MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.........................................................................................................................312 KillAlarm().............. Adding a run of linear memory.......................................................................................................18.......................................................................................................................................6................................2....................................................................290 AddAliasRun .......................................................317 Listing 20.................................................................................................289 Listing 19.................304 Listing 19..................................293 AddOSPT ..........................317 MMURTL V1............................................................... Allocating a page of linear memory................................................................. Adding an aliased run of linear memory...................................................................................................................7...........................................................................................................................................22......................FindRun ....................................................309 Listing 20.......................................................................296 AddGDTCallGate ....312 Listing 20................................308 Listing 20........................................................303 QueryMemPages..............................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ....14..................................................................................................................301 DeAllocPage ............................................................................296 AddIDTGate........317 Tone()................................................... Code to find number of free pages......................................313 MicroDelay() ...............................................................................................................................................311 Listing 20..............................................................................................................................................................................309 The Timer Interrupt ................................................................................................. Code to find a free run of linear memory........................................................305 CHAPTER 20..........................................................................15....................................................11......................................................................................................................................316 Listing 20.........................16............................................................................................................................ Code to produce a beep...............................291 AddUserPT ..................................................................................5...305 Listing 19. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ..................................................................................................................................................................297 AllocOSPage....................................................... Code to produce a tone .........................................294 Listing 19............................................................................... The timer interrupt service routine .................................................................................................................8..........303 Listing 19...........296 Listing 19.................................................... Code for the Sleep function ..................................................................................304 GetPhyAdd ....314 Listing 20.. Code to read the CMOS date .............................................................................................................. Code for the MicrDelay function ..........21............................................................... Public for linear to physical conversion.................................................................................................299 Listing 19....................................314 GetCMOSDate() ...........................................................................................................308 TIMER CODE ...........................................................................316 Beep().............................................................................................................................................309 Sleep() . Loop in timer ISR ........................13....................................... Code for the KillAlarm function....................309 Listing 20............................................25................................................................288 Listing 19.....................................................315 Listing 20...... External functions for timer code .12...........................................................................301 Listing 19............................307 TIMER DATA .....................................298 Listing 19.........................................3.......................307 Listing 20...........................317 Listing 20...................20...............................................................................................................316 Listing 20................................................................................................................................. Adding an operating system page table ... Data and constants for timer code....................................................................................................313 GetCMOSTime() ........................................... Code to return the timer tick ..............................................................................................................................................311 Alarm()....... Code for the Alarm function ...... Adding a call gate to the GDT .................................................... Code to alias memory ...................................................................17................................................................................315 GetTimerTick()......................................................................................................................................................................14................................................... Code to remove alias PTEs.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24................312 Listing 20............................................................298 AliasMem ............................................297 Listing 19..............................................................................................................19...................................................................................................293 Listing 19....................................................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ..............23....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................299 DeAliasMem...................9............291 Listing 19.............................................4....................................................................................................................................................................................316 Beep_Work() ...................................................................13........................................................................................................................................................... Adding entries to the IDT ...........................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ......................................................................288 AddRun ...............................................................................................10...................................................................................................................................................... Adding a page table for user memory........................................... Code to read the CMOS time............................................................................................................... TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ...................................................................1...............................................................................................................307 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................................313 Listing 20............. Deallocating linear memory.......................................................................

.............. 436 Keyboard Translation................... 389 Listing 24..................................1....................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ............................................................................ End of Initialization Code........... Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 331 CHAPTER 22...........................................................................................7...............................................................5........................................................................................................................ 321 Listing 21...................................................................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ....................................................... Jobc....................................................................................................................................................................... 366 Listing 23....................................................................................................................13............ DEBUGGER CODE ...............................................................................c source code..................... 393 Listing 24.... 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ...................... Keyboard ISR Code..................................................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) .... 409 Listing 24........................................................................... 389 Listing 24....... JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 414 Listing 24.....2......................................................14....... KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE.. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) . 366 CHAPTER 24................ INITIALIZATION CODE .............................. 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER.......................................... 319 INTRODUCTION ..................................................... Debugger Data and Code..........................................................................................................7.......................... SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE..........................................................4...........................................................6....................................................... 395 Listing 24.6............................................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ..................... 415 Listing 24............... 438 Reading the Final Buffer .... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) .............................................5................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ............................................................. 337 Listing 22....................................................... 429 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................3..... Read Keyboard Buffer Code .......................................2................................................................................................................................................ 327 Listing 21......................................................... Initialize call gates amd the IDT............ 410 Listing 24.............................................................................. 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT .........................................................................h Header File ........................................................................... 390 Listing 24................................................................ 389 INTRODUCTION .......... 442 MMURTL V1......................................................................................................................... 344 CHAPTER 23...........................................1........2............................................................................................... 413 Listing 24......................................... Continuation of OS initialization................. 436 Listing 25.................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ..12..................................................... 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ................................................................................10............................. 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER .........4....... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ...............................................................................................................3........................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ..........................2.... Continuation of OS initialization....................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ..................................................9............................................................................................................................. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ......... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) .................................................................................. Job Management Subroutines.......................................1......................................... 409 Listing 24..................................................................................................... 438 Listing 25.......................................................... 442 Listing 25................................................4.................................................. 319 Listing 21................................ 326 Listing 21................. 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ...... 429 Listing 25..................................................................................... Keyboard Translation Code..8....................................................................................... 365 INTRODUCTION .......1...................................3..........................................................................................CHAPTER 21..................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)........................... 344 Listing 22......................... 328 Listing 21.............................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ........................... 321 Listing 21................ 429 KEYBOARD DATA......................1......2.................................................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 415 Listing 24..............................................................................................................................11........................................................ Keyboard Data and Tables .................... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) . 398 Listing 24................ OS Initialization Code and Entry Point................ Initialization Subroutines............................ 424 CHAPTER 25........................ 337 INTRODUCTION ... Main Operating System Data ................................................................. 325 Listing 21..... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE .............. 417 Listing 24................ 436 Keyboard ISR............................................................................................... 365 Listing 23.................................... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA .......................................................................... RS-232..........

..........................................................................5..............................448 Debugger Keyboard..................................................................0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ...............................................................................457 INTRODUCTION ..6..............474 Listing 27..................................................................473 Hidden Sectors............................................................. Simple Application Template File .............................................. Code to Get a Character and Attribute...........................................................................................................................................................................................................9.............. Code to Get the Current Video Owner........473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers..................................................................................................................................................................................1......................3........................................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code .........460 Listing 26.............................................................540 Listing 28................................................................................................................................473 INTRODUCTION .........................................448 Listing 25..........................1.............451 Keyboard Service Initialization ..........................................11.............................................................................................................................................541 List File Option ............ Low-level Keyboard Control Code............453 Listing 25................................................................................... Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen..............12................................................................................................................................................................ FILE SYSTEM CODE......................................................... Code to Return Current Cursor Position ...................................... Code to Screen Video Attributes .............................542 Device Drivers ..................................................................................451 Listing 25................................................. Code to Set Cursor Position........................464 Listing 26........................................................................ Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen .............................................................457 THE VIDEO CODE ..................459 Listing 26.................................................................................................539 DASM CONCEPTS ... Keyboard system service code........................................................................................... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware .........541 Command Line Options .................................................................................................................................452 Hardware Helpers ................................................................................................................... Code to Edit a Line on the Screen........8................ Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position.............458 Listing 26...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................462 Listing 26..........443 Listing 25........10..............................................................................2.....................................................................................................7.............................................................................................................................8........................16...............................................................9....................................................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ............. Keyboard Service Initialization .......................................................5......................464 Listing 26................................. MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2....................................................................................................................................................................539 INTRODUCTION ...................450 Listing 25....................................................466 Listing 26............................457 Listing 26................... DASM.............................................540 Application Template File. Code to set Normal Video Attribute .........................................................................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector ........................... A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER ......................452 Listing 25..........473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ..........................................................................................................................540 Listing 28...............................................................................15........................................................................................................................................ Code to Clear the Screen ............................................................ VIDEO CODE .......................................... A More Complicated Template File .................................................................................................................468 Listing 26.................................................................................................................................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................461 Listing 26...............541 Errors Only Option ........................................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ...................458 Listing 26.....................14.....................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ..................................1.......................... Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen .....................................The Keyboard Service ........4...............................................................................................................474 CHAPTER 28.......................................539 USING DASM.............542 Dynamic Link Libraries .....................................................................................................................................6................................ Code to get the Normal Video Attribute............................................................................................................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO .7................................................................................................................................................................ Code to Initialize Video ..................................................................................................................453 CHAPTER 26......................................................................................................468 Listing 26...............473 Logical Block Address (LBA).............................................................................................................................................................................542 MMURTL V1.....................................474 File System Initialization .............465 Listing 26.............................460 Listing 26.........................................................................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Video constants and data ...................................10..469 Listing 26.......461 Listing 26.............................................................................................................................. Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call ..........................................................472 CHAPTER 27................................................................ Code to Set the Video Owner .......................................................................................13..........

...................................... 570 Listing 29........... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ..................................................................................................... 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses .......................................................................................................2 ............................................3........................................................................................................................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations ..... 545 Storage Declarations........................................................................... 568 USING CM32.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 570 Listing 29............................................................................................................................ 568 Library Functions .............................................................. CM32........................... A 32-BIT C COMPILER ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 563 Library Header File Access.................................Specifying Memory Operands...... 556 Tag Descriptions..... 562 FAR Calls ......................................................... 561 INTRODUCTION ..3................................................................................................. 547 DW (Define Word) ..................................................... 565 Far External Functions .............................................................................................................................................................................. Supported Library Functions ...............1 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................CD-ROM CONTENTS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers........................... 543 DOT Commands ......................................................................................... 545 Table 28..... 543 Listing 28........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 542 Memory Model................ 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ........................................................................................ Alternating data and code in a template file .................................................. 562 Interrupt Functions............................................................................................................. 581 MMURTL V1........................................................................................................ 562 Variable Length Argument Lists ..................... 575 APPENDIX A -................................................................ 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ....................................................................................................................................................... 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES .................................................................................... 558 Your Own Assembler? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 569 Listing 29.......................................................................................... 548 PUBLIC Declarations........................................ 559 CHAPTER 29...........................................................................................................................................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ............................................................................................................................................................................ 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ................................................................................................................................. 547 DF (Define Far Word) ................................1.................................................................................................................. 548 Labels and Address..........................................................................................................................................................................................................Tag Usage ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 ................ 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ..................................................... 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information...................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) .................................................................. 568 Command Line Options .................................................................................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ............................................................................................................................................................... 569 Library Code Examples ................................................................................................................................................................ 566 Initialization of Static Variables ............... 579 INDEX ......................................... Standard String Functions for MMURTL ..................................................................................... 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET .............................................................................................................................................................................. 563 Supported C Language Features ................................................ 555 Table 28....... 545 DASM Addressing Modes ...................................................................................................................... 552 Table 28..............................................................................................................................................................2............................................................................. Standard file I/O for MMURTL .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Supported Instructions ..................... 565 Structure Limitations ...........................................................................................................................DASM Source Files ................................................................................................ 547 DB (Define Byte).................................................................................................................................................. 542 DASM Program Structure ...................... 548 EXTRN Declarations.........................................

0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .MMURTL V1.

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When OS/2 was first developed. and the programming interface. I have documented what it takes to really write one. are the tasking model. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. You. Unfortunately." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. The most obvious of these. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. do some research on each of the desirables. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. I determined the specifications for the final product. But I wanted a small API. When I started out. If you write something that no one can use. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. I set the ground rules. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. code. They use them.Chapter 1. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. however. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. I've learned a lot from all that I've read.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . it's a complete system. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. portability issues size and speed. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. Realizing this. memory model. and begin coding. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. it's unlikely they'll use it. they work with them. You don't need to design your own. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. In the case of my own operating system. It's up to you. That was part of my wish list. I would just make a list. As coding began. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. but very light on specifics. IBM. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. as viewed by the outside programmer. or Sun. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. not his IQ. NOT SO FAST THERE. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. I decided what stayed and what went. In the early days. If you're an experienced programmer. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. MMURTL V1. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person.

the memory model. I'm sure it won't. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. In my opinion.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . The source code. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. along with all the tools necessary to build. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. message based. multitasking. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. modify. Hardware Timers. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. would help me write better application software for it. ideas from it. but it was a "must" for me. your goals may be different. hardware interface. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. Once again. or write your own. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. programming interfaces. redesign it to meet your requirements. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. For instance. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. real-time. Throughout this book. portability issues. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. You can use pieces of it. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. and some serious "turbo" modifications. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. a few more instructions. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. For this reason. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. 80486 (486). It clouds far too many real issues these days. This was completely intentional. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. In fact. You may or may not want to do this for your system. change it to suit your needs. they are effectively super-386 processors. But that's not what this book is about. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). This was the 16. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system.to 32-bit jump. size and speed. which I felt. or all of it if you wish to write your own. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. so I've removed the mystique. Serial and Parallel Ports. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. MMURTL V1. Even though they have added speed.

you may have a different platform in mind. We. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. If you're going to write your own. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. and what my end result was. Extended. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. You may start with my list and modify it. and most of them are grossly under used. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model).” Simplicity .the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. UMBs.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). the right mix of capability and simplicity. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there).. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability).The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements.The ability to react to outside events in real time. Chapter 5 covers memory management. We want the system to react to us. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. LIM. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . I also wanted to maintain a small. such as C or Pascal. MMURTL V1. “Programming Interfaces.Not just task switching between programs. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). or start one from scratch. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice.” and chapter 8. General Discussion and Background. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. Client/Server design . Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. Easy programming . “The Hardware Interface. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model .The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. If it is another processor. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). HIMEM.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS .Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. if we knew how. I use the stack. Message agents could be added to any platform. Real-time operation .My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. and also what I decided on. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. hardware paging. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. or maybe a little less? Of course. I discuss this in chapter 6. is with a procedural interface. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. but real multi-threading . and for a very good reason. “Programming Interfaces.But not the programmer.Keep the system as simple as possible. I didn't want to do this. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. calling conventions.. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. the humans. “The Hardware Interface. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . I'll discuss some of your options. but not all the options. are outside events. YOURMOTHERSMEM. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. LOMEM. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . If you don't have this requirement. yet powerful enough to get the job done. Power without BLOAT. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. but I don't recommend it. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down.” Protection from other programs .

I'm sure. Real-Time. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. and 64K of data). the code. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). or for general reference. or use any of the tools I included. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. expand it to your heart's desire. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). And of course. no doubt. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. kerneL. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. the tools. be of value in your other programming projects as well. If you intend to run MMURTL. x86/Pentium processors. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. If you don't like my acronym. Real-Time. nor is it intended to directly replace them.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . In the educational field. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. MMURTL V1. Yes. but only a distant cousin. Message based. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. I put together my own operating system. make up your own! But. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. If you don't want to start from scratch. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. Sections of the source code will. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). Multitasking. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). If you're not worried about memory consumption. Dedicated. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. Then again. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. and the initialization entry point jumped to. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals.

The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. Note: PCI bus designs work well. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used).0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. EISA (Ed. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. but still. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. but only out of convenience. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. and more importantly. not at all the same. Both 5. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). 80486. (or even MS-DOS). some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. that is. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver.25" and 3.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). The processor must be an Intel 80386. If yours isn't. also – 2000). Hence. AMD. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. This includes Cyrix. 8250. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. you can change the code as needed. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here.5" are supported. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. IBM and other clone processors. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. eases the development burden. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. you can ignore this section. but a few are not). One Megabyte of RAM is required. If you want to run DOS. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. MMURTL V1. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines.x (IBM). The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. IDE is preferred. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). Pentium. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system.

.

I would not let this happen. has had an effect. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. my schooling. and just make it better if you have the desire. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20.000. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. merged). As you can see.). In fact. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. no doubt. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. improve. I might add). make a lot of sense. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. Borrow from mine. take away. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. here it is. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. client server designs. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. In Chapter 1. a. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. It does. for no apparent reason). That worked out just about right. as well what may influence your design. It whet my whistle. Every little thing you've run across will.a. you might not want to). General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. however. Far too often. write your own operating system. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. add. simplified memory management. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). MMURTL V1. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker).” I covered what my final design goals were. That was 1989. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. “Overview. etc. and borrowed with great respect. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. It was a 32-bit system. my reading of various publications and periodicals.k. affect its design. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer.Chapter 2. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). Burroughs and Sperry. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. Five years later.

there was no such thing. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. but it worked nonetheless. maybe. or ported to a system. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. Of course. Operating system developers. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. Again. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS.. In fact. Then those were the 2. I'm not a Borland salesman. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. but the tools worked. but as you well know. It's the place to start. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. Once again. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. and utilities .x assembler and 2. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . I thought about other processors. compiler. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. or even OS/2. and a few others. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway.x linker. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1.all but ancient history now. MS-DOS was everywhere. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. but the tools just worked better. There was no turning back.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. As you may be aware. It can be a little confusing and frustrating.. It is just now becoming popular. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's. like a bad virus. was a must. Memory access was limited.0) and later moved to 5. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. popular platform. I really do hate reinventing the wheel.including assembler. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. however. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. I really had no choice. Message-based. at times it was quite difficult. however.1. in the process of using these other tools.After I got involved with the IBM PC. a lure that could not be suppressed. It was limited to the small memory model. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. The next major decision was the software development environment. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner.

These documents are usually free. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. you will need to read chapter 28. etc. or may not. IBM published theirs. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. In fact. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. It's simply not needed. To fully understand this. Developing this assembler was.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. I do so because its bus. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. Communications controllers. documents. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. want or need. which is fed to the assembler. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. such as Chips & Technologies. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. and the called function cleans the stack. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. and a few other minor utilities.). The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. interface design. Besides. but I pretty much built from scratch. as well as the software control of these devices.some tools from the major software vendors. in which case. as you may understand. Needless to say. at least. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. TTL. DC. That set me back four months. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. in itself. Parameters are passed left to right. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). a disassembler. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. which is 32 bits for the most part. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. I think many people started there. I plead the "Fifth" on this. There is no linker.. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. Computer chip manufacturers. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. but another port is in the works. articles. Many different books. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality.. That's right. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. SX MMURTL V1. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. no linker. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. DMA. The C compiler produces assembly language. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. It is tied to the internal bus. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. etc. a major task.” Assembly language has its place in the world. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. or even port MMURTL to it.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler.

This made the IBM designs the natural place to start.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). don't lose sight of the forest for the trees.x. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. There was no loader. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. OS/2 version 2. I discuss several options you have. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM.two segments per program and two for the OS. Windows version 3. all implementations of UNIX). If you use Intel-based platforms.). anyway (e. of course. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. I had to meet my design goals. It was a "kinder. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. But as you may be aware. from a 16-bit code segment. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. The segmented memory idea was canned. no way to get test programs into the system. This was timeconsuming. powerful. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. as well as the stack storage. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. MMURTL V1. but not a fully segmented model .and 16-bit code and data. you'll be ahead of the game. It has turned out very nicely. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. aliasing is also required. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book.x. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. This easily consumed the first six months. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. gentler" environment I was after.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. The thought was rather sickening. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. as you will see. etc. In chapter 5. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. If you write your own system. During this time. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. [Thunking is when you interface 32.). but this is transparent to the programmer. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running.g. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. but instead a lean. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. even the operating system writer. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a paged system. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. Memory Management. This simple model could allocate and manage memory. etc. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait).. "Thunking" was out of the question. anyway. but it presented several serious complications. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. this is a year you won’t have to go through. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). timers. all based on their own selectors. All of the early test programs were in assembler. EISA. but it's not at as complicated. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently.

The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. Decide on your basic models. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. the actual application may not be so important. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. Or at least when you get it working. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. You can then “port” the prototype. but there wasn’t. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it." It is difficult for me to do this also. Memory management is next. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. The Critical Path Along your journey. But I'll try. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. The level of complexity. and overall program management – as you see fit. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. of course. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. do it. I'll tell you the easiest. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. I have provided such an operating system with this book. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. but whatever you decide on. but they just didn't say. Investigate your tools. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. If this has never happened to you. Of course. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. compilers and utilities. get to know it very well. Get to know your assemblers.anything that you think you'll need to remember. MMURTL V1. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. the discoveries . It may be RISC. For example. I envy you. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. you know that it can be a very daunting task. There are so many platforms out there. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). But. This may sound a little humorous.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. Select your hardware platform. It will be worth the time spent. it may be CISC. garbage collection. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. memory model and basic programming interface. Document the problems. but I'm very serious. "You start here. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. hints are about all I CAN give you. Know your desired application. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. will depend on the memory model you choose. This is called the critical path. how much knowledge you have. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. I say this from experience. This includes the tasking model. and there will also be background noise. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). you will no doubt find bugs. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. you know that certain items in a project must work. you'll NEVER really be done with it. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. or how much time you really have to invest. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. I was really interested in communications. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. Go for the kernel. the rest is real work.

0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . I moved on from there. But really. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). sweat and maybe some tears. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. dependable pickup truck. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. I had my wish list well in advance. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. Sounds backwards? It is. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable.” Once satisfied. These tools include documentation for the hardware. I write the documentation. Document as you go. easily digestible chunks. compilers. it won't be luck. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. It will be blood. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them.Working Attitude Set your goals. As I mentioned above. all the way. Good luck. Work with small. it's worth the time. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. MMURTL V1. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. I lay out my notes for what I want. But don't set them too high. and then I write the code. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers.

This term is not disputed very much.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. Some operating systems call a task a “process. but it is used a lot in the computer industry.” In most instances I call it a TASK. Tell the programmers what you mean. at least temporarily. Generally. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). After all. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people.” while others call it a “thread. it’s PREEMPTIVE.g. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. then start another task running. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. but I hope you will accept them. be specific about it. MMURTL V1. You may not agree with the definitions. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. I admit some guilt here too). Hence. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. But this is not cast in stone either. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . and most people refer to. Most of the discussion centers on resource management.Chapter 3. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. If you write your own. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks." which means communications between tasks. In other words. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly).0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. KERNEL . while your reading this book or working with MMURTL.. MS-DOS TSRs . CPU utilization. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. and I'm not talking about programming languages. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. however. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. It shouldn't be. but doesn't expect the interrupt. or at least coming to agreement on them. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. and more specifically. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. save its state. but it is. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. In its executable form. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. coffee and soda spilled on them. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. TASK . When a task is suspended from execution. Some documentation. This makes it a very small kernel. I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task.

Quite obviously. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. One of my friends suggested the motto. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. Some are communications programs (FAX software. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. Task Management Tasks begin. disk.). I deal with one user at a time. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account." but needless to say. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. It may have memory assigned to it. On the other hand. Multitasking. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. In other words. "Everything should be as simple as possible. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. and some are user-oriented software. when the mission was accomplished. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. or even network connections for logons. and hardware (Timers. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. Single vs. each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). or the user was done. Interrupt Controller Units. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . Managing these resources in a simple. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . But in almost all of these systems. but it may not be so easy for you. Nor did I want it to be. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. Tasks crash. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). Single User. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. execute programs as the new users desire. comms programs). memory management. DMA. In each case. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. it didn't sit too well with me. Tasks end. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. keyboard. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. and why. good old Albert).” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity.In other words. You may MMURTL V1. How tasks are handled. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. etc. "simple software for simple minds. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. These are the real resources. Input/Output (I/O) devices. This is its only real purpose in life. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. When I wrote these programs. including video. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware).

The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. This is where the hardware-state is saved. In the case of hardware interrupts. This will be the heart and brains of the system. it would seem to return at its leisure. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. Then I asked. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. My first programs were written with that attitude. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. If you must do it yourself. The CPU takes care of it for you. Microcomputers spoiled me. It was crude. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. The software state can consist of almost nothing. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . I had my very own processor. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. When you change tasks. MMURTL V1. In a multitasking operating system. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. but effective. but an important one. "It's 11:00PM. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. Yet. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. it was a breeze. When you restore a task. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. It's actually easier than it sounds. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. We were each getting a piece of the pie.want to deal with many. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. this is usually a no-brainer.

Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. or to pause when it has nothing to do. A task that has the processor gives it up.I'm done with the CPU for now. the screen and everything else looks frozen. They can. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. however. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. In this case. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. a single threaded system may be the best solution. you are cooperating with the operating system. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. do an adequate job in many cases. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. if necessary. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. he then monopolizes the CPU. management of CPU time is easy. MMURTL V1. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. It may not always be obvious when it happens. "Hey . Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system." From there. 10ths of seconds or even seconds.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. In fact. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. which I cover in this chapter. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. For instance. Cooperative and Preemptive. interrupt servicing. and basic input/output. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. Meanwhile. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. or a combination of the two. With these calls. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. and in some cases. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). In many single tasking systems. In a single tasking operating system. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. however. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). This may be in milliseconds. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. you basically have a hardware manager. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. And yes. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). This can be for a number of reasons.

when a task is preempted. connected to the outside world . When. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. to which task do we switch.g. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. For the preemptive system. the task that's running. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). They are also. These parties include the programmer. the scheduler. and maybe memory context. the scheduler simply determines who's next. or the operating system from an external device (e. However. or even a requirement. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. The timer can help determine when to preempt. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. In a preemptive system. The currently running task is preempted. It does nothing to prepare for it. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. controlling. hardware timer. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). the entire "state" of your task is not saved.communicating. Also. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. a program. Most of the time. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. disk drive. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. On most platforms. or after a set period of time. there is going to be a desire. Generally. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. we must now decide which task runs next. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). In fully cooperative systems. or a few other hardware-related things. outside events. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. and how long does that task get to run? Who. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. To expand on that definition. or it may be for something extremely critical. it doesn't expect it. MMURTL V1. The next section is the tricky part.). communications device. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. this adds the requirement of timing. is a preemptive system. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. As I also mentioned earlier. after the interrupt is finished. As you can see. When do we switch tasks.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system.. quite often. or monitoring. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. etc. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events.

The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. For example. Time slicing is an old technique.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. This gives the scheduler something to work with.and they will be executed in the order they were created. each task will get a fixed amount of time . but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. otherwise. but it won't be on their terminals. In a cooperative system. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue.all tasks will get the same slice . In some systems. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. In the simplest time sliced systems. the one with the highest priority will be executed. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. A simple queuing system suffices. When a task's time is up. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. each task gets 25 milliseconds. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. Who determines which task gets more time. and if a user interface is involved. (the others will be flipping 8. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so.000 burgers. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . But it has some major drawbacks. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). This also implies that some may not be ready at all. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. only the very highest would ever get to run. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. In a time sliced preemptive system. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. it can serve admirably. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. Not quite that simple. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. This is usually not very effective.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. "a slice of time. its complete hardware and software state is saved. For example. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). The others may see a slow down. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. and the next task in line is restored and executed. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake.

but it's not dramatic enough. Therefore. Now. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. things are never as simple as they seem. or the user. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. come do something with this data before I lose it"). These are communications and user interface issues. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. Thus. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. But I opted to "get real" instead. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. and we want our machines responsive to us. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. computers are everywhere. but one channel is handling five times the data. clean communications. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events.to go around on the system. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. dependable. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. This IS real-time stuff. For instance. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks.. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. but it makes the point. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). In a message based system. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. We want good. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . The buffer will overflow.g. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives.

Time Sliced. I can't picture a system without it. A very simple. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. all tasks will get to run. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. Fully Time Sliced.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. however.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. But even when the task has nothing to do. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. Primarily Cooperative. Users on a larger. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. although such systems exist. you have a few ideas of your own. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. MMURTL V1. See what works for your applications. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. In addition. No doubt. In this type of system. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. and even help define the tasking model. To be honest. it would still be scheduled to execute. based on the number of tasks scheduled. A task may. even though these methods are very important. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. Some Cooperation In this type of model. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed.

and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. timer services. preemptive. To me. This is a speed issue. It's faster – actually. For instance. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. This could have presented some protection problems. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. Go for the fastest option .0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . the outside events are even more important than placating the user. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. The task based ISR is slower. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. and no. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. The timer-interrupt routine. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. and in reality. monitors the current task priority. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. In such a system. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. multitasking. much faster. To briefly explain my tasking model. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. real-time operating system. Keep them short. The less time the better. I never wanted to miss outside events. if you have 256 priorities. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. prioritization of tasks is VERY important." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. Other processors may offer similar options.PERIOD. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. After all. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. I wanted a priority based. Limited Time Slicing category. or whatever. and limit the functionality if at all possible. "Experience is a wonderful thing. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. goes into a "waiting" state. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. and the next task with the highest priority executes. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message.Primarily Cooperative. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. file access. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this.

but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. you switch tasks. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. or even possibly the users. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . the problems didn't surface. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. After a period of time has elapsed. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. or Ms. In a cooperative environment. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. who's to say when Mr.management headaches. On systems that are primarily time sliced. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods.only the user knows. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . For instance. MMURTL V1. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all).

semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. However. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. what operation you want to perform. nor should they have to. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. On a single CPU. only one task can execute at a time. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter." MMURTL V1. or is suspended when it can't run. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. In other words.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . it could cause some serious problems. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. portions of the code will not be reentrant. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. Of course. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. perform operations on the semaphore structures. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). In operating systems that use semaphores. where it waits. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. As I described in earlier chapters.Chapter 4. As the name implies. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. if it's being allocated). while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. As you will see in this chapter. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). there are public calls that allocate semaphores.

Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. In my system. more powerful. ClosePipe(). you should study how they are used on other systems. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. etc. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. such as MMURTL.In most cases. OpenPipe(). the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place).0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a message-based system. He or she will make a system call for some resource. But once again. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. which will consist of one or more tasks. or similar ones. OS/2 is one such system. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). As you can see. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). I didn't. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. but I used a second form of messaging instead. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. tasks are not wholly independent. public pipes are very handy. I refer to a program as a “job. This is much more efficient. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). You will see these commands. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). a program is made up of one or more tasks. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. If you intend to implement semaphores. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. and WritePipe(). some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. In fact. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. on most real-time operating systems. ReadPipe(). OS/2. I have added a second. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. In my humble opinion. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). Pipes can be implemented as public devices. or schedule tasks for execution. destroy tasks. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer.). such as those procedures that create new tasks. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. In fact.

it sends a message. In MMURTL's case. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. It does just what it says . but large enough for a couple of pointers. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. You also need a way to send the message. char *pMsgRet). The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. Not too large to move around. or whatever you call it. I called it an Exchange. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). only one task is actually executing instructions. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). and VIOLA. MMURTL V1. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). You can send one way messages to a person. long dMsgPart1. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. but enough that we can talk about them. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). It returns 0 if all goes well. The task is the human. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. "Tell Mr. If you're lucky.functions. dExch is the destination exchange. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. his offer is the pits. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS .not in detail yet. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. the message is received right away. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. a task is born." This is an example of a one way message. SpawnTask(). request() and respond(). the answering machine is the exchange. such as. a bin. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). provide some other pieces of information. long dMsgPart2). It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. You tell it what exchange. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. or just about any other name you like. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). WaitMsg(). an exchange point. Yes. Now I have some very important terms and functions . You point to a piece of code. CheckMsg(). the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. char *pMsgRet). Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. In an operating system's case. Now. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). give it the message and away it goes. Consider the phone again. it's a little more complicated than that. Zork to forget it. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. for which you expect no response. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. SendMsg(). one which is "request" for services which should receive a response.

You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. None found. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. It's still task 2. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Task2 is higher. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. You start with a single task executing. it's not called the kernel zone. Table 4.. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. time is passing. None are waiting. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1.). Task2 allocates Exch2.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. Task1 is ready to run. very small.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Table 4. As we move down the table in our example. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue.. Task2 is still running. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. What it's doing isn't important. In this example. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Kernel makes Task1 run. Just kidding.

MMURTL V1. the receiving task is made to run. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later).the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. This way. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. Each time an interrupt occurs. printing services. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it.. A fully loaded system may have 5. keyboard input. you will more than likely not use these types in your system.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. It gives task2 the message. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. When the service is first installed. If there is a task at the exchange. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. only the service name. From the simple example in table 4. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. each service installed is given a name. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service.. 10 or even 15 system services. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. they must be waiting for something.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . BBS systems. Each service can provide up to 65. With MMURTL. They are dedicated types. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue.. unsigned int wSvcCode. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. FAX services. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. it will be made to run. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. The processing is carried out by the service. . It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services.1.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. They are ideal for things like file systems. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . The name must be unique on the machine. I didn't do this with MMURTL. e-mail services. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. In some systems. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. If there is one.. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. queued file management. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. the list could go on and on. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. This can simplify the scheduler. In fact. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. but the name will always be the same. This may not work on all types of processors.

Second. Second. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code).the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. long dData1. There's still a little work to do. If you made more than one request. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. Two questions arise: 1.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). dnpSend would be 1. These are documented independently by each service. Using the Open File() example. If this is the response.the status or error code returned to the requester. *pData1 . long dData0. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. If you remember. *pdRqHndlRet . long dData2 ).long dRespExch. At first glance.Number of the specific function you are requesting. This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. long *pdRqHndlRet. long dcbData2SR. or pData2 to send data to the service. and dData2 . pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something.Pointer to the service name you are requesting. dRespExch . For instance. dData1. dStatRet . This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. if the request was serviced (with no errors).Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). char *pData2SR. dData0. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. all capitals. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. dnpSend . this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. this would be the size (length) of the filename. This will be explained later in memory management. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg().Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill. These can never be pointers to data. *pData2 . long dcbData1SR. wSvcCode . If it is 80000000h or above. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . In many functions you will not even use pData1. and spacepadded on the right. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. dcbData2 . the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing.is the number (0. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). Zero (0) usually indicates no error. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. it is NOT a response. long dStatRet). Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. in the file system OpenFile() function. They are described below: dRqHndl . The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. but network transport mechanisms do not. The service already knows this.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. dcbData1 . as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). you'll need to know which one is responding. Where is the response data and status code? First. But.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. The service name is eight characters.This is the same as dcbData1.

but still very important. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. As you know. The buffer is gone.it's crash time.to read or write data.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. and WHAMO . Now. it is preempted. When each task is done with the allocation routine. Each task that enters the code. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. task1 gets to run again. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. MMURTL V1. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. So the code goes in. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. even in a multitasking system. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. right? But let me guess . task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). It's really quite simple. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. Semaphores are used on many systems. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. there was only one buffer left. pointers are off the ends of arrays. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. For the sake of understanding this. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). checks the semaphore. but this would slow things down a bit. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. Not very big. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). An exchange is a small structure in memory. lets look at an example. As you can see. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. Not as difficult as you expect. Now. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. it's a mess. or pauses in the middle of them. But when it reaches PointX. Also. only one task can really be running at a time. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. and show you what can happen. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. To really understand this issue. So.

if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above.” MMURTL V1. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods.task switches. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. Also. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check.200 baud in Windows 3. but my testing shows I did OK. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. This is 1/38. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. WHOA THERE . That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. You will lose data. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. The next sections discuss this. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. It will be the only way. and maybe even not often enough. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. You didn't disable interrupts. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores).0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. In the kernel code.x? You will lose data. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. “Memory Management. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. and also "the biggie" .but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. I started with one and abandoned it early on. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. let's look at a real-world example. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. it will simplify IPC greatly . but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections.000 * 3). this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval.000. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. In theory.If the instruction sequence is short enough.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). Don't blame Windows though. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5.

These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. Some do it with internal paging hardware. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. if available. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. Whether or not you use paging hardware. so does an operating system. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. it's all basically the same. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. This greatly affects the next three items. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. Instead.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. Basic Terms Once again. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. Address 0 is the first. Either way.Chapter 5. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. I do make some assumptions about your processor. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. or another complicated applications. With the Intel processors. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. For instance. There are some major differences though. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). The memory model you choose.

Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. and bad. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. In this type of system. at least for the operating system. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. As programs are loaded.1. Figure 5.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. No address translations take place in hardware.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. As programs are loaded. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap.). different memory allocation schemes (top down. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. chunks of physical memory called pages. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). MMURTL V1.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. and possible partitioning for each program. Figure 5. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. etc. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. You may be restricted from using some of these options. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. This can be good. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. With this scheme. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. bottom up. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement.

the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. Figure 5.Figure 5. With paged memory.2 . more than likely a hard disk drive. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. direct access storage device. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. Figure 5. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. MMURTL V1.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. For instance. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. Figure 5. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. With demand-paged memory. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. With this scheme.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. For example.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. or even 64 MB).

My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). it means that you're lying to your programs.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . but it sure looks like it is. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory.Figure 5. With paging hardware.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. and indeed you are. The minute you apply this term to memory management.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL.3 . you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. MMURTL V1. Look at Figure 5. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces. all the programs still use the same linear space. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system. as in virtual reality. and the hardware allows it.

No doubt. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is the idea. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. Note the advantages here. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. parallel linear spaces. the memory management hardware must support it. different data or code). Note also the disadvantages. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address.Figure 5. you will think of. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. The options here are almost mind boggling.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. Once again. memory is NOT flat. and implement some of your own. there are many possible variations. yet. A way around this to use a shared memory area. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. In Figure 5.4 . In order to allow multiple. MMURTL V1. Unlike Paged Flat Memory.

Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. Likewise. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. and the popular Zilog Z80). MMURTL V1.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. They are not limited to 64K. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. so I won't go into further detail. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. we had some pretty limited address spaces. and you need to understand the implications. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. The LRU schemes have many variations. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. The most common.. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. However. They allowed multiple sequential. one for code and several for data access. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. 20 to be exact. They used something called a segment register. 80186. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. This is a very handy feature. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. it is usually termed as "dirty. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. In fact. This was actually several registers. When you use a selector.g. or even an 8-bit one. When the 80286 came on the scene. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. OS/2 or Windows). When a page has been written to. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). It's just what it sounds like. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. they needed to identify and manage those segments. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. To make this work. and generally the most efficient. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. When this was a 16-bit world. What they came up with is called Segmentation. 8088. This means you can save the time rewriting it. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). and 80286). and still reference it as if it were at offset zero." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. All of the Intel products are very well documented.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS .

In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. You make the rules. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. Other factors include how much memory you have. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it.With a 32-bit system. Remember. This can be a real hassle. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. and Handling protection violations. the type of applications you cater to. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. you ARE the operating system. Allocating memory for applications. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. They are “linked lists” and “tables. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. if your hardware supports it. If you do. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. it usually takes the whole system down. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. But in many systems. This way. one person). you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. Tracking client linear memory allocations. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. when one application crashes. and it will be based on many factors. How you store the links in this list can vary. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. each block holds its own link. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. which will be defined by the paging hardware. but not in the order I listed them. I'll discuss each of these things. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. With this scheme. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. I learned this the hard way. Allocating memory to load applications and services. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. I will give you a good idea what it's like. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. MMURTL V1. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . You'll have to make a decision. when one application crashes. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model.” Before you decide which method to use.

you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. pMemInUse. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. MMURTL V1.16. pMemInUse. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. I haven't disassembled their code. You now have an idea where they went. pMemInUse. Of course. No next link yet.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. pFree. } When a client asks for memory. In the following simple linked list scheme.owner = 0. pFree and pMemInUse. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. you would set up the two base link structures.size = 0.pNext until pLink. pLink->pNext = 0. which means you can't honor the request.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. These are the first links in your list. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. you must remember that pLink. long owner.pNext = 0. }. char *pPrev. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated).pPrev = 0. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic.size is large enough. pMemInUse. For my description.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. or you reach a link where pNext is null. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS .pNext = 0x100000. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. This is done by following pLink.owner = 0. In the process of memory management initialization. struct MemLinkType pFree. /* " " */ long Client = 0. pFree. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . struct MemLinkType *pLink. pLink->owner = 0. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). pFree. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. This is another topic entirely. but I'll touch on it some. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink.pPrev = 0. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data.size = 0.

} /* Sorry . pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. it WILL get fragmented. The function returns the address of the new memory. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. Granted. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. If you use this code. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. pNewLink->owner = 0. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request..pNext. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. pLink->size = WantSize. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. WantSize is the size the client has requested. pNewLink->size = pLink->size .pNext = &pLink. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. Client is the owner of the new block. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS .The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. And believe me. The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client.WantSize .. } } return(0).16. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16).

But you can't depend on this. change its owner. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. This makes the most sense to me. /* scan till we find out where we go. This provides instant cleanup.16. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. and you insert it there. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between.deallocate. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order.pNext. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. You have the linear address. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. In other words. depending on the order of deallocation. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. This will add time to deallocation routines. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. validate the link. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. There are several thoughts on cleanup. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. then move it to the pFree list. but cleanup will be a snap. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. which returns memory to the free pool. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. or you can do it all after the fact. This will be useful in the following routine. This is where the fragmentation comes it.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. But we can't add our size to pFree. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . if at all possible. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted.

/* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. */ /* In this case. pNewLink->owner = 0.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). we couldn't be combined with the previous. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. you can decide how you want them setup. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. MMURTL V1.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. you will have two memory spaces to track. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. It should give you a great number of ideas. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . return(0). you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. } } /* If we got here. In the case of the paging hardware. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. The two must be synchronized. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. there are physical pages assigned to it. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. You can expand on them if needed. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. If you don't use the paging hardware. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry.

demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. it will generally be in a block of addresses. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. you will have independent tables for each application. “the Hardware Interface. For instance. “OS Initialization. you will have to move it all. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. MMURTL V1. and you should take that into consideration. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. You must consider where the operating system loads. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. If your processor gives you these types of options. From there. trap. Wherever you load it. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. But it's up to you. add the translations you need and are already using. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. In some cases. and turn on the paging hardware.When you work with paging hardware. You will be allocated these up front. it becomes allocated memory right away. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. If you use paging. This can get complicated. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space.” but once the operating system is loaded. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. You must set up tables. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. Batteries fail. It will be the page’s size. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6.

MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. This was too complicated for me. This could change in future versions. but nice to have. and one data segment for all programs and applications. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. the concept of program segments is an old one. the initialized data segment. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. For instance. It can be very complicated to use on any system. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. I wanted only one program memory model. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. set them all to one value and forget them. If you are familiar with segmented programming. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. This greatly simplifies every program we write. but it serves my purposes quite well without it.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. and even larger with demand page memory. but in a very limited fashion. I use almost no segmentation. and one or more code segments. If you have no desire to use them. and I even use the Intel segment registers. Compact. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. 32-bit offset). The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. The operating system code segment is 08h. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. The user code segment is 18h. Medium. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. Large. the application code segment. uninitialized data segment. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. Small. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. and many others.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . but will have no effect on applications. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. The common data segment is 10h. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. you know that with MS-DOS.

which can have 1024 entries. Because of this. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. Sure. is that you really do need most of this capability. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. it has code and data and a task or two. The operating system itself is technically not a job. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE).1. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. MMURTL V1. and each application the same thing. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes." huh?). The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed.967. Every Job gets its own PD. but it’s close.memory. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. Each PTE is four bytes long. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. For instance. its not magic. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). Each PDE is also four bytes long. If you get our calculator out. the kernel . Right? Wrong. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). No.294.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. but most of the operating system code – specifically.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. What you don't see. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space.runs in the task of the job that called it. If you want just a few bytes. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. Besides. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). because I haven't explained it yet. but you need it in pieces. Each of the PDEs points to a PT.

The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). but it wasn't needed. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. Sure. I wanted to keep the overhead down. Likewise. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. Besides. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. Read on and see what I did. However. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . Of course. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. in a word. If you remember. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. Sounds like a lot of work. Code. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. 20. In the scheme of things. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. the secret is out. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. But it was for a good cause (No. possibly several for each application. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. I could have built a separate table and managed it. yes. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. When I started the application. but it does this with very little overhead. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT.1 . then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. MMURTL V1. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. certainly less overhead than this explanation). Now that it knows where the PD is. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. and it needs it fast. Now it's got the PTE. This is fine for one address per job. but when you start talking 10. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD.Table 5. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. Well. I didn't give it to the Red Cross).

768 769 . all the shadow entries are marked not present. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors. Table 5.. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum). 256 257 . all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind.. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. If I decided to do it. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. 512 513 . but you get the idea. AllocOSPage(). MMURTL V1. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. AllocPage(). This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want.. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL.1. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. As shown. This is 0 to 1Gb. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes).. If I desired.. in Table 5.. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. That would really be a waste. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized.. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. it would be transparent to applications anyway. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write.. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 .2.0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . in fact. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary.

If the physical memory exists. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). but the memory will not be available for later use. and data. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). which is also my sister's name. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. With a 1Gb address space.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. only that number will be deallocated. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. but only from this caller's memory space. there will be no error. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. you allocate physical memory from the top down. initial stack. Now comes that easy part . the caller passes in a linear address. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. The caller will never know. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). nor do you even care. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). Device drivers. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. If so. It does not tell you whom they belong to. and whether or not it's currently in use. It's loaded into these initial pages. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). but no stack. it will create a new PT. along with the number of pages to deallocate. Each application (job) gets it own PD. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. They are simply new jobs. Device Drivers have code and data. and DLLs. or will return an error if it's not available. MMURTL V1. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. It is not important. nor should it try to find out.Managing physical memory. System Services. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. If it does. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. from a previous AllocPage() call. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS .

If it tries to deallocate them. and no stack. There is no new allocation of physical memory. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. the second job has access to other job's data. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). When an application requests a service. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. This will make more sense if you do. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. They are there to be used as shared code only. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. But this gets away from memory management. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . They have only code. you should do it before you read this section. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. but that's trivial (a few instructions). you'll have to tackle address aliasing. Of course. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. They share physical memory. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. an error will occur. no data. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. Instantly. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. With a page based system such as MMURTL. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. how could they be swapped?).

0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . When it's done its work. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. For MMURTL. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). it responds. use it. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. One or more PTs for the OS. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). How they see the interface is very important. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. MMURTL V1. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers.

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Chapter 6. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. As good as it sounds. The most common. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you.how it is accessed in memory. The two that are obvious are code size. there are drawbacks to this idea. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. and speed. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. to interoperability with other systems. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. aside from the instructions you give it. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. It executes your instructions. but that doesn't mean that you won't. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . But there's always more than meets the eye. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). or for specific timing requirements. and it simply runs. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. is the interrupt or trap. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. in theory. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. although I never thought so. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. however. and the most significant at the lowest. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). memory-to-memory DMA transfers. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. jumps where you tell it. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. Therefore. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. MMURTL V1. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. You provide a common. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system.

along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. Finally. such as those dealing with interrupts. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. ISA. address. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. just to name a few. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. The second is the address bus. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. Quite honestly. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. and most useful. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). MMURTL V1. I read many books about my target processor. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. in that case. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. The most common is the relatively low-speed. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). EISA. I've tried both methods. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. and especially the interface bus. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. but I found the most valuable. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. Multibus. On smaller systems. no matter which device you must code. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. The interface bus may not carry all of the data.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. This is handy. There are many extensions to this bus . the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. internal bus. PCI. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . For instance. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. or ISA Bus. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. This is called the main bus. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few.some proposed. On the PC-ISA platforms. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. The first set is the data bus. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. or CPU bus. and some that are available now. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. They are actually very forgiving devices. but in some of the processor documentation.

0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . Another way is programmed I/O.g. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). In fact. and tape drives. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. Parallel buses can move data faster. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. or network card). simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. but is really a device connected to the bus. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system.Less commonly found. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). the infamous Centronics interface). but still very important. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done.25 (an international link and network layer standard). The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. or HDLC. MMURTL V1. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. They have no way. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. They work with frames or packets of data.. in many cases. Unlike UART devices. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. network frame handlers. and on some systems. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. to name a few. except for the hardware clock timing. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. or even memory to memory. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. SDLC. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. Quite often. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. Therefore. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte.

This consumes the least amount of your address space.. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. Quite often.On many systems. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. However. and MMURTL V1. or Unicode. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). In character-based systems. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. If this is the case. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. All the output would be via a serial port. On the PC-ISA platform. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. Video Like the keyboard. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. this video memory will contain character codes (e. In most cases. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. is worth more than I can indicate to you. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. In fact. This requires an interrupt service routine. If you want 16 colors for each bit. This could consume a vast amount of memory.g. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. This is known as planar pixel access. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished.500 bytes of memory space. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. but you must realize the importance of this device. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. this only consumes 4000 bytes. On an 80-column-by-25-line display. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. Each bit array is on its own plane.

I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. I was interested in character-based.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. this would be 16 planes at 37.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. and to query the status of the move. That equates to 600. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. In some cases. The code for these two calls is shown below. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). Your requirements will more than likely be different. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. have to research hardware cursor control. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. you'll have no problems. For a 256-color system. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. and timing when you write to the video display area. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. This includes cursor positioning.g. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. MMURTL V1. I did. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware.allow you to switch between them. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. This is known as packed pixel access. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. and your tasking model.000 bytes. however. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. interprocess communications. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. Chapter 26. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. “Video Code. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. I took this into consideration also. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. except maybe an embedded system board. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system).. In many cases. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. multiple. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. and GetDMACount(). non-overlapping video users.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). “Memory Management.

Ch 3 Address . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .Read/Write DMA Rq Register . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .DATA .Ch 0 Word Count . With word. Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch . There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h . DMA moves (channels 5-7).Read Command/Write Single bit mask . DACK1 (etc.Ch 1 Address . but the standard include file MOSEDF. the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA. There really is no data segment for DMA.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h .Ch 0 Address . . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware.Read Status/Write Command .INC .========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .DMA DACK0 Page register . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.Read/Write Mode register . etc.0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .Ch 3 Word Count .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 2 Address . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.Ch 2 Word Count .INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller.INCLUDE MOSEDF.Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop . etc.Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .CODE With 8-bit DMA.DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h . while 23-17 are put in the page register.Ch 1 Word Count .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .) MMURTL V1. Optimize it as you please. This is called a cascaded device.

Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. . AL XOR AL.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . so they always specify byte count for the setup call. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment.CH 0 DMA 2 . 41h OUT DMA1Mode.6 and 7. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 .DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. If they do. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. even on word moves. . For channels 5. 04 . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. AL MOV AL. . PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. AL RETN . . AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. as you might assume). The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . . we do math) MMURTL V1. AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. . This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. Verify). AL OUT DMA1Clear. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. AL OUT DMA2Mode. .All commands set to default (0) . dChannel. AL XOR AL. AL OUT DMA2Clear. or 128K boundaries for a word move.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL MOV AL. AL OUT DMA2Mode. dType.Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. the segment is wrapped around. 40h DMA1Mode.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. . I do this for the caller.CH 0 DMA 1 . . .CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . AL AL. This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . 42h OUT DMA1Mode. sdMem. AL OUT DMA2Mode. AL XOR AL. Out. AL . . 0C0h DMA2Mode.

0 = Verify.1.0 Demand Mode. 1 = In (Write Mem).7) . Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. MOV EBP.0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 . PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP .Jump table for channel selection . 0C0h .2. BL DMA1Mode. AL EAX. Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. 6 . 00001000b . 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. dChannel (0. [EBP+12] . 2 Block. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. [EBP+28] DMA10Add. MOV EAX. 8 DMA10Add. OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. Yes CMP EAX. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX.. 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. dPhyMem . 2 = Out (Read memory) . OR with MODE . Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . MMURTL V1. dMode . 00000100b . [EBP+16] . (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . . AL EAX. ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. Lo byte address . 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. 1 Single Cycle. 00000000b AL. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . dType .3. 0 . dMode CMP EAX. get dType AND BL. . 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. [EBP+20] CMP EAX. AL DMA1FF. Put it in BL MOV EAX. OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL.5. Hi Byte .ESP . 3 Cascade . AL . AL AL.6. 04 . AL .

AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . OR with MODE . CH2 . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. AL EAX.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. 8 DMAPage0. 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. EAX DMAEnd . 8 DMA12Cnt. 8 DMA10Cnt. CH1 . Hi Byte . AL AL. AL EAX.0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . BL DMA1Mode. AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. Lo byte address . 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. 8 DMAPage1. EAX DMAEnd . Highest byte (to page register) . 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL DMA1FF. 00000001b AL. AL DMA1FF. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. sdMem . 8 DMAPage2. OR with MODE/TYPE . AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. 8 DMA11Add. 00000010b AL. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA12Add. AL . AL EAX. AL AL. 8 DMA11Cnt. AL AL. AL AL. channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . AL AL. AL EAX. dPhyMem . Highest byte (to page register) . [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Hi Byte . BL DMA1Mode. sdMem . Lo byte address . dPhyMem . [EBP+28] DMA11Add. AL EAX.

channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS .NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . 00000001b AL. EBX EAX. 8 DMA13Add. 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. AL AL. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . [EBP+28] DMA13Add. AL AL. BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. AL EAX. . 8 DMAPage3. 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. . 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. BL DMA1Mode. 8 DMA13Cnt. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . . 8 DMA21Add. 1 DMA21Add. AL DMA2FF. MMURTL V1. . EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. 00000011b AL. CH3 . 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. 15 DMAPage5. . 8 DMA21Cnt. . AL AL. AL EAX. Hi Byte . [EBP+24] EAX. 0FFFFh EAX. Lo byte address .XOR EAX. . EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. sdMem . [EBP+28] EBX. .0 AL. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL DMA1FF. EAX DMAEnd . Hi Byte . Highest byte (to page register) . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . EAX EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. AL EAX. CH1 on DMA 2 . OR with MODE . dPhyMem . AL AL. AL EAX. OR with MODE . AL EAX.

Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Highest byte (to page register) . 8 DMA23Add. 0FFFFh EAX. CH3 on DMA 2 . 00000011b AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA23Cnt. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Lo byte address . AL AL. AL DMA2FF. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. AL EAX. Rid of all but lower 16 . 8 DMA22Cnt. EBX EAX. sdMem . AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. 8 DMA22Add. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL AL. EAX EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Hi Byte . CH2 on DMA 2 . 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. 15 DMAPage6. AL AL.DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . AL EAX. 15 DMAPage6. dPhyMem . AL EAX. Rid of all but lower 16 . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . [EBP+24] EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . [EBP+28] EBX. 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . OR with MODE . AL EAX. EAX EAX. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . [EBP+28] EBX. 1 DMA23Add. AL DMA2FF. AL EAX. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm.0 AL. dPhyMem . sdMem . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL EAX. AL EAX. 1 DMA22Add. 00000010b AL. Hi Byte . Lo byte address . 0FFFFh EAX. BL DMA2Mode.EBP MMURTL V1. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . EBX EAX. OR with MODE . BL DMA2Mode. EAX . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. AL EAX. 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. EAX DMAEnd . AL AL. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ .

. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. the count will be returned. DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. In this case. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX.Return address for count . PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. you actually set the channel byte count 65.0 . the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. EBP+ 16 12 . . . DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX.. .1. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. no error from the floppy controller). 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. . 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX.POP EBP RETF 20 . . DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX.5.6.2. . . In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . pwCountRet) . dChannel (0. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. To move 64K. [EBP+16] MOV ESI. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX.g. GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified.3. . For channels 5 through 7.ESP MOV EAX. GetDMACount(dChannel. On some devices.Channel . 7 MMURTL V1. For channels 0 through 3. you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. this will be the number of words. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. . .7) . The count is number of WORDS-1 . . DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. this is bytes. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where . DMA23Cnt CMP EAX.535: . DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX.

Usually. Your job is to know how to program the PICU. No Error .DX MOV CL.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . The PICU takes care of this for you. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. . As you can imagine (or will have realized). A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. EAX MOV ESP. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. however.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. . ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP.DX MOV CH. The operating system may. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. In the process of an interrupt.JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. MMURTL V1. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt.AL IN AL. This is not very complicated. but it is critical that it's done correctly. Quite often. and read as required. many devices interrupt the processor. program. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. . One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. be responsible to program these dedicated timers. . these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. . This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. or at set intervals. . Internally. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly.No such channel! . which determines the interrupt interval. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. . or even hours in some cases. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. Therefore. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. CX XOR EAX. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR).0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . 20 bytes of junk to dump . Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer.

You will need the hardware manual for code examples.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

" that's exactly what I mean. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. In the PC world.Chapter 7. MMURTL V1. This is known as a multistage boot. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. then execute it. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. it executes from a reset state. we start with loading the operating system. I've done all your homework. For this reason. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program.at least not as a file from the file system. If you're using another platform. When I say "just enough code. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. To be honest. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. including hardware. and important structures. tasks. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. be organized with a file system. you'll have to do some research. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. more complicated. This device will. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. If this is true. The question is. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. This can be done in more than one step if required.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. memory. In this chapter. no doubt. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. and it's not exactly easy. the boot sector code may load another. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. then jumping to the first address of the sector. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. then go through each section of the basic initialization. In other words. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. where boot ROMs usually reside. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory.

1. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. 2. then executed the next instruction at the new address. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). 4. This was a double problem. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. then Drive C. then life is easy.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. 3. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. 5. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. and where you stored it. such as a whole track). 8. 7. 4. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. MMURTL V1. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. 7. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. Second. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. This was the case with my system. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. so you can begin execution. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). This lead to two relocation efforts. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). 5. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. Where your operating system will reside in memory. because they provide the BIOS. 6. In my case. 2. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . 6.. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. the hardware commands. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed.g. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. In an ISA system. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. First. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. which they store in a small work area in RAM. But it gets more complicated. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. such as a fixed track or cylinder. 8. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. 3.

nSectors/track .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) . . (worthless) .nFATs .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk. Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible . This contains additional information about the file system . .nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) .Sect/Cluster . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.BASE (Linear) .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.instructions.stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .nSect in FAT .media desc.The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing. Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) . IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h . There's no operating system here now. and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS . Examine the following code: . Why not? I do own it.LIMIT 768 slots .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .nBytes/Sector .nHeads . DS:CSEG. The boot sector code also .This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single .The .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors.nTotalSectors if > 32Mb .11 bytes for volume name . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it. (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' . The OS must .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.Resvd sectors .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk.386P directive is required because I use protected .disks.This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .Root Dir entries max .Drive boot sector came from .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .on this disk that the operating needs to know.Padding to make it 3 bytes .386P .

AX SI. 512 MOVSB . that I calculated after assembling it once. Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . MOV CX. vector location. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. AX SP. 8000h .Make DS correct again .9000h SS.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. Its pseudo jump . . at the beginning of this code CLI . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. .0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS .Segment for new location . some of the parameters to it from the boot sector. SI CX. AX MOV DS.Clear interrupts . 09000h ES. table so it can read the disk for us. 0078h . return address. Push the . DI AX.Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. MOV AX. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. AX MOV BX.. then "return" to it.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) .Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. nSectPerTrack .This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump .The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . 0Fh .This is done by finding out where it is and writing . AX DI. 7C0h DS. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX.Source segment .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX.Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: .Destination segment .Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . It works.

waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI. CX ..really IS the OS.Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot .The layout of the Disk is: .0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS . nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX. WORD PTR nHidden .Save in CX . AX . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. Hidden Sectors (optional) ..Required for Disk System Reset .so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be. MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX.on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in . MOV SI.Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot .logical sector order. nRsvdSect MOV CX.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file .What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . We need the space for other code. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated .Must set interrupts for BIOS to work . nOSSectors . AX MOV AL. now let's read some stuff!! . POP DS . OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars . Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) .Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. bBootDrive XOR AX. OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1.CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root . nBytesPerSect BX AX. cluster because the first 2 are unused).STI MOV DL.stage one of the a two stage loader should be).Bad boot goes here and displays a message then .Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) .0020h . but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist . FATS (1 or more) .Reset failed.The controller is reset. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX. ADC DX. .AX is at sector for cluster 0. MOV CX.to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or .

Read 13h .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH. BX .AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH.Sector to read DX. 6 .BX will be zeroed at top of loop . 06000h MOV ES. BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX. DX .Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL.512 bytes for segment .Wait for keystroke .Head to DH.Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI.Next Sector MMURTL V1. 1 .0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC . BX AX . CH . OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX.This is segment where we load the OS. nSectPerTrack SI . It's slow.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte. 20h ES. . Hi 2 bits to CL CL.Leaves Head in DL. before we move it down to 0000h .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads . DH .This is a single sector read loop . shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL. Drive to DL CX. 2 . Read a .AX 16h 19h .Number of sectors AH. ES BX. Cyl in AX DH. DL .Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI. AX has . .XOR INT INT AX.0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX. but works well. bBootDrive DL.I increment ES and leave BX 0 . AX . 0Eh MOV BX. BYTE PTR ResvdByte .Cyl into CX CL.OR with Sector number AL.

Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX.the OS down to address 0.DI CX.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.64h TEST AL. 06000h DS.CX IBEmm2: IN AL. BX SI.AX DI.WORD move . DX XOR SI.AL XOR CX. SI MMURTL V1. 8000h .1000h ES.64h TEST AL. SI AX. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.DI CX.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS . move . 07000h DS.CX IBEmm1: IN AL.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .LOOP NextSector .Now we disable interrupts. turn on the A20 line. DX MOVSW .0D1h OUT 64h.WORD move .AL XOR CX. SI AX. Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 .0DFh OUT 60h. BX SI. DX MOVSW .AX DI. . AX ES.0 .A20 line should be ON Now .64h TEST AL.So move the OS MOV DX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.

asm <Enter> This will make a .Load Processor GDT Pointer .CR0 OR AL. As you change and experiment with the boot sector. 0Ah.BX SS.DI CX.MS-DOS used this.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are . DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. 00h 0Dh.BX . EDX MOV DL. DX MOVSB .BX GS.Set up segment registers . and a map file from the link (Bootblok. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.BYTE move MOV BX. 9000h MOV DS.EXE header. BX XOR EDX.'.Clear prefetch queue with JMP . 10h DS. I left it in. The segment and code size escape .EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.lst).EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX.2000h ES. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX. 'Bad Boot Disk!'. 00h '.1 MOV CR0.BX ES.call JMP FAR 08h:10000h. 'Loading MMURTL'.map). The first 512 bytes is the . 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END .Set protected mode bit .by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump .BX FS. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok.AX DI.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .Control Register .0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS . you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code. 0Ah. It's worthless.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction. such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).Load Processor ITD Pointer .We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually .

you can use the Dump command to display it. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. C:\>Debug BootBlok.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command.bin in the root directory of drive C. After you have assembled your boot sector. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. They may do this as they format the disk.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . From the MS-DOS prompt. The results can be disastrous. logical sector number. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. This will show you a segmented address. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. or after the fact. To read the boot sector from a disk. then write it to the disk. Write. and Name commands.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. It's quite easy to do with the Load. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. Then copy the operating system image to the disk.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. Register. Keep in mind. To find where Debug loaded it. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. This is easy to do. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. and number of sectors following it. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. you should not do this to your active development drive.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. you can use Debug to load it as a . I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk.

I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. This includes setting up the OS stack. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. This single source file program (MMLoader. If so. “Initialization Code. They must simply be initialized to their default states. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. It does everything that the boot sector code does.c) to properly build it. With MMURTL. and basic timers . and loads the image into RAM then executes it. up to the point we jump the monitor program. the Direct Memory Access hardware. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. At this point. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. If it is in an executable format from a linker. I couldn't.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. Chapter 21. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format.00 loader. It is all contained in the source file Main.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. It is called MMLoader. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series).must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. All of the hardware that is resident in the system . “The Hardware Interface.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language.asm on CD-ROM.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. It should help give you a picture of what's required. understands. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. Good luck. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. Additionally. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. Hopefully. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79.” MMURTL V1. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). but it's not necessary. I have provided a utility called MakeImg.C:\> Copy OS. I'm happy.

Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. you've got your job cut out for you. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. The option is usually up to you. setting up for multitasking. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. While in real mode. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. you just learn to live with it. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. This leaves you with a few options . If you use one more bit. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. If you desire. “the Tasking Model. In all of the cases that were discussed. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. and also some basic variables. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. you can address above 1Mb. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. the A20 address line serves no purpose. MMURTL V1. Chapter 3. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. as well as one to switch to. It's not that big. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. is not trivial. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. For instance. I just left it alone. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. If you want to eliminate it. Being a little conservative. on the Intel processors.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). This depends on the platform. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. Either way. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide.

although some people may still have problems with it. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. and you can't manage or allocate it. some which didn't work on all machines.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design.My goal was not to discover why it existed. I tried several methods. The point is. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). Chapter 19. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. This seems to work on most machines. or any number of things. If your machine doesn't support this method. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. where the address match will occur. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. If you chose not to do this. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). back to the initialization (already in progress). MMURTL V1. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. The following list is not all-inclusive. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. but one I'm glad I didn't face. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. Meanwhile. otherwise. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. It's not that much of a headache. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). You don't know how much you have. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. At this stage of the initialization. or is at least loaded. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. “Memory Management Code. This piece of code may have a lot to do.

“API Specification. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. that on occasion. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. The call is made. public distribution. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. What could be easier? I can't imagine. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. and leave undocumented. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems.” shows you how I documented my calls. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. No kidding! With UNIX. an embedded system. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. UNIX was written with C. If this happens to me. In any and all of these cases. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. they do. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. In the following sections. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. If the parameters are on the stack. Quite often though. may be similar to another documented call on the system. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). what order are they in? If the stack is used. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. This may sound like a no-brainer. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. the function does its job and returns. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. because the call they add. Chapter 15. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. life was easy in this respect. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . or your own consumption and enjoyment. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. I found. I'm still not entirely happy with it.Chapter 8. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system.

Pascal . code size. However. This device is extremely hardware dependent. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it.. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. has three or four calling conventions. Second. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). Your opinion may vary on this. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. In other words. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. or at least every time it's rebuilt. faster. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. as if you couldn't guess). you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. some use both. It's up to you. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. Some use registers.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . When a high-level language has its own calling convention. There are two reasons this library may be required. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. OS/2. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. support several conventions. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. for example. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. especially when it comes to speed.g. I'm sure you know of several. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. some use the stack.junkies). A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. no doubt. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. the interrupt vector table). I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. Many systems use an intermediate library. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. but the stack is not used for parameters. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. First. and it required a fixed number of parameters. Execution speed. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. this is MMURTL V1. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system.

A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. However. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. For application source code portability." Yeah.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . For the operating system source. However. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. then execute the interrupt instruction. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. This may be a personal issue for me. If portability is near the top of your wish list. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. When you need to return data from the call. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. I really hope not. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. and the call gates are really not a problem. the hardware will be obsolete. MMURTL V1. right. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. the procedural interface is the key. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. The intermediate library would fill in this value. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed.

and Statusing the driver. You more than likely will. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. and this wasn't my original plan. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. that it's almost impossible to separate them. Do you see what I mean? Internally. Suddenly. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. If this is the case. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. timers. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. They work with the hardware. and certain memory-management functions. For instance. You need to consider these requirements in your design. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. I set out to design the simplest. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA.

This will give you a good place to start in your design. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. When you look at the code. . pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX. so I won't go over it here. In a multitasking system. The first call listed in this section. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. EAX MOV EAX. nDevices MMURTL V1. when one user is doing serial communications. dOpNum. ndBlocks. EBP+24 . pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs.ASM. . EBP+20 nDevices.ESP SUB ESP.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . . dLBA.0 . This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. pStatRet. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. “Systems Programming. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. InitDevDr(dDevNum. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. 16 MOV EAX. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. nDevices. This is a common requirement on many systems. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. pDCBs.InitDevDr(dDevNum. pInitData. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. . InitDevDr(). For example. .” I provide detail on the use of these calls. You'll see certain validity checks.Set up local vars .

Now check to see if device is already installed .pDCBx = 0 if not used yet .Yes .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array . rgpDCBs MOV EAX. OK to use .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX.into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX. prgDevs .All went OK so far.If we got here.EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. 2 .Next caller DCB . ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: . .Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs . ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .No .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX.Empty.dDevNum MMURTL V1. 2 ADD EBX. 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.nDevices . dDevX SHL EAX.error exit . we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX. dExchTmp .12 . 0 . [EBP+24] EAX.OK to replace existing driver? . and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX. EAX EBX. 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 .Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.Set nDev to number of devices again .NONE left .All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: .Decrement nDevices . 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . rgpDCBs EAX. 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12].dDevNum . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX].Not valid DCB number InitDev01: . [EBP+16] nDevs.is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.Next devnum . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. [EBP+20] .Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs. ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].Point EBX to rgpDCB .

Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. 0 . MOV EBX.0 . ErcBadDevNum . dExchTmp .also place Exchange into DCB. You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB.EAX points to first DCB . MOV EBP.Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. rgpDCBs MOV EBX. SHL EBX. [EBP+20] . PUSH EBP .Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX. nDevices . The other two calls. EAX and ECX are set up.Any more DCBs?? . EAX MOV EAX. 4 EAX. pInitData. EAX EBX. . MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch]. [EBP+20] MOV ECX.If the device driver was NOT reentrant . are almost identical to DeviceInit().ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: .ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX.EBX now points to correct pointer . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device.the first customer to use.Set up for no error . or reset it after a failure. -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. 0 JNZ InitDev06 .next DCB .ADD EBX. EBX . .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for .device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . . DeviceOp() and DeviceStat(). MOV EBX. sdInitData). 2 .Now that EBX.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . .ESP . ECX [EBX].next p in rgp of DCBs . . This is the same exchange . loop through each . EAX .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. and are not presented here. DeviceInit(dDevNum. EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 .DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it.for all devices that one driver controls. [EBP+20] . and .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . [EAX] . ADD EAX.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].

0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX . This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.Save ptr to DCB . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType].Get semaphore ticket .NO driver! . .Is there a physical device? DevInit02: .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 .Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .Ignore kernel error .YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP.save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Yes .Device IS reentrant . It you use assembly language and provide code examples. If not we . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.Push exchange number .0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .. ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd . MMURTL V1.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] . adding the procedural call examples is a good idea.JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.so we check to see if driver is reentrant. . 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.Get DCB ptr back .Bogus Message . .Ptr to message area . The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.save ptr to DCB . CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. 0 DevInit02 EAX.dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example. Send semaphore message to Exch .Get device error back .All looks good with device number .Push all params for call to DD . but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments..No.call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket. 0 .

” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. and a dword is also accessed at the same address. I think you will find it useful.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application. but alas. or a Procedure in Pascal. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. MS-DOS). This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . Terminology Throughout this section.1 .Chapter 9. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. Argument . If I were a perfectionist. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. Look at the table 9. “Interprocess Communications. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls.Same as Procedure.” and Chapter 5. usually passed on the stack.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1.1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. Byte . The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes).A Function in C or Pascal. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE. and DWORD. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word .A value passed to a function or procedure. though. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. WORD. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. Function . or a Procedure in Assembler. Before writing your first MMURTL program. It may even be entertaining.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter ..Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4.g. “Memory Management. Call . The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes).

while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. MMURTL V1. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. and are expanded to 32-bit values. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS .Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. Pascal. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. It may indicate an error. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. “API Specification.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. Some do not. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. not the real address of the SetXY function. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. and assembly language. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. erc. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. or simply convey information that may. even the assembler or processor itself. or dError. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. This will be done by the compiler. In some C compilers. But the address is really a call gate. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. and in some cases. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. All parameters are pushed from left to right.

What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. you should deallocate it. If you need a 2Mb array. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0).” and Chapter 4. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. She may pick up your dirty socks. “The Tasking Model. Chapter 3.. In fact. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. MMURTL is a Paged memory system. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). you allocate it.2: Table 9. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS ...Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. MMURTL V1. “Interprocess Communications. malloc() in C). . MMURTL is kind of like your mother. There are no far data pointers. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space... . The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like.. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system.g. you simply allocate it. but she would much rather that you did it. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. When you are done with it. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers..Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . The operating system resides at address 0.” describe this in great detail.2 .. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9.. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller.

MMURTL does NOT. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). You allocate 5 pages. cbData2. dData1. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. dRespExch. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. SendMsg (dExch. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. This means that in a multitasking environment. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. Now you allocate 4 pages. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. This is not a problem. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. npSend. protect programmers from themselves. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. The operating system Code. dData0. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. pData1. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. however. However. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. cbData1.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). so long as you know it can't be addressed. dMsg1. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. pData2. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). or you will need to know of one you send messages to. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. pRqHndlRet. Of course. Data. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. Address 40100000h is returned to you.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. wSvcCode. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages.

Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). For instance. If you do. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. only your program will be trashed. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. but you don't want that either. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting.LString */ MMURTL V1. Other than that. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. MMURTL is not a mind reader. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. This eats all of your link blocks. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. Messaging is very powerful. and user interaction. printing. Prior to calling SpawnTask().Normally. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. char sbJobName[14]. The pointer is read-only. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). such as data communications. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . you need to know your job number. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. /* User Name .

long VidMode. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. char fCursType. For most applications. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet.LString */ std output . pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. char JcbCmdLine[80]. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. char JcbExitRF[80].” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. Chapter 13. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. char fCursOn. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. long nCols. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. “Keyboard Service. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. char fVidPause. To change data in the JCB. char *pVirtVid. long nLines. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. long CrntX. long NormVid. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). MMURTL V1. }. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. unsigned char ScrlCnt. char JcbSysOut[50]. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. The keyboard interface is a system service. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. char JcbSysIn[50]. pPathRet. long ExitError. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line .LString */ std input . dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls.char sbPath[70]. long CrntY. long NextJCB. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. editing. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. char *pVidMem. and special keys. with unused portions padded.

Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1.3 . x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79.4 . 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. and cursor positioning. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. the high nibble is the background. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs.4. Background colors describe the attributes.4096 bytes). and low nibble is the foreground.Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. In this byte. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes). PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors.3. is the intensity bit. and Blink if desired to form a single value. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. Foreground colors. Table 9. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. character placement. The high bit of each. Tables 9. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). Background. and 9. logically OR the Foreground.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . only the least significant byte is used. The colors for TTYOut().

This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. or system calls. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. BGBLUE|WHITE). and other things allocated while you were running.". Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. MMURTL has to hunt for them. 17.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. Remember. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. 0. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. If no file is specified. MMURTL V1. This includes any memory. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. exchanges. This is done by calling the Chain() function. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. "This is a test. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't.

if required. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. if needed. as well as for other services. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. Wait for messages. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. or provide services to application programs. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. Additional tasks if required. and memory management operations. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. such as: Additional memory. and Assembly language programmers. MMURTL V1. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers.Chapter 10. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. Service names are casesensitive.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. It's not very useful. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. service them. Pascal. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. then Respond. Client programs make a Request. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. Additional exchanges. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). the service does the processing and Responds. use messaging.

char npSend. Message[2]. }. ErrorToUser. int ServiceCode. else if (pRqBlk. long dData2. long RqOwnerJob. long RQBRsvd3. long ServiceRoute. char *pRqHndlRet. long RQBRsvd2. MainExch. long RQBRsvd1. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. long cbData2.1. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. long cbData1. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk.pData1 = NextNumber++.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. char *pData2. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. MainExch).0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . long RespExch. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). char npRecv. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError).Listing 10. long dData1. long dData0. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. Message). OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". char *pData1. NextNumber = 0.

As a system service. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. This is called the service code. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. For all other values of the service code. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. the service only defines one service code that it handles. in the File System. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. For example. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. The complexity of your service. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. The operating MMURTL V1. and dData2. For larger data movement to the service. In the simple example above. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. cbData1 and cbData2. These items are dData0. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated.The Request Block As you can see. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. dData1. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. This is the number 1 (one). This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. you define the data items you need. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). and how much information a program must pass to you. another CloseFile. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. or any data movement back to the caller. and another RenameFile. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. The memory address of the Request Block. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. and what service you provide. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. when you receive a Request. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. because the operating system does not alias them as such. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. In fact. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. As a system service writer. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. They are 32-bit values. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. one number represents OpenFile.

This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. which is a valuable system resource. If this happens. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. and moves it to another exchange. Synchronous services wait. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. MMURTL is built in layers.system is “aware” of this. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. When you write system services. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. receive a request. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. cbData1 and pData2. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. This is the easiest way to handle requests. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . tape drives. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. In the keyboard service. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. If so. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. Disk drives. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. you must respond to it immediately. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. However. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. If so. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. but carries it one step farther. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. MMURTL uses this concept. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. In each of these cases. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. before responding to any other requests you are holding. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. communications ports (serial and parallel). While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. cbData2. until you respond. RAM disks. the file may not exist. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. then respond before waiting for the next request. The first is the request block handle.

Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. or a processor protection violation will occur. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk.g. MMURTL V1.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. Things like Device name. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. to handling complex devices such as hard drives. basic video. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. keyboard. This means message. multi-threaded environment. C and Pascal). Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. Block Size. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). as well as where the data is on the device. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. multitasking. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. RAM DISK). Sequential devices are things like communications ports. If a device driver controls more than one device. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code.. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. or is included in the OS code at build time. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). I have made it rather painless to build fast. the file system is at user level (3). The interface is non-specific. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). For example. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. With InitDevDr(). or any OS structures. SCSI ports. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. network link layer devices).. keyboard. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. hard disk. It does not directly access hardware.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. timer hardware. interrupt vectors.e.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed.g. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system.and sequential-oriented. powerful. or network frame handlers (i. the PICUs. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device.

How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. Set up interrupt service routines. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. The main entry point will never be called again. InitDevDr() never returns to you. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. like any application in MMURTL. or in Pascal. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). The device driver looks. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. You can name them anything you want in your program. This layer of code performs several functions for you. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. if needed. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. just like any other program. Allocate exchanges.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . The generic steps are described below. Call InitDevDr(). MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. At this point. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. In C this would be main(). Do anything else you need before being called. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. Check or set up the device’s. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. and is programmed. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. if required. it's the main program block. if needed. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly.

and size of a DMA move. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. Timer Facilities Quite often. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. mode. This is often called an interrupt vector. device drivers are very close to the hardware. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp().”API Specification. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb).0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . In other operating systems. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. especially if the driver controls two devices. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. Two calls provide these functions. direction. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. MMURTL uses paged memory. although it’s not a requirement. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. If you use MMURTL V1. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. or how much was transferred. specifically DOS.

IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). or assembler to construct the DCB.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. If you use SendMsg(). You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. and KillAlarm() functions. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. Table 10. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. Table 10. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS .1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB.Alarm(). A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. Alarm(). so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. or you only need to send one message from the ISR.) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. you can use SendMsg(). If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task.1-. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. a structure in C. Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. and how to implement them in your code. but easy to figure out. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified.

Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. If the device is sequential. If it is another device. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). fDevReent . sector zero.number of bytes per block. sbDevName . but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). MMURTL V1.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. usually an unexpected one. where several devices are controlled though one access point. pDevInit. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . The Hard disk driver operates the same way. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. and you read one sector past the end of that track. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. znBPB .This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. This reduces disk arm movement which. not the next track. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). this is device dependent. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. In other words. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use.When a driver encounters an error. For devices that are not re-entrant. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. In assembler. ndDevBlocks . Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. increases throughput. For example. Each sector is considered a block. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. RETN is the proper instruction.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . DevType . we then move to the next head. but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . but this is not much of a limitation. Disk drives are divided into sectors. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. Each device name must be unique. dLastDevErc . then this should contain a 2. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). head zero.This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. For instance. if you are on track zero. the SendMsg(). If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. and WaitMsg() primitives. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks).Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address).Each driver names the device it serves. and handle device conflicts internally. pDevOp. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name.this indicates whether the device is addressable. defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() .

The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. verify. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. Your function implementations must do the same. They equate to standard device operations such as read. If this is zero.2. dOpNum. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored.dnBlocks. write. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller.If the fSingleUser is true. this flag should be true (non-zero).pData).6 . The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset.5.3. and format. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device.4. dLBA.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time. ndBlocks. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. wJob . pStatRet. pInitData. no job is currently assigned the device. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1.dLBA. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice.dOpNum. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.fSingleUser .These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. OSUseONLY1. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32).

dInitData). parity. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Not all devices will return status on demand. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. this will simply be the number of bytes. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. and so on. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice.pInitData.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe.pStatRet.dStatusMax. For sequential devices.pdStatusRet). In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status.

pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. After the Device driver has been loaded. This is because one controller. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. MMURTL V1. and so on. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. If more than one device is controlled. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. nDevices. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. This means the devices are number consecutively. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. and one DMA channel if applicable. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If this is not the case. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. such as a disk or SCSI controller. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. pDCBs. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. If the driver controls more than one device. the second at pDCBs + 128. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. fReplace If true. this is the first number of the devices. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system.

then use it.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed.

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. (e. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. Listing 11.INITIAL. Listing 11. The format is very simple. If it's displaying video data. If you intend to write an operating system. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. Any spaces. tabs or comments after . The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. the job he is currently viewing. When the user presses these global keys. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name. C:\MSamples\Service\Service. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up.Maximum line length is 80 characters total.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon . it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication. In future versions of MMURTL.file name including path. is assigned to the new job or is terminated. The file name must contain the FULL . or terminate. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. The name must start in the first column of a line. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded.RUN) .0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL.This is the initial jobs file.JOB . Even when a Job is not being displayed. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs.to the run file.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. Sample Initial.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . the keyboard. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file.RUN <---. a buffer in memory.Chapter 11. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want.Job file . The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. Drive:\DIR\NAME. . as well as the video display. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1.1 shows a sample INITIAL. No spaces. One run file name per line.1.after each entry. . .system boot in this file. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen.JOB file.the run file name are ignored.run C:\MMSYS\CLI. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line.g. No parameters are passed .JOB.

user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. and access to the built-in debugger. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. Task switches total .End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. MMURTL V1. Once the initialization is complete. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor.RUN. and the parallel port (LPT) driver. RS-232 serial communications. priority task.1. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. job display. any errors returned are displayed. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 11. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. Table 11. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system.. They are displayed as typed.1. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code.This is the total count of task switches since boot up. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations).1 describes the function of each assigned key. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. During this process.

Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.2. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. that don't get picked up right away.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "MTimer.CPU idle ticks (no work) .This is the number of free job control blocks left. Free Task State Segments . Free Exchanges .This is the number of tasks currently queued to run. including requests. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks. MMURTL V1. Tasks Ready to Run . but the count is fixed at OS build time.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ". you will see the preemptive task switch count increase. but have a fixed count at OS build time. even in the same job.h" "MData.h" "MVid.h" "MKbd. If this number is greater than zero. the C library code can be used. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time.h" "MFiles.h" "MMemory. Free Job Control Blocks . This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. This number may seem a little high. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel. I include no C library code in the operating system itself.h" "MJob.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated.These are task-management structures. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated. Free Link Blocks .A small structure used by all messages sent and received.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do.h" "MDevDrv. Each job uses one. the request block is returned for re-use. Each new task uses one of these.2. See listing 11. There were no tasks ready to run. Listing 11. Response is made by the service.

U32 BlocksMax.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. U8 fNewMedia.Message based. MngrHndl. fIntOnReset.static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". static unsigned long GPHndl. LastStatByte0. static long time. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. fKilled. tick. MUltitasking. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". LastErcByte1. All Rights Reserved". /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. unsigned long KillExch. KillJobNum. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. MngrExch. 1990-1995. LastSeekErc0. Real-Time kerneL". /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. Burgess. U8 type_now. LastErcByte0. LastSeekErc1. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". static unsigned long GP1Exch. LastRecalErc1. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. KillError. gcode. date. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2].A. MngrMsg[2]. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. U32 blocks_done. LastStatByte1. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors.

nSlices. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. nJCBLeft.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . fdisk_setup(void). nTSSLeft. nRQBLeft. static long StatStack[256]. hdisk_setup(void). ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. char *pJCBRet). nSwitches. nHalts. extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). U32 resvd1[2]. char *ppJCBRet). nLBLeft. /* out to 64 bytes */ }. coms_setup(void).c */ RS232. static unsigned long nMemPages.asm */ Floppy. xsprintf.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. nEXCHLeft. lpt_setup(void). /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB.c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. #asm MMURTL V1. BootDrive.c */ Parallel. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. nReady.c */ HardIDE.c */ Fsys.U8 ResetStatByte. InitFS(void). /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf.

0 JL isdigit0 . zero. ptr = &numstk[32]. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . #asm XOR EAX.0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. chr = *fmt++. 30h . value. i. char *fmt. EAX MOV ESI. zero = ' '.MOV EAX.No CMP AL. total = 0.[EBP+8] CMP AL. long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. *ptr. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. chr. JLE isdigit1 . *ptr = justify = minus = 0. 39h . width = value = i = 0.EAX .Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. unsigned long width.[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. justify. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. minus. total.

case 's' : ptr = value. ++argptr. } while(value /= i).width = (width * 10) + (chr . switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. case 'c' : *--ptr = value. } value = *--argptr. break.'0'). break.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . default: *--ptr = chr. case 'b' : i = 2. if(width) --width. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. ++minus. } case 'u' : i = 10. *--ptr = chr. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. chr = *fmt++. break. break. break. case 'o' : i = 8. ++total. break.

} /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. strlen(buffer). ++i. fmt. TTYOut(buffer.1. } /* move in data */ i = 0.) { va_list ap. fmt). ++total. ++i.. long total. } /************************************ MMURTL V1. char buffer[S_SIZE]. fmt). va_start(ap.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). va_end(ap.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. ++total. . Color).. ++total. } } *outptr = 0. return total. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. value = width . ap). i < width. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. return total. ++total. } } } else { /* not format char. just move into string *outptr++ = chr.

26.0. 26. 24. va_end(ap. MMURTL V1. SetXY(0. rgMonMenu3.) { va_list ap. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. Exch. ap).Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s.1). } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. fmt). return. return total. fmt.1). fmt). 24. iLine.. BLUE|BGWHITE).. 80. i. rgMonMenu2. . &iLine). } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. PutVidChars(0. rgMonMenu1. GetXY(&iCol. Msg[2]. long total. va_start(ap. SetXY(0.22). rgStatLine. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). BLUE|BGWHITE). PutVidChars(27. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. char *fmt. PutVidChars(0. BLUE|BGWHITE). PutVidChars(54. tick).1.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor.23. 24. total = _ffmt(s. 25. "%d". When it gets one. it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. WHITE|BGBLUE).80.

0. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. 0x0f). for(.5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). 80.U8 *pPD. *pVid. PutVidChars(0. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].. Error: %d\r\n".5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). "%d".*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. (time & 0x0f).50). xprintf("Job number %d terminated.0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . tick). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). WHITE|BGBLUE). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). tick). /* Day */ 0x0f). The message has Error. /* sleep 0. 80. if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate.0. Tone(440. KillMsg). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. WHITE|BGBLUE). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. rgStatLine. GetTimerTick(&tick). /* year */ 0x0f). rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). Sleep(50). /* month */ 0x0f).. /* sleep 0. Sleep(50). PutVidChars(0. 0x0f). &pJCB). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). TSSExch in it. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. KillError). KillJobNum.. "%d". ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). rgStatLine. rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). CheckScreen().

. /* We're done (and so is he. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. char *pJCB. 1). It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key.. Exch. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). 0. Msg). */ DeAllocPage(pPD. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). 1. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. j.. erc = Request("KEYBOARD".0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. 0. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). DeAllocPage(pVid. Also.. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). if the debugger has the video. 0. 2). &i. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. &gcode. 0. fKilled = 1. MngrExch. 0. /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD".) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. 4. 0). fDone. DeAllocJCB(pJCB). 2.GetVidOwner(&i). &MngrHndl. i. 0. 0. We don't actually switch jobs.

0). 0. 0. while (!fDone) { i++. else if (i>34) i = 1. i. 0. #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. 0. &MngrHndl. &pJCB). erc = GetpJCB(i. 0. i = j. &gcode. 0. 4. 0. 0.. 2. if (i==2) i = 3. 0.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0). 0. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). 0. } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. fDone = 0. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 0. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. MngrMsg). if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it.4. MngrExch. &MngrHndl. MngrExch. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j).0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. erc = KillJob(j). } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). 4. for(. MngrMsg). 0. 0. 0). erc = Request("KEYBOARD".

} . 20). i.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. cbrunfile. fcli. sjobfile. 1=B.64h TEST AL. job. sjobfile. #asm CLI MOV ECX. fh. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL.check port up to 64K times . 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL.Read Status Byte into AL .Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file.AL STI #endasm return. fcli = 0.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. char arunfile[80]. char ajobfile[50]. 2=C etc. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. 0. do MMURTL V1.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . while (!fdone) { i = 0. job = 0.return.0FEh OUT 64h. char fdone. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. /* 0=A. 1. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { .run and the last job loaded. unsigned char sdisk. &ajobfile[1]. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. sdisk &= 0x7F. sdisk += 0x41.first we clear interrupts . &fh).JOB\0". j.

0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.') continue. } } } else fdone = 1. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc = 0. CheckScreen(). 0. xprintf("Loading: %s. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. assign the keyboard and video to it.run". erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. &GP1Hndl. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. job). 4. CheckScreen(). if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n".. } CloseFile(fh). } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". cbrunfile. CheckScreen().. 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. &j). "cli. 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. &job). 1. &arunfile[i++]. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). arunfile). job = 0. Sleep(50). GP1Exch. else fcli = 0. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). erc).\r\n".{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. Sleep(50).

j. iCol. job. 2=C etc. 0. ccode1. 0). 0. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. 0. job). acli[40]. &job).JOB file not found in system directory.. */ acli[0] = sdisk. job. GP1Msg). 16). GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). 0. unsigned char sdisk. GP1Exch. Sleep(50). if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". sdisk &= 0x7F. } return erc. strlen(acli). CheckScreen().0. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. 1=B.0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . InitScreen(). unsigned long ccode. /* 0=A. k.\r\n"). job. sdisk += 0x41. 0. char text[70]. CheckScreen(). 0. xprintf("Loading: %s. 4. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. &GP1Hndl. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. GP1Msg). MMURTL V1. 0..RUN\0". if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. &acli[1]. 0). } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. 0.". *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. i. SetVidOwner(job). acli). } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. 0. iLine. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc = LoadNewJob(acli. unsigned char c. 0.

/* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1.Burgess. erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch)..Message based. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. erc). 1 ). erc = hdisk_setup(). c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). erc). erc). Error: ").Tone(250.0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc). xprintf("%d\r\n". c).A. erc = InitKBDService(). erc). Tone(1000. Error: ")... xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . 24. Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. i). if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). erc). xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). xprintf("Copyright (c) R. erc). erc = coms_setup(). xprintf("Init floppy device driver. erc). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". erc = fdisk_setup(). erc). erc = lpt_setup().. i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". &StatStack[255]. MUltitasking. xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". 0. erc). xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". i). i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. xprintf("Init hard disk device driver.15).33).

) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. 1. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1].. &MngrStack[255]. SetXY(k+10. c = ccode & 0xff. erc). /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask...j). pJCB->JobNum). 0. 10. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n".\r\n"). 4. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. &pJCB). */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". Tell it to wait for a key. case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen(). 0. i<nMaxJCBs. if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". erc). /* Col offset */ for (i=1. */ LoadJobFile(). 1 ).j). erc = GetpJCB(i. xprintf("File System..xprintf("Initializing file system. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. GPMsg). for (. break. 0. erc = InitFS(). /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). Error: %d\r\n". text). /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. j = 2.. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". /* Line */ k = 0. j++. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40. if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". MMURTL V1. text. &GPHndl. 1. erc). erc). xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". 0.0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . 13). 0. &ccode. 0). /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. GPExch.

xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". nEXCHLeft). GREEN|BGBLACK). case 0x12: /* F4 . erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages).. 1. PutVidChars(29. 1. PutVidChars(29. 1. break. default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. PutVidChars(29. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. break.Cancelled\r\n"). 1. nRQBLeft). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). nTSSLeft). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". break. 1. "/". xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1.future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. GREEN|BGBLACK). nHalts). } SetXY(0. 1. 1. xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". Sleep(9). Sleep(9). xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". \r\n").1).} } break. xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". Sleep(12). 1. 1. case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). 1.1). nReady). nSwitches). PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK). PutVidChars(29. case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0.0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(12). SetXY(0. Sleep(9).. "/". xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. "|". 1. 1. any other key to cancel"). 1. 1). "\\". nJCBLeft). Sleep(9). 1. "\\". erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. PutVidChars(29. "-". xprintf ("\r\n").. nLBLeft). GREEN|BGBLACK). case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). Sleep(9). GREEN|BGBLACK). PutVidChars(29. 1. xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n".. "|". 1.12).loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). nMemPages). 1. nSlices). "-". GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(9). GREEN|BGBLACK). " ". 1. if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). xprintf(".

TTYOut (CRLF. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1.1). WHITE|BGBLACK). 2. WHITE|BGBLACK).22). } } GetXY(&iCol.1. else TTYOut (&c. SetXY(0.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS . &iLine).80. 1.23. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.

.

or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. It is not a separate run file. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 12. and a red banner is displayed. along with the exception number that caused it. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. function keys are across the bottom. non-symbolic debugger. will clear the screen for display. When this occurs. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. and why. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). Certain debugger display functions. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. MMURTL V1. the debugger is an assembly language. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. such as dumping data. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. the debugger is entered. If the debugger was entered on a fault. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction.

F3 ClrBP . the address of the task's JCB. “Application Programming. This requests a linear address. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. F5 Exch . This is an array of 512-byte structures. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange.Address Information. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint.Ready Queue. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array.Dump Bytes. This becomes the active address.Global Descriptor Table. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. without executing them. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging.Request Block Array. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. This clears the single breakpoint. The address is displayed on the left.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. the address of the TSS. that will be somewhere in this array. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. F9 DumpB . The task number. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. F4 CS:EIP . low order).Display Tasks. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development.Set Breakpoint.Clear Breakpoint.First TSS.Interrupt Descriptor Table.Dump Dwords.Display Exchanges. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address.Change Current Address. These values are hard coded at system build. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. This requests a linear address. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. F12 AddInfo . JCBs . F10 . with the down arrow key. You may move down through the instructions. The GDT contains many items. This is the address of the Monitor TSS. a linear address.Goto CS:EIP. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction.Services Array. F8 CrntAdd . RQBs . This displays all active tasks on the system.Dynamic TSSs. the associated Job number. RdyQ . The abbreviations are given in the following list. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution.Job Control Blocks.Single Step. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. TSSs are numbered sequentially. The address is displayed on the left. F6 Tasks . Each TSS is 512 bytes. TSS1 . and then dumps the bytes located at that address. MMURTL V1.” SVCs . The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. LBs . next. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. GDT . The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. F2 SetBP . These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. . as most of them are. IDT . TSS3 . The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. next. This returns to the application and executes one instruction.Link Blocks. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS .

ESP . Lots of code here MOV ESP.Timer Blocks. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. but for right now. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. In some cases. such as [EBP+12]. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. it is the index of that exchange in the array.Exchanges. listed in your ATF file. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. whenever any linear memory location is accessed.START in an assembly language program. or at the beginning of any instruction. or for . It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. In MMURTL. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. locking up. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ASM files. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. its down and dirty troubleshooting. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. Each exchange is 16 bytes. the last parameter is always [EBP+8].and displayed as an unsigned number. When it occurs. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS .Exch . This is the address of the array of timer blocks. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. MMURTL V1. For applications. without having to fill in special registers. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. With near calls like you would make inside your program. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. and also how local variables are accessed. entering the debugger. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. or whatever). The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. aTmr . actually a trap. like the older processors. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. There are four debug address registers in the processor.

If you are going to debug a task. Table 12. The debugger becomes the active job. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. Instead. including allocated memory. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. a pointer to the currently running TSS. When writing an operating system. It almost. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. is saved by the debugger. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. the current pRunTSS.1. you will see that there are many interrupts. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). just like applications do. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. that can occur. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. you must be able to access all of its memory. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs)..) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. When the debug interrupt activates. or faults. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. a page fault is fatal to a task. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. MMURTL V1..1. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. The debugger cannot debug itself. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. Traps. called exceptions. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. but not quite. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS .Processor exceptions. usually a blank screen and nothing else. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. No other task operates at a priority that high. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status.

we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. When the debugger is entered. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. you should kill the offending job and restart. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. While you are in the debugger. This makes the debugger transparent. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). These contain the address of the exception handler. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. To do this. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. which is exactly what you want.

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1. this is true multitasking). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 .Not used (0) */ dData2 . The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). 0.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. but not as powerful. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services.Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface.Chapter 13. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. &MyRqhandle. 0).fWait for Key */ dData1 . Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. 1.0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . As described in chapter 10.1 shows the services provided by the service code. &KeyCode 4. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". MyExch. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. 0 0. It's easier to use. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. Available Services Table 13. “system programming. 0.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time.

fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1. In this case. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. the error should be 0. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service.Wait for Key = 0 . and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications. described in detail later. This allows for "hot-key" operation.Count of bytes in the code 0 . If you have an outstanding Notify request.Not used = 0 .Not used.Table 13.Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 . even if a key is not available.Not used 0 . The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes.Return with error if no key waiting 1 . Unlike regular keystrokes.1. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3).0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS . It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys.

Num. as shown in table 13. Alt & Ctrl.3. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C). Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. as shown in table 13. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. shown in table 13. Locks. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. etc. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. and Scroll). The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. If you have an outstanding Notify request. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly.). The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. this cancels it.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS .2.4. The low-order byte is the actual key code.

2. Table 13.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. Table 13.Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. Table 13.If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. Table 13. This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps. Alt or Shift).0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 .3 shows how the bits are defined. shows how the bits are defined. This bit (Bit 0. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad.3 .. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code. Num or Scroll).

The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS .Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . Ctrl. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. Alt. Table 13. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1. or Locks). the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key.main keyboard.1h to 7Fh). If a shift code is not shown.4 .. Key Codes Table 13. For example. A description is given only if required.

Y Z [ \ ] ` CR .0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS . ' .5 shows the key code value returned.5 . comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1. Table 13. / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr. . Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality. Table 13. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.

Caps lock does not affect these keys. Table 13.6 .7. Edit.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. 13.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 . (Period) Cursor. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.7.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Remember. when all else fails. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. or you may want more. MMURTL V1.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS .”Keyboard Code. if you desire.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. as I have tried to do in this chapter.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. Chapter 25. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. Pieces of it may be useful for your system. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. the programmer will read the documentation. such as international key translations.

The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. The third part is the filename as described above. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. just how we access it. the default name NETWORK is used. and a node name is specified. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. and optionally. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. When a network file is opened. but none as wide spread. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 14. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. then up to three more characters. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. filename. MMURTL V1. will be routed to the service with the same name.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions.and finally the filename itself. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. a network name. This ties its hands so to speak. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. there isn't anything new about the format. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. For example. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. the network service receives the request from the file system. a period.

Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. MMURTL V1. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. or just reading alone.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. When a file is opened in Read mode. 4096 byte buffer. a number called a file handle is returned to you. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened.File Handles When a file is opened. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. Make no assumptions about this number. This is a one page. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. in any mode or type. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open.

&"AnyFile.ModeRead */ dData1 -. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. You can make a request. MyExch. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language.1 .not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. 11.returned handle */ cbData2 -. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service.ptr to name */ cbData1 -. All message-based services use the same request-based interface.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. Table 14. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. or file pointer. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA). The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service.Block Type Access */ dData2 -. Table 14. 0. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number.size of name */ pData2 -. This is called a file pointer in some systems.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. 1.Size of a handle */ dData0 -.1. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ".File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. 0). you do not specify an LFA to read or write from.1 shows the service codes the file system supports.doc". It meets all the requirements. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking). 1. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 14. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. Listing 14. no matter what Mode the file was opened in. 1. For Stream files. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. &MyRqhandle.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. The file system actually runs as a separate task. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. &FileHandle 4.

It is easier to use because it has less parameters. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. Table 14.2 . The request is transparent to the caller. MMURTL V1. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. but only through the procedural interfaces. Table 14.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. KBD and VID devices only. The Request interface will not allow device access.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL.

File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available. pdHandleRet . pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. If stream access type was specified. Stream = 1. all buffers are flushed and deallocated. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. If a file is open in ModeRead. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . Procedural parameters: dHandle .Block = 0. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users.pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. dcbname. Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . dAccessType. Procedural parameters: pName . dcbName . dOpenMode.a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType .READ = 0.pointer to the filename or full file specification.

dLFA. SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size.Pointer to the data to write nBytes . pData . Procedural parameters: dhandle . This must always be a multiple of 512. pDataRet . Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. See the SetFilesize() section.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned.Logical File Address to read from.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. This will always return a multiple of 512.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. pdnBlkRet .Logical File Address to write to. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. One Block = 512 bytes.pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. Procedural parameters: dHandle . This MUST be a multiple of the block size. nBytes. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs.DWord with number of bytes to read. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. nBytes .DWord with number of bytes to write. pdnBytesRet . dLFA. MMURTL V1. pData. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. This must be a multiple of the block size. dLFA . nBytes. dLFA . pDataRet. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512).0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS .

The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. nBytes. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). pDataRet.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. The bytes are read from the current LFA. nBytes. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle.Dword with number of bytes to read. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. Parameters: dhandle . Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. nBytes . The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. pData. pdnBytesRet .0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. pDataRet . GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs.

Dword with number of bytes to write. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files.Dword with a valid file handle. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF). The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C). nBytes .Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).Dword with a valid file handle. pData . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle.Procedural parameters: dHandle .a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. Procedural parameters: dHandle . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.Pointer to the data to write. Procedural parameters: dhandle . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle.0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdnBytesRet . as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.

a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. The file length. Procedural parameters: dHandle .0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File.a Dword with the new size of the file.a Dword with the LFA you want to set. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files. and allocated space on the disk. as returned from OpenFile() dSize . pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle.dLFA . as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle.Dword with a valid file handle.Dword with a valid file handle. Procedural parameters: dhandle . Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1.

dcbName . The file is closed after creation. dcbName . Procedural parameters: pName . and ready to be opened and accessed.pointer to the new filename or full file specification.Dword with length of the filename dAttributes .A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden.pointer to the current filename or full file specification. dcbname. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dcbNewName . pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. empty file in the path specified.pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1.pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. dcbName. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. Procedural parameters: pName .Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .

specified in the Job Control Block. No further access is possible. Procedural parameters: pPath .Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. empty directory for the path specified. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access).pointer to the path (directory name) to create. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. If only the new directory name is specified. dcbPath): dError This creates a new.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. and the filename is available for re-use. dcbPath . as opposed to a full path. Procedural parameters: dHandle . the directory is created in your current path.

Procedural parameters: pPath . the path in your JCB will be used.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1.pointer to the path. or directory name to delete. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. all files in this directory. If only the existing directory name is specified. This call returns one sector from a directory. dcbPath. dcbPath . Procedural parameters: pPath . and files in subdirectories will be deleted. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . or directory name. Each sector contain 16 directory entries. dcbPath. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. If no path is specified. The path must contain the directory name as the last element.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. as opposed to a full path. all subdirectories. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). the name is appended to the path from your job control block. to read tj sector from dcbPath .DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath.If set to non-zero. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified.pointer to the path. The directory must exist in the path specified. pSectRet.

FCB. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. Some structures are dynamically allocated. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file.pSectRet . while others are part of the operating system data segment. When it reaches 0. Because it is a pointer. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. it's not allocating files. the open mode. If the file is opened in Stream mode. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. Quite a few of them use this same name. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . Each FCB is 128 bytes. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). MMURTL V1.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each opened file is allocated an FCB. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. The FUBs contain the file pointer. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. buffer pointers. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file.

X = not your file. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. If it's open in ModeWrite. If so. Load FAT buffer if required. Usually. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. the fifth points to the sixth. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. and the sixth is marked as the last. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. allocate an FUB and attach it. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. Large database files are the major random users.The disk is allocated in clusters. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. you can usually do it quite rapidly. because of the design of the FAT file system. The fourth entry points to the fifth. inside of a 400 Mb file. L = Last entry in your file.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. The file is open. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. If opened in Block mode. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. MMURTL V1. the user will strike next. vector. In this example. This is in itself is time-consuming. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. or three entries. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. On most hard disks. However. they use what is called a FAT16. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. That's a lot of FAT (or file). and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. Run files being executed. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. The list could go on and on. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). and raster image files. source files for compilers. return an error ErcFileInUse. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. That's 128Kb. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. From this. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. Directories are stored as files. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. which is cluster size.

If opened in block mode. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. then write the data. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS .Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. and depends on how the file was opened. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. Close This is the easy part. It sounds simple. but much overhead is involved. If the file is being extended. attach them to the chain. Both copies must be updated. MMURTL V1. you must find unallocated clusters.

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These are known as compound descriptions.2 . They are listed by functional group first. or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. Table 15.2 lists these additional prefix characters. An improperly.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Table 15. Chapter 14. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address. “File System Service”).32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use. If you are going to write your own operating system. Table 15.Chapter 15.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. Table 15..0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . The offset should be 0.1 lists the prefixes. I might add. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names.1 . The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call.g. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes . Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. The call address consists of a selector and an offset.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword .

Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. Max means Maximum. If a parameter is a byte. Each compound set of prefixes . Table1 5. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. and Min means Minimum. a colon with the returned value. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. Ret means Returned. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. dMsg1. Pascal.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. dcbFileName .3 . grouped by type. It is processor (hardware) enforced. Bytes and words (8. or should be. the most common returned value shown. if a value is returned by the function. or Assembler.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15. The dError. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. be returned. dcbDataRetMax . MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention.and optionally suffixes . MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored.3. and finally. pdDataRet .pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. The function name is followed by the parameters.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. dMsg1. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically.

cBytes. pDestination. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. dData0. pPathRet. dcbFileName. fDebug. dData1. cbData1. dESP. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. dLBA. dcbAliasBytes. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. wCodeSeg. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. dExch. pS2. pDCBs. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. wSvcCode. pS2. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. nDevices. pData2. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. npSend. cbData2. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dStatusMax. dfDebug. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dPriority. dPriority. dcbMem. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. pInitData. dcbFileName. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dRespExch. pStatRet. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. dBytes) MMURTL V1. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dOpNum.Request( pSvcName. LinAdd. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. dnBlocks. pRqHndlRet. pStack. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. pDestination. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. dJobNum. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. pData1. ppMemRet.

pbCharRet. dULline. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. dLine. pDataOut. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. nLines. dMaxLen. pDataIn. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. pbExitChar. dLine. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. nChars. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. nCols. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. ddLine.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. dCrntLen. Speaker. dPort) OutWords(dPort.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. dPort) OutWord(Word. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. dTextOut. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. pbChars. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. sdMem. fdRead. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. pdLenRet.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. nChars. dChannel.

AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. exception gates and interrupt gates. and interrupts. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . This must be zero (0) for task gates. the parameters are not stack-based.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers.0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . the parameters are not stack based. Parameters: AX . The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate. AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps.Returns an error. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . EAX Returns Error. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. Unlike most other operating system calls. or 0 if all went well. Parameters: AX . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). They are passed in registers. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). Unlike most other operating system calls. but can be used by experienced systems programmers.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . They are passed in registers. dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. exceptions.

except you provide the exchange. The message that is sent is two dwords. pdPhyMemRet . you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. etc.). the more precise the timing.Dword (4 BYTES). each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. The larger dnTicks is. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware.Job number from the other application. If you do. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. dJobNum. Alarm() can be used for a number of things. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep().A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. Parameters: pMem . ppRet . MMURTL V1. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. It will always begin on a page boundary. ppAliasRet . In fact. The overhead included in entry. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. dcbMem . AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned. do some other processing. This means you can set an alarm. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. and don't get placed in a waiting condition. Parameters: dnTicks . This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). dJobNum .The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. even though it's very close. Each application has its own linear address space. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. Parameters: nPages . except it can be used asynchronously. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. ppMemRet. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). dcbMem. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. WaitMsg. This would be for the time-out function described above.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds.length of the run filename. although longer periods will work. pdJobNumRet . Parameters: dn15us . MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. MMURTL V1. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: dIRQnum .is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. and data pages. dcbFileName. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. stack. and the memory required to run code. and you call this often enough. dcbFileName . pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. precise. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify.Parameters: dAlarmExch . Virtual Video. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately.pointer to the filename to run.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. Interrupts are not disabled. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. initial Task State Segment. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. Page Descriptor. so the time could be much longer. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. Parameters: pFilename . MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns.

This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. dPriority. NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. dCodeSeg. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address.Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP .The dword value to write to the port.The address of the port. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord. Paramters: Dword .handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch .0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS .Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . Parameters: Byte . OS=8 or User=18 Priority . The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. ESP .The address of the port.Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. it is made to run.The byte value to write to the port.Exchange for TSS. dESP. DPort . Parameters: MMURTL V1. Parameters: JobNum . dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS). DPort . Exch . dExch. dfDebug.Which code segment.Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . OutWord OutWord(Word.exchange where the Request is to be sent. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl . dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution. No error is returned.

MMURTL V1.The address of the port. This is the number of Words * 2.The word value to write to the port.number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib .column to start on (0-79) dLine . Parameters: dCol . The Basic Video section in Chapter 9. Each page of memory is 4096 byte.number of characters pbChars is pointing to. dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. dLine.” describes all of the attribute values. OutWords OutWords(dPort. Parameters: pdnPagesRet . “Application Programming.column to start on (0-79) dLine . You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2). dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. DBytes .pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . dAttr .The address of the port. dnChars. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. if not displayed.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned.color/attribute to use during display. PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. pDataOut. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. pbChars. It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. dLine. or virtual screen.The count of bytes to write to the port address.Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to.line (0-24) dnChars . PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol.line (0-24) pbChars .Word . dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort. DPort .A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. Parameters: DPort . nChars. PdataOut . The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: dCol .

cbData2. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . or on what machine the request is being serviced. dData1. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located.the exchange to be associated with the service name. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. Parameters: BAddress . Request Request( pSvcName. dRespExch.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. If fWait is false (0). See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes.A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. pData1. cbData1. If no key was available. Service names are case sensitive. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . pData2.If true (non-zero).a pointer to an 8-byte string. dData0. This call blocks your task until completion. wSvcCode. The string must be left justified. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. If fWait is true (non-zero). error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. pRqHndlRet. if forwarded across a network. and padded with spaces (20h). Parameters: pSvcName . dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. fWait . Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet .The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. npSend.

npSend . of the message sent back to the requester of the service. Respond Respond(dRqHndl. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. dStatRet . The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. dData0.same as pData1. pData1 . is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). wSvcCode . Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. dError. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. Always assume it will be network-routed. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. This may be data sent to the service.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . then npSend would be 2. service name.a number (0. For example. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. 65534 (0FFFEh).the size of the data being sent to the service. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. dData1.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you.This is the operating system Request primitive. 1 and 2.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. Zero will be returned if all was well. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. MMURTL V1. dMsgLo. pRqHndlRet . This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. With all kernel primitives.dData0. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. cbData2 . dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. With all kernel primitives. The service must be registered with the operating system. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. Function Codes 0. See Respond(). space padded. dRespExch . The use of dData0. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. pData2 . the value returned from the Request() call itself.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. dData2 . The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. Parameters: dRqHndl . are sending data to the service. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. This error is not the error returned by the service. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. Parameters: pSvcName . or received from the service. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. cbData1 . dError. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. A service must respond to all requests using Respond().

This call stores the command line in the JCB. dcbCmdLine .dnCols. linked with that task.Points to an array of bytes. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. and the bottom line would be blanked. which is the first dword pushed. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange.1). you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . SendMsg SendMsg (dExch.dnLines. dMsgHi . If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line.The number of columns to be scrolled.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . If it were a Response from a service. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine.dULline. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. Parameters: pCmdLine . the new command line string.25. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task.a polite term for crashed. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up.The upper dword of the message. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. This is an agreed-upon convention.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . the message is associated. msg[1]. MMURTL V1. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. and is not enforced by the operating system. and while Chaining to another application. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. it will be into an array of dwords.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. dMsgHi. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. DfUp .The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. In this case the top line is lost. Parameters: dExch .80. and it is moved to the Ready queue. DnLines . msg[0].This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. dMsgLo .The count of lines to be scrolled. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. Parameters: DULCol . The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs.The length of the command line string to store. The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0.The lower dword of the message.0. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines.

all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. pVector . After the interrupt vector is set. Table 15. Built-in device drivers assume these values. The filename must not longer than 79 characters.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * .0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS .SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. When a job exits. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. Table 15. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. Parameters: pExitJob .If installed. This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. dcbExitJob . which will happen most often. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. Parameters: dIRQnum . the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. Initially. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename.4 .The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. MMURTL V1. and its ExitJob is zero length. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses.

SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. The maximum length is 13 bytes. dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. the color of the characters themselves. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: pJobName . then call ClrScr().This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. A zero length. Typically. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. SetPath SetPath(pPath. a text string. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. Refer to the file System documentation). dcbJobName . Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. dcbPath . If you SetNormVid() to Black On White.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. will clear the job name from the JCB. MMURTL V1. The path is 79 characters maximum. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. Parameters: bPriority . and background colors may be changed by an application.This is the new priority (0-31). The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. If no job name is set by the application. The default foreground color.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. This is a maximum of 13 characters. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. Longer values will be truncated. Parameters: pPath .

writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut().The job number for new owner of the active screen. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. which is the user's name. dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes(). The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. Parameters: DJobNum .A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name.is the length of the string to store. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. and Chaining to another application. which is the one to be displayed. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. is KBD. If the SysOut name is VID. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. The default name. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. Only ASCII data is returned from this call. If the SysIn name is set to KDB. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. is VID.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . The default name. Parameters: pFileName .A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. dcbFileName .SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. dcbUsername .points to a text string. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. dcbFileName .The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. WriteBytes().The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. Parameters: pUsername . Parameters: pFileName . The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. if none is set by the application. if none is set. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true.

should use priorities above 25. dPriority. or the real video screen if currently assigned. fOSCode . Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. but testing will be required to ensure harmony. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. Tone Tone(dHz. This applies to the virtual screen. it is made to run.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1.The new horizontal cursor position column. Parameters: DNewX .A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. 1 is accepted. Certain system services are higher priority. Parameters: dnTicks . This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). fOSCode):dError This creates a new task.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. If your task is a high enough priority. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. The timer interrupt sends the message. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. fDebug. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. such as the file system and keyboard. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. fDebug . otherwise. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. pStack. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. dPriority . or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. DNewY .This is a pointer to the function.The new vertical cursor position row. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. and clears the block when it reaches zero.This is a number from 0 to 31. lower numbers. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. Parameters: pEntry . 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . Application programs should use priority 25. or make it sleep. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable.

The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . if the cursor is in the last column of a line. DAttrib . If this line is below the bottom of the screen. DTextOut . and padded with spaces (20h).0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: PTextOut . Service names are case sensitive. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry.A near Pointer to the text. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. Parameters: dHz .The number of characters of text. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line. For character placement. Backspace will have no effect. A value of 100 is one second.The cursor.The attribute or color you want.The cursor will be moved one column to the left. dTicks10ms . Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). dTextOut. 08 backspace . If already at column 0.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz.The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. They will receive an error. next active character placement. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . from 30 to 10000. no characters are changed. The string must left justified.A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. Parameters: pSvcName .The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. Parameters: dIRQnum . and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . it will be moved to the first column of the next line. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. will be moved down one line. The backspace is non-destructive. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.A pointer to an 8-byte string.

Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. You've got to send mail to get mail. an array of two dwords.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. MMURTL V1. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer. the task will be placed on the exchange specified. Parameters: DError . Of course. less than 8000000h. you would have had to make the request in the first place. dExch .The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg .A pointer to where the message will be returned. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . If no message is available. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. At that time. so this would be obvious to you.

Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . D:\DIR\) RD . Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.Directory listing Debug .Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD . The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line.Make Directory Path .Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. job number for this CLI. The top line is the status line. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.Hex dump of a file Exit . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. The internal commands are: Cls . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. use. However.Remove directory Rename .Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help .Delete a file Dump . It has been expanded.Copy a file Dir . is described in the following sections. it does work and it's useful in its own right.Set file access path (New path e. MMURTL V1. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me). To see what has been included on the CDROM. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. CLI version. “What's On the CD-ROM.Enter Debugger Del . It provides information such as date.Chapter 16. and your current path.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS . time. The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself.Display list of internal commands Monitor . but it's a good start.Rename a file (Current name New name) Run . Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. see Appendix A.Clear Screen Copy .RUN files).” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter.g. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI.Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its.

If the character is not ASCII text. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set. Pressing Esc will stop the listing.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. MMURTL V1. If a file exists with the same name. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS .TXT THATFILE. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. >Copy THISFILE. Both names must be specified. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. or the same name in a different directory. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. a period is displayed instead. “The Debugger. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full.

or external command that is executed for this CLI. This CLI will still be executing.) MMURTL V1. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . The path must end with the Backslash. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. the tree will only be extend one level.). The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. listing.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. With any file-system operation (opening. and . The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). In MMURTL. In other words.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. etc. Unlike a single tasking operating system. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. renaming. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive).. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility).

Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number).Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI. An example of COMMANDS. The first item on the line is the command name. MMURTL V1. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute. The contents of the file COMMANDS. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix . pausing after each page. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME.CLI Commands.Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS .End of Command. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM.run .CLI File The file COMMANDS. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file. The File COMMANDS.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print.run New.TXT Run (Execute a . It is a simple text file with one command per line.CLI follows: . MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk.RUN). The file must not be open by any other job.

The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. CTRL-ALT-DELETE . CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.0 of the Command Line Interpreter. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command.CLI.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.Terminates the currently displayed job.h> #include <ctype.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN . CLI Source Code Listing .h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed. Listing 16. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.CLI file.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.1.h> #include <string. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. In this case. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. 1. but other application might.Ver. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData.

long cbPath. clipath[60]. char ExitChar. /* "Monitor".0 { 0 external */ 1 . syspath[50]. /* "Path". unsigned char Buffer[512].not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . char char char char sdisk.#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. /* MMURTL V1. cmdpath[60]. long JobNum. hlppath[60]. /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. /* "Exit". /* "MD". /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* "Ren". /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. /* "Copy". unsigned long GPHndl. /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. unsigned long GPMsg[2].0 Job Path: ". char fUpdatePath. char aCmd[80]. /* "Cls". unsigned long GPExch. /* "RD". /* "Debug". /* "Del". iLine. /* "Help". /* "xxxxx". /* "Dir". char text[70]. date. /* "Dump". long cbCmd = 0.

U16 Date. }. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(."Run". } dirent[16]. U32 FileSize. "Type".) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. long acbParam[13]. U8 Attr. U16 Time. U8 Rsvd[10].. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. char *apParam[13]. U8 Ext[3]. U16 StartClstr.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . It updates the status line which has the time and path.

0x0f). PutVidChars(0. case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". break. /* Day */ 0x0f). MMURTL V1. cbPath). switch (erc) { case 0: return. Sleep(100). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). break. 0x0f). break. case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). 0).0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* year */ 0x0f).0. ' '). &aStatLine[47]. case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". break. break. FillData(&aStatLine[47]. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). fUpdatePath = 0. break. FillData(st. 80. break. *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. 40. break. aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". break. break. case 208: pSt = "File in use". case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". break. STATVID). 30. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). case 201: pSt = "No such drive". (time & 0x0f). break. break. char st[40]. case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". aStatLine. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist".cbPath = 30. case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". /* month */ 0x0f). case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". break. case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). } GetCMOSDate(&date). /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". CopyData(aPath. break. break. case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". break. case 1: pSt = "End of file".

erc = 0. 80. break. "Error %05d on last command". KeyCode. PutVidChars(0.0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS .0. } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. addr). ClrScr(). iLine = 2. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. while (cb) { printf("%08x ". STATVID). &iLine). *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . pSt = st. unsigned char buff[17]. *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). } printf("%s\r\n". } SetXY(iCol. } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. return. i. GetXY(&iCol. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. erc). aStatLine. pSt). iLine). &iLine). long cb. GetXY(&iCol. j.default: sprintf(st. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. MMURTL V1. #asm INT 03 #endasm return.

erc. MMURTL V1. 1. &buff[0]). This expects to find the filename in param[1].23). if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. printf("ESC to cancel. &fh). printf("%s\r\n". /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. 512. addr+=j. i++) { printf("%02x ".1. else j = cb. /* ReadKbd. SetXY(0. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . for (i=0. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. k. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.23). Buffer. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. } buff[i+1] = 0. } return erc. buff[i] = *pb++. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. i<j. ModeRead."). dret.*pb). erc = 0.23. iLine =1. l.80. } InitScreen(TRUE). acbParam[1].. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. else cb=0.1).1).if (cb > 15) j=16. ++iLine. 0). 512. fh. any other key to continue. 1). &k). &dret). if (!erc) { j=0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. SetXY(0..

0). j). i = 1.23). &lfa). cbName. erc. Buffer. dret.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. j<=i. &dret). dret. j+=512. KeyCode. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. 1. erc = 0. iLine. 512. lfa+i). iLine++. } SetXY(0. Buffer. } CloseFile (fh).iLine). fh. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. 78. } for (j=0. NORMVID). MMURTL V1.23. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. &fh). } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). else l=k-j. long cbName) { long i. erc = ReadBytes (fh.80. } erc = OpenFile(pName. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. i. 0.1. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. dret = 1. return erc. lfa. SetFileLFA(fh. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. j.1). } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. SetXY(0.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0.

8). 1). pDateRet. char *pTimeRet."). "%02d:%02d:%02d". pTimeRet. if (yr > 99) yr -=100. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11. "%02d-%02d-%02d". erc.hr.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . InitScreen(TRUE). } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.se). This uses a conservative 4K buffer.hr.23). sprintf(st. This is used by the directory listing. any other key to continue.mi. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. Use block mode for speed. char st[15].da..se.1).mo. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. 8). U32 cbFrom. bytesGot. CopyData(st. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . bytesLeft. CloseFile (fh).yr). fhFrom. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking.. SetXY(0. printf("ESC to cancel. da = date & 0x001F. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time. U16 date.mi.da. return erc.mo. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr.1900. bytesWant. CopyData(st. sprintf(st. MMURTL V1. erc). THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. char *pTo. U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. iLine =1.if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. /* ReadKbd. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n".

size). bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). &bytesOut). cbTo. size. 0). erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. cbFrom. dLFA = 0. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. bytesGot. 0. ModeModify. if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. &fhFrom). cbTo. &size). erc = OpenFile(pFrom. &fhTo). dLFA. bytesWant. } return(erc). 0. dLFA. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. } dLFA += bytesGot. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. 1). } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. bigBuf.bytesOut. bigBuf. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). else bytesWant = bytesLeft. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. dLFA. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. bytesLeft = size. &bytesGot). KeyCode. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. /* ReadKbd.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . } MMURTL V1. ModeRead. } CloseFile(fhTo).

23. SetXY(0. any other key to continue. &st[33]. erc.Attr.Time. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. printf("ESC to cancel. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. dirent[i].FileSize. i<16. char st[78]. dirent[i].80. &dirent[0]. i. } InitScreen(TRUE).Name[0]) { erc = 1. } if ((dirent[i].Name.1). SectNum = 0.1). printf("%s". dirent[i]. dirent[i]. SetXY(0. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". 1).Ext. dirent[i]."). /* ReadKbd. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.Name[0]) && (dirent[i].Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st. 512. iLine++. st).0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i].. *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. iLine =1. if (!erc) { for (i=0./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path.23).Date. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. } fDone = 0. fDone = TRUE. KeyCode.StartClstr). fDone = 1..1. dirent[i]. acbParam[1]. U32 SectNum. } } } MMURTL V1.23). &st[24]). SectNum).

CLI is: name fullspec param param param. for (iPrm=0.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. SectNum++. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. rawline[90]. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. If it finds it. } return(erc). k. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. fdone. iPrm<nParamsMax. The format for a line entry in Commands. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. cmdline[90]. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. *f.} else fDone = TRUE. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. MMURTL V1. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. iCmd++.. i.. j.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . iPrm.

cmdline). j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++].0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . 89. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. "r"). rawline.CLI not found. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. acbParam[0]). } } else printf("Commands.cmdline[0] = 0. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1.') /* a comment line */ continue. runfile[k] = 0. f = fopen(cmdpath. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '.\r\n"). while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. return(0). /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. if (f) { fdone = 0. return(1). /* now move arguments if any. cmdline[j] = 0. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0.

".CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. strlen(runfile). 0). cbCmd). } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. CopyData(apParam[0]. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). SetExitJob(clipath. &fh). ModeRead. SetExitJob(clipath. If we don't find one. erc = Chain(runfile. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). strlen(runfile). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. strlen(runfile). strlen(clipath)).RUN file in the current path. } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. runfile. acbParam[0]). erc.0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . &fh). ModeRead. erc = OpenFile(runfile. SetCmdLine(aCmd. cbCmd). strlen(runfile). 1. acbParam[0]). fh. strcat(runfile. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(runfile). runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). strlen(runfile).RUN"). runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. &fh). SetCmdLine(aCmd. } MMURTL V1. we go to the system directory. cbCmd). strlen(clipath)). ModeRead. long i. we first look for a . 0). &runfile[i]. syspath). strlen(clipath)). ". SetCmdLine(aCmd. erc = OpenFile(runfile. 1. 0). erc = Chain(runfile. erc = Chain(runfile. if it's not there.RUN"). If so. 1. /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0].When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. we then go to COMMANDS. i = strlen(runfile).

strcpy(cmdpath.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . &cbPath). 0. syspath). aPath. 24. &iLine). "%02d". sdisk &= 0x7F. GetPath(JobNum. sdisk += 0x41. Note: No params to CLI. SetXY(0."HELP. iLine)."COMMANDS. 2=C etc."CLI. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. strcpy(clipath. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. i. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1.0". */ syspath[0] = sdisk. syspath[2] = 0. command file. InitScreen(FALSE).CLI"). /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. syspath). "\\MMSYS\\"). syspath). GetJobNum(&JobNum). fh. SpawnTask(&StatTask. 8). MMURTL V1. /* 0=A. strcat(hlppath. */ cbPath = 0.RUN"). 0). JobNum). if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. strcpy(hlppath. } else { strcpy (aPath. &StatStack[255]. strcat(syspath. strcat(cmdpath. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). and help file. syspath[1] = ':'. syspath). strcat(clipath. j. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. 1=B. SetJobName("CLI V1./********************************************** Main function entry point.CLI"). erc = AllocExch(&StatExch).

&cbCmd. if (!erc) MMURTL V1. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). &fh). 79. if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(syspath)). SetXY(0. 0. EDVID). cbCmd = 0. break. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. else erc = ErcBadParams. SetPath(syspath. TTYOut (">". &iLine). 1. NORMVID). GetXY(&iCol. TTYOut ("\r\n". apParam[2]. CmdNum = 0. strlen(clipath)). break. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. break. 1. break. acbParam[0] = 0. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. acbParam[2]). acbParam[1]. } fUpdatePath = 1. paCmds[i]. 79. apParam[0] = 0.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . NORMVID). InitScreen(TRUE). } i++. if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. aCmd[79] = 0. } erc = 0. ' '). case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). EditLine(aCmd.cbPath = strlen(syspath). iLine). cbCmd. 2. acbParam[1]. &ExitChar.

0). acbParam[2]). 0. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. cbCmd-i). 4. acbParam[1]). break. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. break. fUpdatePath = 1. 0. break. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). break. break. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). break. default: break. else erc = ErcBadParams. if (!erc) printf("Done. GPMsg). aPath.erc = DeleteFile(fh). break. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. &GPHndl. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. 0. strlen(clipath)). case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. SetVidOwner(1). SetExitJob(clipath.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. break. break. acbParam[1]). GPExch. acbParam[1]. apParam[2]. break. strlen(hlppath)). case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). erc = Chain(apParam[1]. 0. 0. ExitJob(0). 0. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. &cbPath). MMURTL V1. acbParam[1].\r\n"). 0). case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". } break. 1. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". acbParam[1]). 0). break. acbParam[1]).

The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM.1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. See Appendix A. The top line provides continuous status information. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16.23). Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. Table 16. SetXY(0.23.} CheckErc(erc). The next 23 lines are the text editing area. What's On the CD-ROM. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line).0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . current filename. } GetXY(&iCol.80.1).1. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb. &iLine). and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections.2. The last line is used for data entry. status and error display. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns.

2.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16. Editor Source Code /* Edit.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" MMURTL V1.2 is the editor source code.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio. Listing 16. Listing 16. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.h> #include <string.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.h> #include <ctype.4 .

struct EditRecType *pEdit. }. U32 oBufBound.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. fh. char fModified.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.. unsigned char b. void clearbuf(void)..h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. char *apParam[13]. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. char aStat1[80]. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. unsigned char filler[100].sLine-1 */ U32 iLine.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* cursor. b1. U32 iRowMax. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX].h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. U32 sLine. U32 iTabNorm. long erc. 0. char aStat[80]. /* sBuf . U32 iColMax. U8 bSpace. U8 fVisible. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. char fOvertype. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.1 */ U32 iColMin. struct EditRecType EdRec. /* cursor. char aCmd[80]. U8 *pBufWork. U32 iAttrNorm. *pBuf2. 0. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]. long cbFilename. U32 iAttrMark. char *pBuf1.

*********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. "Error break.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc). i<40. "Error break. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. erc). erc).Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. %05d occured on CreateFile". FillData(st. PutVidChars (40. Beep(). "Error break. erc). PutVidChars (0. %05d occured on ReadBytes". If fClose. case 3: sprintf(st. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. 39. 0). long erc) { char st[40]. if (erc) { FillData(st. } for (i=0. 24. default: sprintf(st. 80. 40. erc). } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. "Error break. } return (erc). long i. NORMVID). "Error break. "Error break. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". %05d occured on ReadKbd". %05d occured on WriteBytes". STATVID). case 5: sprintf(st. case 7: sprintf(st. If fPrompt is true. "Error break. erc). st. erc). case 6: sprintf(st. %05d occured on last command". 80. %05d occured on OpenFile". case 2: sprintf(st. erc). i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. case 4: sprintf(st. st. %05d occured on SetFileSize". } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. 0). "Error break. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. 24. this will prompt you to save.

ClearStatus(). cbFilename = 0. TTYOut("This file has been modified. SetXY(0. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. unsigned char *pBuff. ClearStatus(). 0)). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pBuf1. 24. fh = 0. } fYes = 1. 1).0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS .. pEdit->oBufLast)). BLACK|BGCYAN). Sleep(150). SetFileSize(fh. int fClose) { U32 i. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. &i)). 10. clearbuf(). ClearStatus(). pEdit->oBufLast. fModified = 0. WriteBytes (fh. **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. 24). ". "DONE. 43. STATVID). } } MMURTL V1. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. PutVidChars (0. if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus()..and the buffer will be closed. fYes. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. keycode. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. SetFileLFA(fh. ReadKbd(&keycode. SAVE IT? (Y/N)".

10. cbFilename. cbFilename. 1). ReadKbd(&keycode. cbFilename = 0. &filesize). &cbFilename. ModeModify. OpenFile(Filename. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. 26. TTYOut("File is too large to edit. Create?? (Y/N)". 24). 24). BLACK|BGWHITE). strncpy(Filename. Beep(). PutVidChars (0. CreateFile(Filename. fh = 0. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). If not. SetXY(10. if (!name) { SetXY(0. pBuf1. 1. dret. cbFilename = strlen(Filename).24. 0)). BLACK|BGCYAN).0). keycode. it will prompts to create. 13). "Filename: ". erc).24). &b1. 29. 1. &fh)). SetXY(50. cbFilename. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. 0. &dret). if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. BLACK|BGCYAN).24). else erc = 0. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. 1). TTYOut("Doesn't exist. ReadKbd(&keycode.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = 0. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 60. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. &fh). name. SetXY(50.". /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). filesize. EditLine(Filename. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. SetXY(0. ModeModify. } else { b1=0x0d. BLACK|BGCYAN). pEdit->oBufLast = dret. MMURTL V1.

/* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. even though we word wrap always. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol.if (erc) { fh = 0.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. ClearStatus(). iEolMax. i = 0. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. return(nEols). cbFilename = 0. i. *pBuff. } } else CheckErc(1. erc). while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. nEols = 0. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } } else { cbFilename = 0. unsigned char *pBuff.

. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. char *pBuff. iEol = iBuf. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . i = 0.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1.1.. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } } return(iEol). if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. j. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i. /* now find first non-space . */ iEol = iEolMax. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.

iBoundLoc. iColFinish. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound.1. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.iColFinish. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. pEdit->iAttrMark). i = (findEol (j)) + 1. return(j). } while (i < oBufStart). } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->iAttrNorm). *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. iMarkLoc. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. PutVidAttrs (iColStart. else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. iLn. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] .iColStart +1.i--. iColFinish . if (i) i++. iLn. if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. MMURTL V1.pEdit->Line[iLn] .0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . iColStart-pEdit->iColMin.pEdit->Line[iLn].pEdit->Line[iLn]. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->iColMax . iLn.

*************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. pEdit->iAttrNorm).iLn. } } } else { fOK = 0. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork.pEdit->oBufInsert + 1.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . fModified = 1. Beep(). pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->oBufLast++. pEdit->pBufWork. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->sLine. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *pBuff. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. char fOvertype. pEdit->oBufInsert++. cb). *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . char fOK. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. cb). } return (fOK). erc = 40400. } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].

1. i <=iBd-iMk. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. } } } else Beep(). iBd.pEdit->oBufInsert . i <= pEdit->oBufLast. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. for (i=0. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. MMURTL V1. *pBuffWork. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.iBd . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. i<=iBd-iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk.iBd + iMk . pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. pEdit->oBufInsert . for (i=0. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. iMk. char *pBuff. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i].1.iMk. i<=iMk . i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. iBd.1. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk.void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .

i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. i. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . MMURTL V1. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. *pBuffWork. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert].iMk. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY.0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. pEdit->oBufLast . } } } else Beep(). *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk.iMk + 1. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. (hides it). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.pEdit->oBufInsert+1).char *pBuff. pEdit->sLine. pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLast+1). iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . iBd-iMk+1). } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. pEdit->iAttrNorm). } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.iMk + 1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.

if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert . *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. j. char *pBuff. *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.if it is. &pBuff[iMk]. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1.iBd + iMk .iBd + iMk.might be off screen . iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i.1. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. char fProb. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. iBd. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert).normAttr (). i = pEdit->iRowMin. } nullMarkBound (). else fProb = FALSE.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . iMk.

pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. } i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. j = pEdit->iLine. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol . if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. pEdit->iLine = i .1. /* if bogus line. i. if prev char <> CR. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS .pEdit->iColMin. j = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1].is. i = pEdit->iLine. /* get to potential insert .pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1.i++. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. } } MMURTL V1. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line.

k = pEdit->iRowMax. iLn. oBuf. MMURTL V1. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). else for (j=i+1. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. j<NLINESMAX. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. cb. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). i<=k. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. */ for (i = k. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. j. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). i <= pEdit->iRowMax.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . k. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY.

FillData(filler. cb = i .char *pBuff. /* Make size.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. doMark (iLn). cb. for (i=0. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . MMURTL V1. iLn. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. pEdit->iAttrNorm).Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. pBuff+oBuf. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. 0x20). pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. i<NLINESMAX.oBuf + 1. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. pFiller. pEdit->iAttrNorm). makeOnScreen (). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. char *pBuff. Called before use and after closure. oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn].1. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->sLine-cb. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. /* oBufInsert on screen . iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. iLn. 80. i = pEdit->iRowMin.

80. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. pEdit->iLine). *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. sprintf(aStat. char *pBuff. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. unsigned char b. fOvertype = FALSE. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). pEdit->oBufLast). nullMarkBound(). normAttr (). FillData(aStat. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. k. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. normAttr (). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->iCol. key.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . for (i=0. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. fScreen = TRUE. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. long exch. i."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. *pBuffWork.fModified = 0. fScreen = FALSE. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. j. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. fDone = FALSE. erc = AllocExch(&exch). It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. pEdit->oBufLast = 0. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. 0x20). while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). char fSpecInsert.

Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. coordCursor_oBuf (). break.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. &aStat[77].Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. fSpecInsert = FALSE.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . b = key & 0xff.Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. else CopyData("INS". case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . 0.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. aStat. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. break. break. 3).CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. cbFilename). &aStat[40]. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. break. ReadKbd (&key. 1)). 80. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. &aStat[77].CopyData(Filename. i = pEdit->iLine.Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". break. i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. STATVID). pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. break. PutVidChars (0. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. 3). TRUE).

SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). FALSE). pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. break. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . } else { for (i=0. default: break. OpenAFile(0).pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. break.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. case 0x53: /* ALT S . case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). break.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . } break. i = pEdit->iLine+1. break. fScreen = TRUE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. TRUE). fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. fDone = TRUE. } break. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. i<=pEdit->oBufLast.pEdit->Line[i]. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. } fScreen = TRUE.

pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff.1. break. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax .} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (!(putInBuf (b. /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. fSpecInsert))) Beep().1. findCursor (). } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pBuffWork. MMURTL V1. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--.0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS .5) pEdit->iCol += 5. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . pEdit->oBufLast+1). default: break. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. fScreen = TRUE. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. fOvertype. break. if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast .

fScreen = TRUE.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS .Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x11: /* F3 -. case 0x10: /* F2 -. break. j = pEdit->iTabNorm .MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . } break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x12: /* F4 -.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. FALSE. if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. i <=j. FALSE). break. MMURTL V1.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). fScreen = TRUE.1. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast .(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). case 0x17: /* F9 . } break. fModified = TRUE.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf ().1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x06: /* Home .1. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. } break. for (i=1. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast . fScreen = TRUE. moveData ().

COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)).pEdit->iRowMin. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. CopyIt (). while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. k = pEdit->iLine. break. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--.break. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. j = pEdit->iRowMax . case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). k--. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). j--. /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. } break. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x18: /* F10 . if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. coordCursor_oBuf (). i = pEdit->iRowMax. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). } } break.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. i = pEdit->oBufLine0. fScreen = TRUE. break.

0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . fModified = TRUE. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. i = pEdit->iCol.pEdit->iLine++. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->iCol = i. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. else fOvertype = TRUE. pEdit->iLine = j. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. } fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). j = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. } break. } break. pEdit->oBufLast+1). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. pBuffWork. } } break. } break. break. default: MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. pEdit->oBufLast--. coordCursor_oBuf ().

pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. 6). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. SetFileLFA(fh. i. &pBuf2). } *pbExitRet = b. cbFilename = 0. 79. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. pBuf2. erc = AllocPage(32. pEdit->sLine+1. 0. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. &i)). U8 *argv[]) { long i. /*sBuf . SetJobName("Editor". 1. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. 80.0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. FALSE. pBuf1. fh = 0. pEdit->oBufLast. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. &pBuf1). 0)). and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. erc = AllocPage(32. 131071. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. fModified = 0. return. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20.pEdit->oBufLast)). WriteBytes (fh. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). pEdit = &EdRec. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. 23. ClrScr(). 0). 0x20. SetFileSize(fh.break. i <=pEdit->iRowMax.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . } CloseFile(fh).

for (i=0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). 0. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. EMPTY. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY.h> #include <string. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler.. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. 0.sLine-1 */ cursor.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. fOvertype = FALSE.. EDVID. struct statRecC com.3. i<NLINESMAX. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]). DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. 4. ExitJob(0). It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS .h> #include <ctype. 0. 0x20). EMPTY. i = pEdit->iRowMin. MMURTL V1. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. 0. i.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. 80.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv. 0. } Editor(&b). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. fModified = 0. 0.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key. Listing 16.

IOBase).RTimeOut). ClrScr(). %d\r\n". if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). com.unsigned char b. dOpNum. &i). &i). ExitJob(erc). /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. 0. } /* If device init went OK. 0.XTimeOut).RBufSize). erc).0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . &com. com. */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". = 1. /* View other params which we could set. printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n".databits com. erc). &com. char fOK. ExitJob(erc). com. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. %d\r\n". lastb. ClrScr(). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. CmdOpenC. dnBlocks. ClrScr(). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). com. if (erc) { MMURTL V1.h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. %d\r\n". dLBA.parity = com. %d\r\n". = 8.stopbits = 9600.Baudrate com. NO_PAR. but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. The structure is defined in commdrv. printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". we open the comms port */ /* device. 64).XBufSize). SetNormVid(NORMVID). com. } /* set the params in the block */ com. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. 64. %d\r\n".IRQNum). com. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID).

pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. dOpNum. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6.. ExitJob(erc). fOK = 1.. ClrScr(). dOpNum. dLBA. 0. ClrScr(). &i). 0. erc). &b). if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. CmdWriteB. lastb = b. dnBlocks. } } else { /* device. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". CmdCloseC. 0. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". 0. default: break. dnBlocks. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. break.SetNormVid(CLIVID).0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . dLBA. erc). SetNormVid(CLIVID). NORMVID). 1. CmdWriteB. &b). CmdReadB. dLBA. 0. */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. dnBlocks. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. 0.\r\n"). 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. 1.. } } } } /* device. NORMVID). &b). else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. } } } MMURTL V1. erc = DeviceOp(6. dOpNum. ExitJob(erc). /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. 0.. /* This is it. 0. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n".

h" "\OSSource\MKbd.h> <stdlib.h> <string. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.2.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B .h> <stdio.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n .h" "\OSSource\Parallel. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). That's the intention of the design.h" "\OSSource\MJob.h" "\OSSource\MVid. long long long long long tabstops = 4. col = 0. In listing 16.4.h" "\OSSource\MTimer. FILE *f. char name[80]. fBinary = 0. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1. Send with no translations.4. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv.Binary print.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.Display the file while printing \F . Listing 16.h> <ctype. fDisplay = 0. struct statRecL lpt. NoFF = 0.4 or 8) \D .

case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. Version 1. no FF\r\n\n"). printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). exit(1). 8). case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. default: printf("Invalid switch"). for(i=1. break.Tab stop translation value\r\n"). ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n").0x30.0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . break.0\r\n"). unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. unsigned char b. 79). } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. break. } MMURTL V1. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). exit(1). printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). lastb. break. case 'B' : /* BINARY . NO translation. printf("/B Binary print. i < argc. } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name.No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. char fdone. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++.void main(long argc. cl. printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . i. break. SetJobName("Printing". argv[i]. name[0] = 0. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . *ptr. erck.

&lastb). ExitJob(erc). we open the printer port */ /* device./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. "r"). dLBA. &i). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. name). */ f = fopen(name... if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . &lpt. erc). CmdCloseLU. dOpNum. dnBlocks. erc). CmdWriteB. 0.\r\n". dOpNum. ExitJob(erc). i = 0. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. } /* If device status went OK. &i).. ExitJob(erc). The structure is defined in parallel. b = (cl & 0xff). 64. if (!f) { /* device. dnBlocks.h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. } printf("Printing %s .. 0. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. /* This is it.0 1. cl = fgetc(f). printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". } else { MMURTL V1. &i). } col = 0. name). 0. b = 0. 0. if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". CmdOpenL. */ erc = DeviceStat(3. dLBA. fdone = 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. lastb = b. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++.

0. CmdWriteB. &b). CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. 0). 1. &lastb). CmdWriteB. col = 0.switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. "\f"). 0. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". dnBlocks. &i). 1. CmdCloseL. 0. break. " "). CmdWriteB. if (erc) MMURTL V1. CmdWriteB. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. %d\r\n". erc = DeviceOp(3. case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. } } &b). b). &b). -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. dOpNum. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). dLBA. 1. 1. col++. erc = DeviceOp(3. } fclose(f). 0. erc = 4. /* reset */ break. 0. if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. } erc = DeviceOp(3. } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. erc).0 1. lastb). 0. break. col++. } while (col % tabstops). 0. 1. 0. /* device.

h" "\OSSource\MJob. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk.h" "\OSSource\MVid. MMURTL V1. printf("Done\r\n"). ErrorToUser. Error: %d\r\n".printf("Can't close LPT. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. erc).C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError.” It has been expanded some. While this program is running. “Systems Programming. Listing 16. run the TestSvc. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.RUN program to exercise the service. Service. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. ExitJob(erc). This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service.h> "\OSSource\MKernel. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2].5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . keycode. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). long *pDataRet.

ErrorToUser).. Respond(pRqBlk. &keycode. /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". MainExch). 0. printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. *pDataRet = NextNumber++. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). MainExch. while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK.if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). NextNumber-1). } DeAllocExch(MainExch). Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. 0.\r\n"). &rqHndl.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 0).. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". ErcNoSuchSvc). /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. OSError).\r\n". 1.\r\n"). Message). SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). 1. else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. 4. } pRqBlk = Message[0]. /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. 0. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ClrScr().

if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request.0).0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS .C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio.\r\n".0. 0.6. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running. Also try it when the service is not running. You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1. Error = Request("NUMBERS ". 0.\r\n".\r\n". Error). if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. &rqhndl.6 exercises the sample system service listed previously. TestSvc.C Listing The program in listing 16. 4.h" unsigned long Number. } } DeAllocExch(Exch). void main(void) { unsigned long Error. 0.\r\n".h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. Error = AllocExch(&Exch). if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg. Error). Exch. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. Listing 16. unsigned long Exch. Error). else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service.\r\n". Number). Message). unsigned long Message[2]. Message[1]). 1. rqhndl. /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. 0.

common variables. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. MAIN. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files).This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). and structures together. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM .ASM . It helps me think. MOSIDT. I just expend the time up front instead of later. MOSPDR. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. however. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls.Chapter 17. which means its data will be at the lowest address. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. This is the first file in the source. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. Quite a few of them. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor.). Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. I hope I’ve met this goal. This file should be left in the order I have it in. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. The ordering for MMURTL V1. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. All source files are located in one directory. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. use the stack just as a compiler would. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). There are also header files for the C source. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. MOSGDT. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. and used by the processor. Also some data is defined here. In fact. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. By including the comments. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. You may find some of the source files rather large. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. The GDT is 6K in size. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file.ASM .This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. The caller cleans the stack in this convention.ASM . This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. but it is not used by the processor. as you look through the code. the human becomes a compiler of sorts. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion..ASM . Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. MPublics.This is the first assembler file that contains code. In fact..This is also a table. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics.

undoubtedly.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people.ASM .C are contained in this file.The simple parallel port driver is contained here.ASM .C . someday). FSys.C . JobCode. Video. RS232. This is one complicated driver. Device driver writers will appreciate this.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service.ASM was one of the first files written. but can be modified for four.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC.the remainder of the modules is not as important. On the other hand. I was surprised. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file. UASM. SVCCode.The code memory allocation. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. It drives two channels.ASM .This file contains the RS-232 UART driver.ASM . IntCode. MiscCode.are in this file. if needed. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps). You have to see what you're doing. Debugging a debugger is even less fun. but it's effective and accurate.ASM .ASM .The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() . when a device driver writers need DMA. Keyboard. It supports the 16550.Request block management code is in this file. HardIDE. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. JobC. This file has routines that handle DMA for you. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. as well as port I/O support. DMACode. even in the earliest stages of a project.In many systems. you're on your own.C .C .This is the file that collected all the little things that you need.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. You only need to know the channel.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa.This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. how much to move.This file is the debugger disassembler.C . MemCode. NumCnvrt. It think it still works with MFM drives. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.C . is in this file.ASM . It's not very pretty. and the mode. but I don't have any more to test it. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled.ASM . Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. MMURTL V1.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers. Floppy.ASM . Keyboard.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. TmrCode.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. and it works rather well.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. RQBCode. Parallel. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. but you never know where to put.ASM . Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea.ASM . they must handle it themselves. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file. DevDrvr.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here.C . If you have MFM drives. Debugger.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system.ASM .

If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. Listing 17. Main OS code and some data & START address .ASM .Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. Except. Assembler Template File .DATA . This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.ASM . .0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS . Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM.ASM .INCLUDE Video.INCLUDE MAIN. a C source file and must be compiled first with . Keyboard ISR and Service .These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! . CM32 (no switches needed). It provides a lot of the OS functionality.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions.INCLUDE MPublics. This takes about 1.All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file.ASM .ASM .INCLUDE Keyboard. . “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. InitCode. and the DASM assembler (also included). All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM.0 .ASM . Video code and data MMURTL V1.INCLUDE MOSIDT. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.C After all the C source files are compiled. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL.ATF It's truly that simple. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) . If you want an error file. but it really isn't part of the operating system. Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code.ASM . Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table . Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files.The monitor program is contained in this file. . Indirect calling address table .1. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL.Kernel. /L on the command line after the name.INCLUDE MOSGDT. You could replace quite easily. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).C . specify /E on the command line after the name.INCLUDE MOSPDR. DASM produces the operating system RUN file.BAT) will build the entire operating system. An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . 6K) .ASM .Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.5 Pages.5 minutes on a 486/33.ASM .ASM . 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. Monitor. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces).

ASM UASM.INCLUDE . CM32 packs all structure fields completely. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.INCLUDE . CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding. use another compiler for your project.ASM DevDrvr.* .code and data. . you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments . .ASM SVCCode. . . You will. you can take the file system code (FSYS. In fact. You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures.ASM Monitor.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . As each piece of code is assembled. The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language.INCLUDE . .INCLUDE . you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier).ASM Parallel.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM IntCode. .. MMURTL V1.ASM RQBCode.ASM FSys.INCLUDE . .ASM TmrCode. and they will work fine.ASM RS232. For instance.C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort.ASM Kernel.* .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies. you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. If your C compiler allows it. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.ASM NumCnvrt.ASM DMACode.INCLUDE .* .INCLUDE .ASM JOBC.* :* .INCLUDE . .ASM Floppy. no doubt.array. This is because DASM doesn't support structures. .0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS . I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way. The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.* . .INCLUDE . The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location. .ASM Except.INCLUDE . .ASM JobCode.ASM MiscCode.INCLUDE . Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files.* . . code (string. This is one thing you should watch.INCLUDE .END Debugger.INCLUDE .ASM MemCode. it is placed into the code segment in that order. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.INCLUDE .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc.INCLUDE . You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention.I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one.ASM InitCode. .ASM .ASM HardIDE. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular. Otherwise.

and kernel publics functions. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). See listing 18. and offsets into structures and tables.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables. job control blocks.Chapter 18. I think it will make more sense to you. the scheduler. internal public functions. Being an old "structured" programmer. Listing 18. and memory management tables.1. These are things such as the task state segments. The actual message handling functions. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.INC RQB. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). These all change with respect to the task that is running.INC TSS. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF.ASM. two underscores will be prepended to the name.INC JOB. The bulk of them are in the file Main. so I could get to them with the monitor program.DATA . and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). local helper functions. a single underscore will be prepended to the name.INCLUDE . The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. Kernel data segment source .1. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them.INC DD 0 .INCLUDE .Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives.INCLUDE .

In MMURTL.FLAGS . Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.Next <= NIL. 0 . 0 . Listing 18. JZ eqMsgDone . This is strictly a speed issue. pLBin^. if ..0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. When a message is sent to an exchange. . REGISTERS : EAX. XCHG ESI.ESI. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message.2.EAX . This is important. is coded in-line. and if a task is waiting there. It's not that the routines are called so often. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). . You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS.EDX. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). which means interrupts must be cleared. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. INPUT : ESI. pExch => EAX. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue.EAX . we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. OR EAX.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. OUTPUT : NONE .EAX . The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . MODIFIES : EDX . and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. and therefore. pointed to by the ESI register.2. link blocks. See listing 18. . such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. and exchanges. for example. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange .

head and EBX .3. MOV [EAX+ETail].ESI . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.[EAX+ETail] .. REGISTERS : EAX.[ESI+EHead] . you return NIL (0). De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: .MsgTail <= pLBin. deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. OUTPUT : EAX . JZ deMsgDone . Get Msg Flag OR EAX. . pLBout <= . See listing 18. OR EAX.. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.MsgHead.ESI . ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX.ESI .MsgHead^. .MsgHead <= . but not both. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]..MsgTail^. Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.MsgHead <= pLBin. then MOV [EAX+EHead]. exchanges can hold messages or tasks. 1 .4. You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there.ESI. 1 .3. ..ESI .MsgTail <= pLBin..ESI . If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it.msg.EBX. if pLBout = NIL then Return. If not. MOV EAX. If not. INPUT : ESI . EAX . MMURTL V1. MOV [ESI+EHead].JNE eqMNotNIL . See listing 18. As stated before..ESI . If not. EAX . Listing 18. MOV [EAX+ETail]. MOV [EDX+NextLB]. MOV EBX. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone . deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there. .0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . ..EBX . deMsgDone: RETN .[ESI+fEMsg] .[EAX+NextLB] .Next. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the . MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN . No! (return 0) MOV EAX.FLAGS .NextLB <= pLBin.

XOR EBX.FLAGS . See listing 18.4.Next <= NIL.5. Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX.TSSHead.ESI. . This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue.EBX . REGISTERS : EAX.TSSHead <= . Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX. get the priority MOV BL. head & tail per QUEUE). EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI .EAX . Listing 18. 3 .EBX . pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists. Priority => EAX. algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority. .Next.5. MOV EBX.[EAX+NextTSS] . . De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . JZ deTSSDone .[EAX+Priority] . Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX.FLAGS . Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: .EDX . 0 .EBX.EDX . OR EAX. in EBX XCHG EAX. This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue. This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI .EBX . 0 . MODIFIES : EAX.. .[ESI+fEMsg] . . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS]. MODIFIES : EAX. pTSSout <= . . . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers.EAX . .TSSHead^. EBX JNZ deTSSDone . MOV [ESI+EHead].[ESI+EHead] . OR EAX. INC _nReady . . You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. REGISTERS : EAX. Set up to return nothing MOV EBX.EDX. OUTPUT : EAX . This .. XOR EAX. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1.0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. INPUT : ESI . EAX .EBX.Listing 18. pTSSin^. INPUT : EAX .EBX.RdyQ .EBX .. deTSSDone: RETN . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL. if pTSS = NIL then return. if pTSSout = NIL then Return. JZ eqRdyDone . OUTPUT : NONE .

Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .. . OUTPUT : EAX . else . If there was no task queued.. . .[EBX] OR EAX. .Head <= pTSSin. If none is found. .. The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list.ECX.EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . and 31 is the lowest. . then . . REGISTERS : EAX. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX.ECX deRdyDone: RETN . Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. this returns NIL (0). . RETURN Otherwise.Tail^. . . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . . that 0 is the highest priority. EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX.. .sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. MMURTL V1.6. .NextTSS <= pTSSin.nPRI . deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. INPUT : NONE . . MOV ECX. De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. Listing 18.FLAGS . .Tail <= pTSSin. .[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS]. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX.RdyQ . This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . MODIFIES : RdyQ . EAX is returned as NIL.JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head].Tail <= pTSSin.EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. .EBX. . .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX]. IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ.0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. queued on the RdyQ.6. See listing 18. Keep in mind.

[EBX] OR EAX.ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . . check the next priority.nPRI . "It's a nasty job." See Listing 18. See listing 18.8. .sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . Get pTSSout in EAX . Removing a terminated task from the ready queue . . This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. Listing 18. . It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue.ECX. .EBX. . MODIFIES : RdyQ . either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation.7. MOV ECX. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . . This why it's specified as PUBLIC. Point to the next Priority Queue . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. . If there was no task queued. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. . Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. INPUT : NONE .8.FLAGS . RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. Listing 18. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . is queued to run. They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation.RdyQ . This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1.7.ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. EAX is returned as NIL. OUTPUT : EAX .ASM because they work closely with kernel structures. without actually removing it from the queue. REGISTERS : EAX. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX.0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . They are located in Kernel. but someone's got to it.

Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. . . Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . POP EBX MOV EAX. .0 . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . . INC _nTSSLeft .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. . Is it Zero? .Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. EAX OR EAX.nPRI . MOV EBP. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX.Next <= pFreeTSS.EAX . No MOV EDI. EDI ADD EBX. Yes. REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed .RdyQ . No error . MOV ECX. pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. . . OUTPUT : NONE . 0 . PUSH EBP .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. a job.ESP . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . EDI OR EAX. Point to the next Priority Queue . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . Make EAX point to new head TSS .EBX . Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . Fix link in Queue list . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. EDI PUSH EBX . MODIFIES : RdyQ . pTSSin^. Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . All done (clean stack) . [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. . .. EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . Procedureal Interface : . MOV [EAX+NextTSS].pFreeTSS . deQueue the TSS . .

Next Queue please . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. .Next <= pFreeTSS. . deQueue the TSS . ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . .EDI points to prev TSS .Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. Listing 18. ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. pTSSin^. The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. . This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. ESI PUSH EBX . . 0 .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .EAX . .9. A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified.Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. . SetExchOwner().9.Yes.This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. . POP .EBX . . OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. . Trash it. Finding the owner of an exchange . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. See listing 18. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. . This function is used with the next one.EAX points to crnt TSS . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated.pFreeTSS . No. EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. This is not so if it's for a new job. Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes.JMP RemRdy0 .Jump the removed link .Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . [EAX+NextTSS] . . These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). Yes. back to check next at head of list . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. . .0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. Next TSS .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI. INC _nTSSLeft .

No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch. . SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. . . . .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX.ESP MOV EAX. No.0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . .prgExch ADD EDX. . .. [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. . . SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). mentioned previously. . EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . MMURTL V1. . Changing the owner of an exchange . . . . . . [EBP+12] CMP EAX.10.nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. EAX XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. pJCBRet . .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . Valid Exch (Allocated) . . EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). pJCBRet the exchange number. char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . See listing 18. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . not allocated . Exch is . Exch .EAX MOV EAX. . . is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.10. Listing 18. continue Yes.

the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. . . Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. See listing 18. .prgExch ADD EAX. ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. telling them that a particular job has died. EBX XOR EAX. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead).EDX MOV EBX. If a program sent a request. pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. Listing 18. Get the address of rgSVC . . . . . .0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . .11. . pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. The error it returns is of no consequence. Notifying services of a job’s demise . . . . other services. .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. . . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). . If a service is holding a request from the job that died. Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. . . Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message.ESP MOV ESI. . or the operating system itself. . . . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . .nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1.. . then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior.ESP MOV EAX.OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. We ignore the kernel errors. [EBP+12] MOV EDX. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner].11. . . .

These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate. 0 JE SAB05 .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . NO.pName PUSH 0 . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model. Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive.pData1 PUSH 0 . A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications.Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX .12.JobNum PUSH EAX .pHandleRet PUSH 0 . These are functions such as GetPriority(). The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls. A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it. and code for it is in the file SVCCode.Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk .cbData0 PUSH 0 .Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI.dData0 PUSH 0 . The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block.12. Request kernel primitive code . EAX MOV ESP. . The procedural interface to Request looks like this: . [EBP+8] . See listing 18. wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.asm.cbData1 MOV EAX. Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . . sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. [EBP+12] . next service PUSH ESI . Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates.0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS . The function that searches the array is GetExchange().Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI .npSend PUSH 0 .CMP DWORD PTR [ESI]. except this function requires several more parameters.Abort Service Code MOV EAX.dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . .dData1 PUSH 0 . Listing 18.Next Service name . Valid name? .pData0 PUSH 0 .

Put .EDX still has the response exchange .pServiceName CALL GetExchange .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0]. Req04: .put .0 . . Error in EAX register . JMP ReqEnd .No JMP ReqEnd .Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 .Validate exchange MOV EDX. . EAX MOV EAX.EBX .Get . . [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob].No. AX MOV [EBX+RespExch].Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . . [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. .. [EBP+48] CMP EDX.Put .. EAX .ESI still has the exchange for the service . EAX MOV EAX.Yes.Yes. ESI MOV EAX. . Save the Previous FramePtr . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. . dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2].EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.Get .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX. .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.put . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No.EAX . EAX MOV EAX. . .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX. return error Req02: .put .. Sorry.ESP . EAX MMURTL V1. . .Get .Get .Get . Set up New FramePtr .Get . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch]. continue Yes. EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX.Put . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+56] . . ErcNoMoreRqBlks .Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB .put .

. . EBX . [EBP+44] MOV [EDI]. Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . . .Next <= NIL.0 . EBX MOV EDX..EBX DEC _nLBLeft .Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk . [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2]. RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi]. 2 CL.prgExch EAX. sEXCH EDX EDX. 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend]. EAX MOV EAX. MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX.[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB.Get pData2 .The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user.ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.put in RqBlk .Next . EAX MOV EAX. .EAX .Put npRecv in RqBlk .Data PUSH EAX .REQLB .ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX. .Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. EAX <= pFreeLB. Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO.MOV EAX.pFreeLB OR EAX. [EBP+40] CMP EAX.Give it to them . . pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) .EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX.it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. 0 .Must be 2 or less . EAX MOV EAX.ESI EDX. CL . . .EDX ESI.Get cbData2 . pLB^.. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].Leave in CL .EDX . Store zero in upper half of pLB^.put in RqBlk .Get cbData1 . . .Number of Send PbCbs . 0 . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. Save pLB on the stack . No interruptions from here on .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . AL [EBX+npRecv]. MOV [EAX+DataLo].At this point the RqBlk is all filled in. [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. . DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . . free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. AL CL. .Ptr to return handle to .The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it. .put in RqBlk . .

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the .ercOutOfRange . RETF 8 . in the EAX register. If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . return with erc no msg . pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored.ESP .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. . . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 . PUSH EBP . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . MOV ESI. Listing 18. .We can be interrupted again . return to the caller with error MOV EAX. address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories. .sEXCH . MOV EDX. the return to caller with error MOV EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . . .ESI .prgExch .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated.EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. . . CheckMsg kernel primitive code . MOV EBP.ercNoMsg MOV ESP.18. . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. POP EBP . . in the EAX register. . .ChkExchange .EDX .EAX .EBP . . MOV ESI.nExch . .18.ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. Exch => EAX MOV EBX. A result code is returned in the EAX register. message should be sent. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . . Chk01: MOV EAX. CheckMsg(exch. Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner]. As with WaitMsg().0 -270- . . Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. 0 . Procedureal Interface : . See listing 18. CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].pdqMsg):ercType . MOV ESP. Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return .REQLB MMURTL V1.

Offset to pData1 in RqBlk .dJobNum . dJobNum._AliasMem(pMem.Error?? .Second Pointer (pData2) .Yes .is pData1 NULL? .[EAX+DataLo] .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . continue .No. .JNE Chk04 ..Linear Address of pData1 . continue . MMURTL V1. .is cbData1 0? .Return Error.Set up params for AliasMem .pLB. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) . .Return Error. dcbMem. [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX. No. EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.Linear Address of PData1 .cbMem .Offset to pData2 in RqBlk . Treat it as a data link block .Make stack right .Save again . ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX.Yes . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP. . .. .is pData2 NULL? .pMem . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.No. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.Yes . Get pRqBlk into EBX .DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX.Restore ptr to Link Block .cbMem . EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. Save ptr to Link Block . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX.is cbData2 0? .[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX. . ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX.Now we set up to alias the memory for the service . Get pRqBlk into EBX . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.dJobNum .Yes . pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.Error?? . . .Set up params for AliasMem .0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS ..pMem . [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.Make stack right ..

19. or page fault. . For MMURTL version 1. The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. .EBX [EDX+4]. .[EAX+DataLo] ECX. . 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] .x.Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] . Get pLB^.8 for OS.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESP MOV EDX. fDebug. MOV pFreeLB.19. . In future versions.0 .Restore Ptr to Link Block .ErcOK! (0) .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . . . pFreeLB <= pLBin. stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. . Procedural interface: .ECX . and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation. EIP): dErcRet . The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs. CodeSeg.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . . ESP.[EAX+DataHi] EDX.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.pFreeLB . pLBin^.EBX .Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. . Priority. NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] . . XOR EAX.Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . NewTask(JobNum. INC _nLBLeft . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection.Next <= pFreeLB.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . Listing 18. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter. .Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX MOV ESP.EAX . .Data in specified memory space (EDX) . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. .pCkMessage [EDX]. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. nPRI-1 MMURTL V1. STI . Exch. NewTask kernel primitive code . See listing 18. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in.

NTS_EIP . .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3]. .Restore pNewTSS to EAX .put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX. 0 MMURTL V1.ercOutOfRange NTEnd .EBX EBX. [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS. ECX.JBE NT0000 MOV EAX. NTS_ESP .pFreeTSS OR EAX. NTS_Exch ECX.get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Put pJCB into TSS .EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.Set up to call GetpJCB .EBX .mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].ECX MOV EBX.mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP]. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.CX .Set up to call LinToPhy . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS].we can't be interrupted .ECX now has pJCB .No.0 .EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg.EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].. ECX. .EAX now has pJCB . .Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch].0202h .Get Physical Address for PD into EAX . nExch NT0001 EAX.Next .Exch in range? PUSH EAX . .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI .Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX.Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.DL . NTS_CS . ECX . .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority]..Save pNewTSS again .Save pNewTSS .pNewTSS into EAX .

SpawnTask(pEntry.Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX. . As with NewTask(). dPriority.Get priority of new task CLI . See listing 18.EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space. .New TSS -> EAX .EAX MOV BX. pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] .JE NT0004 .Yes . . .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.pRunTSS .BL .Jump to new TSS .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX .Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority]. SpawnTask kernel primitive code . .ErcOk MMURTL V1. pStack. . Procedural Interface: .ercOk JMP NTEnd . NTS_Pri .New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . fOSCode).Move new TSS into pRunTSS . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. . .EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP. . Listing 18. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.20. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it.Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .CrntTSS -> EAX.20. It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs. fDebug. 1 NT0004: MOV EBX.We can't be interrupted MOV EDX. .Save time of this switch for scheduler .Save New TSS . New TSS -> EDX .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.

. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . . .EBX MOV EBX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.Debug on entry? JE ST0004 . . NewTSSST.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].Priority OK? . OSCodeSel . EAX .two local DWORD vars . [EBX+TSS_CR3] . .see if we got an error .EDX MOV EDX.pFreeTSS OR EAX.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS . . 8 CMP dPriST.pEntryST .EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .we can't be interrupted .EDX .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.EBX MOV EBX.0202h .Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].ercNoMoreTSSs .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].ESP SUB ESP.Save new TSS EBX.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Allocate exchange .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX. 0 .Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST. pRunTSS MOV EDX.EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.0 . bad news . JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX. EAX JNZ STEnd . 1 . pStackST .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. JobCodeSel . .. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].Next . .No. NewExchST .Yup.

nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner].we can't be interrupted . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES).BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.prgExch MOV ECX. .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. Listing 18.CrntTSS -> EAX. It is property of a Job (not a task).0 . .ESP XOR ESI.Move new TSS into pRunTSS . . New TSS -> EDX . Allocate exchange code .mov priority into BL .Jump to new TSS . See listing 18. AllocExch(pExchRet):dError . 0 MMURTL V1. .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . .New TSS -> EAX .21. Zero the Exch Index . . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Get number of exchanges in ECX .Return to caller .ErcOk . just put new guy on Q.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . . EBX <= ADR rgExch .EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority]. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. . .put in TSS .Old guy does.MOV EBX.EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. Procedural Interface : .ESI MOV EBX.EAX MOV BX.Save time of this switch for scheduler .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. returned. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.New TSS -> Stack . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange.Who got the highest Pri? .If crnt >. .Get who's running . The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages.21.EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() . .ercOk .BL CLI MOV EDX. . New guy does (lowest num) .Place crnt TSS on Q .pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority]. .

. . Messages are deQueued. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. MMURTL V1.22. .pRunTSS . Stats XOR EAX. .0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: .22. and link blocks.0 .[EAX+Owner] EBX. . . POP EBP . JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. This function has a lot more to do.ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. . DEC _nEXCHLeft . Those link blocks may also contain requests.EAX EDX. DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType .pRunTSS EBX. .[EBP+0CH] EAX.EBP . Make the Exch owner the Job STI .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX. . See listing 18. it may have left over link blocks hanging on it. .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner].[EDX+TSS_pJCB] . Listing 18. .sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector. RETF 4 .0 . .ESI .ESI EDX. If we found a Free Exch. TSSs. . . however.EAX . Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange.sEXCH EDX EDX.[EBP+0CH] . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead].EDX . Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. . .prgExch EAX.EAX . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). Deallocate exchange code . . and request blocks are freed up as necessary. . .JE AE001 ADD EBX. PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . .EDX ECX. . Procedural Interface : . .

INC _nTSSLeft . JUMP MOV ESI.Next <= pFreeLB. pTSSin^. 0 . . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. 0 . Nothing there. INC _nEXCHLeft .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. Go free the Exch. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 .pFreeTSS . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . Free up the exchange.only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow . Go And Check for more. JMP DE000 .EBX . CLI .JE DE000 CMP EBX. if not owner. Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . INC _nLBLeft . yes .EBP . pFreeLB <= pLBin. EAX JZ DE002 .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. .EAX .0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. MMURTL V1.ercNotOwner MOV ESP. No. Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.Next <= pFreeTSS.with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. NIL = Empty.0 . pLBin^. is this the OS??? . Stats STI . RETF 4 . These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface.instructions or a service crashes! . .pFreeLB . CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . ECX . 0 . Reset msg Flag. XOR EAX. yes . Get the TSS off of the Exchange . . MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. Go And Check for more.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . 0 . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. See listing 18. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. .EBX . ECX . JMP DE001 .23. POP EBP . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. MOV pFreeLB.EAX . DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead].EAX . Yes.

ErcOK . RETF 4 .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUBLIC __SetPriority . GetTSS exchange code . [EAX+TSS_Exch] .ESP . SetPriority . to the priority specified in the single parameter. the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. MOV EBP. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .No error. . See listing 18. RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. returned. Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. This doesn't really affect the kernel. bPriority is a byte with the new priority. .[EBP+0CH] . MOV EBP. . PUSH EBP . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. . BL . . POP EBP . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. ErcOK POP EBP .[EBP+0CH] . . Procedural Interface : .23. Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. MMURTL V1. If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority.24.pRunTSS .pRunTSS . PUSH EBP . GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). 01Fh . . Set priority code . SetPriority(bPriority):dError . . EAX . PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: .24 Listing 18. . EAX . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution.EBX .This sets the priority of the task that called it . . MOV EAX.Put it in the TSS XOR EAX.ESP . Procedural Interface : .Listing 18. Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. MOV EAX.

Get the MOV DL. See listing 18. RETF 4 . Get the MOV EBX. MOV EBP.ESP . . ErcOK POP EBP . PUSH EBP . Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. Get priority code . . SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . XOR EAX.0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . . BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. .This gets the priority of . priority returned. . DL .25. EAX . . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error. MMURTL V1. Listing 18. Procedural Interface : . PUBLIC __GetPriority . GetPriority .pRunTSS . bPriorityret is a pointer to a . MOV EAX. and passes it to bPriorityRet.[EBP+0CH] .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task.25.

0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS .INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h . Memory management constants and data .2048 bytes = 64Mb . The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.INC . 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .INC . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .1 bit/4Kbytes .System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections.We alloc the "next" page table .User Readable (Code) .1. Listing 19.INCLUDE JOB. The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt .INCLUDE MOSEDF.CODE command. The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access. MMURTL V1. Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode.Chapter 19.DATA .INCLUDE TSS.User Writable . page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs).ASM. Listing 19. I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.User Writable (Data) . the code section must start with the .Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language.Page Allocation Map . The task state segments are also used extensively. As with all assembler files for DASM. I call these internal support code. It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.Max is 2048 (64Mb) .Default to 1 MB .1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).Number of free physical pages left .

and makes PTEs. .top of 2 megs (for DWORD) .Yes.NO! .OUT: .Set it to zero intially . Listing 19.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX]. EAX .0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].EAX SUB EAX. Now you must fill in bits used by OS.USED: . EAX CALL MarkPage .See if we got it back OK . which was just loaded.'mrtl' test string value for memory .1FFFFCh XOR EBX.Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed.Supervisor.2.Are we above 64 megs . oMemMax must be last byte . OFFSET pTbl1 .InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory.2. Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM. Present MOV EBX. 32 CMP EAX. We assume 1MB to start.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.3.EBX MOV ECX.3 MOV _oMemMax. The code in listing 19.3 ADD EAX.Next Meg . 0001h . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. Its the law! Listing 19.Another megs worth of pages . Memory management initialization code .Next table entry MMURTL V1. by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.Yes! . .3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . 0FFFFF000h . EAX . PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX.Read test string into EBX . neither of which you consider free.Increase PAM by another meg .IN: .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .Move in test string . which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh).100000h ADD _nPagesFree. See listing 19.1 Mb of pages = 256 .Make it the last DWord again . you have. 256 ADD sPAM. MOV EDX.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. in megabytes.ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX. It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX. Continuation of memory management init.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . 256 MOV EAX.Set oMemMax .ECX MOV EBX. 4 .

1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . go back for more .6. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX .Set paging bit ON CR0.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 .Store in Control Reg 3 EAX. and then writing it again. nor can I provide instructions to everyone. Listing 19.5.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots. See listing 19. 4096 . See listing 19. .ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory.Next page please CMP EAX.Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1.Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 . 0FFFFF000h . 4 . SHL 2) . Turning on paged memory management EAX. EDX. The initial page directory and the page table are static.Physical address of OS page directory CR3. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used. EAX.Next PTE entry ADD EAX. The routine in listing 19. 100000h . EAX . ANDing it with 8000000h. C0000h –FFFFFh. 80000000h . then reading CR0. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses.No.EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . but I can't be sure everyone can do it.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . EBX. Continuation of memory management init. CR0 . This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX]. 4096 EAX.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . Now we can go into paged memory mode. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. EBX. EDX. OFFSET PDir1 . EAX .Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage .Get Control Reg 0 EAX. 0101b . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte.Make it index (SHR 12.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) . Several chip sets on the market. such as the 82C30 C&T.5. EAX .Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX.4. EAX . Listing 19.

Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD. I'm afraid. sPAM DEC EAX .Where we are in PAM . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. MemExch . PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage . OFFSET pNextPT .Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch . . Listing 19. This reduces nPagesFree by one. Allocation of memory management exchange . This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated.0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .IN : .8.0FFh . Get 'em! RETN .8.7. MMURTL V1.No EAX.Done initializing memory managment .EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. See listing 19.no memory left. See listing 19.All 8 pages used? FHP2 .USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn . Listing 19. Of course. PUSH 1 . Find highest physical page code . FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. or 0 if error EBX. assuming that you will allocate it. LEA EAX.7. 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it. Finishing memory management init.6.Page Allocation Map .OUT : .Listing 19. OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX... It also marks the page as used. 0 .

EAX SHL EBX.DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX. we must call UnMarkPage to release it.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX.0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX.IN : . EBX FHPf EBX.At the bottom of the Byte? .9.Set page in use . assuming that you will allocate it. EAX . See listing 19.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.Next bit . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.9. .Start at first byte in PAM . . or 0 if error EBX.OUT : . 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 . sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .Back for next byte ...No . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX.. Once again. .Set the bit indexed by EBX . 3 ADD EBX. This reduces nPagesFree by one.Another Byte lower .All 8 pages used? . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller. .Error (BAD CPU???) .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it. Find lowest physical page code .\ Listing 19.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . 7 XOR EDX. It also marks the page as used.0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX. EDX MOV DL. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX.no memory left.Test bits .Add page number in byte . DL SHL EAX.Another Byte lower .Are we past at TOP of PAM? ..One less available .Get the byte with a whole in it.Page Allocation Map .FOUND ONE! (goto found) .

12 .Get the byte into DL BTS EDX. Listing 19. 3 ADD EBX.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].IN : .One less available .Set the bit indexed by EBX . EDX MOV DL. DL SHL EAX. . This reduces nPagesFree by one. OFFSET rgPAM .One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.10.FOUND ONE! (goto found) . 8 FLPn FLP3 . This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function. MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use.OUT : . DL . 0FFFFF000h . See listing 19.Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree .Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX.Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX.Add page number in byte .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .. EBX XOR EDX. [EAX+ECX] .10.Error (BAD CPU???) . .Next bit .0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX FLPf EBX EBX.XOR EBX. 07h .Page Allocation Map AND EBX.End of the Byte? .ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX.Get the byte with a whole in it. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX. EAX SHL EBX. Code to mark a physical page in use .. 15 . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX. EBX SHR ECX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL. . 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX.Test bits . EBX .BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX].Set page in use .

. Listing 19. INPUT: EAX -. EBX MOV [EAX]. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages.Linear address .Physical Address . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1. This function supports the similarly named public routine.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM . . DMA operations. DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN . 12 AND EBX.12. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again.BitReset instruction .Page Allocation Map .ECX is now byte offset into PAM . EFlags . 07h ADD EAX. 15 SHR EBX.POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address. . Code to convert linear to physical addresses . . See listing 19. EBX SHR ECX. EBX -. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. See listing 19. ESI.0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS . .IN : .Round down to page modulo . EBX. Code to free a physical page for reuse .12. etc.11.11.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX.Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . Listing 19. This increases nPagesFree by one. ECX MOV DL. USED: EAX.OUT : . ESI -. This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. OUTPUT: EAX -. [EAX] BTR EDX.

EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . USED: EAX.Leaves pJCB in EAX . 003FFFFFh SHR EBX.13. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables.Copy number of pages to ECX. 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. 00000FFFh OR EAX. EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. EBX MOV EDX. in which case we return 0.EAX now has ptr to PD! . .Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. IN : EAX .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .Save Linear . . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX. 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1.mask off lower 12 . This is either at address base 0 for the operating system. Listing 19. See listing 19.Move to shadow addresses in PD . OUT: EAX .13.Get original linear . or the 1Gb address mark for the user. EBX MOV EAX.Save it again . Save in EBX . EAX MOV EAX. . The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist.*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow .Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. EAX MOV ESI.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . Code to find a free run of linear memory . [EBX] AND EAX. EBX .Get rid of upper 10 bits .Get original linear back in EBX .get rid of lower 12 to make it an index .EAX now has Linear of Page Table .0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBX now points to Page Table entry! . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI. 12 SHL EBX. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. 2048 SHR EBX.Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .Save this address for caller .Physical base of page is in EAX .Index into shadow addresses from EAX . 2 ADD EBX. This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing.*4 makes it byte offset in PT .Index into PD for PT we are working on . 22 SHL EBX. EBX RETN FindRun . EBX . .ESI now has ptr to PD . 2 ADD EBX.Address of PD saved here . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS.Keeps count of how many free found so far .PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX.EBX/EAX now points to shadow . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.

go INC MOV JMP FROK: .This is the linear address we ended at .One less page (0 offset) . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . . keep testing . FR1: XOR EAX. See listing 19.Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .EAX is next 10 bits of LA .EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. .Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. Next PTE Please. . and the count of pages should be in EBX. . EBX . SHL EDX. The linear address of the run should be in EAX. The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. 12 OR EAX. [ESI+EDX*4] .Yes.Are we past last PTE of this PT? .EBX still has count of pages. go for it XOR EAX.In use .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 .PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . This is the way FindRun left them.If . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4]. Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.Not empty.If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and .No.EDX was index into PD. .14.empty (available) . . 12 SUB EAX. next PTE please ECX. or tables. .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . .we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. if the run spans two or more tables.From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX . EAX. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. while EAX was index into PT. 22 SHL EAX.The starting linear address is equal to number of the last . 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 .MOV EDI.We found enough entries goto OK . EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. EAX . .Not done yet.Next PT! . .Times size of page (* 4096) . EDI .One more empty one! .Zero means it's .EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system.Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 .

Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).14.Offset to shadow address of PD .See if it's a user page . .EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) .Set PTE to present. .Yes. . 10 AR0: MOV EDI. EDX. 4 . IN : . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX.No. CMP EDX. next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS . User ReadOnly .Get index into PD for first PT .Restore linear address . OUT: .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. THEN store it in PT.EDX . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. . 2048 ADD ESI.EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . EDX MOV EDX. . EDI is pointing the next PT.LinAdd to EDX .Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) .SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.(save for caller) .At this point. EBX .then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER . AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. MEMSYS CMP EAX.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .ESI now has ptr to PD! .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX.Make it index to DWORDS . Adding a run of linear memory .0 . go do next PTE ADD ESI. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX.LinAdd into EDX again . .Listing 19.Next PTE please. 4 .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . 003FF000h SHR EDX. EAX AND EDX. . 4096 . .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . .and OR in the appropriate control bits.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . . EBX EAX 22 2 .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . USED: . EDX. [ESI] . ARDone: MMURTL V1. EDX.

EDX. EBX Number of Pages to alias . . this is the way FindRun left them. Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span.or tables. The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. . 8 MOV AliasLin. . . .ESP SUB ESP. .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. EDX. . . if the run spans two or more tables . EFlags . ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. and the count of pages should be in EBX. Adding an aliased run of linear memory . . AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table .POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun . .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS .(save for caller) . EBX EAX 22 2 . IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . USED: EAX. ESI MOV AliasJob. (from find run) .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1.we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX.15.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . OUT: Nothing . . .15.LinAdd to EDX . See listing 19.adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Get index into PD for first PT . EDX. Once again. Listing 19.Make it index to DWORDS . .

AliasLin ADD AliasLin.EDX is index to exact entry .Set system bits as ALIAS .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . [ESI] . EAX AND EDX.Next PTE please. . . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. 003FF000h SHR EDX.EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . .ESI now points to first PT of interest .Job we are aliasing .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) . AliasJob MOV EBX.Restore linear address .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI. EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.At this point.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . EDX MOV EDX. MOV ESP.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Start at the entry 0 of next PT . ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX.This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE. go do next PTE . . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX.Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) . 4 XOR EDX.EAX now has physical address for this page .Set up for next loop (post increment) .No.LinAdd into EDX again . . . .Address we are aliasing . . . 10 ALR0: MOV EDI.Are we done?? . 2048 ADD ESI. .POP EAX ADD ESI. 0FFFFF000h OR EAX. .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1. . AND EAX. .Yes.cut off system bits of PTE . to get a physical address into EAX.Offset to shadow addresses in PD .mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT. MEMALIAS POP ESI . next PDE (to get next PT) .Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . 4 CMP EDX.

out of physical mem . and sticks it in the user's page directory.16.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .EAX will have Physical address . This is easier than AddOSPT.ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD . PUSH ESI . Is it empty? . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . EAX MOV ESI. _nPagesFree OR EAX. AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . 4 MOV EBX. . This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs.ESI now points to PD . [EDI] ADD ESI. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . initializes it.Linear add back into EBX . 2048 MOV ECX. No! (Try again) . Adding a page table for user memory . MEMUSERD [ESI].Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . This will be in user address space above 1GB. See listing 19.Offset to PcbPD in JCB .(save for caller) PUSH ECX .Set user bits (Read/Write) .16.Move to shadow . as shown in the following.Physical address in lower half . Next possible empty entry .Sorry. PUSH EDI . EFlags . . USED: EAX. 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI.AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX.EDI points to UserPD Address .no free phy pages!) . .Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. PUSH EDX . Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow).pJCB in EAX . MOV EAX. EBX . Listing 19. EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . 2048 EBX. IN : Nothing . ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . JcbPD ADD EDI. Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. . pNextPT [ESI]. .See if have enuf physical memory . EAX ESI. [ESI] OR EBX. Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code. .

. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.size of request . Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . in many cases.next time. . . ESI points to OS Pdir . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. out of physical mem .Sorry. EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT.EAX will have Physical address . _nPagesFree OR EAX. Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. Listing 19.17. MOV EAX. it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .0 . See listing 19. PUSH EDX . . PUSH ESI . . You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in.no free phy pages!) . .was there an error (0 means no mem) .17. USED: EAX. 1 XOR EAX. EFlags . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.OS Job Number (Monitor) . . PUSH EDI . OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX. Adding an operating system page table .Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for .AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error .save pNextPT (the linear address) . Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow). 511 MMURTL V1. EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX.(save for caller) PUSH ECX ..PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .See if have enuf physical memory . . IN : Nothing . Find first empty slot MOV ESI. AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . 1 MOV EBX. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .

Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all.Source EAX .Save values on stack MOV EDX. [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX. 2048 MOV EBX.Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . 2048 .Move to shadow . .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX . . EBX .Get values from stack ADD EBX. EAX ADD ESI.Next JCB .Destination 1024 .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) .Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX.Source of Copy . . # of dynamic JCBs . .Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) . JcbPD MOV EBX. . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . 2048 .Set present bit . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX.AOPT02: ADD ESI. Next possible empty entry . . Not a valid JCB (unused) .0 . . Is it empty? .Physical address in lower half . [ESI] OR EBX.EAX now has pointer to a job's PD . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . Get back JCB number .No.Linear add back into EBX . 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1.Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX. ESI EAX Get and . 4 MOV EBX.Save nJCB we are on . pNextPT MOV [ESI].EAX NOW points to PD of JCB . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX . The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI].Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.

DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. else 0 if all's well . ESI. EBX. EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX.save pNextPT (the linear address) . Listing 19. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number.18. DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . IN: AX . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. . allowing access to OS procedures. . See listing 19. . . ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . . .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . ECX.AddRun .Set ErcOK (0) .. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . OUT: EAX Returns Errors.next time. USES: EAX. EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate.was there an error (0 means no mem) . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition.size of request . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . Adding a call gate to the GDT . . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS .18.At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . 1 XOR EAX. EFLAGS MMURTL V1. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. . .

Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. SI . 3 ADD EDX. . AX MOV EAX.Put Gate ID into gate . EAX . MOV EAX. Listing 19.0 . . MOV EAX. 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6].19.make index vice selector CMP EBX. . 16 . ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX].Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) .Put Offset 15:00 into gate . CX SUB EBX.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. IN: .19. CX SHL EDX. ECX.Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. . SI . . OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4]. 40h . CX .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. See listing 19. . EBX. .see if too high! JBE AddCG02 .not too low. GDTBase . 3 . .Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . . the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX.sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. 40 . for a task gate. interrupt. .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercBadGateNum .call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 . AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. nCallGates . ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX. AX .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. BX MMURTL V1. 8 . .No.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX.Put Offset 31:16 into gate .Extend INT Num into EDX .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . USES: AX . ESI. EDX. or task gate. .EDX now points to gate . Adding entries to the IDT .Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. AX SHR EAX. RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap.Yes.

but not close enough to easily combine their code.Yes .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS . we add another page table to the operating-system page directory. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit . Listing 19. Allocating a page of linear memory .n4KPages XOR EAX. See listing 19. . . Allocate each physical page. PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .ppMemRet): dError .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .No Error! EAX.n4KPages EAX.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. . . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.See if have enuf physical memory . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space.0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX.These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] . This allows runs to span table entries. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. A result code is returned in the EAX register.(0 = No Runs big enuf) . pRunTSS ADD EAX.Yes .EAX ALOSP00 EAX. EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 . . we're maxed out EAX.20.size of request . Procedureal Interface : . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. .Kernel Error?? . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate.Sorry boss. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage.RETF . ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request.Yes! Serious problem. The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree.20. .If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1.More than 0? . The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.size of request .Can't be zero! .

POP EBP . This wastes no physical memory. EAX . . This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around. . POP EAX . See if they are available. dJobNum.21.pMem EQU [EBP+24] .Go back & try again .ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] . . Even if the address is only two bytes. however . If so. dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access.ERROR!! .Does not return error . . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. ppAliasRet): dError . MMURTL V1. . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . Listing 19. .No error ALOSPExit: . pMem is the address to alias.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun .Save last error PUSH MemExch .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . Exit. you need two pages. No alias is needed. RETF 8 . Procedureal Interface : . .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed. EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: .Add a new page table (we need it!) . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . .dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] .0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbMem. ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. Code to alias memory . .EBP . ppMemRet . .EAX now has linear address .CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. EAX . AliasMem(pMem. PUSH EAX . if it crosses page boundaries.Only an entry in a table.EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space.See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) .

Are they the same Page Directory?? . We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX.OS Job? .EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough . .Number of pages we need into EBX . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX.Yes. 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.Get Job number for pMem .OS Job? .0h JNE ALSPDone .EAX is 256 for user space. No Error .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX .EAX is nPages-1 . ECX CALL FindRun . 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .0 . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. EAX. .Yes .Puts Current Job Num in EAX . EAX ECX.No. 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX. .Exit.PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.See if it is OS based service . . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. EAX. User memory . 0 for OS .Yes .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .No.EBX still has count of pages OR EAX. alias it . we're done ALSPBegin: . .Save nPages in ECX .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .See if it is OS based service . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. [EBP+24] . pRunTSS ADD EAX.Was there enough PTEs? .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] .Yes . EAX.EAX has 0 or 256 .Now wait our turn with memory management .pMem into EAX 0FFFh .dcbMem EBX . .Yes! Serious problem. .Add to dcbMem 12 .Kernel Error?? .Set up for OS memory space . EAX JMP ALSPDone . [EBP+16] CMP EAX. EAX. . EBX. .

Save last error . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP. Listing 19. . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun .Set . PUSH EAX .Now. EDI EAX. 0FFFh EDI.ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX . dcbAliasBytes. EAX MOV ESI.Address to alias . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call.pAliasRet . See listing 19. .We are done ALSPExit: .Set to 0 (no error) .22. .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing .Save alias page address base . DeAliasMem(pAliasMem.original pMem . . EAX . Procedureal Interface : . PUSH MemExch . JobNum):ercType . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time.Returned address to caller! . .EAX . Code to remove alias PTEs .0 = NO Error .22.Get remaining bits . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: .and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX.Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . .ERROR!! . EAX ESI. pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" . [EBP+24] EAX. take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. . [EBP+12] [ESI]. dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1. [EBP+24] MOV EDX.Go back & try again .Job number .

[EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .See if PTE is an alias. EAX MOV [ESI].We dealiased what we could.Next linear page .and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS). . DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 . it's page is present . if so just ZERO PTE.NO! (did we do any at all) . .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.Address of next page to deallocate . .We did some.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX. [EBP+20] .Yes.dcbAliasBytes .If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias . . 12 .0 .Add to dcbMem EAX. EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .Is page present (valid)??? . .None at all! . [ESI] TEST EBX.ECX . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP. . EBX .EBP MMURTL V1.ESP .but less than you asked for! ECX..EAX is nPages-1 EAX . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.Get PTE into EBX . .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX.pMem into EAX EBX.dcbMem EAX. EDI DALM011 EAX. XOR EAX. [EBP+16] .Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) . ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX.pAliasMem . PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .so we zero out the page.DO not zero it! . 0FFFh .NO .Linear Mem to DeAlias . EDX MOV EAX. .ZERO PTE entry .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .Is page an ALIAS? . EAX .Add the remainder of address EAX. [EBP+20] .Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX.

deallocate. . .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. because we deallocate 4K pages. . providing it is valid.23.23.Is page present (valid)??? . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias.0 . .Yes! . The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .Address of next page to deallocate . [ESI] TEST EBX. See listing 19.Wait at the MemExch for Msg . It will always free linear memory. .POP EBP RETF 12 .Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy . . pRunTSS ADD EAX.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem. its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS .Number of pages to deallocate . Even if you specify more pages than are valid. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Procedureal Interface : .See if PTE is an alias. n4KPages):ercType .and pointer to PTE in ESI.Error?? . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. . Listing 19. . . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) .Now we have Physical Address in EAX .Get PTE into EBX . pOrigMem AND EDX.Linear Mem to deallocate . Deallocating linear memory . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be .Yes. pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . . . if so just ZERO PTE. DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls.else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX.

ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX.24. You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system.get Memory error back . Listing 19.CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .NO! (did we do any at all) .so we must unmark (release) the physical page.. Procedureal Interface : .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . .We did some. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.None at all! MOV EAX. EAX ADD EDX. . . so next guy can get in . Code to find number of free pages .We deallocated what we could. . .save Memory error .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias . 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP.Is page an ALIAS? . it's an Alias .Kernel error has priority . EAX MOV [ESI]. .Next linear page .get rid of OS bits .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.Yes. See listing 19. 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. AND EBX. over memory error .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . . . ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX.Send a dummy message to pick up . Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left.but less than you asked for! .24. .ZERO PTE entry .

[EBP+16] MOV EAX.pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . pPhyRet):ercType . . Linear Address .ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI.No Error . This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. EAX MOV ESP.JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . See listing 19. EAX EAX. . left available returned . . be returned . .LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . Listing 19. Job Number . _nPagesFree [ESI]. .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. GetPhyAdd(JobNum. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . . [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. . EAX XOR EAX. EAX . pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.END OF CODE MMURTL V1. MOV ESP. . . .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . pPhyRet . pMemLeft EAX. No Error . LinAdd. PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . ..ESP MOV EBX. .25. Procedureal Interface : .25. . . Public for linear to physical conversion .

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testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. But even with these calculations. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR.Chapter 20. I experimented with several different intervals. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter.2 percent. however. actually the scheduler. which is very conservative. The average really depends on program loading. The average is was far less. etc. as well as the fastest one possible. my worries were unfounded. MMURTL is no exception.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. preemptive multitasking. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386.6 percent for the worst case. I ended up with 10ms. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions.1. Even more important than total bandwidth. memory wait-states. Listing 20. Somewhere between these two was the average. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period.2 percent of available bandwidth.1. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. Two of them will come in at 260us. I was consuming less than 0. which works out to about 1. In a 10ms period we have 200. See listing 20. or 3000 clocks. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. As you well know. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. Back when I started this project.. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. A single communications channel running at 19. divided by the total clocks for the same period. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. It was 0. especially synchronous. It's at the end of the timer ISR. with 100-MHz machines around. was the effect on interrupt latency. along with a piece of the kernel. a slow machine.

See listing 20. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long .2. and finally with test programs. . SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 .DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 . This I could live with.320 clocks.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 . and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet.INC . The Timer Block is a structure that contains .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. Data and constants for timer code .Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. including the 10 percent overhead. PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 .Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup).DD 00000000h . The real worst case would probably be more like 150us.ALIGN DWORD . A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium. TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16. Listing 20. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time.0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . This doesn't cause a problem at all. These are the offsets into the structure .2. The odds of this are truly astronomical. the exchange number of a task that is sleeping.2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.DATA . Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions.INCLUDE MOSEDF.INC . But. . The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . or one that has requested an alarm.INCLUDE TSS. that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt. or 20us.

You have now interrupted that task. you switch to it.No.nTmrBlks CLD .ISend Message MOV EAX. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require. If so.INTS are disabled automatically .ASM.Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do. It is a small.Yes . yet very important part. .EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . priority than the task that is now running.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. At all times on the system.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS . -1 . The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it.Yes . we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Listing 20.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism.0h . If it is the same or higher. The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches.save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] .Yes! .ASM.ECX has count of Timer Blocks . You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more.Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 . Listing 20. See listing 20.3.No .Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . or higher. See listing 20.4.No . only one task is actually executing. INT 20 . The three external near calls.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX . It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. They may have been placed there by other ISRs. which is the one you interrupted.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR .Timer Tick. allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel.3.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 .4. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs. the first things defined in this code segment. The timer interrupt service routine . External functions for timer code . and they may be of an equal. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.goto decrement it PUSH EAX . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX... The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds.FALSE .

dfHalted OR EAX. EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX. ESI CALL enQueueRdy .YES..get count back POP EAX . his .No. JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone .Is this from a HALTed state? . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.Compare current pri to highest queued .10ms more gone.Is there one at all?? .Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) . no need to check tasks .switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri .keep going .If current is higher(lower num). MMURTL V1.Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg . MOV EBX. [ESI+Priority] CMP DL. Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .unless were done .Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ .PUSH EAX .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . SUB EAX. Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. we want to Switch.current pri.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches . That means .or Equal.bogus msg PUSH EAX . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .We will now check to see if this guy has been running . .number was higher and we DON'T .empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. we will . and save in EDI . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI..next block please! . pRunTSS MOV DL.is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX.Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 .for more then 30ms (3 ticks).skip decrement . If so.BX .DL is pri of current .Change this to change the "time slice" . EAX ..EDI . Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX..[EDI+Tid] . Put current one in EAX .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed . TimerTick .get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. EAX JZ TaskCheckDone .FALSE . If the Queued Pri is LOWER .0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS .tell him his times up! POP ECX . CMP EAX. Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick. MOV ESI. PUSH 0 ..if we got a CARRY on the subtract. and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS.

Sleep() .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX.0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .nTmrBlks .all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX. MOV EAX.sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.EBX .Count of timer blocks CLD .put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX . The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.5.rgTmrBlks .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .TRUE . 0 .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.Must do this before we switch! .Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . Listing 20. IRETD .No . DelayCnt CMP EAX. MOV EBP. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].DelayCnt .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .goto next block MOV EBX. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero. Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .FALSE . out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP.ESP .EBP . This requires an exchange. PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP . See listing 20. .FAR return from publics MMURTL V1. RETF 4 .Sorry.Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].ErcNoMoreTBs .[ECX+TSS_Exch] .Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.unless were done MOV EAX. The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.TSS_Msg .Empty block? JNE Delay02 . TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD .EBX . POP EBP .5.pRunTSS .ErcOk . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].

Listing 20.Sorry. Alarm(nAlarmExch. Procedural Interface: .sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX.It's OK to interrupt now EAX. out of timer blocks . Code for the Alarm function .ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP. 0 .No .FALSE .Count of timer blocks CLD .Get delay count [EAX+CountDown]. .all is well Alarm03 . See listing 20. -312- RICHARD A BURGESS . AlarmCnt):dErc . The message is not repeatable. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel.Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .rgTmrBlks .ErcOk .TRUE .ESP . AlarmCnt CMP EAX. DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].6.6.unless were done . MMURTL V1. All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.put it in timer block! .0 .clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP .EBX .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. It must be set up each time. AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . See listing 20. AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].Empty block? Alarm02 . . The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each. MOV EBP. nothing will stop it.7. MOV EAX.AlarmCnt .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.It's OK to interrupt now . KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.EBX .goto next block EBX.See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.Up the blocksInUse count EBX. which means the message has already been sent. .nTmrBlks .

Procedural Interface: .goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.Get exchange for killing alarms to . Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1.sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX. Code for the KillAlarm function . Code for the MicrDelay function .FALSE .ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.It's OK to interrupt now .Listing 20.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. .7. .EAX MOV ESP. KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc . Listing 20. See listing 20. The count is in 15us increments.Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled. This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port. . The task is actually not suspended at all. which drives the processor clock. But it's still very much needed.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. .EBX . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS .Block in use? KAlarm02 .KAlarmExch LEA EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator. .clear direction flag . KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] .No .Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed .TRUE .No blocks in use .8.8.Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX.Count of timer blocks .ErcOk .ALl done -. This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds).unless were done . so we get out! .EAX points to timer blocks .0 . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers.nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC . . 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX. PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally. . 10h CMP AH. AL SHL EBX.0 .Toggle! Move to AH for next compare . 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL.AL SHL EBX. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. . See listing 20. the next byte is the minutes in BCD.71h MOV BL. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.No toggle yet .check refrest bit .ESP MOV ECX.Get delay count .AL MOV ESI.9.MOV EBP.02h OUT 70h. . EBX MMURTL V1.9. [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.Check toggle of bit .Minutes . AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.71h MOV BL.get out if they came in with 0! . 8 MOV EAX.Clear time return .00h OUT 70h. 8 MOV EAX.04h OUT 70h.Hours . Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.AL IN AL. Listing 20. the next byte is the Hours in BCD.AL IN AL. and the high order byte is 0.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS . 61h AND AL.Get system status port . Code to read the CMOS time .AL IN AL.71h MOV BL.ESP XOR EBX. . .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI]. .Seconds . EAX MOV ESP. EBX MOV EAX.

AL IN AL. AL SHL EBX.AL IN AL. Procedural Interface: .Year . No Error .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror . 8 MOV EAX. MOV EBP. .71h MOV BL.71h MOV BL. EBX . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12). No Error .06h OUT 70h. .0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS .AL SHL EBX.Day of month . 0-6 0=Sunday).10.AL IN AL. .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . . 8 MOV EAX. XOR EBX.ESP .71h MOV BL.Clear date return MOV EAX.Day of week .AL MOV ESI.71h MOV BL. EBX XOR EAX.AL IN AL.09h OUT 70h.Month .07h OUT 70h. . AL SHL EBX. EAX MOV ESP. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. EAX MOV ESP. 8 MOV EAX. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99). pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). . pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP . . Code to read the CMOS date .10. See listing 20. GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.Give 'em the time .08h OUT 70h. MMURTL V1. Listing 20.XOR EAX.

With a 10ms interval.11. Listing 20.ESP MOV ESI. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() .000 ticks per month. .193182Mhz . The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. . EDX MOV EAX. this amounts to 262. . Because it is a dword. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h.Timer 2.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . pTickRet MOV EAX.193182 Mhz .DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) .12. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep(). pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. AL XOR EDX.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS . .This does all work for BEEP and TONE . See listing 20. 10110110b OUT 43h. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. LSB. AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h. is used to generate tones. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror .11. Binary .1.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. which is connected to the system internal speaker. 61h MMURTL V1. Hardware timer number 2. divide 1. The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). EAX XOR EAX. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1.No Error .193182Mhz by Desired Freq.To find the divisor of the clock. The procedural interface: .12. AL MOV AL. Code to return the timer tick . . . MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down. See listing 20. Listing 20. MSB. . The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. AL IN AL. .800. TimerTick MOV [ESI].0 .

.13.Freq . .ESP MOV EBX. . . 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. Listing 20. MMURTL V1. Code to produce a beep . if it had.14.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. AL PUSH ECX . . 11111100b OUT 61h. . 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. . 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h.OR AL. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier.14. Listing 20. 800 MOV ECX. CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. I couldn't resist. Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq. . (Sorry. Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. See listing 20.13. AL RETN Beep() .0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS . .ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs.350ms . . Code to produce a tone . I would have called it Beep_Beep(). Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. See listing 20.

ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 . . . MMURTL V1.PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. ToneFreq MOV ECX.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP MOV EBX.

Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files. In chapter 7. a workhorse for Main. The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical.ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. Initial OS Page Directory (PD). OS Global Data Listing 21. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL .INC . Main Operating System Data . and I don't worry about the rest of it. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process. It is the entry point in the operating system. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS.See MOSEDF. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. Listing 21. The assembler does no alignment on its own.INC for structure details. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) . The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary.ASM. “OS Initialization.0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . Periodically you will see the .======================================================= . I generally try to align data that is accessed often.ALIGN command.ALIGN DWORD .======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) .1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files. .DATA .1. Global Descriptor table (GDT).INC .INCLUDE TSS.Chapter 21. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).ASM which is presented later in this chapter.ASM. The second file is InitCode. and Public Call Gate table. Initial OS Page Table (PT).INC . The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are. access to the data is faster if it is. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 .INCLUDE MOSEDF. the first instruction executed after boot up. For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. The first file is Main. Kernel Structures .INCLUDE JOB. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.ASM.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system.

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;InitMemMgmt allocates an exch so

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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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; Clear allocated memory for TSSs

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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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1 . 8 . SI .call DPL & ndParams RETN . First.DPL 3. Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX.sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. CX . 08F00h . Out : Nothing . 0 . 08F00h . SI . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . Used : ALL registers and flags . OSCodeSel . . PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX.Breakpoint MOV EAX. IN : Nothing .0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. 4 . 08F00h .Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. InitIDT .Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. AX .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. 08E00h .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. Trap gate MOV EBX.SUB EBX. OSCodeSel . GDTBase . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 3 . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.========================================================================= . software and hardware interrupt handlers. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. 3 . ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . 255 .Overflow 08F00h . 40 . adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.DPL 3. ESI. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1.Divide By Zero MOV EAX. Second. EBX. EAX.DPL 3.Single Step MOV EAX. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic .DPL 3. . .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].DPL 3.This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . 16 . MOV ESI.Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX.

DPL 3. EBX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Eh . EAX. MOV ESI. 08E00h . 08F00h . 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 0Ch . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . ESI. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 21h .0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .Seg Not Present MOV EAX. 08F00h . 0Dh . 20h . 0Bh . OSCodeSel . IRQ0 IRQ1 22h .DPL 3.DPL 3.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. 08F00h . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel .Invalid TSS MOV EAX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 08F00h . 0Ah . OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.GP fault MOV EAX.DPL 3.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int Page Fault MOV EAX.Int TIMER MOV EAX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3.DPL 3. OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. 08E00h . 08F00h . OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel .Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. 8 . 6 . OSCodeSel .Double Exception MOV EAX. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.

..Int .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel ... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. 28h ..DPL 3. 24h ..DPL 3.DPL 3.. 2Bh .... MOV EAX. EBX. 29h ...Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX. MOV EAX.. OSCodeSel ... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h .. 26h . MOV ESI.Int COM2 MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ .Int . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 2Ah . OSCodeSel .Int ... 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. ESI. OSCodeSel .. MOV ESI.. INTERRUPT GATE .DPL 3.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. .. EAX...DPL 3...Int .. 08E00h .DPL 3...DPL 3..DPL 3. OSCodeSel .. OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 23h . 25h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX...0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h . 08E00h .Int COM1 MOV EAX.DPL 3. 08E00h ..Int .. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . 08E00h .FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. MOV ESI.IntLPT1 MOV EAX. MOV ESI..Int LPT2 MOV EAX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h . MOV EAX. MOV EAX. 27h . OSCodeSel . 08E00h . IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h .

OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.1Dword param.DPL 3. 58h MOV DX... MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . 0EC02h . InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates... 0EC01h . OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. 2Eh .2 DWord Params. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int . IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! . MOV ESI..3 DWord params. 2Fh .ISendMsg -. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS ...========================================================================== . before initcallgates.Int .Set Priority . OSCodeSel .. 08E00h ... OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! . but MUST be called before the first far call to any .. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.3 DWord Params. IN : Nothing .WaitMsg -. This can't . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 48h MOV DX. 50h MOV DX.. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. MOV EAX. DPL 3 MOV ECX. 2Dh ...Int .SendMsg -. . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. DPL 3 MOV ECX. DPL 0 MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . Used : ALL registers and flags . DPL 3 MOV ECX. 08E00h .. 40h MOV DX. Out : Nothing . 0EC03h .. MOV ESI.DPL 3... 08E00h .... OSCodeSel MOV ESI.. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1. MOV EAX.. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX... 08C03h .

The rest of the call gate set ups go here.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS . RETN MMURTL V1..

The program loader is in this chapter. Before I wrote this code. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory.======= End data.DATA . Job Management Subroutines . Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD .Begin Code ================== . TSSs. link blocks. and finally starting the new task.INC .INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs . INPUT : EAX -.Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in . The process of allocating all the resources. many of them public functions.INCLUDE JOB. Pieces of related code in the kernel.INCLUDE TSS.Chapter 22. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader.1 Listing 22.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources. It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. These calls. it is usually quite a mess.================================================================ . request blocks. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. are used by almost every module in the operating system.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management. Ptr to free Job Control Blocks .INCLUDE MOSEDF. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: . See listing 22.CODE . For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. From Main.Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) . In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). this is the where you'll end up. EBX -. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . the JCB. the monitor. JCBs are in allocated memory .asm .INC .1. exchanges. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. can be a complicated scenario. and finally the operating system memory. When things don't work right. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.

EAX . . .Address of JCBs to be initialized . MOV [EAX+JcbPD].. .Put Ptr to PD into JCB . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated. MMURTL V1.Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB].pbJobName ECX -. .EBX.0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. EDX is size of each JCB. InitFreeJCB . 3 .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. .ESI EFLAGS . The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. . pJCBs . .============================================================================= . 7 MOV EAX. [EAX+JobNum] RETN . MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs. . PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. EAX points to the first JCB. We can't use its position . . in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs).cbJobName EDX -. 0 . ESI. . EDI.EDX. CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid].Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . while . OUTPUT : NONE .EAX . . EAX ADD EDI. EBX . . INPUT : EAX .Move it in . This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run.size is filled in .first byte of name . ECX is count of JCBs. EBX. .EAX .EDX .Make last one NIL RETN . The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL).Size of JCBs . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. ECX. . EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols].Now to JobName . .EBX MOV EDI.ECX. . USED: EAX. EDX. .EDI points to JCB .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX. .Count of JCBs . ESI -. ECX . . EAX .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum].Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX.1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB]. EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI].Video number is in JCB . . 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. EDX .

0 . Get 'em! . REGISTERS : EAX. This routine will also . . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]..IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return.EBX .============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. . JE NewJCBDone . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX.[EAX+NextJCB] . NewJCBDone: RETN . If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. . .0 . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . .0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . INPUT : EAX . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX.FLAGS . MOV EBX. JE DispJCBDone . . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN .pFreeJCB . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. . The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). . REGISTERS : EBX. then EAX will contain NIL (0). OUTPUT : EAX . . INPUT : NONE . . . EAX ECX. the free pool. This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free .================================================================ . .DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. pJCBs MOV ECX. MOV EAX.Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. If none exists. 0 . . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. .Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . pJCBs STOSD .EBX. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . OUTPUT : NONE . . nJCBs MOV EDX. 4096 EDI. Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures).Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . . CMP EAX. .FLAGS .

Job Number of desired pJCB .MOV EBX. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . OUTPUT: EAX -.============================================================ . . INPUT: EAX -. . PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX.Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. All TSSs are assigned to a Job. GetCrntJobNum . .pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB].EBX MOV pFreeJCB. 2 MMURTL V1. assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX.EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . . .Current Job Number .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . pRunTSS . . USED: EAX. is a field in the JCB structure. OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX.Move it into newly freed JCB . INPUT: Nothing . EFlags . . . All TSSs are . This is based on which Task is executing. in EAX.Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . All TSSs are . . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. A Job may have more than one Task. .Pointer to JCB RETN . OUTPUT: EAX -. INPUT: Nothing . USED: EAX. . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. OUTPUT: EAX -.Linear Address of current JCB . [EAX+JobNum] . GetpJCB . . . USED: EAX. This is based on which Task is executing. Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX.EBX has OS ptr to free list . assigned to a Job. EFlags .============================================================ . GetpCrntJCB . The Job number . .Current JCB RETN .============================================================ . EFlags .

. . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet.ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB.JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. We got one! . . . . The Job number . . .0 .Add in two static JCBs . . .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. GetJobNum . pJCBs POP EDX RETN . . . Get a new JCB . . . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.============================================================ . 3 MOV EDX.Now points to desired JCB . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. .Current Job Number . INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. . OUTPUT: EAX -. . Procedureal Interface : . AllocJCB (NEAR) . This is a NEAR . . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. . call to support the public job management calls in high level . EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. . languages. . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. EFlags .Within range of JCBs .Times size of JCB . Sorry. PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. ppJCBRet):ercType . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX.============================================================ . out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EAX+JobNum] . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. USED: EAX. is a field in the JCB structure.Current JCB RETN .

languages in the OS code. . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . pJCB . . . . [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . .============================================================ . . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . . . Procedureal Interface : . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX MOV ESP. This is a NEAR . . . Procedureal Interface : . call to support the public job management calls in high level . . . . GetpJCB . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . . . .No error . EAX XOR EAX. . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . Get a new JCB . GetpJCB(dJobNum. MMURTL V1. .pJCBRet . . .============================================================ . . EAX MOV ESP. This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). pJCBRet):ercType . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. you specifiy. . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. .============================================================ . EAX MOV ESI.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI.EBP POP EBP RETN 4 .MOV ESP. . . .ESP MOV EAX.Job Num . . .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Leave jobnum in EAX .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. ErcInvalidJCB . .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. This is . .============================================================ .EBP . . . This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job. . . .EBP .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . RETF 8 . [EBP+12] .EBP . MOV EAX. dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . RETF 8 . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. nJCBs + 2. . .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . the job that the task that called this belongs to. pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. ErcBadJobNum . [EBP+16] . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . Procedureal Interface : . . . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. . EAX MOV ESP. MMURTL V1.0 is invalid CMP EAX. RETF 8 . EAX XOR EAX.ESP . POP EBP . POP EBP .No Error . MOV ESP.pJobNumRet .pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. POP EBP . .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. . 0 . EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. or 0 will be returned with the data..Job Num OR EAX. EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. GetJobNum . . . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 . .

. AL .c.2.get rid of high bits MOV ESI. pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where . disk that the system booted from. MOV EAX. XOR EAX. . Functions for starting new jobs. . loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS .No Error POP EBP . It's really not a filesystem function either. Jobc. and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module.============================================================ . [EBP+12] .0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. Procedureal Interface : .pJobNumRet MOV [ESI].. Jobc. still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. _BootDrive AND EAX.asm. variable _BootDrive defined in Main. This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. Listing 22. 7Fh .================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . . This is from the public . . . the number representing the system disk is returned. It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. . PUSH EBP . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . And will . . MOV EBP. .ESP . EAX . pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk .c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). RETF 4 . This code is here for lack of a better place. ending jobs. GetSystemDisk . .

/* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. MMURTL V1. long Exch). long cb).0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS . SendAbort(long JobNum.h" "MTimer. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB).Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.).h" "MData. SetExchOwner(long Exch. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it.ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. GetExchOwner(long Exch. char *pJCBRet). /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. . extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB.h" "MKbd.h" "MMemory.h" "MFiles. */ static long TmpStack[128].h" #include "runfile.h" "MJob..h" "MVid.. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. char *ppJCBRet). char *pNewJCB).

static char aFileE[80]. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. ExchE.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . static unsigned long oCode. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. When all PTs have been cleaned. unsigned long *pPT. erc. 0. i<1024. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. sStack. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. 0. extern unsigned long KillExch. offData = 0. sData. static long offCode = 0. filetype. job_fhE. *pPDE. 0. *pData. *pStack. k. for (i=768. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. 0. static struct tagtype tag. we eliminate the user PDEs. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. static long sCode. iE. ercE. 0. BogusMsg[2]. 0. 0. oData. static long cbFileE. char *pMem. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD.static long JobNum. j. i++) { MMURTL V1. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart.

nDCFIX = 0. nCCFIX = 0. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . k). &dret). MMURTL V1. long *pfhRet) { long erc. *pfhRet = 0. i. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. nDDFIX = 0.id = 0. If all is well. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. cbFileName. 1. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). offCode = 0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. long cbFileName. for (j=0. 0. oCCFIX = 0. oCDFIX = 0. &filetype. oDCFIX = 0. 5. junk. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. switch (tag. oDDFIX = 0. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. offData = 0. 1. reads and validates the run file. &tag. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. char fDone. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. fh.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. &fh). nCDFIX = 0. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. dret. j<1024. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. &dret). while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag.

case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. MMURTL V1. &dret). default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.break. &offCode. /* skip it break. i+tag. &oCDFIX).len). nDDFIX = tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. break. /* skip it break. &sStack. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (tag. break. &dret).0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . &i). 4.len/4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCCFIX+tag. 4. &oCode). /* skip it break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. nCDFIX = tag. oData+tag. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret).len/4.len).len/4. &pStart.len). case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &sCode. &oData). oDDFIX+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &oDCFIX). &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &sData. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. &dret). /* skip it break. /* skip it break. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &oCCFIX). oCDFIX+tag.len). 4. 4. break. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oDCFIX+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &oDDFIX). &offData. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). break.len/4.len). nCCFIX = tag. 4. 4. break.len). case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len). nDCFIX = tag. oCode+tag.

if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. &pTmpJCB). long dcbPath) { long JobNum. if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". else { CopyData(pRunFile.break. pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. return (erc). &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. GetJobNum(&JobNum). MMURTL V1. long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. i. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. } return(0). dcbRunFile). } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). i). GetpJCB(JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. erc). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB).0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. *pdcbRunRet = i. pRunRet. return(0).

erc. } return(0). GetJobNum(&JobNum). long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. pCmdRet. dcbPath). *pdcbPathRet = i. GetpJCB(JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. i. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam).else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. dcbCmd). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. else { CopyData(pPath. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. i). long dcbUser) { long JobNum. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. } return(0). pPathRet.0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . return(0). &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. *pdcbCmdRet = i. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. i). } return(erc). MMURTL V1. else { CopyData(pCmd. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. char *pPathRet. GetJobNum(&JobNum).

&pTmpJCB).GetJobNum(&JobNum). pFileRet. i). i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. long dcbName) { long JobNum. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum.0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. GetpJCB(JobNum. i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. dcbName). else { CopyData(pName. } return(0). &pTmpJCB). *pdcbFileRet = i. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. dcbUser). else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pdcbUserRet = i. } return(0). GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum). pUserRet. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. else { CopyData(pUser. i). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet.

} /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. *pPT. *pOSPD. &pTmpJCB). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. return(0). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbName). This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. else { CopyData(pName. return(0). i. } return(0). i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. nPages. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. dret. &pTmpJCB). fh. GetpJCB(JobNum. U32 PhyAdd. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. long *pFix. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. unsigned long *pPD. long cbFileName. pFileRet. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. &pTmpJCB). *pdcbFileRet = i. *pVid. cbFileName. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. i). pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. long dcbName) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. &fh). dcbName).0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName.{ long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum.

pPD = 0. 1). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n".0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. GetpJCB(1. &pNewJCB). sStack = nPages * 4096. if (sData%4096) nPages++. nPages = sData/4096. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pVid = pPD + 8192. nPages = sCode/4096. /* Job's PD. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). 4096. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. pPD). pPT = 0. &pTmpJCB). 0). pVid = 0. &PhyAdd). pPT). /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. PhyAdd). &pPD). /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. pPT. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. &pCode). MMURTL V1. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. FillData(pVid. 0). &pStack). pOSPD[768] = pPT. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. pPT = pPD + 4096. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. 4096. &pData). pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. pNewJCB = 0.

/* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pFix = pCode + i. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. oData). &i. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. oCCFIX)./* Right now. the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. &dret). 4096). &i. 4. */ CopyData(pOSPD. oDCFIX).offCode + pCode. } MMURTL V1.offData + pData. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCode).offCode + pCode. &dret). pFix = pCode + i. pPD. oDDFIX). 4. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. sData. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pFix = pData + i. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCDFIX). sCode.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . &i. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. pFix = pData + i. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). pData. &dret). 4. pCode. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. &i.offData + pData.

pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pNewJCB). /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). 0x18. 0. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. 1024. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. i. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. 25. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. pStart+pCode-offCode). pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. 0). pNewJCB->nCols = 80. 0). pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. 3). &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. 1024. pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). 3). /* Size */ CopyData("VID". pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. pStack+sStack-4. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768].

oCDFIX). nPages = sData/4096. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. &dret). long *pFix. erc = AllocPage(nPages. nPages = sCode/4096. sData. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pData.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (sData%4096) nPages++. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. &pStack). oData). /* All Job memory is now allocated. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. long fh) { long erc. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. return(erc). &dret). } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. &pData). while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &pCode). /* Allocate user memory for Stack. sCode. The PD. i. sStack = nPages * 4096. Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pCode. pNewJCB = pJCB. nPages. oCode). pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. dret.

MMURTL V1. This task. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. pFix = pData + i. pFix = pData + i. /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. oCCFIX). oDDFIX). /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. pFix = pCode + i.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS .PT and video. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). &i. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret). 4. &i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offData + pData. &i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4.offCode + pCode. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offCode + pCode. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). &dret). return(erc). its exchange. pFix = pCode + i. &dret). oDCFIX). 4.erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offData + pData. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. &i. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. 4.

/* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel.0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . ExchE. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. BogusMsg). This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. This is used to kill run-away jobs. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. ISendMsg(KillExch. GetTSSExch(&ExchE). It results in a violent death for the job specified. ErcOpCancel). &pTmpJCB). */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. CleanUserPD(pPDE). A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. Debugger or the current job. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. &pTmpJCB). SetPriority(31). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). WaitMsg(ExchE. ercE = 0. if (erc) return(erc). /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). BogusMsg).GetpJCB(JobNumE. This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue.

ESP. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). &pCrntJCB). /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. fDebug. ExchE). /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. Priority. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. GetpJCB(JobNumE. &TmpStack[127]. iE++. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. 0x08. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). 3. CodeSeg. &pExchJCBE).ercE = 0. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. iE = 0. pTmpJCB). /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. 0. } ercE = 0.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. We send "Abort" messages to all services. ExchE. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. Exch. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). &_KillTask). This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. return(erc).

ercE = 0. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). */ GetExitJob(aFileE. &pExchJCBE). ExchE). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. Send Abort messages to all services. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. ESP. CleanUserPD(pPDE). */ SendAbort(JobNumE. &cbFileE).0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercE = 0. If no exit run file. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. EAX. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. EBP. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. iE++. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE)./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ercE = 0. iE = 0.

Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). cbFileE. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. ExchE. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. MOV EBP.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . BogusMsg). and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. job_fhE). WaitMsg(ExchE. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. ADD EAX. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. MOV ESP. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. MOV EBX. &job_fhE). */ #asm MOV EAX. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. SetPriority(31). PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . SUB EAX. ercE). PUSH 18h MOV EAX.

error loading the Job. GetpJCB(JobNumE. &pExchJCBE). /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). long cbFileName. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. cbFileE = cbFileName. /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). cbFileName.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). */ MMURTL V1. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. iE = 0. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. aFileE. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. iE++. Send Abort messages to all services. &job_fhE). cbFileName). The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). ercE = 0. In other words. &pCrntJCB). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. } CloseFile(job_fhE). ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE).

&cbFileE). cbFileE. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. ESP. cbFileE. EAX.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS .SendAbort(JobNumE. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. EBP. /* Try to load the Chain file. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. ExchE). &job_fhE). /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. ercE = 0. The original user's job is destroyed. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. job_fhE). */ GetExitJob(aFileE. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). If no exit run file. CleanUserPD(pPDE). ercE = 0. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. job_fhE). } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. */ MMURTL V1. &job_fhE). /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg).

ercE).We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error.#asm MOV EAX. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). SUB EAX. MOV EBX. BogusMsg). Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. ADD EAX. WaitMsg(ExchE.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . MOV EBP. ExchE. MOV ESP. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1.

Enter debugger . . . . entry from the current job into the debuggers job. but is still very immature. This makes the .===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. Listing 23. Get EIP of offender for debugger .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. The debugger is a separate task. on which exception is was. then copy the CR3 . task (without going through the kernel).Enter debugger . .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. Get EIP of offender for debugger .0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). Next. See listing 23. . code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger . . register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. They are made to match those of the interrupted task. It has grown substantially.1. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. I have left them as individual procedures. While writing the operating system. If we get here. small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. . All of the debugger's . one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. Get Flags .1. which are all debug exceptions. Breakpoints. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . First we copy the Page Dir . I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. Get CS .EnterDebug . but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task.Chapter 23. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1.

INC .Install Debugger's as current . You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.DATA .2." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code. OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.INCLUDE . task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.INC RQB.INC TSS.When the debugger exits. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX.Save the current pRunTSS .CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX .current CR3 -> EBX .Put the stack back the way it was .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS . OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3]. EAX EAX. Listing 23. . EnterDebug: PUSH EAX . then jump to the debugger's selector. BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.Switch tasks to debugger . and restore PUSH EDX .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX .pDebuggerJCB -> EDX .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX. EBX EAX. Debugger Data and Code . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].2 presents the debugger code in its entirety.INCLUDE .INC JOB.INCLUDE MOSEDF..Set up debugger selector .we MUST save PUSH EBX . pRunTSS.make his registers right! . [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.External near Variables MMURTL V1. [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX. pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave.pRunTSS -> EAX . EAX This switches tasks. EBX EAX. . .INCLUDE . caller's registers them before the into the debugger . with the exception of the disassembler. pRunTSS EBX.ALIGN DWORD .pCrntJCB -> EAX .Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23.

dbgExchMsg .'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.'SetBP'.Address we are setting as next .For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.0B3h.0B3h. .Active bytes in buf2 .Address we are dumping . . DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.0B3h.CR LF for Dump etc.For ReadDbgKbd .'Tasks'.debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .Address of instructions we are displaying ..To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .Boolean.For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.0B3h. 0 = Exch .'ClrBP'.0B3h.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .TO save the TSS we interrupted .EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .' '.are we dumping DWORDS? . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'. 0Ah DB 0 .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .0B3h.0B3h.0B3h.. .0B3h. . ESC to quit.Has Dbg Video been initialized? .General purpose DDs (used all over) .'DumpD'.' '.flag 1 = Msg.'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.' ' ' .General use buffers DB '0000000000' .

OFFSET DbgVidSave .==================== End Data.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .'ECX: 0B3h.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .'EAX: 0B3h.'EFL: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .'EBP: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.'EIP: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.'EBX: 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.'EDX: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.'ESI: 0B3h. Begin Code ========================== .' ES: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .'TSS: 0B3h.

MOV EBX. .EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX.0 . is always entered as a procedure.the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .[EAX+TSS_EFlags] . I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .REF . Code Seg.EBX .procedure was entered. and flags are not the . DbgpTSSSave . and number at 0 .BX MOV EBX.0 .Dbgr is Job 2 ..See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX. MOV EBX.dbgOldEflgs .EBX .0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the . . when the handler is entered..When a fault or debug exception occurs.0FFh .Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt . .Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger. 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit. the values of .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. (we chanage the tasks) .dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX. .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .dbgOldEIP .EBX .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].the Instruction Pointer. so we shouldn't have to reset it. This only applies if .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 .PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit. But we do. The debugger .NO .dbgOldCS . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. the handler is a procedure (NOT a task). .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .Display fault message and . 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.

EAX MOV dbgX.Reset X & Y to 0. 0FFh LEA EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll . 0FFh .0 .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX. EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .Display menu PUSH dbgX .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.Fall through to keyboard loop .Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX. EAX .DbgpTSSSave .Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid . 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP.Set TF in flags for single step .Get USER pUserTSS .dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.reset fault indicator .=========================================================== .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.1 .Color White on black .ESCAPE (Exit) . . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags]. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Set BP (Current Address . MOV EAX.Single Step (F1) .F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS . 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1.

EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL. EAX DR6. EAX dbgBPAdd.MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX dbg00 . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. EBX EAX. 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. .Not used yet . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX.Task array display (F6) .Sets NextEIP . .Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 00000002h DR7.See if we need to scroll up .Save it so we know where BP is . 00 MMURTL V1.Set Disassembly Address (F8) .Address displayed .See if we need to scroll up .Display Exchanges (F5) . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX. 11h dbg04 EAX. EAX DR7. EAX dbg00 EAX.This puts the instruction on the line . EBX DR0. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd. . 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Clear BP (Current Address .This puts the instruction on the line . 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL.BP0 Set global .DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. EAX EAX.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX. .F3) .Return to CS:EIP (F4) .0 .Full display .Clear BP saved address . .Back to where we were .

we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .MOV dbgfDumpD. .Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) . EAX BX.This puts the instruction on the line . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL. . . DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS. If they are the same.Return saved pRunTSS .Back to begining . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.EAX must be preserved MOV EBX. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL. . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL.Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.Query XY .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask .See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX.Info Address dump (F12) . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) .GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner .0 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD.============================================================== dbgShowBP: .This compares the current breakpoint the address .Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.we are about to display. BX .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .

02 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.BP Address .[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.03 MOV ESI.01 MOV ESI.Number of this TSS .OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.Save EAX across call .EBX Display .TSS Display .[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.EBP Display MMURTL V1.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.3 params to TTYOut .EAX MOV AX.05 MOV ESI.============================================================== .OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.EDX Display .04 MOV ESI.ESI Display .[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .00 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EDI Display . ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .06 MOV ESI.EAX Display .MOV ECX. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.07 MOV ESI.ECX Display .

OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.GS Display .12 MOV ESI.CR2 Display .dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .ES Display .OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EIP Display .OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EFlags Display .EAX MOV AX.CS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.11 MOV ESI.0 .19 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.08 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.16 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.FS Display .EAX MOV AX.10 MOV ESI.13 MOV ESI.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR0 Display .SS Display .DS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.09 MOV ESI.17 MOV ESI.ESP Display .[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.14 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.15 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR3 Display .20 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.18 MOV ESI.

This is for Debugger Register display .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 . .CALL DispRegs RETN . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1.============================================== . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .========================================================================== .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.

PUSH EAX .Crnt size PUSH 8 . DbgBuf2 . 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX.length of string . PUSH EAX .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .Goto Query Line . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgChar . EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX. PUSH EAX . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 ... dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. .Max size LEA EAX.Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .Convert String to DD .Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.ptr to destination DD . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.did they exit with CR? .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .Ignore error if any MOV AL.ptr to string .=========================== .Go home. cbBufLen2 .=========================== . . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone . dbgChar CMP AL.

did they exit with CR? .0 .Max size LEA EAX.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.Convert String to DD .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . 6 LEA EAX.PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. cbBufLen2 .Ignore error if any MOV AL. dbgChar CMP AL.line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. dbgSpace MMURTL V1. DbgBuf2 . dbgChar .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd .byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 JNE DumpDone . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.convert address to text LEA EAX.ptr to destination DD . PUSH EAX .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h ..Go home.Goto Query Line .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.ptr to string . 4 . PUSH EAX . PUSH EAX . .length of string . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! . LEA EAX. 24 .

Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX .go to display bytes LEA EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.ignore error .NO .ignore error . dbgfDumpD .make it a DD Text LEA EAX.Display 1 spaces . dbgBuf ADD EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.point to second 2 bytes .get dump address MOV EAX.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. display 1 space .PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1. 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.Display First byte . dbgBuf ADD EAX. [EBX] . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgDumpAdd . dbgBuf .display 2st byte . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. 0 JE DumpB .0 .

dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. dbgCont .NO . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut .NO . 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .a space .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.go back for next 4 bytes . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.ignore error . dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .Yes .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS .done with 4 quads?? . DEC dbgGPdd1 . LEA EAX.Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.display 4th byte .ignore error .23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 . dbgBuf ADD EAX."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .ignore error LEA EAX. dbgCRLF .Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.Query XY PUSH dbgX .

0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX.Col PUSH 0 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Exch number . dbgGPdd2 EDX.0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS .Col dbgGPdd1 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 1 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch . .MOV EAX. dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .line we are one . . 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . 0FFh .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Do CR/LF 0 . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX. 0 RETN .messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . 1Bh .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . PUSH 54 .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.prgExch . sEXCH EDX EDX.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.=========================== .Convert Exch number for display .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .Exch# we are on .

MsgFlag -> EBX .For next msg in chain (if it exists) . . Go to next Exch .No.ADD EAX.Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .pExch -> EAX .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert dMsg1 .Save for loop . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. . [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX. [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. .See if there is a first message MOV EAX. MOV EAX.Convert Job Number 10 . [EAX+EHead] . [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . . .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5. EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX.Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX. EAX MOV EAX. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save dMsg2 . . EAX MOV EBX.Flag to indicate we are doing messages .Get dMsg1 . .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. Go check for tasks . EAX OR EBX.Col dbgGPdd1 . [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . ."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX.pMsg -> EBX . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5.pMsg -> EBX 20 .Is is 1 (a message)? ..Col dbgGPdd1 .Get dMsg2 .. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Yes. [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX. but would be confusing later.Is is NIL (no msg or task)? .0 . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0 .Could have left it on stack.

Is is 0 (no TSS)? . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. MOV EAX. nDynEXCH .Col dbgGPdd1 . 0FFh CMP EAX. -382- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. EAX EAX.Convert Task Number 1 .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. 1Bh JE dbgDEDone . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Col 24 .0 . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Clear pNextTask .Get Number of Task at exch .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Save ptr to next task if it exists .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5.Col . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 . EAX AX. MOV EAX.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Line OFFSET dbgCont .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . INC dbgGPdd1 . 31 .pExch -> EAX . .No . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Line . [EBX+TSSNum] .Next line please .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .pTSS -> EBX . .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . 23 .Lop off key status bytes .

Set up to loop for next msg/task . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: . 1 .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 . . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 .Another pointer in the link? .Line for labels . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. 1 dbgDT02 EBX.Length of message .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX.Col PUSH 0 . EAX. dbgGPdd2 EAX. Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX. 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.NonZero if we are doing tasks . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX.Tasks .If so.Col . 1 .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS .Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . PUSH 54 . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . Task number . MMURTL V1.=========================== .No . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) .line. OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . 0 RETN . Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. we increment TSS number and go back .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . nDynEXCH . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX. .line we are one .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . We are on line 1 again .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.for the next one dbgDT01: .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . .Displays Tasks that are active along with .If not. Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 2 dbgDT03 EBX.

Col dbgGPdd1 .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 . EBX .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 . ECX . MOV CL. DDtoHex 10 . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . [EBX+Priority] .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Save pJCB for display . dbgGPdd3 . ECX MOV EAX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4.Col dbgGPdd1 . 8 . EAX MOV EBX. pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX. go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Not used.Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1.back for next one dbgDT05: .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX. nTSS .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .EAX has pJCB OR EAX. dbgGPdd2 . . EAX . 512 ECX EBX. dbgGPdd4 . 8 . EAX .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5. JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 . [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf .Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf .of TSSs . DDtoHex 20 .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .

DDtoHex 40 . 1Bh .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. continue prompt dbgDT01 .Col dbgGPdd1 . . go back for next 0 . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Save number to display MMURTL V1. dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 8 . This is for Debugger Address Info display . EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .No. 0 RETN .go for next Task number . MOV EAX.PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . dbgGPdd6 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . Call with: . 23 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Save it for the top MOV EAX.Col 24 . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Yes.Line OFFSET dbgCont .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 0FFh . . 31 .====================================================================== . 8 .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. DDtoHex 30 .

rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1.OFFSET DbgM5 . prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM2 .RQBs MOV EAX.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.ptr to line .IDT LEA EAX.GDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM4 .RdyQ LEA EAX.DbgInfo . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN . rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM3 .OFFSET DbgM7 .SVCs LEA EAX.PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.=============================================== .pTSS3 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM0 .OFFSET DbgPA .LBs LEA EAX.Vid Attribute .OFFSET DbgM9 . GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM6 .Do it .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM8 .Exchs MOV EAX.JCBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM1 .Length of line .MonTSS MOV EAX.

Col 0.======================================================= . query line. .areas are resrved for the menu.between colums 0 and 66.Timer Blocks LEA EAX.Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .and the register display.If so. and line 0 to 24.Query XY (See what line and Col) .Clear the query line (Line 23.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY. dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.Got to Column 0.All of the debugger text is displayed in a window . .======================================================= . 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 .Yes. go back for next key 0 .OFFSET DbgMB .This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. The other .No.Columns 0-65 24 . .MOV ESI.Lines 0-23 1 .ignore error RETN . Line 0-24) 0 66 . Scroll test area (Col 0-64. .0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS . rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN . 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . we scroll up the text area by one line.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1.fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .

.

The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. you're on your own. Time was the deciding factor. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. though I would rather have done them in assembler. but I try not to. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. U32 nDevices. many device drivers are written in C. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out.. S8 *pDCBs. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. Comments. There are no include files. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me.g. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS).0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file.1.Chapter 24. In fact. U32 dfReplace). They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. Listing 24. This seems to be the best. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. but I think you're OK. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. All of the hardware commands are well documented. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here.1. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). unsigned long int). in addition to those in the code itself. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. They were designed that way. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. this device driver should work with MFM drives. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. If you have MFM drives. See listing 24. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e.

U32 HdSect.2. U32 msg2). See listing 24. U32 msg1. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U32 dBytes). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA.. I needed a method to get data to the screen. void OutWord(U16 Word. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U32 dLBA.0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dnBlocks. U8 *pDestination. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dBytes). static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). U16 wPort). U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). static U32 hd_wait (void). static U32 check_busy(void). U32 *pMsgRet).2. static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U32 msg1. U32 dOpNum. static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 dnBlocks). static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U8 *pDataRet). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). InWords(U32 dPort.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. U32 count). static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. U16 InWord(U16 wPort). U32 *pMsgRet). You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. static U32 send_command(U8 parm). U32 nBlks). U32 dnBlocks. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. U8 *pDataOut. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. MMURTL V1. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). U16 wPort). OutWords(U32 dPort. U32 dBytes). U8 *pDataIn. /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. U8 *pDataOut). S8 *pIRQ). U32 msg2). static void hd_reset(void). . void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). It's called xprintf(). Listing 24. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). U32 dnBlocks..). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. While writing the operating system. U8 *pDataIn). U8 InByte(U16 wPort).

S8 *pInitData.0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. U32 sdInitData)... U32 dStatusMax. S8 * pStatRet. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. hddev_stat(U32 dDevice.U8 static U32 *pData). U32 *pdSatusRet).

low cyl (1F4h) 5 .16 bit) 1 .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .Set. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 .sector number (1F3h) 4 .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .sector count (1F2h) 3 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit . Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.error register (1F1h) 2 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag.read data (1F0h .command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 . wait 50us.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives..sector count (1F2h) 3 . can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1.write data (1F0h .sector number (1F3h) 4 . head and Sector number. and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.high cyl (1F5h) 6 .16 bit) 1 .

hd0_cyls.which head */ hd_nsectors. hd_control. fDataReq. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type.3. Listing 24. hd1_secpertrk.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. hd1_type. If I did one member. hd1_heads.3. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. /* Calculated from LBA . or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. hd0_heads. cylinders. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. /* Calculated from LBA . */ /* Current number of heads. /* Current Physical Drive.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd0_secpertrk. statbyte. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command. /* Calculated from LBA . The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. See listing 24.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1.

}. LastStatByte1. U32 OS1. U32 blocks_done.static U16 hd1_cyls. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. 32 bytes out to here. MMURTL V1. U8 fSingleUser. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. U32 last_erc. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. }. LastSeekErc0. U8 fDevReent. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. S8 *pDevSt. U32 OS6. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. U32 BlocksMax. filler1. S16 wJob. LastStatByte0. LastSeekErc1. U32 OS5. ResetStatByte. U8 fNewMedia. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. U8 type_now. S8 *pDevOp. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. /* Number of bytes per sect. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. S8 *pDevInit. U32 OS2. S8 sbName. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. U32 OS3. fIntOnReset. S8 type. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. LastErcByte1. LastErcByte0. S16 nBPB. LastRecalErc1.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS .*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. U32 nBlocks. U32 OS4.

'1'.nBPB hdcb[1].type hdcb[1].Name[1] hdcb[0]. &hddev_stat.nBPB hdcb[0]. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver. 524288.sbName hdcb[0]./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch. /* Random */ 512. In a loadable driver. 3.Name[0] hdcb[0]. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.pDevInit hdcb[1]. hd1_secpertrk = 17.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. 3.pDevSt hdcb[1]. See listing 24. '0'.type hdcb[0].sbName hdcb[1]. /* largest device handled . 'D'. static long HDDInt.nBlocks hdcb[0]. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024. 524288. /* largest disk handled . /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A).Name[2] hdcb[1]. MMURTL V1. hd1_cyls = 1024. Listing 24. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0].nBlocks hdcb[1]. 'H'. static U32 hd_msg.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17.4. hd1_heads = 16. this would be the main() section of the C source file.Name[0] hdcb[1].pDevOp hdcb[1]. &hddev_stat. 1. /* Random */ 512.Name[1] hdcb[1]. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read.pDevInit hdcb[0]. 'D'.Name[2] hdcb[0].2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19). static U32 hd_msg2. &hddev_init.4.pDevOp hdcb[0]. &hddev_init. 1.

We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there.erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. */ erc = hd_recal(0). hd1_type = 0. */ /* Reset the HDC . We have to make this sucker work the hard way. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. */ hd_reset(). UnMaskIRQ(14). In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. erc = hd_recal(0). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset().last_erc = erc.last_erc = erc. } } /* if we got here. but they don't. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. It seems like a lot of work. &hdisk_isr). but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. We have to do it once. then try both physical drives. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. They vary from BIOS to BIOS. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. If the second drive is not there. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). SetIRQVector(14. hd0_type = 0. */ hd_reset(). /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1].0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. MMURTL V1.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives).

HD_REG_PORT). } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers.fIntOnReset = 0. ISendMsg(hd_exch. EndOfIRQ(14). UnMaskIRQ(14). OutByte(4. &hdcb. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. 0xfffffff0. 1)). This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit.last_erc = erc. 0xfffffff0). Sleep(20). } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. It just waits for an interrupt. /* 200ms . HD_REG_PORT).fIntOnReset = 1. else hdstatus. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. MicroDelay(4).seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. 2. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. The caller should call check_busy and check the error. This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup.ResetStatByte = statbyte.erc = hd_recal(0). HDDInt = 1. if (i) hdstatus. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. hdcb[0]. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . &hd_msg). and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f.

} The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function.5. if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. etc. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS).0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. hd_Cmd[3] = 0. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. See listing 24. erc = hd_wait(). Listing 24. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0.5. nSectors. hd_Cmd[4] = 0. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. return(erc). sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk.3 seconds. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. /* set max heads. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).). Sleep(5). check_busy(void) count = 0.

*********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. KillAlarm(hd_exch). hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. &hd_msg). if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt).Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur.LastRecalErc0 = erc.0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). else hdstatus. 300). } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. return(erc).LastRecalErc1 = erc. /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). if (drive) hdstatus. KillAlarm(hd_exch). } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). Time-out and return if no interrupt. return(ok). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1.

if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). MMURTL V1. verify. } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. HD_REG_PORT). HD_PORT+7). format. HD_PORT+5). j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. HD_PORT+4). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. &msg) == 0). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. setupseek(U32 dLBA. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). write. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. msg[2]. U16 cyl.0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. OutByte(hd_control. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. hd_nsectors = nBlks. HD_PORT+6). return(erc). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. HD_PORT+2). seek). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4].alarm or int messages before we send a command. HD_PORT+1). } erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+3). U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks.

/* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff.LastSeekErc0 = erc. 1). return(erc). /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. /* hd_sector. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. } = = = = = nBlks./* we now know what cylinder. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* cyl & 0xff. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1.. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. hdstatus. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). The error checking is based on the command that we sent. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore.. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA.

MMURTL V1.U8 statbyte. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. break. } else { erc = check_busy(). else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. he interrupted us with status. else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . else hdstatus.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. */ erc = check_busy(). else return(erc). if (hd_drive) hdstatus.LastErcByte0 = errbyte.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. errbyte. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). else return(erc). } return(erc). default: break.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. else hdstatus. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. After all.

nBPS). } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. nBPS. hd_sector.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } return(erc). pDataOut. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. dnBlocks). hd_sector. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT.else erc = ErcBadHDC. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write.nBPB. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. erc = setupseek(dLBA. nBPS). nSoFar++. pDataOut+=nBPS. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). --nleft. nleft. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). nBPS. U32 dnBlocks. erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. erc = check_busy(). This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head.nBPB. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. pDataRet. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. pDataRet+=nBPS. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. U32 dnBlocks. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). nSoFar. dnBlocks).

hd_sector). erc = hd_wait(). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). pDataOut+=nBPS. U32 HdSect. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. dnBlocks). and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. nBPS). RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc.0 -404- . cyl. SEC %d\r\n". } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. cyl = Cylinder. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. nSoFar++. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d.erc = hd_wait(). /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). return(erc). Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. hd_head. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. return(erc). head and Sector number. /* cyl & 0xff. /* hd_sector. U16 cyl. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). pDataOut. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. erc = setupseek(dLBA. HD %d. hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff.

erc = 0. Listing 24. 512). else hd_drive = 1. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. MMURTL V1. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. &hd_msg). } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. U32 dnBlocks. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. See listing 24. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. return(erc). pDataRet. U32 dLBA.” discussed device driver interfaces. For Hard disk. } Chapter 8.6. erc = hd_wait().0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use.erc = send_command(HDC_READ).6. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. U32 dOpNum.blocks_done = 0. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). 12=0 and 13=1. “Programming Interfaces.

default: erc = ErcBadOp.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. break. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). break. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. pData).nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. break. dnBlocks. pData).} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. break. dnBlocks. break. break. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. pData). } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. return(erc). dnBlocks. */ break. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. dnBlocks). break. U32 dStatusMax. S8 * pStatRet. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. dnBlocks. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. erc = 0.last_erc = erc. /* Null Command */ break. pData).

The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status.nBPS = hdcb[0].nCyl = hd1_cyls. The DCB values are updated if this is successful. hdstatus.nBPB. *pdStatusRet = i.). else i = sStatus.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. hdstatus. hdstatus. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.nBPS = hdcb[1]. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat).nSectors = hd1_secpertrk.{ U32 i. hdstatus.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS . S8 *pInitData.type_now = hd1_type. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. i). hdstatus. } /* Calculate size of status to return. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. } else { hdstatus. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect.nHead = hd1_heads.nHead = hd0_heads. hdstatus. hdstatus. hdstatus. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. return ok.type_now = hd0_type. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. CopyData(&hdstatus. hdstatus. pStatRet. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.last_erc. hdstatus.erc = hdcb[0].last_erc.nBPB.nCyl = hd0_cyls. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax.erc = hdcb[1].

update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive]. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive).nBPB = HDStatTmp.nSectors. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.last_erc = 0.type_now.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. else hd_drive = 1. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0.nHead.nCyl * HDStatTmp. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.nBPS.nSectors.nCyl.type_now.nHead. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. i. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive). } hdcb[hd_drive]. hdcb[hd_drive]. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp. i).last_erc = erc. erc = 0. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. /* If no error. return(erc). CopyData(pInitData.nSectors * HDStatTmp.nHead.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS .{ U32 erc. &HDStatTmp. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nCyl. } /* If no error. else i = sdInitData. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive].

unsigned long XTimeOut. */ 150-38400 */ 0.7.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. RS-232. unsigned long IOBase. unsigned char stopbits. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. unsigned long resvd[6]. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. unsigned long XBufSize. unsigned char IRQNum. It needs more work.38400 */ Parity for this port. MMURTL V1. Listing 24.. 1=even. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. 150 ... 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. */ It's opened by someone else. as well as by the driver itself. the driver. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. unsigned long LastTotal. which is a block oriented random device. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file. other than that. unsigned long LastErc. as well as status. 0=none.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port.. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize.. and this driver. See listing 24. 16450. */ It's already open. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. “MMURTL Sample Software. but. unsigned long RBufSize. which is a sequential byte-oriented device. unsigned long RTimeOut. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. unsigned long Baudrate. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port.7. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. unsigned char databits. unsigned char parity.. or 16550 UARTs. it is a fully functional driver.

extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. U32 dfReplace). RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232.8. RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . U8 **ppMemRet). extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2).8.0 *pIRQ). /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. U32 nDevices. See listing 24. All other command are specific to this driver. S8 *pDCBs.}. U32 nPages). Listing 24. S8 MMURTL V1. you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet).

U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. S8 *pMsgRet). */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. S8 *pInitData. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . S8 *pStatRet. U32 *pdStatusRet). These will be called form the device driver interface. U32 count). static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U8 *pData). U32 dOpNum. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). set and reset signal line condition and functions. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U16 wPort). U32 dStatusMax. U32 msg1. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. void OutByte(U8 Byte. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 msg2). U8 *pDestination. U32 msg2). U32 dLBA. U32 dBytes). U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). U32 msg1. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U32 sdInitData). U32 dnBlocks. /* local prototypes. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch.

MSR[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. DLAB_HI[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. sRecvBuf[2]. tail_recv[2]. IIR[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. fExpectInt[2]. cSendBuf[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. IER[2]. sSendBuf[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. mstat_byte[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. head_recv[2]. int_id[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. FCR[2]. head_send[2]. MCR[2]. LSR[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. stat_byte[2]. tail_send[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. LCR[2].

TX data. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -. Divisor Latch LSB IER -.2 chars 10 .9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion. FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 .9. Listing 24. RX data. \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -.1 char 01 . \___________ = 0.4 chars 11 . MMURTL V1.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS .8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0. 0. 1 = Multichar 0.Interrupt Enable.

The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.H.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints. See listing 24. MMURTL V1. Listing 24. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2].10. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS .Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.10. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1. static struct statRecC *pCS.

*********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc.11. 8N1. See listing 24. Note that there are two of DCB’s. = 'O'. S8 type. See listing 24.Name[1] comdcb[0]. This means it's ready for business. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. as is required by MMURTL. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS .Name[0] comdcb[0]. U32 OS2. S8 fSingleUser. U32 OS6. One for each channel. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface.12. S8 *pDevSt. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts. U32 last_erc. static void interrupt comISR1(void). It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600. U32 OS5. = 'M'. and they are contiguously defined. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. U32 nBlocks. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. Listing 24. S16 wJob.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. U32 OS1.0 = 'C'. /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void).12. }. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12].Name[2] MMURTL V1.11. S16 nBPB. S8 sbName. U32 OS4. S8 fDevReent. Listing 24. U32 OS3. S8 *pDevOp. S8 *pDevInit.

&comdcb.type comdcb[0].databits comstat[0]. 0x2F8.nBlocks comdcb[1].IOBase = comstat[1].stopbits comstat[0]. sRecvBuf[1] = 4096.Baudrate comstat[1]. return(erc = InitDevDr(5. MaskIRQ(3). = 100.pDevInit comdcb[0].parity comstat[0].Name[2] comdcb[1].RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. &comISR0).Name[1] comdcb[1]. = 4096. 2.sbName comdcb[0]. = 1. = 4096. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. SetIRQVector(3. /* Set default comms params in stat records */ comstat[0].nBPB comdcb[1].sbName comdcb[1].Baudrate comstat[0].comdcb[0]. = 0. 2.Name[2] comdcb[0]. &comISR1). &comdev_init. 4. '2'.stopbits comstat[1]. 4. MaskIRQ(4).IOBase = comstat[0].pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'. 3.type comdcb[1]. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. 4. /* COM1 */ /* COM2 */ = 9600. /* none */ = 8.XBufSize comstat[0]. sRecvBuf[0] = 4096. = 0. &comdev_stat. = 9600. 0x3F8.parity comstat[1]. /* 1 byte per block */ 0.pDevOp comdcb[1]. 'O'. 2.databits comstat[1]. = 100.Name[2] comdcb[1].IRQNum = comstat[1].RTimeOut comstat[1