksMax. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. static unsigned long GP1Exch. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. All Rights Reserved". LastSeekErc0. U8 type_now. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. MUltitasking.Message based. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. unsigned long KillExch. MngrExch. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. static unsigned long GPHndl. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". LastStatByte0. Real-Time kerneL". MMURTL V1. U32 blocks_done. MngrHndl. fKilled.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. KillError. date. MngrMsg[2]. tick. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. gcode. LastErcByte1. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. static long time. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". LastSeekErc1. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. Burgess. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) .A. LastStatByte1. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK.

lpt_setup(void). static long StatStack[256].0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. BootDrive. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. char *ppJCBRet). fdisk_setup(void). /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1.c */ HardIDE. hdisk_setup(void).c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. #asm MMURTL V1. /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. nSwitches. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. nJCBLeft. extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet.asm */ Floppy. nTSSLeft.c */ RS232. nLBLeft. /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). coms_setup(void).c */ Parallel. InitFS(void). nHalts. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. xsprintf.c */ Fsys.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . nSlices. char *pJCBRet). nReady.U8 ResetStatByte. /* out to 64 bytes */ }. nRQBLeft. U32 resvd1[2]. nEXCHLeft. static unsigned long nMemPages.

EAX . **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr. EAX MOV ESI.[EBP+8] CMP AL. JLE isdigit1 .0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS .No CMP AL. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. i. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. *ptr = justify = minus = 0. 39h . long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. unsigned long width.0 JL isdigit0 .[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. ptr = &numstk[32].No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. chr. *ptr. chr = *fmt++.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. value. total = 0. minus. width = value = i = 0. char *fmt.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer.MOV EAX. justify. total. 30h . The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). zero = ' '. #asm XOR EAX. zero.

break. default: *--ptr = chr.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. case 's' : ptr = value. } while(value /= i). case 'b' : i = 2. ++argptr. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. break. *--ptr = chr. case 'c' : *--ptr = value. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. if(width) --width. break.'0'). break. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. ++total. chr = *fmt++. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7.width = (width * 10) + (chr . ++minus. } value = *--argptr. case 'o' : i = 8. } case 'u' : i = 10. break.

++i. return total. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. ++total. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. .1. va_start(ap.. ++total. ap). fmt). while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++.. } /* move in data */ i = 0. ++total. i < width.) { va_list ap. } } *outptr = 0. TTYOut(buffer.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). Color). just move into string *outptr++ = chr. ++total. } } } else { /* not format char. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. char buffer[S_SIZE].0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . long total. va_end(ap. strlen(buffer). fmt. return total. ++i. value = width . } /************************************ MMURTL V1. fmt). ++i) *outptr++ = zero.

24.1). *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. &iLine). va_end(ap. PutVidChars(0.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetXY(&iCol. 24. Msg[2].0. MMURTL V1. total = _ffmt(s. When it gets one. fmt). PutVidChars(0. long total. SetXY(0. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. BLUE|BGWHITE). 26.Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. ap). "%d". char *fmt. BLUE|BGWHITE).23. return total. rgMonMenu1. fmt. rgMonMenu3. fmt). 80. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. return. tick). WHITE|BGBLUE). 25. BLUE|BGWHITE). SetXY(0. va_start(ap. Exch.. iLine. rgMonMenu2.) { va_list ap. PutVidChars(54. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. 24.22). } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. rgStatLine. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr().. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. 26.1.80. i. PutVidChars(27. .1).

pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. WHITE|BGBLUE).5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick).5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). WHITE|BGBLUE). /* sleep 0. Tone(440. 80. /* Day */ 0x0f). rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). The message has Error. 80.0. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f).0. KillJobNum. PutVidChars(0.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. rgStatLine. (time & 0x0f).0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* sleep 0. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). 0x0f). /* month */ 0x0f).*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). "%d". Sleep(50). /* year */ 0x0f). if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate. Error: %d\r\n". xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. TSSExch in it. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. "%d".U8 *pPD. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. KillMsg).50). KillError). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. PutVidChars(0.. tick). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). CheckScreen(). &pJCB). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. rgStatLine. tick). GetTimerTick(&tick).. xprintf("Job number %d terminated. *pVid. for(. Sleep(50). 0x0f). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f)..

MngrExch. Exch. 0. 0. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory.) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. &gcode. erc = WaitMsg(Exch..GetVidOwner(&i). &i. Also.. 1). 0). 0. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc.. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. j. 2). It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key.. fKilled = 1. We don't actually switch jobs. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". i. /* We're done (and so is he. &MngrHndl. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). DeAllocJCB(pJCB). 4. 0. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. DeAllocPage(pVid. char *pJCB. 0. fDone. 2. 0. if the debugger has the video. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. */ DeAllocPage(pPD. 1. /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". Msg). MMURTL V1. 0.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS .

#asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. &MngrHndl. MngrExch. MngrMsg). 0. 0. MngrExch. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . 0. } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. &pJCB). */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. for(. if (i==2) i = 3. 0. MngrMsg). i = j. 0.0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS .4. i. 0. erc = KillJob(j). } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). 0. 0. fDone = 0. 0. 0). 4. while (!fDone) { i++. 0. 2.. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0. &MngrHndl. 0). erc = GetpJCB(i. 0. &gcode. 4. 0. 0).) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. else if (i>34) i = 1. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. 0.

02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL.return. fcli = 0. fh. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. char ajobfile[50]. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command.AL STI #endasm return. #asm CLI MOV ECX. 1. cbrunfile. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. do MMURTL V1. job. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. i.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. sdisk &= 0x7F. 1=B. &ajobfile[1].Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). /* 0=A. 20).0FEh OUT 64h. char fdone. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM.64h TEST AL.check port up to 64K times .run and the last job loaded.Read Status Byte into AL . CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). j. char arunfile[80]. unsigned char sdisk. 2=C etc.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . while (!fdone) { i = 0. &fh).JOB\0". } . 0. sdisk += 0x41. fcli. sjobfile. sjobfile. job = 0. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli.first we clear interrupts . if (!erc) { fdone = 0.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial.

. assign the keyboard and video to it.') continue. } CloseFile(fh). } } } else fdone = 1. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. erc = 0. CheckScreen(). cbrunfile. &arunfile[i++].run". "cli. job). GP1Exch. CheckScreen(). if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". 0. &job). Sleep(50). erc).\r\n". /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). 1.. 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. else fcli = 0.{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. 4. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. Sleep(50). CheckScreen(). 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". xprintf("Loading: %s. MMURTL V1.0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . &GP1Hndl. arunfile). &j). job = 0. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n".

. j. 0. xprintf("Loading: %s. unsigned char sdisk. char text[70]. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. 4. &acli[1]. 0. GP1Exch. 16). if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". 0. GP1Msg). 0.\r\n"). job. &GP1Hndl. MMURTL V1. 0. SetVidOwner(job). 1=B.0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. 0. job). } return erc. sdisk &= 0x7F. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL.JOB file not found in system directory. GP1Msg). job. /* 0=A. strlen(acli). erc = LoadNewJob(acli.RUN\0". CheckScreen(). job. unsigned char c. iCol. } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. 0. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc.". k. 0. InitScreen(). 0. CheckScreen(). 2=C etc. ccode1. i. iLine. Sleep(50). 0). 0). sdisk += 0x41. acli). unsigned long ccode.. acli[40]. */ acli[0] = sdisk. &job).0.

if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". erc = InitKBDService(). i). Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). &StatStack[255]. 1 ).. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages).. erc). xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n".. erc). erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. 24. MUltitasking. 0. erc = hdisk_setup().Burgess. Tone(1000. erc).0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . xprintf("%d\r\n". erc). erc). i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK.A. i).15). erc = lpt_setup().33). erc). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". c). Error: "). xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). erc = fdisk_setup(). xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n".Message based. erc). xprintf("Init floppy device driver. c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41).. Error: "). erc = coms_setup(). erc). xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n".Tone(250. erc). /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). xprintf("Copyright (c) R. erc).

1. text. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc). MMURTL V1. j++. pJCB->JobNum). /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. Error: %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). for (.. c = ccode & 0xff. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40.. 1 ). 0. SetXY(k+10. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n".j). 13). erc = GetpJCB(i. i<nMaxJCBs. 0).0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . Tell it to wait for a key. &ccode. erc). &GPHndl. 0. /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask.xprintf("Initializing file system. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. GPMsg). 4. text). case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen().. /* Col offset */ for (i=1. &MngrStack[255].. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. &pJCB).) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service.. */ LoadJobFile(). /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. 0. xprintf("File System. 1. /* Line */ k = 0. 0. GPExch. 0. erc = InitFS(). 10. j = 2.\r\n"). xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". break.j). erc). erc). if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n".

. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. "-". "|".} } break. 1. 1). nTSSLeft). "-". 1. break. xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". 1. erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. GREEN|BGBLACK). nReady). nMemPages). PutVidChars(29. any other key to cancel"). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. PutVidChars(29. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. SetXY(0. 1. 1. xprintf(". " ". xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages).1). PutVidChars(29. nLBLeft). GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). nEXCHLeft). } SetXY(0. xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(9). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". 1. PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. break. PutVidChars(29. PutVidChars(29. case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . xprintf ("\r\n"). Sleep(12). "\\". GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". 1. Sleep(12). xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). case 0x12: /* F4 . 1.12). xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n".future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. nSwitches). "/". Sleep(9). 1. "|".Cancelled\r\n"). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. \r\n"). "\\". 1. 1. break. 1.0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . PutVidChars(29. Sleep(9). Sleep(9).loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". nJCBLeft). Sleep(9). case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). Sleep(9). 1. nRQBLeft).. GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". nSlices). "/". 1. 1.. xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". 1.. nHalts). 1.1).

WHITE|BGBLACK). SetXY(0. else TTYOut (&c. 2. WHITE|BGBLACK).80. 1.TTYOut (CRLF.22). } } GetXY(&iCol.1).0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. &iLine).1.23. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1.

.

See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. such as dumping data. and why. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. will clear the screen for display. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. function keys are across the bottom. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. If the debugger was entered on a fault. MMURTL V1.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. along with the exception number that caused it. non-symbolic debugger. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. the debugger is entered. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. Certain debugger display functions. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). The registers can be examined to see where it happened.Chapter 12. When this occurs. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. the debugger is an assembly language. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. and a red banner is displayed. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. It is not a separate run file. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file.

TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. RdyQ .Request Block Array. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. RQBs .Change Current Address. GDT . a linear address. F2 SetBP . The task number.Clear Breakpoint. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup.Dump Bytes. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. without executing them. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. that will be somewhere in this array. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one.Interrupt Descriptor Table. This is an array of 512-byte structures. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here.Job Control Blocks. This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. This becomes the active address. The address is displayed on the left.First TSS. “Application Programming. F10 . This redisplays the current instruction pointer address.” SVCs . F4 CS:EIP .This is the address of the array of currently registered services. JCBs . Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. Each TSS is 512 bytes. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. F12 AddInfo . next. with the down arrow key. .Display Tasks.Dynamic TSSs. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI.Set Breakpoint.Services Array. TSS3 . This displays all active tasks on the system. as most of them are. low order). The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. the address of the task's JCB.Single Step. F3 ClrBP . This is the address of the Monitor TSS. This clears the single breakpoint. This returns to the application and executes one instruction.Display Exchanges. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. The address is displayed on the left. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3.Address Information. the address of the TSS. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. These values are hard coded at system build. You may move down through the instructions. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. MMURTL V1. IDT .0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS . TSS1 . F5 Exch . and then dumps the bytes located at that address. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order.Goto CS:EIP. LBs . TSSs are numbered sequentially.Ready Queue. This requests a linear address. F9 DumpB .Global Descriptor Table. F6 Tasks . The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9.Dump Dwords. This requests a linear address. next.Link Blocks. The GDT contains many items. the associated Job number. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. F8 CrntAdd . The abbreviations are given in the following list.

like the older processors. actually a trap. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem.START in an assembly language program.ASM files. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features.and displayed as an unsigned number. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). For applications. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. aTmr . Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. With near calls like you would make inside your program. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. There are four debug address registers in the processor.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . and placing an INT 03 instruction there. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. or at the beginning of any instruction. locking up. In MMURTL.Exchanges. Lots of code here MOV ESP. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. such as [EBP+12]. In some cases. but for right now. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. or for . without having to fill in special registers. or whatever). You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. entering the debugger. listed in your ATF file. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the .Exch . Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. and also how local variables are accessed. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. it is the index of that exchange in the array. This is the address of the array of timer blocks. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. When it occurs. ESP . Each exchange is 16 bytes. its down and dirty troubleshooting. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. MMURTL V1. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future.Timer Blocks. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction.

the current pRunTSS.1. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. Table 12. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. It almost. a page fault is fatal to a task.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. a pointer to the currently running TSS. The debugger becomes the active job. When writing an operating system.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . becomes a task in the job it interrupted.. When the debug interrupt activates. just like applications do. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. No other task operates at a priority that high. If you are going to debug a task. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. you will see that there are many interrupts. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. Traps.1. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. usually a blank screen and nothing else. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. including allocated memory. MMURTL V1. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. or faults. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. The debugger cannot debug itself. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. that can occur. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. called exceptions. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). is saved by the debugger. The debugger also has its own virtual screen.. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status.Processor exceptions. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. Instead. but not quite. you must be able to access all of its memory.

All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). which is exactly what you want. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. When the debugger is entered. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. While you are in the debugger. These contain the address of the exception handler. MMURTL V1.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . To do this. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. This makes the debugger transparent. you should kill the offending job and restart. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger.

.

0. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. As described in chapter 10.Not used (0) */ dData2 . Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.fWait for Key */ dData1 .Chapter 13. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . 0). the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 .Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. MyExch. Available Services Table 13. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. It's easier to use. &KeyCode 4. Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. but not as powerful. 0 0. 1. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls.1 shows the services provided by the service code. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). 0.0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. this is true multitasking). It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. &MyRqhandle. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. “system programming. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1.

A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications.Wait for Key = 0 . The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. In this case. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys. even if a key is not available.Table 13. If you have an outstanding Notify request. described in detail later. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 .Not used = 0 . keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1. This allows for "hot-key" operation. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. Unlike regular keystrokes.Not used 0 . The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes.Count of bytes in the code 0 .Return with error if no key waiting 1 .Not used.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS .Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. the error should be 0.1.

This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. this cancels it. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. Alt & Ctrl.3. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later.4. as shown in table 13. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. shown in table 13. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C). Num. etc.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. Locks. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. and Scroll).). This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application.2. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. as shown in table 13. If you have an outstanding Notify request. The low-order byte is the actual key code.

If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. This bit (Bit 0. Table 13. Alt or Shift).0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps. Table 13. Num or Scroll). Table 13. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code. Table 13. shows how the bits are defined. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control.2 .Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned..2.3 shows how the bits are defined.3 . This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1.

Table 13.. If a shift code is not shown.4 . the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. Alt.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS . For example. Key Codes Table 13. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column.main keyboard. A description is given only if required. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 .Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned.1h to 7Fh). or Locks). Ctrl.

Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1. Table 13. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values. Table 13. Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS .5 . comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. .Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr. ' .5 shows the key code value returned.

Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 . and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13.7.7. Edit. (Period) Cursor.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 13. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13. Caps lock does not affect these keys.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1. 13.6 .

the programmer will read the documentation. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. as I have tried to do in this chapter. Chapter 25.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. or you may want more. Remember. Pieces of it may be useful for your system. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. if you desire.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. MMURTL V1. such as international key translations.”Keyboard Code.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS . when all else fails.

The third part is the filename as described above. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. When a network file is opened. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. filename. This ties its hands so to speak. a network name. and optionally. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. the default name NETWORK is used. A filename that is prefixed with a node name.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . there isn't anything new about the format. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. but none as wide spread.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). just how we access it.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. then up to three more characters. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. a period. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed.Chapter 14. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. and a node name is specified. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. the network service receives the request from the file system. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. will be routed to the service with the same name. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. For example. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed.and finally the filename itself. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. MMURTL V1. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character .

a number called a file handle is returned to you. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user.File Handles When a file is opened. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. When a file is opened in Read mode. Make no assumptions about this number. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. MMURTL V1.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. or just reading alone. in any mode or type. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. This is a one page. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. 4096 byte buffer. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened.

&MyRqhandle. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. 1.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware.size of name */ pData2 -. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service. &"AnyFile. The file system actually runs as a separate task. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service. For Stream files.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ". 1. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. It meets all the requirements. Listing 14. Table 14. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking).Size of a handle */ dData0 -.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA). MyExch. Listing 14.ModeRead */ dData1 -.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. no matter what Mode the file was opened in. 1. This is called a file pointer in some systems.1. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file.1 . The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system.Block Type Access */ dData2 -.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. or file pointer.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. 0. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters.returned handle */ cbData2 -. You can make a request.1 shows the service codes the file system supports. 11. 0). This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from.doc".1 Send ptr */ pData1 -. &FileHandle 4.ptr to name */ cbData1 -. All message-based services use the same request-based interface. Table 14.

but only through the procedural interfaces. Table 14. MMURTL V1.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. Table 14. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. KBD and VID devices only.2 .2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. The request is transparent to the caller. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. The Request interface will not allow device access. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange.

0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS .pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users.Block = 0. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName. pdHandleRet .pointer to the filename or full file specification.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available. dcbName .a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). all buffers are flushed and deallocated. Stream = 1. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. dAccessType. dcbname. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . Procedural parameters: pName . Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. If a file is open in ModeRead. If stream access type was specified.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . dOpenMode.READ = 0. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: dHandle .

pData .Pointer to the data to write nBytes . pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file. pData. MMURTL V1. SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. This must always be a multiple of 512. pdnBlkRet . See the SetFilesize() section.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. Procedural parameters: dHandle .Logical File Address to write to. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs. pDataRet. Procedural parameters: dhandle .0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs.DWord with number of bytes to read.Logical File Address to read from. dLFA.pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.DWord with number of bytes to write. nBytes . Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. nBytes.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512). pdnBytesRet . nBytes.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. This must be a multiple of the block size. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. One Block = 512 bytes. This will always return a multiple of 512. pDataRet . dLFA. dLFA .Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. dLFA . pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk.

nBytes.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. nBytes. GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. pDataRet . GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. Parameters: dhandle . pdnBytesRet . Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. pDataRet. pData. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle.Dword with number of bytes to read. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. nBytes . pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. The bytes are read from the current LFA.

Procedural parameters: dHandle . nBytes . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C). Procedural parameters: dHandle . pData . The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF).Dword with number of bytes to write.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet .Dword with a valid file handle. Procedural parameters: dhandle .Pointer to the data to write. pdnBytesRet . as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1.0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle.Dword with a valid file handle. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files.

and allocated space on the disk. as returned from OpenFile() dSize . dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files.dLFA .Dword with a valid file handle.a Dword with the LFA you want to set. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. Procedural parameters: dHandle . Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle.Dword with a valid file handle. The file length.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS .a Dword with the new size of the file. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . Procedural parameters: dhandle . pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically.a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned.

The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. dcbname. pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. dcbName.pointer to the current filename or full file specification.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1. dAttributes): dError This creates a new.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS . and ready to be opened and accessed. dcbName . dcbNewName .pointer to the new filename or full file specification. Procedural parameters: pName .Dword with length of the filename dAttributes . The file is closed after creation.pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. empty file in the path specified.Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dcbName .A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden. Procedural parameters: pName .

the directory is created in your current path.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. No further access is possible. as opposed to a full path. dcbPath . specified in the Job Control Block. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. and the filename is available for re-use. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). empty directory for the path specified.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedural parameters: pPath .Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system.pointer to the path (directory name) to create. If only the new directory name is specified. Procedural parameters: dHandle .

dcbPath.pointer to the path.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. The path must contain the directory name as the last element. all subdirectories. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. This call returns one sector from a directory.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . Each sector contain 16 directory entries. The directory must exist in the path specified.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedural parameters: pPath . or directory name to delete. Procedural parameters: pPath .DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. or directory name. to read tj sector from dcbPath . the name is appended to the path from your job control block. as opposed to a full path. all files in this directory. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. dcbPath. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). pSectRet.If set to non-zero. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them.pointer to the path. If only the existing directory name is specified. If no path is specified. dcbPath . the path in your JCB will be used. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero.

FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. the open mode. FCB. MMURTL V1.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. it's not allocating files. When it reaches 0. The FUBs contain the file pointer. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. If the file is opened in Stream mode. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened.pSectRet .0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . Because it is a pointer. Some structures are dynamically allocated. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . while others are part of the operating system data segment. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. Each FCB is 128 bytes. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. Quite a few of them use this same name. buffer pointers. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. Each opened file is allocated an FCB. is what links the user of a file to the FCB.

Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4.The disk is allocated in clusters. they use what is called a FAT16. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. vector. On most hard disks. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. you can usually do it quite rapidly. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. If it's open in ModeWrite. which is cluster size. Load FAT buffer if required. The file is open. That's a lot of FAT (or file). and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. source files for compilers. because of the design of the FAT file system. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). allocate an FUB and attach it. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). or three entries. The fourth entry points to the fifth. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). L = Last entry in your file. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. If so. return an error ErcFileInUse. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. If opened in Block mode. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. the user will strike next. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. Run files being executed. In this example. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. This is in itself is time-consuming. X = not your file. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. From this. That's 128Kb. and raster image files. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. However. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. MMURTL V1. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. the fifth points to the sixth. inside of a 400 Mb file. Directories are stored as files. The list could go on and on. Usually. and the sixth is marked as the last. Large database files are the major random users.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Close This is the easy part. then write the data. It sounds simple. attach them to the chain. and depends on how the file was opened. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. Both copies must be updated. If the file is being extended. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. but much overhead is involved. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. MMURTL V1.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . If opened in block mode. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. you must find unallocated clusters.

.

The offset should be 0. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes .0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use.1 lists the prefixes. Table 15.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. The call address consists of a selector and an offset. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e.1 . The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. If you are going to write your own operating system. Table 15. They are listed by functional group first. Table 15.2 lists these additional prefix characters. I might add..Chapter 15. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address. Chapter 14.2 . while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Table 15. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. “File System Service”). or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. These are known as compound descriptions.g.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. An improperly.

This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch. if a value is returned by the function. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. Bytes and words (8.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. pdDataRet . The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. Pascal. dMsg1. The dError. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl. It is processor (hardware) enforced. If a parameter is a byte. Table1 5.3. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS .Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. Max means Maximum. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. the most common returned value shown. dMsg1. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. and finally. a colon with the returned value.and optionally suffixes . dcbFileName . Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. The function name is followed by the parameters. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data.accurately describes the provided or expected data types.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. and Min means Minimum.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. be returned.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15. or should be. dcbDataRetMax . Each compound set of prefixes . or Assembler. Ret means Returned.3 . grouped by type.

dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. dExch. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. pInitData. cbData1. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. ppMemRet. dStatusMax. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. cbData2. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. dcbFileName. nDevices. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. LinAdd. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. dData1.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. dfDebug. pDCBs. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. fDebug. pData1. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. dData0. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. pStatRet. dcbFileName. dcbAliasBytes. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. dLBA. dBytes) MMURTL V1. wCodeSeg. dPriority.Request( pSvcName. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. pS2. dRespExch. dcbMem. pS2. dOpNum. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dESP. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. pRqHndlRet. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. pDestination. pStack. pDestination. pPathRet. dPriority. pData2. dJobNum. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. cBytes. dnBlocks. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. npSend. wSvcCode.

nChars. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. dULline. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. pbCharRet. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. pdLenRet. dChannel. dCrntLen. fdRead. nLines. pDataIn. dLine. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. sdMem. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. nCols. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dTextOut. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. pbExitChar. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. dPort) OutWord(Word. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. dMaxLen.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. pDataOut. dPort) OutWords(dPort. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. pbChars. ddLine.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS .dBytes) OutByte(Byte. nChars. Speaker. dLine.

AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. Parameters: AX .0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . This must be zero (0) for task gates.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate. the parameters are not stack-based.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). Unlike most other operating system calls.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX .Returns an error. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . Parameters: AX . exceptions. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. and interrupts.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. They are passed in registers.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. or 0 if all went well.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use. They are passed in registers. else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. exception gates and interrupt gates. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). Unlike most other operating system calls. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. the parameters are not stack based. EAX Returns Error. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).

A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. If you do. etc. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. except you provide the exchange. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. Parameters: nPages . (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). dcbMem . Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. ppAliasRet . The overhead included in entry. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. Parameters: pMem .A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. This would be for the time-out function described above. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. Parameters: dnTicks . In fact. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). dJobNum . each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1).Dword (4 BYTES).Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. pdPhyMemRet . except it can be used asynchronously.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. dJobNum. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. even though it's very close. Alarm() can be used for a number of things. WaitMsg. and don't get placed in a waiting condition. ppMemRet. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. MMURTL V1. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. the more precise the timing. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. do some other processing. The larger dnTicks is. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable.Job number from the other application. ppRet . This means you can set an alarm.). AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. It will always begin on a page boundary. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. dcbMem. The message that is sent is two dwords. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each application has its own linear address space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

MMURTL V1.0

-163-

RICHARD A BURGESS

The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

MMURTL V1.0

-164-

RICHARD A BURGESS

This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
MMURTL V1.0

-165-

RICHARD A BURGESS

pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

MMURTL V1.0

-166-

RICHARD A BURGESS

The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

MMURTL V1.0

-167-

RICHARD A BURGESS

This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

MMURTL V1.0

-168-

RICHARD A BURGESS

GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

MMURTL V1.0

-169-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

MMURTL V1.0

-170-

RICHARD A BURGESS

GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
MMURTL V1.0

-171-

RICHARD A BURGESS

GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
MMURTL V1.0

-172-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
MMURTL V1.0

-173-

RICHARD A BURGESS

while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

MMURTL V1.0

-174-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Parameters: dIRQnum . and data pages. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. and you call this often enough. although longer periods will work.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. initial Task State Segment. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). precise. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. Interrupts are not disabled. Parameters: dn15us . DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. so the time could be much longer. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.Parameters: dAlarmExch . pdJobNumRet . Page Descriptor. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify.pointer to the filename to run. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. Virtual Video. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. and the memory required to run code.length of the run filename. Parameters: pFilename . MMURTL V1. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. stack. dcbFileName. dcbFileName . but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify.

The address of the port. OS=8 or User=18 Priority . Parameters: MMURTL V1. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use.Exchange for TSS.handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch .Which code segment. else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. dExch. ESP .The byte value to write to the port. dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. dESP. Paramters: Dword . dfDebug. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address. dCodeSeg. OutWord OutWord(Word.exchange where the Request is to be sent. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. Parameters: Byte . dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS). dPriority. Exch .Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. No error is returned.Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. Parameters: JobNum .0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug .0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS .Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution. DPort . it is made to run. The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. DPort .The address of the port. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl .The dword value to write to the port. dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function.

” describes all of the attribute values.The word value to write to the port. dLine.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned. This is the number of Words * 2. MMURTL V1. pDataOut. if not displayed. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol. Parameters: pdnPagesRet . Parameters: dCol .number of characters pbChars is pointing to.The address of the port. dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort.Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to. nChars. DBytes .0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS . “Application Programming.pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol.line (0-24) pbChars . Parameters: DPort . pbChars.The address of the port. OutWords OutWords(dPort.Word . dAttr .line (0-24) dnChars . QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space.color/attribute to use during display. dLine.The count of bytes to write to the port address.column to start on (0-79) dLine . Each page of memory is 4096 byte. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values. dnChars. PdataOut . or virtual screen. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. Parameters: dCol . You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2).A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen.column to start on (0-79) dLine .number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. DPort . The Basic Video section in Chapter 9.

dRespExch. If no key was available. This call blocks your task until completion. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. wSvcCode. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. Service names are case sensitive. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. or on what machine the request is being serviced. pData2.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. and padded with spaces (20h). This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture.a pointer to an 8-byte string. pRqHndlRet. cbData1. The string must be left justified. if forwarded across a network.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request Request( pSvcName.the exchange to be associated with the service name. If fWait is true (non-zero). the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. Parameters: BAddress . Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. npSend.If true (non-zero). fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. pData1. dData1. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch .The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. Parameters: pSvcName . If fWait is false (0). dData0. fWait .A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. cbData2.

Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service.dData0.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. dData0. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. the value returned from the Request() call itself. cbData1 . is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing.the size of the data being sent to the service. 1 and 2. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. then npSend would be 2. 65534 (0FFFEh). cbData2 . or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. pData1 . dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. The service must be registered with the operating system. This may be data sent to the service. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. of the message sent back to the requester of the service. dError.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. Respond Respond(dRqHndl.a number (0. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. dMsgLo. dData2 . Parameters: dRqHndl . It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. Function Codes 0. This error is not the error returned by the service. pData2 . Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. See Respond().same as pData1. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. wSvcCode . With all kernel primitives. space padded.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). are sending data to the service. or received from the service. Parameters: pSvcName . It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. dData1. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. dRespExch . Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. npSend . service name. dStatRet .This is the operating system Request primitive. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. With all kernel primitives.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. Zero will be returned if all was well. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. Always assume it will be network-routed. dError. The use of dData0. MMURTL V1. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. For example. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. pRqHndlRet .

If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line. If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange.The length of the command line string to store. This call stores the command line in the JCB. and it is moved to the Ready queue. and is not enforced by the operating system. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. the new command line string. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver.The upper dword of the message.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. and while Chaining to another application.a polite term for crashed. DnLines . If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. If it were a Response from a service. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task.The number of columns to be scrolled. In this case the top line is lost.dnCols. and the bottom line would be blanked. dMsgLo . Parameters: pCmdLine . dcbCmdLine . The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter.0. MMURTL V1. dMsgHi . This is an agreed-upon convention. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . DfUp .The lower dword of the message. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol. it will be into an array of dwords. Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange.1). The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. which is the first dword pushed. linked with that task. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. Parameters: DULCol . SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. msg[0].This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0. Parameters: dExch . and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address.The count of lines to be scrolled.dnLines. in C this is unsigned long msg[2].The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . the message is associated. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index.dULline.25. dMsgHi.Points to an array of bytes.80.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . msg[1].

The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. Built-in device drivers assume these values. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. dcbExitJob . Table 15. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. which will happen most often. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. After the interrupt vector is set.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to.4 .The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. pVector . Parameters: dIRQnum . Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. Parameters: pExitJob .4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. and its ExitJob is zero length. When a job exits. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). Initially.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . The filename must not longer than 79 characters.If installed. MMURTL V1. pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB).0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 15.

Parameters: bPriority .0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . Typically. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. SetPath SetPath(pPath. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. then call ClrScr(). This is a maximum of 13 characters.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. The maximum length is 13 bytes. dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. The default foreground color. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries.SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. the color of the characters themselves. MMURTL V1. Parameters: pJobName . The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. will clear the job name from the JCB. dcbJobName . If no job name is set by the application. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. a text string. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. A zero length. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect.This is the new priority (0-31). The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. Longer values will be truncated. and background colors may be changed by an application. If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. The path is 79 characters maximum. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. Parameters: pPath . dcbPath . Refer to the file System documentation). dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter.

If the SysIn name is set to KDB. dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. If the SysOut name is VID. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. if none is set by the application. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application.The job number for new owner of the active screen. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. The default name.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. Only ASCII data is returned from this call. Parameters: pFileName . Parameters: pUsername .The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen.points to a text string.SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. is VID.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to.is the length of the string to store. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. The default name. if none is set. WriteBytes().A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. Parameters: pFileName . dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). is KBD. which is the user's name. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. The name is preserved across ExitJobs.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. Parameters: DJobNum . this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. dcbUsername . which is the one to be displayed. dcbFileName . The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. and Chaining to another application. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. dcbFileName . dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes().

should use priorities above 25. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. fOSCode . Parameters: dnTicks . This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). 1 is accepted. it is made to run. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. Application programs should use priority 25. This applies to the virtual screen. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. pStack. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. lower numbers. otherwise.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS .The new horizontal cursor position column. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . DNewY . If your task is a high enough priority.This is a number from 0 to 31. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. or make it sleep. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. dPriority . SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. such as the file system and keyboard. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. fDebug. or the real video screen if currently assigned.This is a pointer to the function. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. Certain system services are higher priority. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. Parameters: pEntry . The timer interrupt sends the message. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. Tone Tone(dHz.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. Parameters: DNewX . Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. but testing will be required to ensure harmony. fDebug . and clears the block when it reaches zero. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up.The new vertical cursor position row.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. dPriority.

UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. if the cursor is in the last column of a line. from 30 to 10000. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . Examples: "KEYBOARD" .The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. Parameters: dIRQnum . Backspace will have no effect. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line.A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. Parameters: dHz .A near Pointer to the text. They will receive an error. 08 backspace . The backspace is non-destructive. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . For character placement.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. If already at column 0.The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line.The cursor.The attribute or color you want. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. The string must left justified. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job. DAttrib . the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. will be moved down one line.A pointer to an 8-byte string. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . Service names are case sensitive. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.The number of characters of text. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. no characters are changed.The cursor will be moved one column to the left.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. A value of 100 is one second. If this line is below the bottom of the screen. Parameters: pSvcName . Parameters: PTextOut . and padded with spaces (20h). For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). it will be moved to the first column of the next line. DTextOut . dTicks10ms . dTextOut. next active character placement.

the task will be placed on the exchange specified. dExch . If no message is available. so this would be obvious to you. MMURTL V1. Parameters: DError . If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer.A pointer to where the message will be returned. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. Of course. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. You've got to send mail to get mail. At that time.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . you would have had to make the request in the first place.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. less than 8000000h. an array of two dwords.

The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. CLI version. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. “What's On the CD-ROM. MMURTL V1. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.g.Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help . It has been expanded. The top line is the status line.Clear Screen Copy . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. D:\DIR\) RD . However. The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me).Enter Debugger Del . job number for this CLI. and your current path.Chapter 16.Remove directory Rename .Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD .” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you.RUN files).Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its.Copy a file Dir .Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . it does work and it's useful in its own right. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . is described in the following sections. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.Delete a file Dump . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter. but it's a good start. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself.Rename a file (Current name New name) Run .Directory listing Debug . To see what has been included on the CDROM. time. see Appendix A.Set file access path (New path e.Hex dump of a file Exit . Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. The internal commands are: Cls . It provides information such as date.Make Directory Path .Display list of internal commands Monitor .0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS . use.

TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full. >Copy THISFILE. If the character is not ASCII text.TXT THATFILE. Both names must be specified. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. or the same name in a different directory. “The Debugger.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. If a file exists with the same name. Dump pauses after each screen full of text.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set. Pressing Esc will stop the listing.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. MMURTL V1. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. a period is displayed instead. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify.

listing. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS .CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. renaming. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. the tree will only be extend one level. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (.). Unlike a single tasking operating system. and . Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. The path must end with the Backslash. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI.. With any file-system operation (opening. In MMURTL. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. or external command that is executed for this CLI. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist.) MMURTL V1. This CLI will still be executing. In other words. etc. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help.

No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS .run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number).run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print. The File COMMANDS. It is a simple text file with one command per line.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test. The file must not be open by any other job. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix .run . An example of COMMANDS. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file.CLI follows: .CLI File The file COMMANDS.CLI Commands.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below.RUN).CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. pausing after each page. The first item on the line is the command name. The contents of the file COMMANDS.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI.TXT Run (Execute a .End of Command.run New. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist). The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME. MMURTL V1.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.

1. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down. but other application might. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. CTRL-ALT-DELETE .h" "\OSSOURCE\MData.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status.CLI. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. Listing 16.h> #include <string. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed. CLI Source Code Listing .h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. In this case.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command. 1. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .Terminates the currently displayed job.0 of the Command Line Interpreter.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS .Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor.h> #include <ctype. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.CLI file.Ver. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.

/* "Ren". /* "Dir". /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. long cbPath. cmdpath[60]. long cbCmd = 0. iLine. /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. /* "Del". clipath[60]. /* "Help". /* "Exit".0 { 0 external */ 1 . unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* "Cls". unsigned long GPHndl.not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . hlppath[60]. unsigned long GPExch.#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. /* "Path". /* "Monitor". /* "Dump". /* "Debug". long JobNum. unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. char fUpdatePath.0 Job Path: ". /* "Copy". /* "MD". /* "xxxxx". unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* MMURTL V1. /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. char aCmd[80]. char ExitChar. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. syspath[50]. char text[70]. date. char char char char sdisk. /* "RD".

) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. U8 Ext[3]. "Type". } dirent[16]. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. It updates the status line which has the time and path. U8 Rsvd[10].. U16 StartClstr. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8].0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. U16 Date. }. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. char *apParam[13]. long acbParam[13]."Run". U32 FileSize. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. U8 Attr. U16 Time.

break. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). /* year */ 0x0f). case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". &aStatLine[47]. case 208: pSt = "File in use". + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). FillData(&aStatLine[47]. break.cbPath = 30. break. break. break. FillData(st. aStatLine. case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". case 1: pSt = "End of file". aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. fUpdatePath = 0. 0x0f). break. break.0. MMURTL V1. 0x0f). cbPath). /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. break. char st[40]. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). break. case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". 40. break. (time & 0x0f). 80. } GetCMOSDate(&date). case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". case 201: pSt = "No such drive". break. case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". /* Day */ 0x0f). /* month */ 0x0f). PutVidChars(0. CopyData(aPath. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). 30. case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". break. 0).0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. break. STATVID). switch (erc) { case 0: return. Sleep(100). break. case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". ' '). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". break. break.

pSt = st. } printf("%s\r\n". STATVID). 80. *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). GetXY(&iCol. unsigned char buff[17]. &iLine). i. erc). } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. iLine). PutVidChars(0. #asm INT 03 #endasm return. pSt).0. return. erc = 0. } SetXY(iCol. break. j. } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). aStatLine.0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetXY(&iCol.default: sprintf(st. iLine = 2. long cb. &iLine). MMURTL V1. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. addr). } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. while (cb) { printf("%08x ". "Error %05d on last command". ClrScr(). KeyCode. unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { .

printf("%s\r\n". printf("ESC to cancel. } buff[i+1] = 0. 0). k. fh. erc = ReadBytes (fh. acbParam[1]. if (!erc) { j=0.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. MMURTL V1.if (cb > 15) j=16. if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. dret. SetXY(0. addr+=j.1..*pb). i++) { printf("%02x ". &k).1). erc = 0. erc. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1].23). if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. } InitScreen(TRUE). } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. Buffer. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. ++iLine. &fh). for (i=0. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. ModeRead.23).. i<j. 1). &dret). This expects to find the filename in param[1]. iLine =1. /* ReadKbd. &buff[0]). 512. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. } return erc.23. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. else cb=0. l. 1. SetXY(0.1). any other key to continue. else j = cb. buff[i] = *pb++. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. 512.").80.

SetXY(0. Buffer. lfa. fh. erc. dret. dret = 1.23). if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. lfa+i). j). erc = 0.1. } CloseFile (fh). erc = ReadBytes (fh. 0. else l=k-j. 0).23. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). dret.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS .1). iLine++. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. MMURTL V1. } erc = OpenFile(pName. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. j<=i. &fh).80. SetFileLFA(fh. j+=512. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. Buffer. &dret). &lfa). j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. i = 1. i. j. } SetXY(0.iLine). cbName. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. 512. KeyCode. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. NORMVID). 78. 1. iLine. long cbName) { long i. } for (j=0. return erc.

bytesGot.mo.da. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking.mi. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. printf("ESC to cancel. da = date & 0x001F.1). CopyData(st. if (yr > 99) yr -=100. char st[15]. char *pTo. SetXY(0.23).se). ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. MMURTL V1. return erc. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n". This is used by the directory listing.da. CloseFile (fh).0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . "%02d-%02d-%02d". U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. any other key to continue. "%02d:%02d:%02d". InitScreen(TRUE). ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time. } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.. sprintf(st. U32 cbFrom. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. bytesWant. pTimeRet. 8). sprintf(st. This uses a conservative 4K buffer.se. pDateRet. U16 date.hr. erc). char *pTimeRet. erc.. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4).hr."). iLine =1. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . CopyData(st. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11. fhFrom.mi.mo. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). bytesLeft.yr). Use block mode for speed. /* ReadKbd. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr.1900. 1). 8).

if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. } MMURTL V1. size). } return(erc). cbFrom. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. bigBuf. dLFA. } dLFA += bytesGot.bytesOut. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). 0. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. &fhTo). size. /* ReadKbd. &bytesOut). dLFA = 0. 0). bytesWant. 1). &fhFrom). KeyCode. erc = OpenFile(pFrom. ModeRead. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. bytesGot. ModeModify. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. dLFA. cbTo. bigBuf. bytesLeft = size. 0. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. else bytesWant = bytesLeft. } CloseFile(fhTo). if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. &bytesGot). dLFA. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. &size). cbTo.

dirent[i].Name. fDone = 1. ReadKbd(&KeyCode./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. dirent[i]. iLine =1. any other key to continue. SetXY(0. if (!erc) { for (i=0. 1).Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. SectNum). dirent[i].1). i<16. SectNum = 0. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. } fDone = 0. } InitScreen(TRUE). dirent[i]. printf("ESC to cancel.Ext. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. erc. KeyCode. dirent[i]. fDone = TRUE. &st[24]). } } } MMURTL V1. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. 512. st).23.1).0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS .Time. printf("%s".. *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. acbParam[1]. } if ((dirent[i]. /* ReadKbd.Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st. U32 SectNum.80.Date.. &st[33]. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. &dirent[0]. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. dirent[i]. iLine++. SetXY(0.23). i.1.StartClstr). "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n".Attr.FileSize. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]."). char st[78].Name[0]) { erc = 1.23).

MMURTL V1. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user.. iPrm<nParamsMax. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0..CLI is: name fullspec param param param. *f. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. j. fdone. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. iPrm. cmdline[90]. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. for (iPrm=0. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. iCmd++. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. SectNum++. k. rawline[90]. If it finds it. The format for a line entry in Commands. } return(erc).} else fDone = TRUE. i.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0].

f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. 89. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. runfile[k] = 0.CLI not found.') /* a comment line */ continue. /* now move arguments if any. cmdline[j] = 0. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. if (f) { fdone = 0. "r").0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . acbParam[0]). } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). f = fopen(cmdpath. cmdline). /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. return(0). return(1). /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. rawline. } } else printf("Commands. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd.\r\n"). j = CompareNCS(apParam[0].cmdline[0] = 0. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++].

if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). acbParam[0]). ModeRead. If we don't find one. if it's not there. runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. we then go to COMMANDS. &runfile[i]. ModeRead. strlen(clipath)). 0). cbCmd). SetCmdLine(aCmd. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. we go to the system directory. syspath). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). erc = Chain(runfile. } MMURTL V1. strlen(clipath)). CopyData(apParam[0]. /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. erc. erc = Chain(runfile. ". 0). runfile. strlen(clipath)). 1. strlen(runfile). 1. cbCmd). ModeRead. SetExitJob(clipath.CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. fh. SetExitJob(clipath. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). erc = Chain(runfile. 1. SetExitJob(clipath. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. &fh). strcat(runfile.RUN"). strlen(runfile).0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . acbParam[0]). strlen(runfile). &fh). SetCmdLine(aCmd. we first look for a . strlen(runfile). } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). &fh). } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. If so. 0). SetCmdLine(aCmd. strlen(runfile). long i.RUN"). } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. strlen(runfile). /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. erc = OpenFile(runfile.When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command.RUN file in the current path. i = strlen(runfile). erc = OpenFile(runfile. cbCmd). ".

&cbPath). if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. */ syspath[0] = sdisk./********************************************** Main function entry point. erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). 0."COMMANDS. 1=B. sprintf(&aStatLine[37].CLI"). 8)."CLI. InitScreen(FALSE). strcat(hlppath.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . strcat(clipath. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. and help file. JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum). fh. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. strcpy(cmdpath. } else { strcpy (aPath. strcpy(clipath. GetPath(JobNum. 0). strcat(cmdpath. aPath. SetXY(0. syspath[2] = 0. /* 0=A. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. &StatStack[255]. command file. syspath).0". MMURTL V1. &iLine). strcpy(hlppath. SpawnTask(&StatTask."HELP. 24. iLine). */ cbPath = 0. strcat(syspath. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). Note: No params to CLI. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). "\\MMSYS\\"). syspath[1] = ':'. j. 2=C etc.RUN"). sdisk &= 0x7F.CLI"). i. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. sdisk += 0x41. syspath). syspath). syspath). "%02d". SetJobName("CLI V1.

apParam[2]. case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). SetPath(syspath. else erc = ErcBadParams. aCmd[79] = 0. EDVID). InitScreen(TRUE). strlen(syspath)). if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). paCmds[i]. &cbCmd. break. 1. &fh). acbParam[1]. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). break. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. 2. apParam[0] = 0. TTYOut ("\r\n". SetXY(0. NORMVID). 79. GetXY(&iCol. NORMVID).cbPath = strlen(syspath). if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. } fUpdatePath = 1. 1. cbCmd. &ExitChar. EditLine(aCmd. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). CmdNum = 0. SetExitJob(clipath. acbParam[2]). iLine). ' '). } erc = 0. TTYOut (">". 79. j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. acbParam[0] = 0. } i++. break. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. &iLine). cbCmd = 0.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) MMURTL V1. acbParam[1]. 0. break. strlen(clipath)). case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1].

case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. GPExch. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. apParam[2]. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. acbParam[1]. if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. acbParam[1]). acbParam[1]). default: break. 0. 0). break. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). else erc = ErcBadParams. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. 0. break. 0. 0). aPath. MMURTL V1. break. break. } break. break. 0. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. acbParam[1]). case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. ExitJob(0). case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). break. 0). fUpdatePath = 1. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch.erc = DeleteFile(fh). break. break. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. break.\r\n"). acbParam[2]). case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". SetExitJob(clipath. if (!erc) printf("Done. acbParam[1]. 0. acbParam[1]). &GPHndl. SetVidOwner(1). break.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. 4. &cbPath). case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. cbCmd-i). strlen(clipath)). 1. break. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. strlen(hlppath)). case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. GPMsg).

23). and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. The last line is used for data entry. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands.2.1). File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections.23.1. &iLine). See Appendix A. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . The next 23 lines are the text editing area. SetXY(0. The top line provides continuous status information.1. } GetXY(&iCol. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). current filename.} CheckErc(erc). such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line). Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. What's On the CD-ROM. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb.80. status and error display. Table 16.

h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.2. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.2 is the editor source code.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .h> #include <string.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. Listing 16.h> #include <ctype.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.h" MMURTL V1.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData. Editor Source Code /* Edit. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions. Listing 16.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.4 .

U32 iAttrNorm.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. void clearbuf(void). char aStat[80]. U8 bSpace. char *pBuf1. *pBuf2.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. U32 iTabNorm.. }. char aStat1[80].h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. char *apParam[13]. 0. U32 iRowMax.. U8 fVisible. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. char aCmd[80]. U32 iAttrMark. unsigned char b.sLine-1 */ U32 iLine.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. unsigned char filler[100]. /* cursor. /* cursor. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13].h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. 0. long erc. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. U32 sLine. struct EditRecType *pEdit. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. struct EditRecType EdRec. fh. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark.1 */ U32 iColMin. U8 *pBufWork. long cbFilename. /* sBuf . /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. U32 iColMax. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. b1. char fOvertype. U32 oBufBound. char fModified.

erc). erc). 40. %05d occured on OpenFile". } for (i=0. "Error break. "Error break. %05d occured on SetFileSize". } return (erc). 24. case 6: sprintf(st. %05d occured on last command".0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . i<40. Beep(). case 5: sprintf(st. erc). 80. if (erc) { FillData(st. PutVidChars (40. erc). long erc) { char st[40]. "Error break. erc). 0). "Error break. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. %05d occured on ReadKbd".Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. %05d occured on ReadBytes". } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. 39. case 2: sprintf(st. NORMVID). "Error break. case 3: sprintf(st. PutVidChars (0. } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. If fPrompt is true. "Error break. "Error break. 80. %05d occured on WriteBytes". 0). this will prompt you to save. long i. 24. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". st. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. "Error break. STATVID). erc). i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. If fClose. FillData(st. case 7: sprintf(st. st. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. default: sprintf(st. %05d occured on CreateFile". case 4: sprintf(st. erc). erc). *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80].

Sleep(150). 1). **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. clearbuf(). 10. unsigned char *pBuff. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pEdit->oBufLast)). TTYOut("This file has been modified. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). pBuf1. STATVID). ClearStatus(). WriteBytes (fh.. ".. } } MMURTL V1. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". fYes. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. 43. fModified = 0. cbFilename = 0. SetXY(0. ReadKbd(&keycode. ClearStatus(). } fYes = 1. BLACK|BGCYAN).0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . int fClose) { U32 i. pEdit->oBufLast. fh = 0. keycode. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. 0)). if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. ClearStatus(). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. "DONE. PutVidChars (0. SetFileSize(fh. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. 24. &i)).and the buffer will be closed. SetFileLFA(fh. 24).

/* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh).". ModeModify. if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. Create?? (Y/N)". TTYOut("Doesn't exist. name. OpenFile(Filename.0). cbFilename. BLACK|BGCYAN). &fh)). 0. 26. &filesize). 1). cbFilename = strlen(Filename). filesize. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. else erc = 0. ReadKbd(&keycode. 1. EditLine(Filename. cbFilename. BLACK|BGWHITE). **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. &b1. &dret). fh = 0. cbFilename = 0. 1. TTYOut("File is too large to edit. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. pBuf1. SetXY(0. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). PutVidChars (0. 60. "Filename: ". if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. SetXY(50. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. Beep(). &fh). 10.24. 1). dret. SetXY(10. 24). pEdit->oBufLast = dret. CreateFile(Filename. cbFilename. strncpy(Filename. if (!name) { SetXY(0. ModeModify. MMURTL V1. 24). 29. 0)). keycode. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. 13).24). BLACK|BGCYAN). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. If not./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. ReadKbd(&keycode. &cbFilename.24). it will prompts to create. erc = 0. erc). } else { b1=0x0d.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetXY(50. BLACK|BGCYAN).

} } else { cbFilename = 0. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. iEolMax. ClearStatus(). iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. cbFilename = 0. nEols = 0. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. erc). unsigned char *pBuff. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. i = 0. } } else CheckErc(1. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. return(nEols).if (erc) { fh = 0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. i. even though we word wrap always. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *pBuff.

if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. /* now find first non-space . iEol = iBuf. j. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.1. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++.. } } return(iEol). } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. */ iEol = iEolMax. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. char *pBuff.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. i = 0.. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i.

} else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. PutVidAttrs (iColStart.pEdit->Line[iLn] .i--. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc .pEdit->Line[iLn]. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. iColFinish. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. iLn. iLn. iColStart-pEdit->iColMin.pEdit->Line[iLn]. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . pEdit->iAttrNorm).iColStart +1.0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . iMarkLoc. } while (i < oBufStart). if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. iColFinish . while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. MMURTL V1. pEdit->iColMax . pEdit->iAttrMark).iColFinish. iLn. return(j). else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . iBoundLoc. pEdit->iAttrNorm).1. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. if (i) i++. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command.

*************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufLast++. char fOK. cb). } } } else { fOK = 0. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. pEdit->pBufWork. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. fModified = 1. char fOvertype. erc = 40400. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. pEdit->oBufInsert++. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork.pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. cb). CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . Beep(). pEdit->iAttrNorm). *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. } return (fOK). pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->sLine.iLn. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. *pBuff.

i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i].1. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk.iMk. i<=iBd-iMk.iBd . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0.pEdit->oBufInsert .iBd + iMk . *pBuffWork. i<=iMk . iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark.1. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.void moveData (void) { unsigned long i.1. iMk. pEdit->oBufInsert . *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. for (i=0. } } } else Beep(). iBd. for (i=0. i <=iBd-iMk. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. MMURTL V1. char *pBuff. iBd.

pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. MMURTL V1. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .iMk + 1. pEdit->oBufLast+1). pBuffWork. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufLast . iBd-iMk+1).char *pBuff. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. (hides it). pEdit->sLine. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. } } } else Beep(). } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].iMk + 1. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY.pEdit->oBufInsert+1). for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff.iMk. *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. i. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd.

CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert).if it is. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. j. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert . &pBuff[iMk]. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. iMk. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast .1. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. char fProb. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. *pBuffWork. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. else fProb = FALSE.normAttr (). *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. iBd. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed.iBd + iMk . i = pEdit->iRowMin.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.might be off screen .iBd + iMk. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. char *pBuff. } nullMarkBound ().

pEdit->iLine = i . if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. j = pEdit->iLine. i = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. j = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . i. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. } } MMURTL V1. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. } i = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. if prev char <> CR. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol .i++. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. /* if bogus line. /* get to potential insert . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf.pEdit->iColMin.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--.1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin.is.

} } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. cb. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. i<=k. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). */ for (i = k. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. k = pEdit->iRowMax. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. j<NLINESMAX. MMURTL V1. iLn. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. oBuf. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). j.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. else for (j=i+1. k. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin.

pFiller. doMark (iLn).Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. pBuff+oBuf. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . iLn. i = pEdit->iRowMin. MMURTL V1. cb. iLn. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. makeOnScreen (). pEdit->Line[i] = 0. pEdit->iAttrNorm). *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. FillData(filler. cb = i . oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. 80. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Make size. for (i=0. else i = pEdit->oBufLast.1. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.char *pBuff. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. 0x20). char *pBuff. pEdit->sLine-cb. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. i<NLINESMAX. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. /* oBufInsert on screen . Called before use and after closure. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.oBuf + 1.

} else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. key. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. 0x20). fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = FALSE. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. 80. nullMarkBound()."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". FillData(aStat. pEdit->iCol. for (i=0.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufLast = 0. char fSpecInsert. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor ().fModified = 0. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. i. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. k. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. erc = AllocExch(&exch). long exch. fDone = FALSE. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. char *pBuff. normAttr (). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->iLine). j. *pBuffWork. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pEdit->oBufLast). fOvertype = FALSE. normAttr (). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. sprintf(aStat. unsigned char b.

break. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. STATVID). &aStat[40]. break. break. cbFilename).Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. coordCursor_oBuf (). 80. PutVidChars (0. break. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. &aStat[77].CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. fScreen = TRUE. coordCursor_oBuf ().End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow .Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . else CopyData("INS". if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. i = pEdit->iLine. i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. 3).CopyData(Filename. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. ReadKbd (&key. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR".Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. aStat. b = key & 0xff. break. fSpecInsert = FALSE. &aStat[77]. TRUE). 0. 3). break. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow .Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1)).

case 0x53: /* ALT S . } break. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. fScreen = TRUE. default: break. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07.pEdit->Line[i]. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf().SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. } else { for (i=0. i = pEdit->iLine+1. fScreen = TRUE. OpenAFile(0). i <= pEdit->oBufLast. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . } fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. } break. break.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. FALSE).0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. break. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). TRUE). break. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. fDone = TRUE.

case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. default: break. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax .1.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). break.} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLast+1). else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). fScreen = TRUE. if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. fOvertype. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . fSpecInsert))) Beep(). MMURTL V1. break. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. findCursor (). if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast .0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuffWork.1. if (!(putInBuf (b. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf ().

case 0x12: /* F4 -. FALSE. i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x11: /* F3 -. fModified = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x10: /* F2 -. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . for (i=1. fScreen = TRUE. FALSE). } break. fScreen = TRUE. i <=j. fScreen = TRUE.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound ().(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast .Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert.1.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. break. j = pEdit->iTabNorm .MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf ().1. i = pEdit->iLine. moveData (). i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. fScreen = TRUE. } break. MMURTL V1. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. case 0x17: /* F9 .1. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast .Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf ().0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . } break. } break.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x06: /* Home .

i = pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. break. } } break. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). CopyIt (). pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.break. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. j = pEdit->iRowMax . break. coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. i = pEdit->oBufLine0. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. } break. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. case 0x18: /* F10 . /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--.COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). fScreen = TRUE. k--. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. fScreen = TRUE. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i).pEdit->iRowMin. k = pEdit->iLine. j--.

if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound ().pEdit->iLine++. break. i = pEdit->iCol. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. pEdit->iCol = i. pEdit->oBufLast+1). } break. default: MMURTL V1. fScreen = TRUE. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->iLine = j. coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. } fScreen = TRUE. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. } break. fModified = TRUE. } break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). pEdit->oBufLast--. else fOvertype = TRUE. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. } } break. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. j = pEdit->iLine. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. pBuffWork.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS .

&pBuf2).pEdit->oBufLast)). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. 0). 6). pEdit->sLine+1. SetJobName("Editor". FALSE. erc = AllocPage(32. } *pbExitRet = b. &pBuf1). i <=pEdit->iRowMax. /*sBuf . WriteBytes (fh. 0. cbFilename = 0. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. pEdit = &EdRec. pBuf2. fh = 0. U8 *argv[]) { long i. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. 80. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. 131071. &i)). pEdit->oBufLast.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. 23. pBuf1. i.0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. 0)). SetFileSize(fh. i <=pEdit->iBufMax.break. erc = AllocPage(32. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. ClrScr(). and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. } CloseFile(fh). return. 0x20. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). SetFileLFA(fh. 79. fModified = 0. 1. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5.

i = pEdit->iRowMin.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 16. struct statRecC com. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. fModified = 0. 4. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]). i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232. 0. fOvertype = FALSE. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. 0x20).. i.h> #include <string. 0. EDVID. ExitJob(0). 0.h> #include <ctype. 0. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.3.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). 0. EMPTY. for (i=0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key. 80. EMPTY. 0..h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. } Editor(&b).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. 0. MMURTL V1.sLine-1 */ cursor. i<NLINESMAX.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler.

but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. SetNormVid(NORMVID). */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". %d\r\n". ExitJob(erc). &com. com.parity = com. /* View other params which we could set.0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . %d\r\n". printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". %d\r\n". dOpNum. /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver.Baudrate com. Dumb Terminal Program\r\n").XTimeOut). com.unsigned char b. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). com. lastb. we open the comms port */ /* device. com. if (erc) { MMURTL V1. } /* If device init went OK. erc). = 1.RBufSize). NO_PAR. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. com. 0. The structure is defined in commdrv.stopbits = 9600. } /* set the params in the block */ com. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. ClrScr(). CmdOpenC. &com. %d\r\n". ClrScr().RTimeOut). %d\r\n".XBufSize). = 8. printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). 0.databits com. com. dLBA. char fOK. erc).h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. 64).IRQNum). 64. &i). dnBlocks. (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). ClrScr(). &i). ExitJob(erc).IOBase).

NORMVID). printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". erc = DeviceOp(6. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. CmdWriteB. break. ClrScr(). dnBlocks. ClrScr(). fOK = 1. dLBA.SetNormVid(CLIVID). ExitJob(erc). 0. 0. 1. dnBlocks. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6.0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc). */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". 0. erc). 0. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n".\r\n"). dOpNum. &b). CmdWriteB. SetNormVid(CLIVID). &b).. CmdCloseC. } } } } /* device. ExitJob(erc). */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. dLBA. dOpNum. NORMVID).. else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. &i). } } } MMURTL V1. 1. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. } } else { /* device. /* This is it. 0. 0.. lastb = b. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. default: break. dOpNum. dnBlocks. CmdReadB. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0. 0. &b).. if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. dLBA.

Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver.h" "\OSSource\MKbd. struct statRecL lpt.h" "\OSSource\MVid.h> <stdlib.h> <ctype.Binary print. Listing 16.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSource\Parallel. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device.4. long long long long long tabstops = 4. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No. col = 0.h> <string.2.4.4 or 8) \D . fBinary = 0. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. fDisplay = 0.h" "\OSSource\MTimer.h> <stdio. Send with no translations. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n . FILE *f. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). char name[80]. NoFF = 0. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B .Display the file while printing \F . In listing 16.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key. That's the intention of the design.h" "\OSSource\MJob.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1.

i < argc.0x30. unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. 79). switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . char fdone. lastb.No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. break. default: printf("Invalid switch").void main(long argc.0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. break. erck. } MMURTL V1. argv[i]. unsigned char b. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. NO translation. *ptr. exit(1). name[0] = 0. printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). no FF\r\n\n").Tab stop translation value\r\n"). exit(1). case 'B' : /* BINARY . if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. Version 1. case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. printf("/B Binary print. cl. i. break. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). for(i=1. break. break. 8). case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. SetJobName("Printing".0\r\n").

name). 0. dLBA. b = (cl & 0xff). while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. */ erc = DeviceStat(3. dnBlocks. if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". dOpNum. erc).. } printf("Printing %s . we open the printer port */ /* device. } else { MMURTL V1.\r\n".h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. &i). dOpNum./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. &lastb). CmdOpenL. -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. fdone = 0. b = 0.. name). dnBlocks.. } /* If device status went OK. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. 0. The structure is defined in parallel. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. cl = fgetc(f). printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". dLBA. } col = 0. "r"). i = 0. &lpt. &i). erc). lastb = b. 0. 0. ExitJob(erc). ExitJob(erc). ExitJob(erc). if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. if (!f) { /* device. CmdCloseLU. /* This is it. */ f = fopen(name. &i).0 1.. 64.

CmdWriteB. 1. 0). &b). 1. if (erc) MMURTL V1. 0. CmdWriteB. 0. col = 0. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". CmdCloseL. lastb). 0. 0. dnBlocks. erc = DeviceOp(3. } erc = DeviceOp(3. /* reset */ break. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. &i). break. 0. erc). 1. &lastb). 1. b). erc = 4. "\f"). case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. col++. CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. 1. dOpNum. erc = DeviceOp(3. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c".switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. } while (col % tabstops).0 1. 0. 0. %d\r\n". /* device. CmdWriteB. } fclose(f). break. case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. col++. 0. dLBA. } } &b). if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . " "). if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. &b).

Error: %d\r\n". /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. run the TestSvc. ErrorToUser. Listing 16.printf("Can't close LPT. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. “Systems Programming. MMURTL V1. erc). and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. printf("Done\r\n").RUN program to exercise the service.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. ExitJob(erc).” It has been expanded some.h> "\OSSource\MKernel. Service. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. keycode.5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service.h" "\OSSource\MJob. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. long *pDataRet. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2]. While this program is running.h" "\OSSource\MVid. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl.

MainExch). SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). MainExch. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. 0.\r\n". /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. ErrorToUser). while (!CheckMsg(MainExch.\r\n"). 1. 0. *pDataRet = NextNumber++.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. ErcNoSuchSvc). /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. } DeAllocExch(MainExch). printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. 0.if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). ClrScr(). 0. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). 0). OSError). /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. Respond(pRqBlk.. &rqHndl. while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. &keycode.\r\n"). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). } pRqBlk = Message[0]. 4.. /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. NextNumber-1). Message).

4.\r\n".6 exercises the sample system service listed previously. 0.\r\n". Also try it when the service is not running. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. Error). if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. Message). /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange.0). TestSvc. 1. 0. Exch. /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. } } DeAllocExch(Exch). else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1. 0. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. Error = AllocExch(&Exch). Number).\r\n".0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" unsigned long Number.\r\n". Message[1]).6. Listing 16. unsigned long Message[2]. Error).C Listing The program in listing 16.h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running. Error = Request("NUMBERS ". Error). rqhndl.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. 0.C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. void main(void) { unsigned long Error. unsigned long Exch. &rqhndl.0.\r\n". else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service.

ASM . Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. MOSGDT. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. The ordering for MMURTL V1. and structures together. MAIN. By including the comments. In fact. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler.Chapter 17. and used by the processor.ASM . The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor.This is the first assembler file that contains code. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode.This is also a table. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. This is the first file in the source.. as you look through the code. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. You may find some of the source files rather large. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. but it is not used by the processor. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function.ASM . One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls.ASM . with the called procedure cleaning the stack. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. The GDT is 6K in size. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. use the stack just as a compiler would.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS .. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file.). I hope I’ve met this goal. There are also header files for the C source. however. It helps me think. MPublics. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. All source files are located in one directory.This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. MOSPDR.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. In fact. which means its data will be at the lowest address. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. This file should be left in the order I have it in. I just expend the time up front instead of later. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. Also some data is defined here.ASM . It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). MOSIDT. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). the human becomes a compiler of sorts. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. Quite a few of them. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. common variables.

C . TmrCode. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. NumCnvrt. UASM.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa. Parallel. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. It drives two channels. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger.ASM .This file contains the RS-232 UART driver. This file has routines that handle DMA for you. Floppy. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done.ASM . JobCode. RQBCode. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents.ASM . MiscCode.ASM .The simple parallel port driver is contained here. It supports the 16550. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled. as well as port I/O support. when a device driver writers need DMA.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write.The code memory allocation. IntCode.ASM . I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.C .C are contained in this file.C . This is one complicated driver. SVCCode. Video. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps). but can be modified for four.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. but I don't have any more to test it. but you never know where to put.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC.C .This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. and it works rather well.ASM . is in this file. DevDrvr. someday). Keyboard. Device driver writers will appreciate this. but it's effective and accurate. JobC.ASM . I was surprised.ASM was one of the first files written.In many systems. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. If you have MFM drives.Request block management code is in this file. Keyboard.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need. MMURTL V1. FSys. undoubtedly. how much to move. Debugging a debugger is even less fun. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. Debugger. It think it still works with MFM drives. even in the earliest stages of a project. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with.the remainder of the modules is not as important. DMACode. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system. RS232. On the other hand.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() .C . MemCode.ASM .C . It's not very pretty.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file. they must handle it themselves.ASM .The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service.C . System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. and the mode. You only need to know the channel. if needed.ASM .are in this file. You have to see what you're doing.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM .Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here.This file is the debugger disassembler. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions.ASM . HardIDE. you're on your own.

” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28.DATA . Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces). .1. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler.C After all the C source files are compiled. An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as .Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. Indirect calling address table . Keyboard ISR and Service .These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! . Assembler Template File . Main OS code and some data & START address .5 minutes on a 486/33. 6K) .ASM . Video code and data MMURTL V1.ASM .The monitor program is contained in this file. a C source file and must be compiled first with . Listing 17. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).ASM . All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. .0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM .ASM .ATF It's truly that simple. InitCode.Kernel. specify /E on the command line after the name.ASM . you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL. CM32 (no switches needed). /L on the command line after the name. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL.INCLUDE Keyboard. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) . This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.ASM .C .INCLUDE MOSPDR. Except. This takes about 1. but it really isn't part of the operating system.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions. DASM produces the operating system RUN file. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor.ASM . and the DASM assembler (also included).0 . If you want an error file.ASM .Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.BAT) will build the entire operating system.INCLUDE MPublics.All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. .ASM . 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. It provides a lot of the OS functionality. Monitor.5 Pages.INCLUDE Video. Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table . If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. You could replace quite easily.INCLUDE MAIN. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.INCLUDE MOSIDT.INCLUDE MOSGDT.

Otherwise. .ASM .I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one. This is because DASM doesn't support structures. . code (string.* . You will. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM. CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding. In fact.INCLUDE .* .ASM RS232.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments .* . This is one thing you should watch.C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM MemCode. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler. it is placed into the code segment in that order.INCLUDE .ASM DMACode. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . no doubt.array. The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language. you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. . .END Debugger. . .ASM Parallel. . use another compiler for your project.ASM MiscCode.ASM TmrCode.ASM InitCode. The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.ASM HardIDE.INCLUDE .ASM JOBC.ASM JobCode.ASM Kernel.INCLUDE .ASM DevDrvr.ASM RQBCode. CM32 packs all structure fields completely. For instance. I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way.ASM Except. .ASM UASM.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM Floppy.ASM FSys.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . .INCLUDE . The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies.INCLUDE . If your C compiler allows it. You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures.ASM NumCnvrt.INCLUDE .ASM IntCode. As each piece of code is assembled.INCLUDE . The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code. and they will work fine.INCLUDE .ASM SVCCode. .* . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular.INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. MMURTL V1.ASM Monitor.* . Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files. you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier).INCLUDE . The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location. .INCLUDE . ..code and data.* :* . you can take the file system code (FSYS.INCLUDE .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc.

local helper functions.INCLUDE . and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). See listing 18. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . and kernel publics functions.1.INC TSS.INC RQB. These are things such as the task state segments. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them. so I could get to them with the monitor program. and offsets into structures and tables.INC JOB.1.Chapter 18. The actual message handling functions.DATA . Listing 18. I think it will make more sense to you. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. a single underscore will be prepended to the name. and memory management tables.ASM. These all change with respect to the task that is running. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. Being an old "structured" programmer. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). internal public functions. The bulk of them are in the file Main. job control blocks.INC DD 0 .INCLUDE . For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. two underscores will be prepended to the name. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. the scheduler. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). Kernel data segment source .INCLUDE .

0 .EAX . we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used.2. if . pLBin^. See listing 18.. Listing 18. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called.ESI. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead].Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. . This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places. pointed to by the ESI register.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy.EAX . REGISTERS : EAX. and therefore. This is important. pExch => EAX.FLAGS . from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). link blocks. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. When a message is sent to an exchange.2. OR EAX. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. OUTPUT : NONE . INPUT : ESI. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. and exchanges. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. . Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: .EAX . XCHG ESI. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg.EDX. which means interrupts must be cleared. This is strictly a speed issue. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . It's not that the routines are called so often. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). is coded in-line. for example. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. and if a task is waiting there. 0 . This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes.Next <= NIL.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. In MMURTL. MODIFIES : EDX . JZ eqMsgDone . .

You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. MOV [EAX+ETail]. OUTPUT : EAX .JNE eqMNotNIL .[ESI+EHead] . REGISTERS : EAX. . Listing 18. 1 . MOV [EAX+ETail]. . .ESI . Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone .NextLB <= pLBin. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. MOV EBX. MOV [EDX+NextLB]. JZ deMsgDone ..ESI .. EAX . OR EAX. EAX . .ESI .[EAX+ETail] . If not. No! (return 0) MOV EAX.MsgTail <= pLBin. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. you return NIL (0). deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there.[EAX+NextLB] ..Next.EBX .3.MsgHead^.ESI .ESI . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.[ESI+fEMsg] . pLBout <= . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.MsgHead <= . . Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . Get Msg Flag OR EAX. De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: . .ESI.ESI . but not both. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].. exchanges can hold messages or tasks.3. . MOV EAX.MsgHead <= pLBin. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.MsgTail <= pLBin. if pLBout = NIL then Return. INPUT : ESI .0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX. deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. 1 .4.. If not. See listing 18. If not.msg. . See listing 18. MOV [ESI+EHead]. deMsgDone: RETN .MsgTail^.. then MOV [EAX+EHead]. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it. As stated before. MMURTL V1.FLAGS .head and EBX .MsgHead. MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI].

See listing 18. pTSSout <= . Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. .EDX .. MOV EBX.EBX. REGISTERS : EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS].[EAX+NextTSS] . if pTSS = NIL then return.EBX. The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists.5. EBX JNZ deTSSDone . OR EAX.[ESI+fEMsg] .Next <= NIL. pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. .RdyQ .[EAX+Priority] . INPUT : EAX .ESI. .Next. . De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . if pTSSout = NIL then Return. head & tail per QUEUE). XOR EAX. XOR EBX. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI . OUTPUT : EAX . register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX. MOV [ESI+EHead]. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. get the priority MOV BL.EDX.EBX .EBX .Listing 18. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1. This . EAX . Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: .FLAGS . OUTPUT : NONE . This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI .EBX.TSSHead <= . 0 .. Priority => EAX.. 0 . INPUT : ESI . in EBX XCHG EAX. Listing 18. . JZ eqRdyDone . 3 . . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers. INC _nReady . Set up to return nothing MOV EBX.TSSHead.EAX . .[ESI+EHead] . Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX.FLAGS . MODIFIES : EAX. Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. deTSSDone: RETN .4. JZ deTSSDone .EBX . REGISTERS : EAX.TSSHead^. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. pTSSin^.EBX . algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority. .5. MODIFIES : EAX. one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL. . This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue.EDX . OR EAX. EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head].0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list.EAX .

EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].ECX deRdyDone: RETN . REGISTERS : EAX. . .6. this returns NIL (0).EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . . .NextTSS <= pTSSin. Keep in mind.Tail^.[EBX] OR EAX. .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].RdyQ .JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head].EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. .ECX. queued on the RdyQ. The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list. . RETURN Otherwise. EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX. . INPUT : NONE . Listing 18. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX.[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS].EBX.nPRI . . Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . EAX is returned as NIL. This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . .Tail <= pTSSin. . .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX].6. . .Head <= pTSSin. See listing 18. deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX..FLAGS . MMURTL V1. If there was no task queued.. OUTPUT : EAX . . MOV ECX. and 31 is the lowest. . MODIFIES : RdyQ . EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. If none is found. ..sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. . .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . else . Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. . . then .. deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX .Tail <= pTSSin. that 0 is the highest priority. IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ.

FLAGS . "It's a nasty job. .ECX.[EBX] OR EAX. This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . . check the next priority. MODIFIES : RdyQ . . the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue . EAX is returned as NIL. Get pTSSout in EAX . They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation.7. . but someone's got to it. See listing 18. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. .0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . .8. This why it's specified as PUBLIC. . ." See Listing 18. This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. Point to the next Priority Queue . without actually removing it from the queue.7. If there was no task queued. is queued to run. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures.8.ASM) that provides preemptive task switching.nPRI . REGISTERS : EAX. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. They are located in Kernel.RdyQ . INPUT : NONE . Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: .sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. Listing 18. OUTPUT : EAX . MOV ECX. When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. Listing 18. It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX.EBX.

pFreeTSS . Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. .nPRI . Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. No error . EDI PUSH EBX . Procedureal Interface : . All done (clean stack) . MODIFIES : RdyQ . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. EDI ADD EBX. MOV EBP. No MOV EDI. . Point to the next Priority Queue .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX.EBX . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . . deQueue the TSS .RdyQ . Yes. pTSSin^. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. .. a job.Next <= pFreeTSS. OUTPUT : NONE . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. .EAX . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . EDI OR EAX. MOV ECX. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . Is it Zero? .0 . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . . PUSH EBP . INC _nTSSLeft . . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) .Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.ESP .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. Make EAX point to new head TSS . Fix link in Queue list . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . POP EBX MOV EAX.[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. . EAX OR EAX.

. This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. . . .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI. The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. [EAX+NextTSS] . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB].Yes. .EDI points to prev TSS . SetExchOwner().Jump the removed link . Listing 18.Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. pTSSin^. 0 .9.Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI.Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . . INC _nTSSLeft . ESI PUSH EBX . . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. Yes. A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. Trash it.EAX .Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . This function is used with the next one. deQueue the TSS . Next TSS . . . . These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). Finding the owner of an exchange . . See listing 18. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. POP .back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. This is not so if it's for a new job. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1.pFreeTSS . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated.Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .9.Next <= pFreeTSS.0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX. Next Queue please . back to check next at head of list . No. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin.EBX .EAX points to crnt TSS . . Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: .JMP RemRdy0 .

is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . See listing 18. continue Yes. . . . Changing the owner of an exchange .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . . ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. .ESP MOV EAX. . pJCBRet .0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . No. . This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). MMURTL V1.EAX MOV EAX. . This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. .. EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . .10. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No.nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. Listing 18. . EAX XOR EAX.prgExch ADD EDX. .10. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch. SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. . [EBP+12] CMP EAX. . . EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. Exch is . not allocated . char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. . . . . pJCBRet the exchange number.ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. Valid Exch (Allocated) . . . [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. mentioned previously. Exch .

. Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . . Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. . then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior.ESP MOV ESI. . The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. .11. . . EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. . . .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. .ESP MOV EAX.prgExch ADD EAX. Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . We ignore the kernel errors.EDX MOV EBX. Get the address of rgSVC . .0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS .. . pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . or the operating system itself. EBX XOR EAX. . telling them that a particular job has died. . If a service is holding a request from the job that died. . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). . If a program sent a request. Notifying services of a job’s demise . . SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch .OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself.nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. . it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. other services. The error it returns is of no consequence. . . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. [EBP+12] MOV EDX. . . . . . .11. pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. See listing 18. Listing 18.

dData0 PUSH 0 .Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI . except this function requires several more parameters.cbData0 PUSH 0 . Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive. Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . [EBP+12] . and code for it is in the file SVCCode. EAX MOV ESP. Request kernel primitive code . Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates.npSend PUSH 0 .CMP DWORD PTR [ESI].Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . . NO. sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX.cbData1 MOV EAX. The function that searches the array is GetExchange().JobNum PUSH EAX . Listing 18.12.pName PUSH 0 . Valid name? . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model.Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI. . The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block. [EBP+8] . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.pHandleRet PUSH 0 .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS . next service PUSH ESI .Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.pData0 PUSH 0 . 0 JE SAB05 .12.dData1 PUSH 0 . The procedural interface to Request looks like this: .Next Service name . They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate. See listing 18.Abort Service Code MOV EAX.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .asm. .dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it. A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications.pData1 PUSH 0 . These are functions such as GetPriority().

dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. . . Error in EAX register . . Save the Previous FramePtr . continue Yes. .Yes. .put .Put . EAX .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- .EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.Get .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX.ESP . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2].Put . JMP ReqEnd . . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. .ESI still has the exchange for the service . .Yes. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: .Get .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX.Validate exchange MOV EDX.put .put .Get .Get . Req04: . ESI MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. AX MOV [EBX+RespExch].No. . EAX MOV EAX.EBX .Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB .Get .0 . . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch].Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 . Sorry. Set up New FramePtr . [EBP+56] ..nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX.EDX still has the response exchange .put . EAX MMURTL V1..Put . . . . [EBP+48] CMP EDX.No JMP ReqEnd . EAX MOV EAX. ErcNoMoreRqBlks .Get .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.pServiceName CALL GetExchange ..Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX. return error Req02: . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No.EAX . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0].

DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI ..Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) . 2 CL. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. No interruptions from here on . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.EDX .EBX DEC _nLBLeft . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . sEXCH EDX EDX.Ptr to return handle to .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. Save pLB on the stack .ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.. EAX MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. .Data PUSH EAX . .Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk .ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1.Get cbData1 . . AL [EBX+npRecv].Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user.EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX.Put npRecv in RqBlk . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it. . EBX MOV EDX. .Next .0 . AL CL. [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2]. Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].pFreeLB OR EAX. pLB^.MOV EAX. .[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB. . EBX . 0 . EAX <= pFreeLB. 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend]. MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX.Must be 2 or less .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in. . 0 . free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. [EBP+40] CMP EAX.Next <= NIL. .prgExch EAX.EDX ESI. . . .The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .Give it to them . Store zero in upper half of pLB^.put in RqBlk .Number of Send PbCbs .put in RqBlk .Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.REQLB . [EBP+44] MOV [EDI]. . MOV [EAX+DataLo].Get pData2 .Leave in CL . CL . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. .EAX .ESI EDX.put in RqBlk . .Get cbData2 . .

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

-258-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

-259-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

-260-

RICHARD A BURGESS

aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

MMURTL V1.0

-261-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

MMURTL V1.0

-262-

RICHARD A BURGESS

SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
MMURTL V1.0

; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

-263-

RICHARD A BURGESS

CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
MMURTL V1.0

; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

-264-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
MMURTL V1.0

; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

-265-

RICHARD A BURGESS

POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

MMURTL V1.0

-266-

RICHARD A BURGESS

POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

MMURTL V1.0

-267-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
MMURTL V1.0

-268-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
MMURTL V1.0

-269-

RICHARD A BURGESS

If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . in the EAX register.ercNoMsg MOV ESP.sEXCH . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories. A result code is returned in the EAX register. See listing 18. . CheckMsg kernel primitive code . .REQLB MMURTL V1. . .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX.nExch . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . POP EBP . return to the caller with error MOV EAX. . return with erc no msg . CheckMsg(exch.18. Procedureal Interface : . PUSH EBP . . 0 . Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner]. CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].ESP .ercOutOfRange . . Listing 18. . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. MOV ESI. . .18. in the EAX register. Chk01: MOV EAX.We can be interrupted again . .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 . .ESI . RETF 8 . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: .EAX . . MOV ESI. . Exch => EAX MOV EBX.ercNotAlloc MOV ESP.EDX . .prgExch . .EBP . MOV EBP.pdqMsg):ercType .ChkExchange . As with WaitMsg().EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return . MOV EDX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . message should be sent. . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV ESP.0 -270- . the return to caller with error MOV EAX.

Treat it as a data link block .No.Offset to pData1 in RqBlk .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .No. continue .Linear Address of pData1 .Set up params for AliasMem ._AliasMem(pMem..0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.Error?? .cbMem . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX. EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. dJobNum.Yes . pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.cbMem . .Linear Address of PData1 .. ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX. .Second Pointer (pData2) . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP.Restore ptr to Link Block .Offset to pData2 in RqBlk .Make stack right .Now we set up to alias the memory for the service .is pData2 NULL? .Return Error.pLB. [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.Make stack right .. [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. . .Yes . dcbMem. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX. Save ptr to Link Block . (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .JNE Chk04 . . Get pRqBlk into EBX .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. No.. [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX.dJobNum .Error?? . . .Set up params for AliasMem .Return Error.pMem . continue . [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.is pData1 NULL? .Yes . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. . Get pRqBlk into EBX . EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.is cbData2 0? .is cbData1 0? .Yes .Save again . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.dJobNum .[EAX+DataLo] .pMem . ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. .

For MMURTL version 1.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX.0 .pCkMessage [EDX]. INC _nLBLeft .ECX . pLBin^.8 for OS.Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. .EBX . fDebug. pFreeLB <= pLBin. See listing 18.ESP MOV EDX. .x.Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] . MOV pFreeLB. .EAX . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] .19.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ErcOK! (0) . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1.Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] . In future versions. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in. Get pLB^. 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] .EBX [EDX+4].pFreeLB . NewTask(JobNum. Exch.Restore Ptr to Link Block . Listing 18.Next <= pFreeLB.Data in specified memory space (EDX) . .EAX MOV ESP.Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . Procedural interface: . . . The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection.19. stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. . ESP. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. CodeSeg. or page fault. NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . EIP): dErcRet . NewTask kernel primitive code . XOR EAX. . . .[EAX+DataLo] ECX. Priority. . . STI .[EAX+DataHi] EDX. .Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.

.Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 . .EBX . NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg. [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.Set up to call GetpJCB .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI . 0 MMURTL V1.Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch]. ECX. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX.ECX MOV EBX.Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS . ECX.Exch in range? PUSH EAX .Set up to call LinToPhy ..0202h . .ercOutOfRange NTEnd .Restore pNewTSS to EAX .pFreeTSS OR EAX. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. NTS_CS . .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX. NTS_Exch ECX.Next .ECX now has pJCB .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.Put pJCB into TSS .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].DL .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.0 .No.pNewTSS into EAX ..EBX EBX.put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. nExch NT0001 EAX.EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].Save pNewTSS .we can't be interrupted .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP]. NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX. ECX .Save pNewTSS again . .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS].CX . EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. NTS_EIP .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.EAX now has pJCB . . NTS_ESP .

New TSS -> EAX . pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] . .EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP. .EAX MOV BX. . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. .20.BL . New TSS -> EDX .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.Jump to new TSS . dPriority. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it.EAX .CrntTSS -> EAX. .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS . SpawnTask(pEntry.pRunTSS . Listing 18.EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space.We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.20.Move new TSS into pRunTSS . .JE NT0004 .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.ErcOk MMURTL V1. fOSCode). . SpawnTask kernel primitive code .Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .ercOk JMP NTEnd .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX. Procedural Interface: .Save New TSS .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.Yes . As with NewTask(). 1 NT0004: MOV EBX.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .Save time of this switch for scheduler . .Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority]. . fDebug. It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs.Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX. pStack.New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy . See listing 18.Get priority of new task CLI . NTS_Pri .

8 CMP dPriST.PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.ESP SUB ESP.Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].see if we got an error . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return. . .we can't be interrupted . [EBX+TSS_CR3] ... pRunTSS MOV EDX.Save new TSS EBX.Next .ercNoMoreTSSs .EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. bad news .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. pStackST . .pEntryST .Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS .Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST.ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX.mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. OSCodeSel . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.EDX .EBX MOV EBX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. .No.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS. nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX. 1 . NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX.Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .pFreeTSS OR EAX. .Yup. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Priority OK? .Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. 0 .EDX MOV EDX.Debug on entry? JE ST0004 . NewExchST . JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.EBX MOV EBX.0202h .two local DWORD vars . NewTSSST. EAX JNZ STEnd .Allocate exchange .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX. .mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP]. . JobCodeSel .mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch].0 . EAX .

See listing 18. .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() .New TSS -> Stack .EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. . . dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority].prgExch MOV ECX. AllocExch(pExchRet):dError . Allocate exchange code . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange.EAX MOV BX.EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ercOk .put in TSS .Move new TSS into pRunTSS .we can't be interrupted .New TSS -> EAX .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.ESP XOR ESI.nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner].Place crnt TSS on Q . . . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- . Listing 18. Zero the Exch Index . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . It is property of a Job (not a task). . Get number of exchanges in ECX .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.If crnt >. EBX <= ADR rgExch . just put new guy on Q. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick. Procedural Interface : . . .ErcOk .Save time of this switch for scheduler .CrntTSS -> EAX. The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES). returned.0 .MOV EBX. The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages. . .21.21. .pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority]. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. .Who got the highest Pri? .ESI MOV EBX. .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .Old guy does.Jump to new TSS . New guy does (lowest num) . . 0 MMURTL V1.Get who's running .Return to caller .BL CLI MOV EDX.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. New TSS -> EDX .mov priority into BL .

Procedural Interface : . .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] .EAX . If we found a Free Exch. and link blocks.22.prgExch EAX. Stats XOR EAX. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. . and request blocks are freed up as necessary. . Make the Exch owner the Job STI . . . .EBP .pRunTSS EBX.ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. Messages are deQueued.JE AE001 ADD EBX.[EBP+0CH] . See listing 18.22.EDX ECX.[EBP+0CH] EAX. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX.0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . TSSs. . MMURTL V1.0 . . . . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. . Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange. Deallocate exchange code .pRunTSS .EAX EDX. Listing 18. .ESI . Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner]. DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . .[EAX+Owner] EBX. . Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector. . Those link blocks may also contain requests. JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX. PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. however. . .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. it may have left over link blocks hanging on it.sEXCH EDX EDX.ESI EDX. .0 . POP EBP . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch().ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.EAX . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. . When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. This function has a lot more to do. RETF 4 .EDX . . . . . DEC _nEXCHLeft . Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail].

INC _nTSSLeft .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.EAX . POP EBP . MMURTL V1. See listing 18. 0 .EBX . pLBin^. If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX.only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow .instructions or a service crashes! . pFreeLB <= pLBin.EAX . DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. ECX . These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. Free up the exchange.0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. 0 . Go And Check for more.with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . Yes.Next <= pFreeTSS. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. . . INC _nLBLeft . Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. JUMP MOV ESI. No. . is this the OS??? .ercNotOwner MOV ESP. . EAX JZ DE002 . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX.Next <= pFreeLB. MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. ECX . MOV pFreeLB. XOR EAX. MOV [EAX+NextLB]. INC _nEXCHLeft .EBX . JMP DE000 . JMP DE001 . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. 0 . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . if not owner. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. Reset msg Flag. yes . CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. Nothing there.0 . yes . NIL = Empty.EAX .EBP . pTSSin^.ercOK (0) MOV ESP. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. CLI .23. Go And Check for more.JE DE000 CMP EBX. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS .pFreeLB . 0 . RETF 4 . Get the TSS off of the Exchange . Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI.pFreeTSS . Go free the Exch. Stats STI .

GetTSS exchange code . . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. Set priority code . The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .24 Listing 18. .Put it in the TSS XOR EAX.EBX . EAX . ErcOK .This sets the priority of the task that called it .No error. PUSH EBP . MOV EAX. Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. . SetPriority(bPriority):dError . RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task.pRunTSS . See listing 18. returned. PUBLIC __SetPriority . 01Fh . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. PUSH EBP . . MOV EAX.24. MMURTL V1. ErcOK POP EBP .[EBP+0CH] . to the priority specified in the single parameter.[EBP+0CH] . . . This doesn't really affect the kernel. Procedural Interface : . GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . . [EAX+TSS_Exch] . the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. POP EBP .ESP .pRunTSS . . Procedural Interface : . SetPriority . . MOV EBP. bPriority is a byte with the new priority. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. MOV EBP. Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. EAX .ESP . BL . . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. . RETF 4 .Listing 18.23.0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: .

See listing 18. .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS .This gets the priority of . . GetPriority . DL . BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. MOV EAX. XOR EAX.pRunTSS . EAX .25. . SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . and passes it to bPriorityRet. PUBLIC __GetPriority . Listing 18. Get the MOV EBX. . Procedural Interface : .[EBP+0CH] .ESP . MMURTL V1. PUSH EBP .25. Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. RETF 4 . ErcOK POP EBP . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error. Get priority code . . Get the MOV DL. MOV EBP.GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. priority returned. bPriorityret is a pointer to a . .

It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions. Memory management constants and data .INCLUDE TSS. 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h .INCLUDE JOB. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language. MMURTL V1.We alloc the "next" page table .System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections.User Writable (Data) .INC .Max is 2048 (64Mb) . Listing 19. the code section must start with the . Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode. page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs). The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.CODE command. MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .2048 bytes = 64Mb .User Writable .Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .1.1 bit/4Kbytes .0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS .DATA . Listing 19. I call these internal support code. As with all assembler files for DASM.Chapter 19. I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.Number of free physical pages left .Default to 1 MB . The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt .ASM.Page Allocation Map .1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code. The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .User Readable (Code) . The task state segments are also used extensively.INC .INCLUDE MOSEDF.

NO! . 256 ADD sPAM. Its the law! Listing 19. Now you must fill in bits used by OS. See listing 19.EBX MOV ECX.'mrtl' test string value for memory .Make it the last DWord again .Next Meg .ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX. 0FFFFF000h . 0001h . Memory management initialization code .Yes. which was just loaded. . and makes PTEs. Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.1 Mb of pages = 256 . Present MOV EBX.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.Are we above 64 megs .Set it to zero intially . 256 MOV EAX.Increase PAM by another meg . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree. PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED.3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].EAX SUB EAX. .Set oMemMax . 32 CMP EAX.3 ADD EAX.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX]. 4 .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .top of 2 megs (for DWORD) . oMemMax must be last byte . OFFSET pTbl1 .USED: .IN: . and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . EAX .06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].100000h ADD _nPagesFree.Yes! .OUT: . MOV EDX.Another megs worth of pages . which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh).3 MOV _oMemMax.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. Listing 19.Supervisor.0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].2. It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax. We assume 1MB to start.2.Move in test string .3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX. in megabytes. The code in listing 19.1FFFFCh XOR EBX.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].Next table entry MMURTL V1.3.Read test string into EBX .Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed.ECX MOV EBX. by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. you have. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have. . neither of which you consider free. EAX CALL MarkPage .See if we got it back OK . Continuation of memory management init.

Set paging bit ON CR0.No. CR0 .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. The routine in listing 19.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX.1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . 80000000h . See listing 19. OFFSET PDir1 . . Listing 19.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . Several chip sets on the market. 4096 EAX. nor can I provide instructions to everyone.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDX. C0000h –FFFFFh. Turning on paged memory management EAX. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM.4. EDX. IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX]. Listing 19. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. and then writing it again.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) .Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 . Continuation of memory management init.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. but I can't be sure everyone can do it. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory.Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage .EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . SHL 2) . 4096 .5.Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1.Physical address of OS page directory CR3.Make it index (SHR 12. EAX . 4 . 100000h . After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. EBX.Get Control Reg 0 EAX.Next PTE entry ADD EAX. The initial page directory and the page table are static. go back for more .Store in Control Reg 3 EAX. EAX . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte. EAX.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX.Next page please CMP EAX.5. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . Now we can go into paged memory mode.6.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used. 0101b . such as the 82C30 C&T. then reading CR0. EBX. See listing 19. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX .Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. EAX . ANDing it with 8000000h. EAX . 0FFFFF000h .

LEA EAX.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. This reduces nPagesFree by one.Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch .Listing 19. PUSH 1 . OFFSET pNextPT . PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage .8.0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .8.OUT : .Where we are in PAM .7. Find highest physical page code .7. assuming that you will allocate it.0FFh . Listing 19..Page Allocation Map . Listing 19. 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it. It also marks the page as used. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated.. 0 .6.IN : . sPAM DEC EAX .Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn . MMURTL V1. See listing 19. . Allocation of memory management exchange .no memory left. MemExch . Finishing memory management init. Of course. I'm afraid. OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX. FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. See listing 19.Done initializing memory managment .EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].All 8 pages used? FHP2 .No EAX. or 0 if error EBX. Get 'em! RETN . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.

One less available . .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1. 7 XOR EDX.\ Listing 19. See listing 19.Next bit .0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX.At the bottom of the Byte? . EAX . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX.Error (BAD CPU???) .Back for next byte .. EBX FHPf EBX. 3 ADD EBX.9.Start at first byte in PAM ..9.Test bits .0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .Another Byte lower . EDX MOV DL.No . or 0 if error EBX. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX.Get the byte with a whole in it.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. Find lowest physical page code . OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX.no memory left. assuming that you will allocate it.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .All 8 pages used? .Are we past at TOP of PAM? . . EAX SHL EBX. .Set page in use .Set the bit indexed by EBX . .Add page number in byte . Once again. It also marks the page as used. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller.. This reduces nPagesFree by one.DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . we must call UnMarkPage to release it.OUT : . DL SHL EAX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX.Page Allocation Map .FOUND ONE! (goto found) .IN : ..Another Byte lower .

Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX]..Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . 07h .Set page in use . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. EBX FLPf EBX EBX. EBX .Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL.End of the Byte? . DL SHL EAX. EAX SHL EBX.Page Allocation Map AND EBX. This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX.FOUND ONE! (goto found) . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.Test bits . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX. .XOR EBX. [EAX+ECX] . MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. EDX MOV DL. EBX SHR ECX.10. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX.OUT : . DL . 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX.Set the bit indexed by EBX .Get the byte into DL BTS EDX.IN : .Error (BAD CPU???) . Listing 19. 3 ADD EBX.Next bit . 8 FLPn FLP3 .Get the byte with a whole in it. This reduces nPagesFree by one.. EBX XOR EDX.10. Code to mark a physical page in use .Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. 15 . See listing 19. 0FFFFF000h .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .Add page number in byte . 12 . OFFSET rgPAM . . .One less available .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX.0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS .

DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN .Round down to page modulo .POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address. 12 AND EBX. OUTPUT: EAX -.Page Allocation Map . UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. USED: EAX.Linear address . . OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. [EAX] BTR EDX. EBX SHR ECX.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing .11. See listing 19. 07h ADD EAX. Code to free a physical page for reuse . ESI -. . Listing 19.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM .12. ESI. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . . EBX -. EBX.12. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. See listing 19.BitReset instruction .IN : . This call is used for things like aliasing for messages. EBX MOV [EAX]. DMA operations. This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. Listing 19. INPUT: EAX -. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. .Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . .Physical Address . 15 SHR EBX. ECX MOV DL. This increases nPagesFree by one. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address.OUT : .One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in.ECX is now byte offset into PAM . etc. EFlags . PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1.11. This function supports the similarly named public routine.

Cut off upper 22 bits of linear . Listing 19.Keeps count of how many free found so far . The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist. The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.Save Linear . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. EAX MOV EAX. 2048 SHR EBX. 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. EBX RETN FindRun . EAX MOV ESI.Get rid of upper 10 bits .Save this address for caller . or the 1Gb address mark for the user.Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset .EBX now points to Page Table entry! . EBX MOV EAX.Index into PD for PT we are working on . 2 ADD EBX. USED: EAX. FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory.EAX now has Linear of Page Table . EBX .Holds count of pages (saved for caller) .EBX/EAX now points to shadow .Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. 003FFFFFh SHR EBX.get rid of lower 12 to make it an index . EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.13. Save in EBX . 22 SHL EBX. in which case we return 0.EAX now has ptr to PD! . . OUT: EAX . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX.Address of PD saved here . See listing 19. Code to find a free run of linear memory .0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS . 00000FFFh OR EAX. 12 SHL EBX.Physical base of page is in EAX . [EBX] AND EAX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .Get original linear . . EBX .mask off lower 12 .PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX. EBX MOV EDX. This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing.Index into shadow addresses from EAX . 2 ADD EBX.Copy number of pages to ECX. .Leaves pJCB in EAX . .Move to shadow addresses in PD . This is either at address base 0 for the operating system.13. .ESI now has ptr to PD . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. IN : EAX . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI.*4 makes it byte offset in PT . EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI .Get original linear back in EBX .Save it again .*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow .EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables.

The linear address of the run should be in EAX. . Next PTE Please.No.The starting linear address is equal to number of the last .go INC MOV JMP FROK: .PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . 12 SUB EAX.Not empty. . . .This is the linear address we ended at .If .From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . if the run spans two or more tables.EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address . next PTE please ECX. .Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 . . . .we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. This is the way FindRun left them.EAX is next 10 bits of LA . while EAX was index into PT. See listing 19. 12 OR EAX. 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 .Not done yet.Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. keep testing . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . EAX .One more empty one! . EBX .Next PT! . go for it XOR EAX. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX. 22 SHL EAX.Yes.Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT . Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. and the count of pages should be in EBX.We found enough entries goto OK . EAX.empty (available) . Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. .EDX was index into PD. .Zero means it's .If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table.One less page (0 offset) .EBX still has count of pages.In use . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system.EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. FR1: XOR EAX.14. The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add.Times size of page (* 4096) . or tables. EDI . SHL EDX. EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4].We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 .MOV EDI. [ESI+EDX*4] .

10 AR0: MOV EDI. . .Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS .At this point.Listing 19. User ReadOnly . Adding a run of linear memory .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) . 4 . THEN store it in PT. next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX. MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX.0 . [ESI] .EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . EBX EAX 22 2 . AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX.and OR in the appropriate control bits.Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).Set PTE to present.Make it index to DWORDS . . AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX.then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Yes. 003FF000h SHR EDX. EDX.(save for caller) .Offset to shadow address of PD .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . OUT: .Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . 4 . .Next PTE please. . USED: . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX. .Restore linear address .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. EBX . ARDone: MMURTL V1.Get index into PD for first PT .EDX .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .14.ESI now has ptr to PD! . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. EDX MOV EDX.LinAdd into EDX again . 4096 . 2048 ADD ESI. IN : . go do next PTE ADD ESI.No. . EDX.EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) . [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. . . EDX.See if it's a user page . EDI is pointing the next PT. CMP EDX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .LinAdd to EDX . EAX AND EDX. . MEMSYS CMP EAX.Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX.

The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number.POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun . . Once again. . Adding an aliased run of linear memory .LinAdd to EDX .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).or tables. EBX EAX 22 2 . ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . if the run spans two or more tables . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . ESI MOV AliasJob.Get index into PD for first PT . . See listing 19. . and the count of pages should be in EBX. . . (from find run) . . .This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that .we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX. IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries .ESP SUB ESP. EDX.0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . . EBX Number of Pages to alias .adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. . EFlags . . EDX.15. The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. OUT: Nothing .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. USED: EAX.15.Make it index to DWORDS . this is the way FindRun left them. EDX. Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. . Listing 19.(save for caller) . EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . . 8 MOV AliasLin. AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table .

ESI now points to first PT of interest . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX.0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) . 4 CMP EDX. EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.Next PTE please.Restore linear address .EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . .POP EAX ADD ESI. . . AliasJob MOV EBX.SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.Set system bits as ALIAS .Address we are aliasing . 0FFFFF000h OR EAX.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. 2048 ADD ESI. . [ESI] . .This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE.Start at the entry 0 of next PT . MEMALIAS POP ESI . . 10 ALR0: MOV EDI.Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) . AND EAX. 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI. MOV ESP.Yes.Job we are aliasing . next PDE (to get next PT) .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . . . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum .No. EAX AND EDX. 4 XOR EDX.Offset to shadow addresses in PD . . .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1. . .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX.Are we done?? . go do next PTE .LinAdd into EDX again .At this point.cut off system bits of PTE .EDX is index to exact entry . AliasLin ADD AliasLin.mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT. . EDX MOV EDX. to get a physical address into EAX.EAX now has physical address for this page .Set up for next loop (post increment) .

PUSH EDX . . This will be in user address space above 1GB.Linear add back into EBX . . pNextPT [ESI].0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . JcbPD ADD EDI. Is it empty? . See listing 19.EAX will have Physical address . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX. ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.Set user bits (Read/Write) . and sticks it in the user's page directory.16. Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code.Sorry. [ESI] OR EBX.pJCB in EAX . [EDI] ADD ESI. This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. USED: EAX.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . This is easier than AddOSPT. EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .See if have enuf physical memory .no free phy pages!) . 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. EAX MOV ESI. EFlags . PUSH EDI . Next possible empty entry . 2048 EBX.Offset to PcbPD in JCB . . Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow). because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. .Move to shadow . No! (Try again) . EBX . MEMUSERD [ESI]. 2048 MOV ECX. PUSH ESI . .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. out of physical mem .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . . Adding a page table for user memory .EDI points to UserPD Address . initializes it. _nPagesFree OR EAX. AddUserPT: PUSH EBX .16.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. MOV EAX.ESI now points to PD .Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . EAX ESI. as shown in the following. 4 MOV EBX. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . Listing 19.Physical address in lower half .Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. IN : Nothing .

EAX will have Physical address .Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for .no free phy pages!) . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often.17. EFlags . . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running. AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . _nPagesFree OR EAX. . Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow).next time. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . in many cases. USED: EAX. 511 MMURTL V1.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. PUSH EDI . OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX. . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX.See if have enuf physical memory . PUSH ESI . EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories.size of request . .0 .17..PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .save pNextPT (the linear address) . 1 XOR EAX. . Adding an operating system page table . You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. Listing 19. MOV EAX. PUSH EDX . IN : Nothing . .AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error .was there an error (0 means no mem) .OS Job Number (Monitor) . ESI points to OS Pdir . Find first empty slot MOV ESI. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. See listing 19. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. . Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS .Sorry. 1 MOV EBX. . out of physical mem .

EAX ADD ESI. .Get values from stack ADD EBX.Move to shadow . 2048 . .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) . EBX . The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) .Save nJCB we are on .0 . Not a valid JCB (unused) . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI].AOPT02: ADD ESI. Next possible empty entry .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX .Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . Is it empty? . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir .Source EAX . JcbPD MOV EBX. 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1.Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .Physical address in lower half .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.Set present bit . 4 MOV EBX.Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX. 2048 . pNextPT MOV [ESI]. Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all. . . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.Linear add back into EBX .Source of Copy .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX. Get back JCB number . 2048 MOV EBX.Next JCB .Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) .Save values on stack MOV EDX. . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 .Destination 1024 . [ESI] OR EBX. # of dynamic JCBs .No. . .Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX. ESI EAX Get and .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB .

save pNextPT (the linear address) . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. EFLAGS MMURTL V1. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. . EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . ECX. IN: AX . Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. .AddRun . . EBX. Listing 19. EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . ESI.18.was there an error (0 means no mem) . . See listing 19.next time. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. allowing access to OS procedures. DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . . 1 XOR EAX. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . OUT: EAX Returns Errors.At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . else 0 if all's well . Adding a call gate to the GDT . This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. .0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS . USES: EAX.size of request . .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for .. . DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) .18.Set ErcOK (0) . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate. . .

Adding entries to the IDT . CX SUB EBX. EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX. SI . the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI .Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. 3 ADD EDX. The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. . RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . ECX.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX.see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . AX . AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2].Put Gate ID into gate . ESI. BX MMURTL V1. interrupt. See listing 19. nCallGates .19. EBX. 3 .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . . 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. EAX . for a task gate. ercBadGateNum . 40 . or task gate. 40h .Extend INT Num into EDX .Put Offset 15:00 into gate .call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX. MOV EAX. CX .make index vice selector CMP EBX. GDTBase .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4].Put Offset 31:16 into gate . EDX.sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. IN: .19. 8 . . . CX SHL EDX.not too low. .EDX now points to gate . .Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 .Yes. . ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX]. . AX SHR EAX.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. Listing 19.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. . MOV EAX. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX.0 .Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. . SI .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. USES: AX . AX MOV EAX.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. 16 .No. .

Allocate each physical page.These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.Yes .Yes .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .EAX ALOSP00 EAX.Can't be zero! .See if have enuf physical memory . EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .No Error! EAX. but not close enough to easily combine their code. This allows runs to span table entries.size of request . . . we add another page table to the operating-system page directory. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. See listing 19.20.size of request . Procedureal Interface : . pRunTSS ADD EAX. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage. we're maxed out EAX.More than 0? .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space. PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . A result code is returned in the EAX register.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. .RETF .n4KPages XOR EAX.Sorry boss. If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX. . Allocating a page of linear memory . . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.20.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] . Listing 19. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request.Kernel Error?? .0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX.(0 = No Runs big enuf) . .ppMemRet): dError . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate.Yes! Serious problem. The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree.ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit .n4KPages EAX.

See if they are available. dcbMem.EBP . ppMemRet . No alias is needed. This wastes no physical memory. This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around.ERROR!! .ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] . .Go back & try again .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . . if it crosses page boundaries. Code to alias memory . Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. .No error ALOSPExit: . .21. . . POP EAX . . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. Listing 19.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. PUSH EAX .Does not return error .Save last error PUSH MemExch . Even if the address is only two bytes. EAX .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: .See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) . RETF 8 . MMURTL V1. EAX . Exit.JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . .CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. you need two pages. . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. ppAliasRet): dError .Add a new page table (we need it!) . . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory.dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] .EAX now has linear address .pMem EQU [EBP+24] . The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. POP EBP . dJobNum. Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed. . AliasMem(pMem. .0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS .Only an entry in a table. Procedureal Interface : .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. If so. pMem is the address to alias. however .

.See if it is OS based service .Yes .Set up for OS memory space .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . EAX.No.No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Number of pages we need into EBX . ECX CALL FindRun .0 .Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . [EBP+24] .Get Job number for pMem .Now wait our turn with memory management .No. we're done ALSPBegin: . 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EAX is 256 for user space.Exit. EAX ECX.Add to dcbMem 12 . PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Kernel Error?? . pRunTSS ADD EAX.EAX has 0 or 256 . . EAX. EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.OS Job? . 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1. 0 for OS . .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX. .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX . No Error . .Was there enough PTEs? .EAX is nPages-1 .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] .EBX still has count of pages OR EAX.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Are they the same Page Directory?? . . alias it .Yes! Serious problem.See if it is OS based service . EAX.pMem into EAX 0FFFh .OS Job? . EAX. [EBP+16] CMP EAX. 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX. EBX.Yes . . EAX JMP ALSPDone .dcbMem EBX . User memory .0h JNE ALSPDone .EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough .Yes .Puts Current Job Num in EAX .Yes. EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX.Save nPages in ECX . . .

. PUSH MemExch . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. .EBX .Save last error . EAX .0 = NO Error . . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1.Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing . EAX MOV ESI. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX.and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines. take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address .Get remaining bits . Procedureal Interface : . EDI EAX.Returned address to caller! . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun . . 0FFFh EDI.Job number . Listing 19.22.No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" .Set to 0 (no error) .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. PUSH EAX . . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . JobNum):ercType .ERROR!! . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call.We are done ALSPExit: . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP.Address to alias .original pMem . [EBP+12] [ESI]. .Set .Now. EAX ESI.EAX .22. dcbAliasBytes. . . [EBP+24] MOV EDX.Go back & try again .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS .pAliasRet . Code to remove alias PTEs .Save alias page address base . [EBP+24] EAX. See listing 19.

DO not zero it! . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .ESP . [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS).None at all! .EBP MMURTL V1.ZERO PTE entry .We did some. 12 .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX.so we zero out the page. 0FFFh .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.Is page an ALIAS? . it's page is present . EDX MOV EAX.Get PTE into EBX .Add to dcbMem EAX. ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX. DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .dcbAliasBytes . EDI DALM011 EAX. EBX .Linear Mem to DeAlias . . .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . if so just ZERO PTE. .NO . PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Add the remainder of address EAX.Is page present (valid)??? . .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX.See if PTE is an alias. .Address of next page to deallocate .Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX. 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP. [EBP+20] .0 .We dealiased what we could.Yes.Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) . [EBP+16] .Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX. [ESI] TEST EBX. . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 .If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .NO! (did we do any at all) . [EBP+20] .EAX is nPages-1 EAX . XOR EAX. EAX DALM03: ADD EDX. .ECX .. EAX MOV [ESI]. .AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .but less than you asked for! ECX.Next linear page .dcbMem EAX.pAliasMem .pMem into EAX EBX. EAX .

pOrigMem AND EDX. n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate . .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . [ESI] TEST EBX. .Address of next page to deallocate . pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . . It will always free linear memory.Get PTE into EBX . its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Is page present (valid)??? .Error?? . because we deallocate 4K pages. DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls. n4KPages):ercType . See listing 19.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored .Yes! . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX.Linear Mem to deallocate . . .Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy .23.POP EBP RETF 12 . Even if you specify more pages than are valid. . . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. deallocate. This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias.and pointer to PTE in ESI.0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX.23. pRunTSS ADD EAX.Now we have Physical Address in EAX . .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX.Yes.0 . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. providing it is valid. . Procedureal Interface : . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. if so just ZERO PTE. . Deallocating linear memory . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy .See if PTE is an alias. pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be . . Listing 19.Number of pages to deallocate . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem.

. Code to find number of free pages . .24.0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 19.save Memory error . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit .CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. .Yes. .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .Kernel error has priority .get Memory error back . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX. .Is page an ALIAS? .We deallocated what we could.so we must unmark (release) the physical page. Procedureal Interface : . .ZERO PTE entry . 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. over memory error .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated.24. AND EBX. . Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left.We did some. You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. . EAX MOV [ESI].but less than you asked for! . . pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1. Listing 19. it's an Alias . so next guy can get in . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType . . .get rid of OS bits . EAX ADD EDX.Next linear page .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias .Send a dummy message to pick up . ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 .NO! (did we do any at all) .None at all! MOV EAX. ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX. 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.

This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. Listing 19. pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. Linear Address . EAX EAX.25. . LinAdd.ESP MOV EBX. See listing 19. PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pPhyRet . GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. _nPagesFree [ESI]. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . . . .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . be returned . . EAX XOR EAX. left available returned .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . . . . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. GetPhyAdd(JobNum. Public for linear to physical conversion . pMemLeft EAX. . MOV ESP. LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . Procedureal Interface : . EAX MOV ESP.END OF CODE MMURTL V1.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . .. [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. [EBP+16] MOV EAX.LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . . No Error . .25. Job Number .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . . pPhyRet):ercType . EAX .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page.No Error . .

.

which works out to about 1. The average is was far less. Even more important than total bandwidth. as well as the fastest one possible. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing. with 100-MHz machines around. It's at the end of the timer ISR. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. Somewhere between these two was the average. I experimented with several different intervals. Back when I started this project. which is very conservative. As you well know. Listing 20. I was consuming less than 0. I ended up with 10ms. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. A single communications channel running at 19. But even with these calculations. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands.1. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. It was 0.2 percent.6 percent for the worst case.2 percent of available bandwidth.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS .0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. actually the scheduler. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. divided by the total clocks for the same period. or 3000 clocks. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system.1. MMURTL is no exception. along with a piece of the kernel. my worries were unfounded. See listing 20. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly. was the effect on interrupt latency. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. preemptive multitasking. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. In a 10ms period we have 200. a slow machine. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1.Chapter 20. however. especially synchronous. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. Two of them will come in at 260us. The average really depends on program loading. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]..FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. etc. memory wait-states.

This I could live with. sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . This doesn't cause a problem at all.DATA .DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 .FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.INCLUDE TSS.2. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. These are the offsets into the structure . Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us.ALIGN DWORD . Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long . .Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup).2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. Listing 20. and finally with test programs. The Timer Block is a structure that contains .DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 . The odds of this are truly astronomical.INCLUDE MOSEDF. including the 10 percent overhead. . PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . Data and constants for timer code . See listing 20. But. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium. A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet.320 clocks. TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. the exchange number of a task that is sleeping. that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt.2. SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . or 20us. or one that has requested an alarm. Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16.0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS .INC .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop.DD 00000000h .INC .

See listing 20.Yes .Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.3.INTS are disabled automatically . The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . You have now interrupted that task. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do.3.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown].Yes! . only one task is actually executing. They may have been placed there by other ISRs. or higher.goto decrement it PUSH EAX . and they may be of an equal. It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. The timer interrupt service routine . It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.Yes .No. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.No .No .Timer Tick.EAX has addr of Timer Blocks .save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX . At all times on the system.ECX has count of Timer Blocks . The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. yet very important part..is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 . the first things defined in this code segment.Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 . If so.ASM. 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX. -1 .nTmrBlks CLD .CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR .FALSE . Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. The three external near calls.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is the one you interrupted.Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches. If it is the same or higher. External functions for timer code . Listing 20.4. See listing 20.ASM.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. Listing 20. allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel.4. INT 20 .0h . you switch to it.save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] . The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs. priority than the task that is now running.ISend Message MOV EAX.. The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. It is a small. .

Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed . no need to check tasks .get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]..current pri.bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg . EAX JZ TaskCheckDone . JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone . we want to Switch.EDI .If current is higher(lower num). SUB EAX. MMURTL V1.BX .Change this to change the "time slice" . MOV ESI.The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from .PUSH EAX .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . That means .10ms more gone.get count back POP EAX . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL.FALSE . EAX . CMP EAX.skip decrement .We will now check to see if this guy has been running . If so. [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ . and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS. Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .for more then 30ms (3 ticks).or Equal.next block please! . Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. dfHalted OR EAX.Is this from a HALTed state? .Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.No. Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.tell him his times up! POP ECX .. Put current one in EAX .switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri . Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX..is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX. his . ESI CALL enQueueRdy . EAX MOV EAX. If the Queued Pri is LOWER . we will . MOV EBX.DL is pri of current .Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.YES.0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX.number was higher and we DON'T . and save in EDI ..[EDI+Tid] .keep going . Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick.Is there one at all?? .unless were done .bogus msg PUSH EAX ..Compare current pri to highest queued . TimerTick .Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 . PUSH 0 . pRunTSS MOV DL. . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .if we got a CARRY on the subtract.

TRUE .all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .Empty block? JNE Delay02 .No . TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD . DelayCnt CMP EAX.sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 . 0 .TSS_Msg .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .Count of timer blocks CLD .Must do this before we switch! .unless were done MOV EAX. Listing 20.0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .ErcNoMoreTBs .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.ESP .EBX . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . MOV EAX.pRunTSS .Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].FALSE .Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.[ECX+TSS_Exch] . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].5. IRETD . MOV EBP.clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero.5. out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP. See listing 20.put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX. Sleep() . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .EBX .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX. RETF 4 .FAR return from publics MMURTL V1.Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .ErcOk .nTmrBlks .rgTmrBlks .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. .DelayCnt .Sorry.goto next block MOV EBX. PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP . This requires an exchange.EBP . The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task. POP EBP .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX.

Listing 20.ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP. See listing 20. out of timer blocks .Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed . AlarmCnt CMP EAX.ESP .rgTmrBlks .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.Empty block? Alarm02 .goto next block EBX.No . The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each. -312- RICHARD A BURGESS . .nTmrBlks . AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .0 . AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].7. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel. Alarm(nAlarmExch. nothing will stop it.FALSE .ErcOk .Sorry.It's OK to interrupt now .Up the blocksInUse count EBX. DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].6. AlarmCnt):dErc .put it in timer block! .It's OK to interrupt now EAX.unless were done . . MMURTL V1.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].EBX .Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero. See listing 20.sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX.TRUE .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. The message is not repeatable. which means the message has already been sent.all is well Alarm03 . KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. Code for the Alarm function . 0 .Count of timer blocks CLD . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed. It must be set up each time. PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP . . MOV EBP. Procedural Interface: . MOV EAX.AlarmCnt .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .6.Get delay count [EAX+CountDown].EBX .

.0 .It's OK to interrupt now .KAlarmExch LEA EAX. But it's still very much needed. The task is actually not suspended at all. Code for the MicrDelay function . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 20.Count of timer blocks .No blocks in use . .FALSE .Block in use? KAlarm02 . .Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX. 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.EBX . The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port. so we get out! .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.EAX MOV ESP.TRUE .No . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers. . The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator.unless were done . PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The count is in 15us increments.clear direction flag .sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX. The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled.ErcOk . This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds). Listing 20. which drives the processor clock.nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . .Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc .8. .8.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.ALl done -.Get exchange for killing alarms to . Code for the KillAlarm function . Procedural Interface: .EAX points to timer blocks .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Listing 20.7.goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1.

Toggle! Move to AH for next compare . 8 MOV EAX.9.AL IN AL.AL SHL EBX. 8 MOV EAX. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI].9. the next byte is the Hours in BCD. MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally.Check toggle of bit . 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.No toggle yet . .Clear time return .ESP XOR EBX. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.04h OUT 70h.71h MOV BL. See listing 20.check refrest bit . 61h AND AL. .get out if they came in with 0! . 10h CMP AH.AL IN AL.71h MOV BL. EAX MOV ESP. [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.00h OUT 70h.0 .02h OUT 70h. the next byte is the minutes in BCD.71h MOV BL. AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX. EBX MOV EAX. Listing 20. . .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . AL SHL EBX.Minutes . . . EBX MMURTL V1.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS . Code to read the CMOS time .AL MOV ESI. and the high order byte is 0.ESP MOV ECX. Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Seconds . The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).Hours .AL IN AL.Get delay count .MOV EBP.Get system status port .

0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedural Interface: .06h OUT 70h.Month . EBX XOR EAX.Day of week . 0-6 0=Sunday). GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror . .ESP .AL SHL EBX.71h MOV BL. Code to read the CMOS date . AL SHL EBX. . 8 MOV EAX. .09h OUT 70h. 8 MOV EAX. See listing 20. . pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. Listing 20.07h OUT 70h. . and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99).AL IN AL.AL IN AL.Year .AL IN AL. GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.08h OUT 70h.71h MOV BL. MMURTL V1.71h MOV BL. No Error . EBX . AL SHL EBX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . EAX MOV ESP. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. MOV EBP.10. . pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP . XOR EBX.AL IN AL. 8 MOV EAX.Clear date return MOV EAX. .XOR EAX.10. No Error .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Day of month . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12).AL MOV ESI.Give 'em the time . the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). EAX MOV ESP.71h MOV BL.

EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . With a 10ms interval. The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). LSB.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1. AL IN AL.To find the divisor of the clock. . EDX MOV EAX.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency.No Error .193182 Mhz . this amounts to 262. Listing 20.000 ticks per month. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror . which is connected to the system internal speaker. Hardware timer number 2. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs.ESP MOV ESI.Timer 2.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. TimerTick MOV [ESI]. .12. divide 1. AL MOV AL.11. See listing 20. . . .0 . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep().193182Mhz .Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS .11. AL XOR EDX.This does all work for BEEP and TONE . 10110110b OUT 43h. is used to generate tones.800. Listing 20.193182Mhz by Desired Freq. The procedural interface: . 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h.12. Code to return the timer tick . MSB. AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h. EAX XOR EAX. . 61h MMURTL V1. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down. . See listing 20.1. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. . pTickRet MOV EAX. Because it is a dword.DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Binary . Helper function for Beep() and Tone() .

350ms .13. . AL PUSH ECX .13. Listing 20. Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. 800 MOV ECX.14. (Sorry.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. . See listing 20. . See listing 20. .Freq . I couldn't resist. . if it had. 11111100b OUT 61h. I would have called it Beep_Beep(). AL RETN Beep() . 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. . dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq.ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h. CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. MMURTL V1. Code to produce a tone . Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. Code to produce a beep . . 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . . Listing 20.ESP MOV EBX. .OR AL. .14. This function has nothing to with the Road Runner.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS .

ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 .0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS .PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ESP MOV EBX. . MMURTL V1. ToneFreq MOV ECX.

In chapter 7. Initial OS Page Table (PT).INCLUDE MOSEDF. the first instruction executed after boot up.ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files.INC . Kernel Structures . This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.ASM. access to the data is faster if it is. “OS Initialization.INC .INCLUDE TSS. . Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) . Periodically you will see the .======================================================= . Initial OS Page Directory (PD). The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical.ALIGN command. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main.DATA . Main Operating System Data .0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM which is presented later in this chapter.INCLUDE JOB. and Public Call Gate table.ALIGN DWORD .======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) . It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. OS Global Data Listing 21. a workhorse for Main.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files.See MOSEDF. The assembler does no alignment on its own.Chapter 21.ASM. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. I generally try to align data that is accessed often. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . Initial TSS for Debugger NIL . For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. Listing 21. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 . Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . Global Descriptor table (GDT). It is the entry point in the operating system.ASM. The first file is Main.INC for structure details.1. The second file is InitCode. and I don't worry about the rest of it. The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary.INC .

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

-320-

RICHARD A BURGESS

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

-321-

RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

-322-

RICHARD A BURGESS

CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

-323-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
MMURTL V1.0

-324-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
MMURTL V1.0

;InitMemMgmt allocates an exch so

-325-

RICHARD A BURGESS

;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
MMURTL V1.0

; Clear allocated memory for TSSs

-326-

RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

MMURTL V1.0

-327-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
MMURTL V1.0

-328-

RICHARD A BURGESS

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
MMURTL V1.0

-329-

RICHARD A BURGESS

; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

MMURTL V1.0

-330-

RICHARD A BURGESS

InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
MMURTL V1.0

DPL 0

-331-

RICHARD A BURGESS

Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic .Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. AX . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. 08F00h . GDTBase .Divide By Zero MOV EAX. TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . Used : ALL registers and flags . . 255 . software and hardware interrupt handlers.This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1.Overflow 08F00h . . 3 .DPL 3. CX .Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. EBX.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. First. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. IN : Nothing . Second. MOV ESI.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. . adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . EAX. SI .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. . 1 . 16 . 40 . 0 . OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS . Trap gate MOV EBX. 3 . SI . ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 .call DPL & ndParams RETN .========================================================================= .DPL 3. Out : Nothing .Single Step MOV EAX.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. 8 .Breakpoint MOV EAX.SUB EBX. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. 4 . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 08F00h . handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . 08F00h .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. InitIDT .DPL 3.make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. 08E00h .

OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. 08F00h . OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 0Dh . OSCodeSel .DPL 3. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . EAX. 0Bh . OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h .DPL 3. 08F00h . OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 0Eh . IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . 08F00h .DPL 3. MOV ESI.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h .Double Exception MOV EAX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. MOV ESI.DPL 3.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. MOV ESI. 08E00h .GP fault MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . 20h .Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. 0Ch .Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. 6 . INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel .DPL 3.Seg Not Present MOV EAX. 08F00h . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Ah . 08F00h . OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int Page Fault MOV EAX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. 08E00h .DPL 3. OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 8 . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Invalid TSS MOV EAX. EBX. ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 21h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI.0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS .Int TIMER MOV EAX.

23h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . 29h . 25h .. MOV ESI. MOV ESI.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV EAX..IntLPT1 MOV EAX. MOV EAX. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .... EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI.Int . MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. EBX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. ESI. 24h ....DPL 3..DPL 3. 08E00h . 27h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . 08E00h .. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..Int COM1 MOV EAX.. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .Int ..DPL 3. OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX... 28h . 2Bh .. IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1... MOV ESI.0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS .. OFFSET IntQ .Int LPT2 MOV EAX...Int . . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.DPL 3.......Int COM2 MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. OSCodeSel ..Int . 2Ah .FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX.Int . MOV EAX.. 08E00h .DPL 3.. 26h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3... MOV ESI.DPL 3. 08E00h ..Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX. MOV EAX. OSCodeSel .... OSCodeSel ..

OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! .0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS . . OSCodeSel MOV ESI...WaitMsg -.1Dword param. 2Fh .SendMsg -. Out : Nothing .. MOV EAX. 2Dh . 0EC02h .. 2Eh .. 08E00h . DPL 0 MOV ECX... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX... PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX.. 08C03h .DPL 3. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! .DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Set Priority . OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.. OSCodeSel .3 DWord Params. DPL 3 MOV ECX.Int . MOV EAX. before initcallgates.ISendMsg -.========================================================================== . MOV ESI..Int . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 0EC01h .. DPL 3 MOV ECX. 50h MOV DX.DPL 3.3 DWord params. 08E00h ..CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. This can't . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .Int . OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. 58h MOV DX. 48h MOV DX. DPL 3 MOV ECX. IN : Nothing . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... but MUST be called before the first far call to any . OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1. InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates.2 DWord Params.. 0EC03h . MOV ESI. MOV EAX... OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel MOV ESI... Used : ALL registers and flags .. 40h MOV DX. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 ... 08E00h .

The rest of the call gate set ups go here.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .. RETN MMURTL V1.

I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. JCBs are in allocated memory .INC . The resources you reclaim include all of the memory.================================================================ . PUBLIC InitNewJCB: .Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in .INCLUDE MOSEDF. many of them public functions.CODE .INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs . The program loader is in this chapter. It was every bit as difficult as I imagined.DATA . request blocks.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS .Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1. See listing 22. link blocks. and finally the operating system memory.INCLUDE TSS. Job Management Subroutines . the JCB. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) .Begin Code ================== .1.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . it is usually quite a mess. INPUT : EAX -. These calls. this is the where you'll end up. Before I wrote this code. TSSs. exchanges.INC . Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD .INCLUDE JOB. are used by almost every module in the operating system.1 Listing 22. From Main.======= End data. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources.asm . can be a complicated scenario.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management. In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . the monitor. When things don't work right. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. Pieces of related code in the kernel. The process of allocating all the resources. EBX -. and finally starting the new task.Chapter 22.

. .Count of JCBs . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. EAX ADD EDI.EAX . MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. . We can't use its position . CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid].EAX . 7 MOV EAX.EDX.Address of JCBs to be initialized . EBX .Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop .Size of JCBs . . . . EDX . . MMURTL V1.pbJobName ECX -. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information. MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. .Make last one NIL RETN .Now to JobName . ESI -. 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI].Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX.Put Ptr to PD into JCB .============================================================================= . . [EAX+JobNum] RETN . This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run. . while . 3 . .EBX. ECX. 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. EAX points to the first JCB. . EDI.EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs.EDI points to JCB . OUTPUT : NONE .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. .size is filled in . . ESI.1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. . . pJCBs . InitFreeJCB .ESI EFLAGS . ECX is count of JCBs. . INPUT : EAX .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB].Video number is in JCB .first byte of name . .ECX.EAX . . ECX . The JCBs are also sequentially numbered.EBX MOV EDI. in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols]. EBX. . EDX is size of each JCB.Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. . 0 .cbJobName EDX -. EDX. The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL).EDX . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated.Move it in . USED: EAX.Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. ..0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX.

Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . MOV EAX.Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. Get 'em! . . . . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL.============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . INPUT : NONE . MOV EBX. nJCBs MOV EDX.0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in .[EAX+NextJCB] .================================================================ .Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . JE DispJCBDone . JE NewJCBDone . NewJCBDone: RETN .EBX . REGISTERS : EAX.FLAGS . 0 . . .FLAGS . .DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. the free pool.EBX. 0 .pFreeJCB .. This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. then EAX will contain NIL (0). INPUT : EAX . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . pJCBs STOSD .0 .IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return.Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. . CMP EAX. 4096 EDI. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. pJCBs MOV ECX. . . . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. . EAX ECX.Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX. Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. . If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). . If none exists. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . . . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX.============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . OUTPUT : EAX . This routine will also . REGISTERS : EBX. . . The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). OUTPUT : NONE .

INPUT: Nothing . OUTPUT: EAX -. 2 MMURTL V1. All TSSs are assigned to a Job. Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. .EBX has OS ptr to free list . EFlags . INPUT: Nothing . . [EAX+JobNum] . OUTPUT: EAX -.Move it into newly freed JCB .Linear Address of current JCB . assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number .EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . USED: EAX. USED: EAX. USED: EAX. .Pointer to JCB RETN . A Job may have more than one Task. OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX. GetCrntJobNum . is a field in the JCB structure. GetpCrntJCB . GetpJCB . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . All TSSs are .============================================================ .Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS .MOV EBX.Current Job Number . . All TSSs are .Current JCB RETN . . . PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX.Job Number of desired pJCB . The Job number . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. This is based on which Task is executing.============================================================ .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . OUTPUT: EAX -. . .EBX MOV pFreeJCB. EFlags . pRunTSS .============================================================ . . PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. INPUT: EAX -. in EAX.pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB]. . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. . . Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. assigned to a Job. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . EFlags . This is based on which Task is executing.

nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. . . . This is a NEAR . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .Within range of JCBs .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. pJCBs POP EDX RETN . The Job number . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. .Current JCB RETN . 3 MOV EDX. . We got one! . . . GetJobNum . . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. .Current Job Number . AllocJCB (NEAR) . ppJCBRet):ercType .JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. . EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. Get a new JCB . Procedureal Interface : . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. languages. . .Times size of JCB . . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. . is a field in the JCB structure. out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EAX+JobNum] . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] .============================================================ .============================================================ . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. OUTPUT: EAX -. pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB.Add in two static JCBs . call to support the public job management calls in high level . . Sorry. USED: EAX. ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. . EFlags . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX.0 .Now points to desired JCB .

pJCBRet . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . EAX MOV ESI.EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . . . .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . . .============================================================ . Procedureal Interface : .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Job Num . .============================================================ . This is a NEAR . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI].============================================================ . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. GetpJCB(dJobNum.ESP MOV EAX. . . . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. . . GetpJCB . . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . . . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. you specifiy. . EAX MOV ESP. .No error . call to support the public job management calls in high level . . pJCB . . . Get a new JCB .MOV ESP. . Procedureal Interface : . . . . . languages in the OS code. . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. EAX MOV ESP. pJCBRet):ercType . EAX XOR EAX. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool).

GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. RETF 8 . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType .Job Num OR EAX. .pJobNumRet . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . RETF 8 .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. or 0 will be returned with the data.============================================================ .0 is invalid CMP EAX. EAX XOR EAX. This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job. the job that the task that called this belongs to. [EBP+12] . 0 .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. POP EBP . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. MOV ESP. . . . [EBP+16] . .Leave jobnum in EAX .pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. .ESP .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . ErcBadJobNum . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . Procedureal Interface : . MMURTL V1. . dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] .EBP . . .EBP .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 . . . .. EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. ErcInvalidJCB .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . . POP EBP .No Error .EBP . nJCBs + 2. . MOV EAX. . POP EBP . . RETF 8 . GetJobNum . EAX MOV ESP. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. This is .

contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. PUSH EBP . Jobc.asm. . . pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where . . variable _BootDrive defined in Main. EAX . and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . XOR EAX.================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. Listing 22.No Error POP EBP . still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. the number representing the system disk is returned. [EBP+12] . Procedureal Interface : . Functions for starting new jobs. . This is from the public . GetSystemDisk .get rid of high bits MOV ESI. loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . ending jobs.2. It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. disk that the system booted from. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . . MOV EBP.c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services).pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk . This code is here for lack of a better place. .============================================================ . This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . And will . _BootDrive AND EAX. RETF 4 .c. It's really not a filesystem function either. . .0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job.ESP . MOV EAX. 7Fh .. Jobc. . . AL .

h" "MData. SendAbort(long JobNum.h" "MVid. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb.). static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. long Exch). static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.h" "MJob. */ static long TmpStack[128].h" "MFiles. char *ppJCBRet).h" "MMemory. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB). char *pNewJCB)..Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel.h" "MTimer.ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. GetExchOwner(long Exch. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. long cb). /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it.h" "MKbd. SetExchOwner(long Exch. char *pJCBRet).0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS . .. /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. MMURTL V1.h" #include "runfile.

we eliminate the user PDEs. static struct tagtype tag. k. static unsigned long oCode. 0.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. BogusMsg[2]. ercE. for (i=768. 0. When all PTs have been cleaned. 0. ExchE. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. filetype. 0. iE. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. i++) { MMURTL V1. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. extern unsigned long KillExch. static long cbFileE. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. unsigned long *pPT. offData = 0. j. job_fhE. static long offCode = 0. static char aFileE[80]. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. sStack. 0. sData. char *pMem. *pStack. erc. i<1024. *pPDE. *pData. 0. oData. static long sCode.static long JobNum.

switch (tag. If all is well. junk. oDDFIX = 0. nCDFIX = 0. 1. nDDFIX = 0. k). offCode = 0. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. char fDone. &dret). for (j=0. 1. oCCFIX = 0. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. nCCFIX = 0. long cbFileName. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. *pfhRet = 0. &dret). Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. &tag. i. &filetype. reads and validates the run file. dret. &fh). nDCFIX = 0. long *pfhRet) { long erc. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. fh.id = 0.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. oDCFIX = 0. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. oCDFIX = 0. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. erc = ReadBytes (fh. 5. j<1024. cbFileName. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. 0. offData = 0.

if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len). 4.len/4.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. oCDFIX+tag. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). &sData. &oDCFIX). &dret). case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oCode+tag.len). nCDFIX = tag. oCCFIX+tag. &i). /* skip it break. i+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). &oData). case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. nCCFIX = tag. 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. break. case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. break. &oCDFIX).len). oDDFIX+tag. 4. /* skip it break. &oCode). &pStart. &offCode. &oCCFIX). /* skip it break. oDCFIX+tag. 4. &dret). case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len/4. nDDFIX = tag. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. break.len).len/4. 4. &sCode. oData+tag. &sStack. 4.len). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len). break. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (tag. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len). break. &oDDFIX). /* skip it break. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* skip it break.0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &offData.len/4. MMURTL V1. nDCFIX = tag. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.

return(0). MMURTL V1. erc).0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pTmpJCB). if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetpJCB(JobNum. pRunRet. } return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. *pdcbRunRet = i. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). GetJobNum(&JobNum). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). dcbRunFile). GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). i). long dcbPath) { long JobNum. else { CopyData(pRunFile. if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. i.break. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. return (erc).

if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). MMURTL V1. } return(erc). &pTmpJCB). long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. } return(0). return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. GetpJCB(JobNum. i). &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. GetJobNum(&JobNum). pCmdRet. dcbCmd). else { CopyData(pPath. i. &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). } return(0). dcbPath). long dcbUser) { long JobNum. char *pPathRet. i). GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. pPathRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. *pdcbCmdRet = i. erc.else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. else { CopyData(pCmd. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. *pdcbPathRet = i.0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS .

/* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). i. dcbUser). GetpJCB(JobNum. else { CopyData(pName. } return(0). GetJobNum(&JobNum).0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pTmpJCB). dcbName). pFileRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pdcbFileRet = i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. pUserRet. return(0). } return(0). &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. i. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. *pdcbUserRet = i. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. GetpJCB(JobNum. else { CopyData(pUser. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. i). GetpJCB(JobNum. i). &pTmpJCB). long dcbName) { long JobNum.GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1].

} return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1.0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbName). *pdcbFileRet = i. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. fh. GetpJCB(JobNum. *pOSPD. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0].{ long JobNum. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. U32 PhyAdd. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. &pTmpJCB). *pPT. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. unsigned long *pPD. &pTmpJCB). pFileRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. *pVid. nPages. i). return(0). long cbFileName. i. GetpJCB(JobNum. dcbName). pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). return(0). &fh). long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. cbFileName. i. &pTmpJCB). This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. GetpJCB(JobNum. dret. long *pFix. long dcbName) { long JobNum.

&pPD). xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n".0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . pVid = 0. &pStack). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. pPD = 0. &pTmpJCB). pPT. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). &pData). /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. if (sData%4096) nPages++. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. erc = AllocPage(nPages. 4096. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". MMURTL V1. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. &pCode). nPages = sCode/4096. GetpJCB(1. pNewJCB = 0. pPT). 4096. &pNewJCB). 0). &PhyAdd). FillData(pVid. pOSPD[768] = pPT. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. pPD). sStack = nPages * 4096. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. 1). /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". /* Job's PD. 0). nPages = sData/4096. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. PhyAdd). pPT = 0. pVid = pPD + 8192. pPT = pPD + 4096. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages.

/* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pData. 4. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. oDDFIX). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offCode + pCode. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). oDCFIX). pFix = pData + i./* Right now. pFix = pCode + i. &i.offData + pData. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.offData + pData. &dret). 4. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. pCode. } MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oCDFIX).offCode + pCode. oData). 4096). } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCCFIX). &i. &dret). oCode). the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. pFix = pCode + i. &dret). */ CopyData(pOSPD. pPD. sData. pFix = pData + i. &dret). 4. sCode. &i. 4.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS .

} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. 0x18. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. 1024. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. i. 3). pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. pNewJCB). pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. 25. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. 3). 0. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. pStart+pCode-offCode). 1024. 0). pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. /* Size */ CopyData("VID". pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. 0). pStack+sStack-4. pNewJCB->nCols = 80.

i. &dret). nPages = sCode/4096. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). pNewJCB = pJCB. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. sStack = nPages * 4096. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pData. oData). pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. pCode. erc = AllocPage(nPages. /* All Job memory is now allocated. return(erc). The PD. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. sData. long *pFix. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. oCDFIX). &dret). /* Allocate user memory for Stack. nPages = sData/4096. Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. &pData). dret. sCode. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. &pStack). long fh) { long erc. if (sData%4096) nPages++. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &pCode). } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. erc = AllocPage(nPages. oCode).*pJobNumRet = JobNum. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. nPages.

MMURTL V1. 4. pFix = pCode + i. &dret). } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). its exchange. pFix = pData + i. oCCFIX). /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. &dret). &i. pFix = pData + i. 4. oDDFIX).0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. 4. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .PT and video. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh).erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack.offCode + pCode. &i. return(erc). &i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . This task. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData.offData + pData. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. 4. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret).offCode + pCode. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret). pFix = pCode + i. oDCFIX). } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i.offData + pData.

&pTmpJCB). ercE = 0. It results in a violent death for the job specified. Debugger or the current job. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. BogusMsg). /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. &pTmpJCB). WaitMsg(ExchE. /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). ISendMsg(KillExch. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. GetTSSExch(&ExchE). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. CleanUserPD(pPDE).GetpJCB(JobNumE. BogusMsg). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). ExchE. This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. SetPriority(31).0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). ErcOpCancel). if (erc) return(erc). This is used to kill run-away jobs.

Exch. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). return(erc). /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. &pExchJCBE). &_KillTask). iE++. ExchE. } ercE = 0. /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. &TmpStack[127]. Priority. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. 0x08. CodeSeg. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). 0. ExchE). /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. We send "Abort" messages to all services. EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . iE = 0. GetpJCB(JobNumE. pTmpJCB). pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. 3. fDebug. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. &pCrntJCB). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE.ercE = 0. ESP. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE).

Send Abort messages to all services. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. iE = 0. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). */ SendAbort(JobNumE.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). &pExchJCBE). CleanUserPD(pPDE). ESP. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). EBP. EAX. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. iE++. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. ercE = 0. &cbFileE). /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. ercE = 0. If no exit run file. ercE = 0. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. ExchE).

Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . &job_fhE). Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. ercE). MOV EBP. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. WaitMsg(ExchE. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. job_fhE). cbFileE.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. BogusMsg).0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . ExchE. ADD EAX. MOV EBX. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. SetPriority(31). SUB EAX. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. */ #asm MOV EAX. MOV ESP.

cbFileName. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). cbFileE = cbFileName. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. &job_fhE). if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). } CloseFile(job_fhE). The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. aFileE. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. GetpJCB(JobNumE. &pExchJCBE). */ MMURTL V1. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. ercE = 0. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). Send Abort messages to all services. iE++. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. In other words. cbFileName). } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &pCrntJCB).error loading the Job.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . long cbFileName. ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. iE = 0. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE).

Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). &job_fhE). ercE = 0. we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. &cbFileE). job_fhE). if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. /* Try to load the Chain file. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. ercE = 0. */ MMURTL V1. If no exit run file. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . CleanUserPD(pPDE). if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). The original user's job is destroyed. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. ExchE). Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. cbFileE. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. EBP.SendAbort(JobNumE. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). &job_fhE). /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. ESP. job_fhE). /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. EAX. cbFileE.

WaitMsg(ExchE. MOV EBX. BogusMsg).We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error.#asm MOV EAX. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. ercE). MOV ESP. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. ExchE. ADD EAX. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. SUB EAX.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . MOV EBP. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31).

Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger . While writing the operating system. . You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same.1. code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). .EnterDebug . The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. then copy the CR3 .Enter debugger .1. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . They are made to match those of the interrupted task. I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually.Enter debugger . This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. . Get CS .Chapter 23. but is still very immature. Get EIP of offender for debugger . See listing 23.===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . This makes the .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. . The debugger is a separate task. It has grown substantially. are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS).0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. Listing 23. Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. Next. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . All of the debugger's . If we get here. entry from the current job into the debuggers job. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. . Get Flags . which are all debug exceptions. so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. task (without going through the kernel). First we copy the Page Dir . Breakpoints. on which exception is was.===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . . . Get EIP of offender for debugger . I have left them as individual procedures.

pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave.INC RQB. [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].make his registers right! . [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX. EBX EAX. caller's registers them before the into the debugger .2 presents the debugger code in its entirety. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.When the debugger exits. EAX This switches tasks.pCrntJCB -> EAX . .Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . EAX EAX.DATA .INCLUDE . task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX..INCLUDE MOSEDF.Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23.INC . .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 23.INC TSS. EnterDebug: PUSH EAX .Put the stack back the way it was .2.INCLUDE .Switch tasks to debugger .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX . BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .INC JOB. then jump to the debugger's selector.External near Variables MMURTL V1.Set up debugger selector .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX. [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX . You'll see much of it is display "grunt work. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. pRunTSS EBX. Debugger Data and Code .CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX . and restore PUSH EDX .ALIGN DWORD . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.pRunTSS -> EAX . pRunTSS. OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3].we MUST save PUSH EBX . EBX EAX.Save the current pRunTSS . with the exception of the disassembler.CR3 -> DebuggerTSS ." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code.INCLUDE .Install Debugger's as current .current CR3 -> EBX . . we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .

ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0B3h.0B3h.For ReadDbgKbd .TO save the TSS we interrupted .Address we are setting as next .' '.0B3h.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .0B3h. . ESC to quit..0B3h.Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .' '..0B3h. 0 = Exch . 0Ah DB 0 .CR LF for Dump etc.'SetBP'.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.0B3h.'Tasks'.Boolean.0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .Has Dbg Video been initialized? . DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .Active bytes in buf2 .Address we are dumping .'DumpD'.0B3h. .'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.General purpose DDs (used all over) .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' . dbgExchMsg .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1. .'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.' ' ' .To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'. .are we dumping DWORDS? .0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .Address of instructions we are displaying .0B3h.flag 1 = Msg.General use buffers DB '0000000000' .'ClrBP'.

' CS: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.'EFL: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.==================== End Data.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.'ESI: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h. Begin Code ========================== .' FS: 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' . OFFSET DbgVidSave .'EBX: 0B3h.'TSS: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'EIP: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .' ES: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.

0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].NO . I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! . MOV EBX. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.EBX .We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .Dbgr is Job 2 . . (we chanage the tasks) . MOV EBX. The debugger . .dbgOldEIP .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 .procedure was entered. .0 .the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS. and flags are not the .0FFh .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger. .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. and number at 0 . Code Seg.Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS].EBX .way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the .PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit.See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX.the Instruction Pointer. DbgpTSSSave .EBX .When a fault or debug exception occurs. EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX.. This only applies if .0 .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .REF . But we do.Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit. .Display fault message and .BX MOV EBX. the values of . is always entered as a procedure.Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS . so we shouldn't have to reset it..[EAX+TSS_EFlags] .NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. when the handler is entered.dbgOldCS . 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor . the handler is a procedure (NOT a task).dbgOldEflgs .dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.

CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. MOV EAX.Color White on black .DbgpTSSSave .Set TF in flags for single step .=========================================================== . EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX. EAX MOV dbgX. 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.Reset X & Y to 0. .00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].Set BP (Current Address .Display menu PUSH dbgX . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.reset fault indicator .ESCAPE (Exit) . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble . 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX. 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1.Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY . 0FFh LEA EAX. EAX . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .Get USER pUserTSS .Single Step (F1) .F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid . 0FFh .[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .Fall through to keyboard loop .This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP.0 .1 .

EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. . .0 . 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX.Not used yet . EAX DR6. EAX DR7.See if we need to scroll up . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS . 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL.Task array display (F6) . .MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX.Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX.Sets NextEIP .This puts the instruction on the line .F3) . .BP0 Set global . . EAX dbg00 .Address displayed . 00000002h DR7. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. EBX EAX.Display Exchanges (F5) . EBX DR0. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Clear BP (Current Address . 00 MMURTL V1.Save it so we know where BP is . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX. 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX.DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. .Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX. 11h dbg04 EAX. EAX EAX. EAX dbg00 EAX.Clear BP saved address .See if we need to scroll up .Set Disassembly Address (F8) . EAX dbgBPAdd.Full display .Back to where we were .Return to CS:EIP (F4) . dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd.This puts the instruction on the line .

we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .Return saved pRunTSS . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. . . . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX. .0 .Info Address dump (F12) .============================================================== dbgShowBP: . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.This compares the current breakpoint the address . EAX BX.EAX must be preserved MOV EBX.This puts the instruction on the line .Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) . If they are the same. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD.we are about to display.Query XY .See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL. BX . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.MOV dbgfDumpD.Back to begining .Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner . 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL. dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1. DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS.

05 MOV ESI. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.01 MOV ESI.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .ECX Display .[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EDX Display .OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.00 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.============================================================== .EDI Display .OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.03 MOV ESI.EAX Display .EBX Display . ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.04 MOV ESI.EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .06 MOV ESI.07 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.EBP Display MMURTL V1.Number of this TSS .OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.ESI Display .[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.BP Address .Save EAX across call .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.3 params to TTYOut .OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.02 MOV ESI.TSS Display .EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .MOV ECX.

18 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.ESP Display .OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.CR0 Display .09 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.19 MOV ESI.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.GS Display .CS Display .DS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.16 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.08 MOV ESI.SS Display .EFlags Display .CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.0 .EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.12 MOV ESI.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.17 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.EIP Display .ES Display .[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.CR2 Display .FS Display .14 MOV ESI.15 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.13 MOV ESI.11 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.MOV ECX.20 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.10 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.CR3 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.

Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .============================================== .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1.Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.CALL DispRegs RETN . . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on . This is for Debugger Register display .========================================================================== . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 .

Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.ptr to string .Max size LEA EAX. . PUSH EAX .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.=========================== . dbgChar .Go home. .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 ..dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX.did they exit with CR? .Goto Query Line .ptr to size returned LEA EAX. DbgBuf2 .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1. PUSH EAX . cbBufLen2 . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX.Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.length of string .=========================== . PUSH EAX .0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.. 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.ptr to destination DD . dbgChar CMP AL.Crnt size PUSH 8 .Ignore error if any MOV AL.Convert String to DD . 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX.

.length of string . PUSH EAX . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.did they exit with CR? .ptr to destination DD .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . dbgChar CMP AL. LEA EAX.Go home.line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3.Crnt size PUSH 8 . 4 .convert address to text LEA EAX.number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. PUSH EAX .Max size LEA EAX. cbBufLen2 . dbgSpace MMURTL V1. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .ptr to string . 6 LEA EAX.Goto Query Line .Convert String to DD .PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Ignore error if any MOV AL. DbgBuf2 . dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. PUSH EAX .0 .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone .. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! . . dbgChar . 24 .

dbgBuf . dbgBuf ADD EAX.Display First byte . 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. dbgfDumpD .0 . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL. [EBX] . dbgBuf ADD EAX. 0 JE DumpB . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd .Display 1 spaces .Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. display 1 space .go to display bytes LEA EAX.Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX .make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.NO .ignore error . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.get dump address MOV EAX.ignore error . dbgBuf ADD EAX.point to second 2 bytes .Dumping DWORDS CMP AL.display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.display 2st byte .

go back for next 4 bytes . LEA EAX."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .Yes . dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX. DEC dbgGPdd1 .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut .23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .ignore error .ignore error LEA EAX. 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.ignore error .Query XY PUSH dbgX . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.NO .done with 4 quads?? .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.NO .a space . dbgCRLF . dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 4th byte . dbgCont .

.Exch# we are on . PUSH 54 . 0 RETN . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 1 . 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . 1Bh .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.Convert Exch number for display .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.=========================== . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Col dbgGPdd1 .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd2 EDX.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .prgExch . 0FFh .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . sEXCH EDX EDX. . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Do CR/LF 0 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch . Exch number . 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX.Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX.line we are one .Col PUSH 0 .MOV EAX.

EAX OR EBX.Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.Get dMsg2 .Flag to indicate we are doing messages .0 . EAX MOV EBX.Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS .Is is NIL (no msg or task)? .Col dbgGPdd1 .Convert dMsg1 ."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.Could have left it on stack.Get dMsg1 . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. . [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX.pExch -> EAX .Convert Job Number 10 . .MsgFlag -> EBX .Is is 1 (a message)? .pMsg -> EBX 20 . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX. . [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. Go check for tasks .Col dbgGPdd1 . 0 . . . Go to next Exch . [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX.No. .. [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Get dMsg2 back POP EDX . .See if there is a first message MOV EAX.Yes.ADD EAX.Line OFFSET dbgBuf . EAX MOV EAX..For next msg in chain (if it exists) . MOV EAX.pMsg -> EBX .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5. EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) . but would be confusing later.Save dMsg2 . . [EAX+EHead] .Save for loop . [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX.

No . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Save ptr to next task if it exists . MOV EAX.Convert Task Number 1 . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.Get Number of Task at exch . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone . EAX AX. 31 .Line OFFSET dbgCont .Next line please .Col . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. 23 . 0FFh CMP EAX.Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . INC dbgGPdd1 .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Col 24 . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone .Lop off key status bytes .Clear pNextTask .pTSS -> EBX . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. [EBX+TSSNum] .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .pExch -> EAX .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . .0 . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. nDynEXCH . EAX EAX. -382- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5.Col dbgGPdd1 . MOV EAX.Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Line .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Is is 0 (no TSS)? .

Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . Task number .Col . 1 . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .If not. MMURTL V1. dbgGPdd2 EAX.No .NonZero if we are doing tasks .Col PUSH 0 .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX. OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Length of message . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid .Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 . . 2 dbgDT03 EBX. Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 1 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Displays Tasks that are active along with .for the next one dbgDT01: . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS . Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.=========================== . Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Tasks . . 0 RETN .Set up to loop for next msg/task .Another pointer in the link? . nDynEXCH .Line for labels . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX.line we are one .If so. PUSH 54 . EAX. we increment TSS number and go back .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX. We are on line 1 again . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 .line. 1 dbgDT02 EBX.Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX.

JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.Save pTSS for display XOR ECX. EAX . dbgGPdd2 . 8 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5.Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf .Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .Col dbgGPdd1 . [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3. ECX MOV EAX. EBX . .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd4 . DDtoHex 10 .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 .of TSSs .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX.Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.Not used.EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4. EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . [EBX+Priority] .Save pJCB for display .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .EAX has pJCB OR EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 . DDtoHex 20 .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 . ECX .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 512 ECX EBX. EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . EAX MOV EBX.back for next one dbgDT05: . MOV CL. EAX .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . dbgGPdd3 . 8 . nTSS .

length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf .Col 24 . 0 RETN . EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 . go back for next 0 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 31 .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . This is for Debugger Address Info display .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX. .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . 8 . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .go for next Task number .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Save number to display MMURTL V1. continue prompt dbgDT01 .====================================================================== . MOV EAX. 0FFh .Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd6 .Line OFFSET dbgCont . DDtoHex 40 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Save it for the top MOV EAX.Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .Yes.No. 23 . DDtoHex 30 . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. Call with: .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. 1Bh . .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . 8 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't .

OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Exchs MOV EAX.JCBs MOV EAX. pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM2 .OFFSET DbgM7 .PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM5 .OFFSET DbgM9 .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM4 .LBs LEA EAX.ptr to line .Length of line .MonTSS MOV EAX.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .Do it . pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM8 .IDT LEA EAX.Vid Attribute .RdyQ LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM3 . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.RQBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM0 .=============================================== .OFFSET DbgM1 . IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM6 .SVCs LEA EAX.GDT LEA EAX. prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.pTSS3 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgPA . rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1.DbgInfo .

Col 0. and line 0 to 24. we scroll up the text area by one line. dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.MOV ESI. 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .OFFSET DbgMB .and the register display.===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1.If so.Clear the query line (Line 23.Query XY (See what line and Col) .======================================================= .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY. .ignore error RETN .areas are resrved for the menu. .======================================================= .fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .Columns 0-65 24 . . query line.All of the debugger text is displayed in a window . .Got to Column 0.Lines 0-23 1 .Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . Scroll test area (Col 0-64.between colums 0 and 66.Yes.Timer Blocks LEA EAX.0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .No. Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . go back for next key 0 . Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN . The other . 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 . Line 0-24) 0 66 .

.

and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. See listing 24.Chapter 24. Listing 24. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. unsigned long int). though I would rather have done them in assembler. This seems to be the best. In fact. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. but I try not to. Comments. but I think you're OK. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions.1. All of the hardware commands are well documented.. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing.g. U32 dfReplace). precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. Time was the deciding factor. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). There are no include files. If you have MFM drives. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. in addition to those in the code itself. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. this device driver should work with MFM drives. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. many device drivers are written in C. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. you're on your own.1. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. They were designed that way. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). S8 *pDCBs. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. U32 nDevices.

static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U8 *pDataRet). U32 dBytes). void OutByte(U8 Byte.0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch.). static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U32 dnBlocks. U32 msg2). void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). OutWords(U32 dPort. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). MMURTL V1. . U32 dnBlocks). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. While writing the operating system. static void hd_reset(void). U32 Sleep(U32 count). Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. static U32 hd_init(U8 drive)..extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 msg1. static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). InWords(U32 dPort. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. U8 *pDataIn. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. Listing 24. static U32 check_busy(void). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA).2. static U32 send_command(U8 parm). U16 wPort). U32 nBlks). static U32 hd_wait (void). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 msg1. U16 wPort). U32 dBytes). U8 *pDataOut). U8 InByte(U16 wPort). void OutWord(U16 Word. U32 *pMsgRet). U16 InWord(U16 wPort). U32 msg2).. U32 dOpNum. U8 *pDataIn). It's called xprintf(). U8 *pDataOut. U32 dBytes). /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 dnBlocks. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA.2. U8 *pDestination. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 count). See listing 24. U32 dnBlocks. U32 HdSect. The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. S8 *pIRQ). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 *pMsgRet). I needed a method to get data to the screen. U32 dLBA. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd).

bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1.0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 sdInitData). S8 * pStatRet. U32 *pdSatusRet).. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum.U8 static U32 *pData). S8 *pInitData. hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. U32 dStatusMax..

command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 .write data (1F0h .sector number (1F3h) 4 .error register (1F1h) 2 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.high cyl (1F5h) 6 .16 bit) 1 . This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.read data (1F0h .high cyl (1F5h) 6 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver.sector count (1F2h) 3 . then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives. Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS . can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1.16 bit) 1 .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six. head and Sector number.sector number (1F3h) 4 . wait 50us.low cyl (1F4h) 5 .Set.. and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.sector count (1F2h) 3 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.low cyl (1F4h) 5 .

#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. hd0_cyls. hd_control. hd1_heads. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Current control byte value */ hd_command. Listing 24. If I did one member.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. See listing 24.3. statbyte. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8].0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous.3. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. fDataReq.which head */ hd_nsectors. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. /* Calculated from LBA . The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. /* Current Physical Drive.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. hd0_heads. hd1_secpertrk. */ /* Current number of heads. cylinders. hd1_type. /* Calculated from LBA . hd0_secpertrk. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment.

/* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. LastErcByte0. S8 *pDevOp. U32 nBlocks. U32 OS4. }. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. LastStatByte1. LastStatByte0. }. U32 blocks_done. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. LastSeekErc1. U32 OS1. S8 *pDevSt. U32 BlocksMax. LastSeekErc0. S8 *pDevInit. U32 last_erc. U8 type_now. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus.static U16 hd1_cyls. S16 nBPB. U8 fDevReent. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. S8 sbName. U32 OS2. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. MMURTL V1. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. U8 fSingleUser. S16 wJob. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. fIntOnReset. U8 fNewMedia. /* Number of bytes per sect. LastErcByte1. S8 type. LastRecalErc1. U32 OS5. U32 OS3. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. ResetStatByte. U32 OS6.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. filler1. 32 bytes out to here.

3. MMURTL V1.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. '0'. 524288. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17.nBPB hdcb[0]. static U32 hd_msg. &hddev_init.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. hd1_heads = 16. hd1_cyls = 1024.nBlocks hdcb[0]. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024. static long HDDInt.Name[2] hdcb[0].sbName hdcb[0]. 1.pDevOp hdcb[1]. &hddev_init. Listing 24. static U32 hd_msg2.type hdcb[1]. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver.4.type hdcb[0]. &hddev_stat.pDevSt hdcb[1]. /* Random */ 512. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.Name[0] hdcb[1]. 'H'. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc. &hddev_stat.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. hd1_secpertrk = 17.nBPB hdcb[1]. In a loadable driver. See listing 24.nBlocks hdcb[1].Name[1] hdcb[0]. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0].sbName hdcb[1].Name[0] hdcb[0]. this would be the main() section of the C source file. /* Random */ 512. 'D'./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch. 3. 524288. /* largest disk handled . '1'.Name[1] hdcb[1]. 'D'.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19).pDevInit hdcb[1]. 1. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read.pDevOp hdcb[0].4. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A).pDevInit hdcb[0].Name[2] hdcb[1]. /* largest device handled .

*/ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. They vary from BIOS to BIOS. */ erc = hd_recal(0). /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. We have to do it once. SetIRQVector(14. We have to make this sucker work the hard way.last_erc = erc. If the second drive is not there. */ hd_reset(). } } /* if we got here. but they don't. */ hd_reset(). drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0.0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd0_type = 0. They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0].erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). MMURTL V1. /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset().last_erc = erc. then try both physical drives. /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. It seems like a lot of work. hd1_type = 0. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. &hdisk_isr). /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. erc = hd_recal(0).hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). */ /* Reset the HDC . UnMaskIRQ(14).

Sleep(20). /* 200ms . and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. UnMaskIRQ(14). HD_REG_PORT). 0xfffffff0. OutByte(4. HDDInt = 1. It just waits for an interrupt. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. if (i) hdstatus. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers.last_erc = erc. This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup.seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS .erc = hd_recal(0). &hd_msg). } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. The caller should call check_busy and check the error. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. else hdstatus. HD_REG_PORT). &hdcb. 2. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller.fIntOnReset = 1.fIntOnReset = 0. MicroDelay(4). 0xfffffff0). /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. hdcb[0].ResetStatByte = statbyte. 1)). EndOfIRQ(14). ISendMsg(hd_exch.

hd_Cmd[4] = 0. erc = hd_wait(). /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise.0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. return(erc).5. Listing 24. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. check_busy(void) count = 0. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. hd_Cmd[3] = 0.3 seconds. etc. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc.5. See listing 24.). Sleep(5). if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). /* set max heads. nSectors.

KillAlarm(hd_exch). } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. if (drive) hdstatus. else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch.LastRecalErc1 = erc. hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. Time-out and return if no interrupt. else hdstatus.Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. return(erc).LastRecalErc0 = erc. 300). &hd_msg). /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). return(ok). if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. KillAlarm(hd_exch).

if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. HD_PORT+4). HD_PORT+3). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. write. } erc = check_busy(). HD_REG_PORT). OutByte(hd_control. U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. if (!erc) erc = check_busy().0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. return(erc). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). HD_PORT+2). hd_nsectors = nBlks. &msg) == 0). *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. HD_PORT+5). Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. HD_PORT+1). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. U16 cyl. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. verify. HD_PORT+7).alarm or int messages before we send a command. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). format. setupseek(U32 dLBA. msg[2]. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. MMURTL V1. seek). HD_PORT+6). head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read.

.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent./* we now know what cylinder. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. } = = = = = nBlks. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.LastSeekErc0 = erc. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder).. } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). hdstatus. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. 1). return(erc). j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). /* cyl & 0xff. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* hd_sector. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk).

} else { erc = check_busy(). After all.U8 statbyte. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. MMURTL V1. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). } return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. else return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound.LastErcByte0 = errbyte. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. else hdstatus. he interrupted us with status. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). */ erc = check_busy(). default: break. else return(erc). else hdstatus. break. errbyte.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock.

This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. pDataRet. nBPS). dnBlocks). erc = setupseek(dLBA. nBPS. nSoFar. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. hd_sector. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. U32 dnBlocks. nBPS). and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. nleft.nBPB. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc.nBPB. --nleft. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. hd_sector. } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. nBPS. U32 dnBlocks.else erc = ErcBadHDC. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. nSoFar++. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. pDataOut+=nBPS. } } return(erc). erc = check_busy(). dnBlocks). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). pDataRet+=nBPS. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). pDataOut.

/* hd_sector. return(erc). dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). U32 HdSect. return(erc). erc = hd_wait(). U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. cyl. /* cyl & 0xff. HD %d. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. hd_sector). */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. dnBlocks). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). nBPS).erc = hd_wait(). cyl = Cylinder. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. pDataOut. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. U16 cyl. hd_head. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). head and Sector number. Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.0 -404- . pDataOut+=nBPS. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. erc = setupseek(dLBA. SEC %d\r\n". This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. nSoFar++.

If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. U32 dnBlocks. See listing 24. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. MMURTL V1. &hd_msg). erc = 0. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use.” discussed device driver interfaces. For Hard disk. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. erc = hd_wait(). } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive.erc = send_command(HDC_READ).blocks_done = 0.6. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). Listing 24. U32 dOpNum. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. 12=0 and 13=1. return(erc). /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. 512). } Chapter 8. else hd_drive = 1. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. U32 dLBA. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS .6. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. “Programming Interfaces. pDataRet. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface.

/* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). break. default: erc = ErcBadOp.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData). case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. dnBlocks. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. dnBlocks. S8 * pStatRet. /* Null Command */ break. erc = 0. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. */ break. pData). } } hdcb[hd_drive]. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). dnBlocks. break. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. U32 dStatusMax. break. break. dnBlocks. } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. break.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. break. pData). break. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. dnBlocks). return(erc).last_erc = erc. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. pData).nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA.

last_erc. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters.nBPB. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax.type_now = hd1_type. hdstatus.erc = hdcb[0]. The DCB values are updated if this is successful. hdstatus.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk.nHead = hd1_heads. hdstatus. else i = sStatus. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[1].type_now = hd0_type. hdstatus.).nBPS = hdcb[0]. } /* Calculate size of status to return. i). The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. hdstatus. } else { hdstatus.{ U32 i. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat).nCyl = hd0_cyls. hdstatus.nBPB. hdstatus.erc = hdcb[1]. return ok. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. CopyData(&hdstatus. hdstatus. *pdStatusRet = i.last_erc.nHead = hd0_heads. pStatRet. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. hdstatus. hdstatus.nCyl = hd1_cyls. S8 *pInitData. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS . makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect.

/* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0.nBPB = HDStatTmp. else hd_drive = 1. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. else i = sdInitData. erc = 0.nCyl * HDStatTmp. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive). hdcb[hd_drive]. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp.nHead. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive).nBPS. /* If no error.type_now.type_now. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive].last_erc = erc.nCyl. &HDStatTmp.nSectors. } /* If no error.{ U32 erc.nHead. i. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nSectors.nCyl. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp. return(erc).0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive]. i). CopyData(pInitData. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.last_erc = 0.nSectors * HDStatTmp. } hdcb[hd_drive].nHead.

unsigned long RTimeOut. */ It's opened by someone else. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. 0=none. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver.. but. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. unsigned char IRQNum. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. and this driver. unsigned long LastTotal. which is a sequential byte-oriented device.. unsigned char databits. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. “MMURTL Sample Software. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port..h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. other than that. unsigned long IOBase. as well as status. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. 150 . */ 150-38400 */ 0. It needs more work.. the driver. 1=even. unsigned char parity.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. it is a fully functional driver.38400 */ Parity for this port. unsigned long resvd[6]. Listing 24. which is a block oriented random device.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions... a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file. RS-232. MMURTL V1. unsigned long RBufSize. 16450. unsigned char stopbits. */ It's already open. as well as by the driver itself. unsigned long Baudrate.7. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned long XBufSize. unsigned long XTimeOut.7. See listing 24. or 16550 UARTs. unsigned long LastErc.

}. U8 **ppMemRet). extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. U32 nDevices. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet).8.0 *pIRQ). U32 dfReplace). /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. U32 nPages). S8 *pDCBs. All other command are specific to this driver.8. extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. Listing 24. you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. See listing 24. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. S8 MMURTL V1. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232.

static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. U32 dLBA. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . S8 *pMsgRet). U32 Sleep(U32 count). set and reset signal line condition and functions. U32 dnBlocks. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U16 wPort). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. S8 *pMsgRet). S8 *pStatRet. U32 msg2). void OutByte(U8 Byte. /* local prototypes.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). S8 *pInitData. U8 *pData). U32 dOpNum. U32 dBytes). U32 msg1. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. U32 msg2). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). U32 dStatusMax. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 *pdStatusRet). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 count). U32 msg1. U32 sdInitData). U8 *pDestination. These will be called form the device driver interface. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch.

/* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. MSR[2]. int_id[2]. LCR[2]. FCR[2]. tail_recv[2]. sRecvBuf[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. LSR[2]. IIR[2]. head_recv[2]. head_send[2]. mstat_byte[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. stat_byte[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . *pRecvBuf[2]. MCR[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. fExpectInt[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. DLAB_HI[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. cRecvBuf[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. IER[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. tail_send[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. sSendBuf[2]. cSendBuf[2].

4 chars 11 . Divisor Latch LSB IER -. RX data. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -.Interrupt Enable.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -. \___________ = 0.9.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0.TX data. \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -.2 chars 10 .9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. 1 = Multichar 0. MMURTL V1. Listing 24.1 char 01 .0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS .I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24. I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char. 0. FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 .

10.Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.10. MMURTL V1. static struct statRecC *pCS. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1. Listing 24.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1.H.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints. See listing 24. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2]. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter.

8N1. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. S8 sbName. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600.11. = 'O'. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc. U32 OS6. S16 nBPB.0 = 'C'. and they are contiguously defined.Name[2] MMURTL V1. This means it's ready for business.12. S8 *pDevInit. Note that there are two of DCB’s. = 'M'. U32 OS1. S8 fDevReent. U32 OS4. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. U32 OS2.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. U32 nBlocks. as is required by MMURTL. /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void).11. Listing 24. One for each channel. S8 *pDevOp. S8 *pDevSt. See listing 24. }. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 24.Name[0] comdcb[0]. S8 type. S16 wJob. U32 last_erc. Listing 24. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2].Name[1] comdcb[0]. U32 OS5. U32 OS3. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. S8 fSingleUser.12. static void interrupt comISR1(void). RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface.

/* 1 byte per block */ 0. /* COM1 */ /* COM2 */ = 9600. SetIRQVector(4.sbName comdcb[0].nBlocks comdcb[0].IOBase = comstat[0]. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. &comdev_init.Name[2] comdcb[1]. 4. = 2. = 0. 2.pDevOp comdcb[1].Baudrate comstat[0].XBufSize comstat[0]. 'O'.nBlocks comdcb[1]. /* Sequential */ 1. = 1.stopbits comstat[0].pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'. = 4096. = 100.IRQNum = comstat[0].nBPB comdcb[0].type comdcb[0]. } MMURTL V1. 1)).databits comstat[0].parity comstat[0]. = 9600. /* Set default comms params in stat records */ comstat[0].IOBase = comstat[1]. = 1. 4.RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. sRecvBuf[0] = 4096. /* none */ = 8.Baudrate comstat[1]. &comISR1).XTimeOut comstat[1].IRQNum = comstat[1]. 4.RTimeOut comstat[1]. = 4096.nBPB comdcb[1]. 3.parity comstat[1]. MaskIRQ(3). &comdev_init.Name[0] comdcb[1].databits comstat[1].Name[2] comdcb[0]. sRecvBuf[1] = 4096.pDevSt comdcb[1]. &comdev_stat. comstat[1]. 0x2F8. = 2.0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS . 'M'.pDevInit comdcb[1]. &comdev_stat. &comdcb. 2. /* 1 byte per block