MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

................21......................................................................288 Listing 19.................2........................................................................................................................289 Listing 19...................................................................................................13.............................................................312 KillAlarm()........................................................................................................................................................................293 AddOSPT .......309 The Timer Interrupt .....................................................................................................................301 DeAllocPage ............................................................................................................... Loop in timer ISR ....................... Adding a page table for user memory.........................19...................................................................316 Beep_Work() ..313 GetCMOSTime() .................................................24.................................................................... Allocating a page of linear memory.................................316 Listing 20.............290 AddAliasRun ........................................................................................................312 Listing 20...............................................................................................................................................................................297 Listing 19...............307 TIMER DATA .......299 DeAliasMem........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11.20............................................................FindRun .......................................................................................23.................................307 Listing 20...........................................................................................13................309 Listing 20.... Adding entries to the IDT ................................................................................................................317 Tone()............................................................................................................................................ Code to read the CMOS time.................................................................6.................309 Listing 20...311 Alarm().......................................................................................................................... Code to remove alias PTEs....................................................................314 GetCMOSDate() .....15.....................304 Listing 19................8...................................................................................................................296 Listing 19........... Helper function for Beep() and Tone() .............................................................291 AddUserPT ...............301 Listing 19.................................................................... The timer interrupt service routine ....................... Code to return the timer tick ...................................................................................................................................................................................................311 Listing 20.... Code for the MicrDelay function ................................14...............................................................................................................................................299 Listing 19..........................................................................303 QueryMemPages.................................4.........................12.......................................312 Listing 20..................................298 Listing 19.............................................................. Code to find number of free pages............................................................................................................................................................305 Listing 19...........................................................................................................................................................................................317 Listing 20......... Code to read the CMOS date ......................................315 Listing 20.............. External functions for timer code ................................5....................................................................................................................................309 Sleep() ......................................314 Listing 20....................288 AddRun ..............................25...............................317 Listing 20............0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ....................................................................................................................................................................................3................................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS .......................................................................................................................................................................................304 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................7...................17...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................303 Listing 19........................................................................................................................................................................................................................316 Beep().......................................................................................................22...........................................................................................296 AddIDTGate......307 INTRODUCTION ............... Code to find a free run of linear memory..........................................................................18....313 Listing 20........... Code to alias memory ...................... TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE .......1................................ Public for linear to physical conversion.........................................................................................................297 AllocOSPage.....................10.............................................................................................................................................................................291 Listing 19.................................................................................................. Code for the Sleep function .............308 Listing 20....... Adding a call gate to the GDT ..........................................316 Listing 20...................................................................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL .317 MMURTL V1....................................................................................... Code for the KillAlarm function.............................................................14....298 AliasMem .........................................................................305 CHAPTER 20........................................................ Code to produce a tone ....................................................315 GetTimerTick()........................................................................................................................................................................................... Deallocating linear memory..................... Data and constants for timer code............................................................................................................................................................................................. Code for the Alarm function ................................ Code to produce a beep..................................293 Listing 19.......... Adding a run of linear memory................ Adding an operating system page table ...........................296 AddGDTCallGate ......................................................................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory...............................308 TIMER CODE .....16..........................................................................................................................................................................294 Listing 19....................................................................................................................................................................................313 MicroDelay() .........................................9.......................................................

.............. 365 INTRODUCTION ....................................................... 337 INTRODUCTION ....3.............2.... Initialization Subroutines........... SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE............................................................. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point................................................. 409 Listing 24..................................................................................6.............. 366 CHAPTER 24............................................................................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init).............................................. 395 Listing 24......... 415 Listing 24................................................................................................................................................5.......................................8.....2................................. 436 Keyboard Translation................................................................................................................ 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ..................................... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ................................................................................... 321 Listing 21............................3......................................................................3.........................................................................1.................................................................................... Initialize call gates amd the IDT....................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ....................... 424 CHAPTER 25.......................................... 325 Listing 21........................................... 415 Listing 24.................................... 328 Listing 21............ Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ..................... End of Initialization Code.......................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ........................................................................................................................................ 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE .......................................................... 365 Listing 23....................... 398 Listing 24...................... 319 Listing 21...................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ............................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ......................................4......................................................................................... DEBUGGER CODE ................................................................... 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES .......................................................1.............................................. Continuation of OS initialization....... 442 MMURTL V1.........................................................10...............................................7.................................. 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS .........................................h Header File .............2......................................1........ 436 Listing 25................................ 337 Listing 22... 414 Listing 24......................................................................... Read Keyboard Buffer Code .......................................... Debugger Data and Code..................................................................................................................................................... 327 Listing 21........................................................................... INITIALIZATION CODE .................................................................................. Keyboard Translation Code.............................................................. 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ..................................................................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) .................................... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING .....................................................................................1............................................................... 429 INTRODUCTION ................................................... 413 Listing 24........................... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ............................................ 344 CHAPTER 23........1.......................................................... Job Management Subroutines..................... 438 Listing 25................. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger..................................................................................................................................................................... 366 Listing 23.............. Continuation of OS initialization.....................4.........9..................... 331 CHAPTER 22..6..................................................................................................14. 410 Listing 24................. Keyboard Data and Tables ...................................................................................................................................... 417 Listing 24.................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ................ IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ....................................................................4........................................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ..........................................................................11............................... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ...... Keyboard ISR Code..........................................................................2......................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) .................................................... 344 Listing 22............................................2............................................................... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER.................... RS-232.... 389 INTRODUCTION .............. 390 Listing 24................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) .............................CHAPTER 21.................................................................................................. 393 Listing 24.................... 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ........ 429 Listing 25............ 442 Listing 25.............................................................................................................................. 429 KEYBOARD DATA.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Jobc.....................................................................................13.............................................................................c source code.. 389 Listing 24............................................................ 409 Listing 24........................................................................................................ 319 OS GLOBAL DATA ... 319 INTRODUCTION .................................. 321 Listing 21............................................................................................................................5...................................................................... 438 Reading the Final Buffer ...................................................................................7............. 326 Listing 21.................................................................. 436 Keyboard ISR........................................................................................... Main Operating System Data ..................................................................12................................................................................................. 389 Listing 24........................ KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ......................................................................................................................................... JOB MANAGEMENT CODE .........................................

............................. Code to Screen Video Attributes .......................... Low-level Keyboard Control Code.....................................541 Command Line Options ................................................. Code to Initialize Video ....443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ...................................................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers............................................................................................................................................16..............................................................................................14...........................................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ...... Simple Application Template File ... Code to Get a Character and Attribute......0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ...............................................................................................................................................................................................8............................................................................12............................................................. Code to Get the Current Video Owner.......................11......................................................460 Listing 26..............................................................3....................................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up...........................................................................................................................................5.........................461 Listing 26................................... Code to Set Cursor Position.........................................................462 Listing 26..............................................8.................6.................................................................................... Keyboard Service Initialization ..............................................458 Listing 26............................457 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................474 Listing 27.................................................................................................................................................443 Listing 25................458 Listing 26.........6..................................................... Code to Clear the Screen ..2....................1...............................................................1...............................................................................................................................................................................................................473 Hidden Sectors....451 Keyboard Service Initialization ....................................468 Listing 26............................................................542 Device Drivers ......10......................................448 Listing 25...............................................................................461 Listing 26....................................................... VIDEO CODE .....................................................450 Listing 25................................................................................................................The Keyboard Service ................. A More Complicated Template File ................................................................466 Listing 26................ Code to Return Current Cursor Position .................................................542 Dynamic Link Libraries ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................539 INTRODUCTION .............................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen.473 Logical Block Address (LBA)..................................1.............................................................460 Listing 26..............541 Errors Only Option .....473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ...........473 INTRODUCTION .......................................................... Code to Set the Video Owner .....542 MMURTL V1......................................................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ...........................540 Listing 28..........15....................................10......................... DASM.........................................................................................................................................................................................474 CHAPTER 28.......................................................................13......................................... Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ...............................540 Listing 28.................... Code to set Normal Video Attribute ..........464 Listing 26...............................................................................................................................................452 Listing 25.......................................................................................................................................................................................................539 DASM CONCEPTS ..........................................................539 USING DASM......................................459 Listing 26................. Keyboard system service code............................................ Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position.............................................................9........9...............................472 CHAPTER 27.......................................................457 Listing 26............................................................................................................452 Hardware Helpers .....................5............................................................................. Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ..............................................................................................7.................................................................................................................................453 CHAPTER 26............................469 Listing 26...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7.........................................457 THE VIDEO CODE ..... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ...4....................453 Listing 25..............................................................................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ...................... Video constants and data ................................................................................................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code ........................................................................464 Listing 26..................................................... Code to get the Normal Video Attribute........................540 Application Template File..........................465 Listing 26................................................................ Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call .....................................................451 Listing 25...................................................................................................................................2........................................................................................... A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................541 List File Option ........448 Debugger Keyboard... FILE SYSTEM CODE.................................................................................................................................................................................................468 Listing 26......................474 File System Initialization ...............................................................................................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector .............................................. Code to Edit a Line on the Screen.............................................................................. MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code .................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................2. 542 Memory Model............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 547 DB (Define Byte)..................................... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT .......... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 548 EXTRN Declarations........ 547 DF (Define Far Word) ...................................................... 562 Variable Length Argument Lists .....................................Supported Instructions ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ CM32................................................................................................................................................................................................................Specifying Memory Operands......................................................................... 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ............................................................................................. 558 Your Own Assembler? .............................................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ................................................................................ 561 INTRODUCTION .................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ....................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3................................................................................................................... 555 Table 28.......2 .......................... 562 FAR Calls ............................................................. 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses .................................. 545 Table 28.............................................................................................................................................. Alternating data and code in a template file ............................................................................................. 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ............................................................................................................... 570 Listing 29................................................................................. 542 DASM Program Structure ....................................................................................................................................................Tag Usage ....................... Supported Library Functions ........................................................................... 548 Labels and Address.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 581 MMURTL V1......................................................................................................................................................... 565 Far External Functions ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ............................................................................................. 545 Storage Declarations........ 568 Command Line Options ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 563 Library Header File Access................................. 547 DD (Define Double Word) .....................................................................................CD-ROM CONTENTS ............................................. 570 Listing 29................................................ 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ....................................................................................................................... 569 Library Code Examples .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 565 Structure Limitations . 545 DASM Addressing Modes .................................................................... 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information................................................................................................................................................................................................................3... 543 DOT Commands .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1................................................................................................... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers........................................ 559 CHAPTER 29.................................................................................................................................................3 ...................................... 568 USING CM32..................................................................................... 579 INDEX .......................... Standard file I/O for MMURTL ........................ 552 Table 28........................................................... 566 Initialization of Static Variables ................................................................................................. 548 PUBLIC Declarations.......................... 568 Library Functions . 562 Interrupt Functions................................................................................................................... 569 Listing 29............................................................................... Standard String Functions for MMURTL .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM .... 547 DW (Define Word) . 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ........................ 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ................................................................................................................................................................. 575 APPENDIX A -. A 32-BIT C COMPILER ...........................................................................................................................DASM Source Files ......................................................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ................................................................................................1 ............................ 556 Tag Descriptions........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 543 Listing 28........................

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code. In the case of my own operating system. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. as viewed by the outside programmer. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. or Sun. When OS/2 was first developed. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. they work with them.Chapter 1. IBM. They use them. When I started out. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. and begin coding. memory model. If you write something that no one can use. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. MMURTL V1. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. it's unlikely they'll use it. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. I would just make a list. In the early days. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. portability issues size and speed. You don't need to design your own. I have documented what it takes to really write one. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. Realizing this. are the tasking model. I decided what stayed and what went. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. It's up to you. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. but very light on specifics. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. NOT SO FAST THERE. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. The most obvious of these. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. however. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. and the programming interface. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. Unfortunately. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. I set the ground rules. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. not his IQ. You. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. I determined the specifications for the final product. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. If you're an experienced programmer. it's a complete system. do some research on each of the desirables. As coding began. But I wanted a small API. That was part of my wish list.

would help me write better application software for it. portability issues. and some serious "turbo" modifications. Even though they have added speed. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. multitasking. I'm sure it won't. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. For instance. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. This was the 16. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. programming interfaces.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. This was completely intentional. modify. so I've removed the mystique. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. real-time. Hardware Timers. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). MMURTL V1. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. or write your own. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. You may or may not want to do this for your system. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. or all of it if you wish to write your own. size and speed. your goals may be different. redesign it to meet your requirements. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. Serial and Parallel Ports. hardware interface. In fact. In my opinion. they are effectively super-386 processors. but it was a "must" for me. It clouds far too many real issues these days. For this reason. change it to suit your needs. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. The source code. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. along with all the tools necessary to build. a few more instructions. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. Once again. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. the memory model. message based. You can use pieces of it. But that's not what this book is about. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user.to 32-bit jump. Throughout this book. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. which I felt. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. 80486 (486). ideas from it.

but not all the options. and also what I decided on. and for a very good reason. If you don't have this requirement.The ability to react to outside events in real time. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . and most of them are grossly under used. “The Hardware Interface. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). “Programming Interfaces. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. Real-time operation . you may have a different platform in mind. I discuss this in chapter 6. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions.” and chapter 8. HIMEM. the humans.. but I don't recommend it. if we knew how. Extended. but real multi-threading . and 4 (Interprocess Communications). such as C or Pascal. LOMEM.” Simplicity . Client/Server design . If it is another processor. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. “The Hardware Interface. If you're going to write your own. General Discussion and Background.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. UMBs.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. We want the system to react to us. yet powerful enough to get the job done. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . Chapter 5 covers memory management.” Protection from other programs . YOURMOTHERSMEM. LIM. I also wanted to maintain a small. Message agents could be added to any platform. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. the right mix of capability and simplicity.Not just task switching between programs.Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. I didn't want to do this. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. hardware paging. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. Easy programming . the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications).Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. calling conventions. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. is with a procedural interface. You may start with my list and modify it. We. I'll discuss some of your options. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). or maybe a little less? Of course.. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. I use the stack. “Programming Interfaces. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. Power without BLOAT.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language.But not the programmer. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. and what my end result was. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse.My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. or start one from scratch. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. are outside events.Keep the system as simple as possible. MMURTL V1. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is.

Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. the tools. no doubt. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. Dedicated. make up your own! But. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). kerneL. but only a distant cousin. or use any of the tools I included. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. If you don't want to start from scratch. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. Yes. MMURTL V1. the code.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . expand it to your heart's desire. be of value in your other programming projects as well. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. or for general reference. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). Real-Time. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. I'm sure. Then again. Sections of the source code will. Message based. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. In the educational field. x86/Pentium processors. And of course. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. I put together my own operating system. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. and the initialization entry point jumped to. Real-Time. nor is it intended to directly replace them. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. If you intend to run MMURTL. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. If you're not worried about memory consumption. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. and 64K of data). Multitasking. If you don't like my acronym. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above.

The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). (or even MS-DOS). No reformatting or partitioning your disks. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. not at all the same. This includes Cyrix.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. 8250. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. IBM and other clone processors. The processor must be an Intel 80386. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. Both 5.x (IBM). but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. you can change the code as needed. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats.5" are supported. AMD. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. but only out of convenience. 80486. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. EISA (Ed. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. you can ignore this section. and more importantly. Note: PCI bus designs work well. Hence. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. If yours isn't. Pentium. MMURTL V1. One Megabyte of RAM is required. but still. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. but a few are not). that is. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. eases the development burden. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). This makes it easy to use MMURTL. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. If you want to run DOS. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. also – 2000). If you intend to build on a platform other that described here.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are).25" and 3. IDE is preferred.

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Far too often. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. make a lot of sense. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. as well what may influence your design. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. my reading of various publications and periodicals. It whet my whistle. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. my schooling.000. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. simplified memory management. for no apparent reason). or even just use MMURTL the way it is. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. client server designs.” I covered what my final design goals were. you might not want to). It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. In fact. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. I would not let this happen. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. etc. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. That worked out just about right. a. That was 1989. take away. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers.Chapter 2. affect its design. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. here it is. It does. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . Burroughs and Sperry. Five years later. add. As you can see. write your own operating system. MMURTL V1. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. In Chapter 1.a. however. no doubt. It was a 32-bit system. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. I might add). Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. and just make it better if you have the desire. has had an effect. “Overview. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). merged). General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system.).k. improve. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. and borrowed with great respect. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. Every little thing you've run across will. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. Borrow from mine.

The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. There was no turning back. there was no such thing. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. but the tools worked. Of course. however. It's the place to start. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. Again. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. compiler. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. at times it was quite difficult. Memory access was limited. MS-DOS was everywhere. maybe. I really had no choice. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. It is just now becoming popular. and a few others. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. but it worked nonetheless. in the process of using these other tools. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. was a must. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. As you may be aware. a lure that could not be suppressed. I'm not a Borland salesman. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler.x linker. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. or ported to a system. Then those were the 2. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. Once again. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed.1. It was limited to the small memory model. but the tools just worked better. In fact. The next major decision was the software development environment.including assembler. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway..all but ancient history now. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. however. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. I thought about other processors.. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors .0) and later moved to 5. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. Message-based.x assembler and 2. or even OS/2. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. and utilities . popular platform.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. Operating system developers.After I got involved with the IBM PC. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. like a bad virus. but as you well know. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's.

you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. a disassembler. Many different books. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). such as Chips & Technologies. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. in itself. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. a major task. as you may understand. It is tied to the internal bus. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. SX MMURTL V1. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. Communications controllers. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily.). I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. In fact. in which case. or even port MMURTL to it. at least. Developing this assembler was. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. DMA. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. To fully understand this.” Assembly language has its place in the world.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. want or need. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. interface design. Besides. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. IBM published theirs. That set me back four months." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. no linker. I do so because its bus. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. Needless to say. which is 32 bits for the most part. There is no linker. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. It's simply not needed. That's right. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. TTL. as well as the software control of these devices. Parameters are passed left to right. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. and a few other minor utilities. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. but another port is in the works. articles. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture).. I plead the "Fifth" on this. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may.some tools from the major software vendors. etc. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. DC. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. Computer chip manufacturers. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. documents. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. which is fed to the assembler. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. and the called function cleans the stack. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. I think many people started there. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. or may not. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". The C compiler produces assembly language. etc. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. but I pretty much built from scratch.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. you will need to read chapter 28. These documents are usually free..

There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code.). Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. but not a fully segmented model . you'll be ahead of the game. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. no way to get test programs into the system. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. But as you may be aware. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. The thought was rather sickening. timers. but it presented several serious complications. This was timeconsuming. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code.g. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. I discuss several options you have. gentler" environment I was after. EISA. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. all implementations of UNIX). etc. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. All of the early test programs were in assembler. [Thunking is when you interface 32.and 16-bit code and data. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. etc. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. There was no loader. as you will see. but instead a lean. but it's not at as complicated. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors.).two segments per program and two for the OS. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. It has turned out very nicely. It was a "kinder. this is a year you won’t have to go through.. all based on their own selectors. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. OS/2 version 2. If you write your own system.x. In chapter 5. This easily consumed the first six months. Windows version 3. aliasing is also required. In a paged system. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. MMURTL V1. anyway. even the operating system writer. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation.x. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. During this time. powerful. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. Memory Management. but this is transparent to the programmer. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. The segmented memory idea was canned. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. If you use Intel-based platforms.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. I had to meet my design goals. anyway (e. of course. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. from a 16-bit code segment. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. This simple model could allocate and manage memory. as well as the stack storage.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. "Thunking" was out of the question.

I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. Go for the kernel. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. Document the problems. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. It will be worth the time spent. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. you know that certain items in a project must work. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model." It is difficult for me to do this also. You can then “port” the prototype. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. compilers and utilities. garbage collection. This is called the critical path. or how much time you really have to invest. Select your hardware platform. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). the discoveries . I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. hints are about all I CAN give you. memory model and basic programming interface. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. I was really interested in communications. Investigate your tools. but whatever you decide on. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. how much knowledge you have. It may be RISC. I say this from experience. "You start here. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. If this has never happened to you. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. Memory management is next. This includes the tasking model. I'll tell you the easiest. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. you'll NEVER really be done with it. There are so many platforms out there.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. But. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. MMURTL V1. get to know it very well. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. the rest is real work. the actual application may not be so important. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities.anything that you think you'll need to remember. and there will also be background noise. it may be CISC. and overall program management – as you see fit. Know your desired application. The Critical Path Along your journey. Decide on your basic models. For example. I envy you. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. The level of complexity. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. This may sound a little humorous. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). you will no doubt find bugs. do it. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. but they just didn't say. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. will depend on the memory model you choose. you know that it can be a very daunting task. but there wasn’t. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. of course. I have provided such an operating system with this book. Get to know your assemblers. Or at least when you get it working. but I'm very serious. But I'll try. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. Of course.

Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. MMURTL V1. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. These tools include documentation for the hardware. Good luck. As I mentioned above. But don't set them too high. dependable pickup truck. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). all the way.Working Attitude Set your goals. easily digestible chunks. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. it's worth the time. Work with small. Document as you go. Sounds backwards? It is. But really. I moved on from there. It will be blood. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. I write the documentation. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. and then I write the code. I had my wish list well in advance. it won't be luck. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. compilers.” Once satisfied. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. I lay out my notes for what I want. sweat and maybe some tears. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside.

but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. at least temporarily. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). so I imagine most of you will be working with it. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. it’s PREEMPTIVE. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. After all. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. CPU utilization.Chapter 3. but it is. KERNEL . Tell the programmers what you mean. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. TASK . The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. and most people refer to.This term is not disputed very much. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. It shouldn't be. Some documentation. When a task is suspended from execution. then start another task running.. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. In other words. This makes it a very small kernel. If you write your own. save its state. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. and more specifically.g. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. But this is not cast in stone either. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. MS-DOS TSRs . Hence. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. but I hope you will accept them.” In most instances I call it a TASK. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . MMURTL V1. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives." which means communications between tasks.” while others call it a “thread. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. however. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS .This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. or at least coming to agreement on them. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. Generally. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. but doesn't expect the interrupt. In its executable form. Some operating systems call a task a “process. I admit some guilt here too). and I'm not talking about programming languages. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. coffee and soda spilled on them. You may not agree with the definitions. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. be specific about it. A single computer program can have one or more tasks.

In each case. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports." but needless to say. But in almost all of these systems. Some are communications programs (FAX software. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. and hardware (Timers. or even network connections for logons. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. Input/Output (I/O) devices. when the mission was accomplished. execute programs as the new users desire. Task Management Tasks begin. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. Nor did I want it to be. Managing these resources in a simple. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. On the other hand. It may have memory assigned to it. Interrupt Controller Units. comms programs).). memory management. etc. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. and why. "simple software for simple minds. and some are user-oriented software. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. Single User. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). Multitasking. One of my friends suggested the motto. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. I deal with one user at a time.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. including video. or the user was done. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment).In other words. it didn't sit too well with me. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. disk. You may MMURTL V1. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. Single vs. Tasks end. good old Albert). These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. DMA. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user).0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. This is its only real purpose in life. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. Quite obviously. "Everything should be as simple as possible. How tasks are handled. keyboard. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). Tasks crash. In other words. but it may not be so easy for you. These are the real resources. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. When I wrote these programs.

MMURTL V1. I had my very own processor. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. Then I asked. In a multitasking operating system. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. My first programs were written with that attitude. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. but effective. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. It was crude. it would seem to return at its leisure. The software state can consist of almost nothing. This is where the hardware-state is saved. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. We were each getting a piece of the pie. In the case of hardware interrupts. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. it was a breeze. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. If you must do it yourself. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. but an important one. this is usually a no-brainer. Microcomputers spoiled me. Yet. albeit not a very big piece it seemed.want to deal with many. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. It's actually easier than it sounds. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. When you restore a task. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. "It's 11:00PM. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. This will be the heart and brains of the system. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. When you change tasks. The CPU takes care of it for you. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system.

They can. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. In this case. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. In many single tasking systems. if necessary. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. or to pause when it has nothing to do. A task that has the processor gives it up." From there. you are cooperating with the operating system. In fact. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. For instance. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. do an adequate job in many cases. however. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. With these calls. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done.I'm done with the CPU for now.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. This may be in milliseconds. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. which I cover in this chapter. management of CPU time is easy. you basically have a hardware manager. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). Cooperative and Preemptive. however. interrupt servicing. the screen and everything else looks frozen. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. In a single tasking operating system. and in some cases. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). "Hey . there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. a single threaded system may be the best solution. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. and basic input/output. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. Meanwhile. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. he then monopolizes the CPU. And yes. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. It may not always be obvious when it happens. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. This can be for a number of reasons.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. MMURTL V1. or a combination of the two.

only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. or the operating system from an external device (e. hardware timer. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. To expand on that definition. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. or monitoring. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. When. or it may be for something extremely critical.). In a preemptive system. Most of the time. quite often.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. The timer can help determine when to preempt. the scheduler simply determines who's next. In fully cooperative systems. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. As I also mentioned earlier. When do we switch tasks. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run.. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. etc. when a task is preempted. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. after the interrupt is finished. or a few other hardware-related things. connected to the outside world . is a preemptive system. communications device. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. and maybe memory context. MMURTL V1. or even a requirement. the task that's running. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. The currently running task is preempted.g.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). As you can see. a program.communicating. On most platforms. we must now decide which task runs next. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). Also. controlling. it doesn't expect it. disk drive. outside events. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. They are also. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. there is going to be a desire. the scheduler. However. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. It does nothing to prepare for it. to which task do we switch. These parties include the programmer. this adds the requirement of timing. or after a set period of time. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. Generally. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. and how long does that task get to run? Who. For the preemptive system. The next section is the tricky part. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU.

or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. Who determines which task gets more time." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. This gives the scheduler something to work with. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. In the simplest time sliced systems. For example. But it has some major drawbacks. In some systems. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment.and they will be executed in the order they were created. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. When a task's time is up. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. and the next task in line is restored and executed. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. "a slice of time. In a time sliced preemptive system. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. and if a user interface is involved. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. only the very highest would ever get to run. or how much time there is MMURTL V1.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone.000 burgers. it can serve admirably. each task will get a fixed amount of time . When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. (the others will be flipping 8. A simple queuing system suffices. But it may be just fine in some circumstances.all tasks will get the same slice . This is usually not very effective. Not quite that simple. the one with the highest priority will be executed. In a cooperative system. each task gets 25 milliseconds. For example. but it won't be on their terminals. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. its complete hardware and software state is saved. Time slicing is an old technique. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. otherwise. The others may see a slow down. They can be waiting for something such as I/O.

we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. These are communications and user interface issues. The buffer will overflow. But I opted to "get real" instead. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are.. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. In a message based system. or the user. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. but it makes the point. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. computers are everywhere. clean communications. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it.g. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. dependable. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. but it's not dramatic enough. This IS real-time stuff. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. Now. come do something with this data before I lose it"). but one channel is handling five times the data.to go around on the system. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). and prioritization of these tasks will be critical.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. For instance. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. Thus. Therefore. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. We want good. things are never as simple as they seem. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. and we want our machines responsive to us.

I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. A task may. See what works for your applications. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. In this type of system. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. all tasks will get to run. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. No doubt. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. and even help define the tasking model. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. although such systems exist. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. you have a few ideas of your own. I can't picture a system without it. But even when the task has nothing to do. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. however.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). MMURTL V1. Users on a larger. based on the number of tasks scheduled. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. Primarily Cooperative. A very simple. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. Time Sliced. In addition. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. Some Cooperation In this type of model. it would still be scheduled to execute. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. even though these methods are very important. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. Fully Time Sliced. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. To be honest.

A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. This is a speed issue. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. preemptive. After all. The task based ISR is slower. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. goes into a "waiting" state. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. To briefly explain my tasking model. For instance. Limited Time Slicing category. This could have presented some protection problems. Keep them short. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. "Experience is a wonderful thing. monitors the current task priority. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. I wanted a priority based. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. multitasking. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. if you have 256 priorities. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. To me. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. It's faster – actually. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. and no. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. I never wanted to miss outside events.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . and limit the functionality if at all possible. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative.Primarily Cooperative. The timer-interrupt routine." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. The less time the better. timer services. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions.PERIOD. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. file access. Other processors may offer similar options. In such a system. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. real-time operating system. Go for the fastest option . it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. or whatever. and in reality. much faster. and the next task with the highest priority executes.

For instance.only the user knows. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19.management headaches. On systems that are primarily time sliced. MMURTL V1. or even possibly the users. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. the problems didn't surface. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. After a period of time has elapsed. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right .0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. or Ms. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). who's to say when Mr. you switch tasks. In a cooperative environment.

the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. Of course. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. what operation you want to perform. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. where it waits. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. only one task can execute at a time. nor should they have to. portions of the code will not be reentrant. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. On a single CPU. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). As I described in earlier chapters. In other words. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications." MMURTL V1. As the name implies. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. or is suspended when it can't run. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. perform operations on the semaphore structures. if it's being allocated). As you will see in this chapter. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. In operating systems that use semaphores. However.Chapter 4. it could cause some serious problems. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task.

They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. I have added a second. He or she will make a system call for some resource. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. which will consist of one or more tasks. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. a program is made up of one or more tasks. ReadPipe(). and WritePipe(). Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). OS/2. or similar ones.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. I refer to a program as a “job. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. more powerful. tasks are not wholly independent. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). I didn't. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). This is much more efficient.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. You will see these commands. such as MMURTL. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. In my humble opinion. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations.In most cases. If you intend to implement semaphores. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. But once again. As you can see. In a message-based system. or schedule tasks for execution. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. on most real-time operating systems. but I used a second form of messaging instead.). it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. In my system. OS/2 is one such system. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. destroy tasks. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. In fact. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. In fact. such as those procedures that create new tasks. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. etc. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. public pipes are very handy. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). you should study how they are used on other systems. ClosePipe(). Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. OpenPipe().

give it the message and away it goes. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. it's a little more complicated than that. Now. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. Yes. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. MMURTL V1. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. char *pMsgRet). unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). but we have enough to finish the basic theory. Now I have some very important terms and functions . the answering machine is the exchange. You also need a way to send the message. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . long dMsgPart1. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. request() and respond(). and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. the message is received right away. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). for which you expect no response.functions. The task is the human. If you're lucky. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). a bin.not in detail yet. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. an exchange point. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. Consider the phone again. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. It does just what it says . unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. I called it an Exchange. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. only one task is actually executing instructions. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. In MMURTL's case. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). such as. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. "Tell Mr. long dMsgPart2). or whatever you call it. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. or just about any other name you like. dExch is the destination exchange. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. You can send one way messages to a person. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. Zork to forget it. provide some other pieces of information. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. a task is born. but enough that we can talk about them. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. WaitMsg(). Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. Not too large to move around. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. You tell it what exchange. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. In an operating system's case. It returns 0 if all goes well. SpawnTask(). SendMsg(). dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there." This is an example of a one way message. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. CheckMsg(). char *pMsgRet).it sends a message. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. but large enough for a couple of pointers. You point to a piece of code. his offer is the pits. and VIOLA. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages.

Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. It's still task 2. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. As we move down the table in our example. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. Task2 allocates Exch2. None found. it's not called the kernel zone. You start with a single task executing. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. Kernel makes Task1 run. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task.. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling.. Task1 is ready to run.). Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Task2 is still running.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. In this example. very small. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. Table 4. time is passing. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. Task2 is higher. Just kidding. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. None are waiting. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. What it's doing isn't important.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 4.

the list could go on and on. This can simplify the scheduler. they must be waiting for something. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. When the service is first installed. In fact. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. The name must be unique on the machine. This may not work on all types of processors. With MMURTL. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. Each time an interrupt occurs.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. It gives task2 the message. unsigned int wSvcCode. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. but the name will always be the same. This way. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. only the service name. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. each service installed is given a name. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. Each service can provide up to 65. .. printing services. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. MMURTL V1..0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . it will be made to run. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services.. In some systems. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. If there is one. e-mail services. 10 or even 15 system services. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. keyboard input. If there is a task at the exchange. From the simple example in table 4. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. FAX services. They are dedicated types. A fully loaded system may have 5. the receiving task is made to run.1.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester.. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . I didn't do this with MMURTL. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). queued file management. They are ideal for things like file systems. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). BBS systems. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. The processing is carried out by the service.

For instance. all capitals.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. If this is the response. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). the second dword is the status code or error from the service. If you made more than one request. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. dnpSend . you'll need to know which one is responding. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange.the status or error code returned to the requester.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. *pdRqHndlRet . Using the Open File() example. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. dData0. *pData2 . If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. This will be explained later in memory management. They are described below: dRqHndl . pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). If you remember. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. Two questions arise: 1. dRespExch . but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. long dData1. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). it is NOT a response. long *pdRqHndlRet. Zero (0) usually indicates no error.Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request().long dRespExch. Second. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . Second. Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. long dData2 ).This is the same as dcbData1. *pData1 . this would be the size (length) of the filename. long dStatRet). although its exact meaning is left up to the service. dnpSend would be 1. dcbData1 . The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. dcbData2 . you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). Where is the response data and status code? First.Number of the specific function you are requesting. long dcbData2SR. and dData2 .Pointer to the service name you are requesting. The service already knows this. but network transport mechanisms do not.the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. or pData2 to send data to the service. if the request was serviced (with no errors).How many bytes the pDataSend points to. The service name is eight characters. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. dData1. in the file system OpenFile() function. dStatRet .is the number (0. wSvcCode . long dcbData1SR. These can never be pointers to data. These are documented independently by each service. In many functions you will not even use pData1. If it is 80000000h or above. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. There's still a little work to do. the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. and spacepadded on the right.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). long dData0. But. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). At first glance. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. char *pData2SR.

and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. It's really quite simple. right? But let me guess . The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. checks the semaphore.to read or write data. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. So. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. even in a multitasking system. MMURTL V1. Not as difficult as you expect. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). Now. or pauses in the middle of them. When each task is done with the allocation routine. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. Also. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. it's a mess. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange.it's crash time. it is preempted.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. there was only one buffer left. and show you what can happen. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). Each task that enters the code. For the sake of understanding this. Now. only one task can really be running at a time. task1 gets to run again. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. pointers are off the ends of arrays. But when it reaches PointX. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. Not very big. The buffer is gone. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. Semaphores are used on many systems. lets look at an example. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . but still very important. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. but this would slow things down a bit. As you know. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. and WHAMO . Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. To really understand this issue. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. An exchange is a small structure in memory. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. As you can see. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. So the code goes in. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time.

x? You will lose data.” MMURTL V1. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory.200 baud in Windows 3. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. Also. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often.If the instruction sequence is short enough. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. In the kernel code. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. and maybe even not often enough. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. I started with one and abandoned it early on. WHOA THERE . A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. You will lose data. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. It will be the only way. it will simplify IPC greatly .that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. The next sections discuss this. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. and also "the biggie" .000 * 3).task switches. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL).000. let's look at a real-world example. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. You didn't disable interrupts. “Memory Management. This is 1/38. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. Don't blame Windows though. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. In theory. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. but my testing shows I did OK.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds.

Chapter 5. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). it's all basically the same. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. Whether or not you use paging hardware. Either way. MMURTL V1. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Address 0 is the first. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). This greatly affects the next three items. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. There are some major differences though. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. I do make some assumptions about your processor.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. Instead. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. if available. Basic Terms Once again. For instance. Some do it with internal paging hardware. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. or another complicated applications. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. With the Intel processors. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. The memory model you choose. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. so does an operating system.

etc. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. Figure 5. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement.1. No address translations take place in hardware.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . and bad. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. and possible partitioning for each program. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. bottom up. This can be good. As programs are loaded. With this scheme. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. Figure 5. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. chunks of physical memory called pages. different memory allocation schemes (top down. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. As programs are loaded. MMURTL V1. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. In this type of system. You may be restricted from using some of these options. at least for the operating system. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement.). depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications.

With demand-paged memory. For instance. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. Figure 5.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. more than likely a hard disk drive. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. or even 64 MB).2 . Figure 5.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. Figure 5. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. For example.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory. With paged memory. direct access storage device. With this scheme.Figure 5. MMURTL V1. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate.

The minute you apply this term to memory management. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS .3 . they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces. but it sure looks like it is. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL.Figure 5. and indeed you are." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one).4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique. as in virtual reality. all the programs still use the same linear space. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. Look at Figure 5. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. With paging hardware.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. and the hardware allows it. MMURTL V1. it means that you're lying to your programs. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory.

but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. parallel linear spaces. the memory management hardware must support it. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. No doubt. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. different data or code).4 . you will think of. and implement some of your own. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. there are many possible variations. MMURTL V1. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. Unlike Paged Flat Memory.Figure 5. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. Note the advantages here. yet. In Figure 5." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. In order to allow multiple. memory is NOT flat.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. Note also the disadvantages. The options here are almost mind boggling. A way around this to use a shared memory area. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. Once again. which is the idea.

Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. The most common. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). MMURTL V1. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand.g. they needed to identify and manage those segments. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. When this was a 16-bit world. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. OS/2 or Windows). 20 to be exact. However. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. When you use a selector. When the 80286 came on the scene. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). or even an 8-bit one. and you need to understand the implications. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. They allowed multiple sequential. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. What they came up with is called Segmentation. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. It's just what it sounds like. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. To make this work.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. In fact. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero.." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. 80186. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. it is usually termed as "dirty. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. 8088. All of the Intel products are very well documented. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. so I won't go into further detail. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. and 80286). Likewise. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. They are not limited to 64K. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. we had some pretty limited address spaces. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. When a page has been written to. and the popular Zilog Z80). This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. This is a very handy feature. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. This means you can save the time rewriting it. and generally the most efficient. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. They used something called a segment register. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. one for code and several for data access. The LRU schemes have many variations. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. This was actually several registers. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes.

and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. You'll have to make a decision. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. if your hardware supports it. But in many systems. and it will be based on many factors. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. With this scheme. Other factors include how much memory you have. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. This can be a real hassle. This way. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. Allocating memory for applications. Allocating memory to load applications and services. I learned this the hard way. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. Tracking physical memory if paging is used.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS .” Before you decide which method to use. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. Tracking client linear memory allocations. which will be defined by the paging hardware. I'll discuss each of these things. one person). Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block.With a 32-bit system. If you do. when one application crashes. MMURTL V1. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. They are “linked lists” and “tables. you ARE the operating system. the type of applications you cater to. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. How you store the links in this list can vary. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. it usually takes the whole system down. and Handling protection violations. but not in the order I listed them. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. You make the rules. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. I will give you a good idea what it's like. Remember. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. when one application crashes. each block holds its own link. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. especially if you have a very small programming team (say.

pLink->pNext = 0. pLink->owner = 0. char *pPrev. } When a client asks for memory.owner = 0. No next link yet. These are the first links in your list. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse).0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. you would set up the two base link structures. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. struct MemLinkType pFree.pPrev = 0.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. pFree and pMemInUse. long owner. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. which means you can't honor the request.size is large enough. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. This is done by following pLink. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. pMemInUse. In the process of memory management initialization. In the following simple linked list scheme.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. Of course. This is another topic entirely.pNext = 0x100000. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . }. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic. pFree. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree.size = 0. pMemInUse. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. pFree. or you reach a link where pNext is null.16.size = 0. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. /* " " */ long Client = 0. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. MMURTL V1. pMemInUse. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. pLink->size = 0xf00000 .pNext until pLink. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. you must remember that pLink. struct MemLinkType *pLink. pFree. I haven't disassembled their code.pNext = 0. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data.owner = 0.pPrev = 0. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. pMemInUse. but I'll touch on it some. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. You now have an idea where they went. For my description.

When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer.. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16).. pNewLink->owner = 0.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. Client is the owner of the new block. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . it WILL get fragmented.pNext = &pLink.16. And believe me. } /* Sorry . If you use this code. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. Granted. WantSize is the size the client has requested.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented.pNext. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. } } return(0). it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. The function returns the address of the new memory. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. pLink->size = WantSize.WantSize . fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16). The following example code is expanded to show each operation. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev.

*/ pNewLink = MemAddress . validate the link. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. which returns memory to the free pool. You have the linear address. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier.16. change its owner. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. This provides instant cleanup. and you insert it there. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. But you can't depend on this. This will add time to deallocation routines. or you can do it all after the fact.deallocate. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. But we can't add our size to pFree. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. depending on the order of deallocation. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). if at all possible. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. but cleanup will be a snap. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. In other words. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. There are several thoughts on cleanup. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. This is where the fragmentation comes it.pNext. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. This will be useful in the following routine. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. then move it to the pFree list. /* scan till we find out where we go. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. This makes the most sense to me. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it.

0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. If you don't use the paging hardware. pNewLink->owner = 0. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. we couldn't be combined with the previous. In the case of the paging hardware. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. You can expand on them if needed. return(0). It should give you a great number of ideas. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). In the memorymanagement routines earlier. there are physical pages assigned to it. you will have two memory spaces to track. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. The two must be synchronized. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. } } /* If we got here. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. MMURTL V1. */ /* In this case. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. you can decide how you want them setup. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. pLink = pNextLink->pNext.

you will have independent tables for each application. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. You must consider where the operating system loads. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. “OS Initialization. Batteries fail. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. This can get complicated. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. It will be the page’s size. From there. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. If your processor gives you these types of options. You will be allocated these up front. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. For instance. Wherever you load it.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. In some cases. it becomes allocated memory right away. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. You must set up tables.When you work with paging hardware. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. “the Hardware Interface. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. If you use paging. But it's up to you.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. and you should take that into consideration. it will generally be in a block of addresses. and turn on the paging hardware. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. add the translations you need and are already using. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. you will have to move it all. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset.” but once the operating system is loaded. trap. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. MMURTL V1. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster.

Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. Compact. Small. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. but nice to have. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. It can be very complicated to use on any system. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. The common data segment is 10h. and many others. 32-bit offset). This could change in future versions. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. Medium. I wanted only one program memory model. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. This greatly simplifies every program we write. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. If you are familiar with segmented programming. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. but will have no effect on applications. the initialized data segment. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . the application code segment. but in a very limited fashion. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. If you have no desire to use them. set them all to one value and forget them. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. and even larger with demand page memory.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. uninitialized data segment. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. For instance. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. The user code segment is 18h. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. The operating system code segment is 08h. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. This was too complicated for me. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. and one or more code segments. you know that with MS-DOS. the concept of program segments is an old one. I use almost no segmentation. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. and I even use the Intel segment registers. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. and one data segment for all programs and applications. Large. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller.

This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. but most of the operating system code – specifically. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. the kernel . Each PTE is four bytes long. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. its not magic. If you want just a few bytes. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. Sure. Every Job gets its own PD. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. which can have 1024 entries. What you don't see. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. Because of this. No.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . Right? Wrong. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. Each PDE is also four bytes long. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. If you get our calculator out. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS .1. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. Each of the PDEs points to a PT. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). and each application the same thing.294. because I haven't explained it yet.runs in the task of the job that called it. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. is that you really do need most of this capability. but you need it in pieces. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. it has code and data and a task or two. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT.memory. This is done with something called a page directory (PD)." huh?). The operating system itself is technically not a job. but it’s close. Besides. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?).967. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. For instance.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. MMURTL V1.

now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. Now that it knows where the PD is. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. the secret is out. Besides. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. but it does this with very little overhead. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. Likewise. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. But it was for a good cause (No. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do.1 . It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. each PDE has the physical address of each PT.Table 5. If you remember. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. Sounds like a lot of work. Now it's got the PTE. Read on and see what I did. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. MMURTL V1. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). I wanted to keep the overhead down. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. Of course. However. Sure. possibly several for each application. but it wasn't needed. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. and it needs it fast. This is fine for one address per job. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. yes. In the scheme of things. certainly less overhead than this explanation). When I started the application. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. I could have built a separate table and managed it. but when you start talking 10. in a word. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. 20. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). Code. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. Well.

AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. but you get the idea. in fact.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. in Table 5. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors.1. all the shadow entries are marked not present. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. If I desired. AllocOSPage(). MMURTL V1. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. If I decided to do it. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. it would be transparent to applications anyway. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. As shown.. AllocPage(). They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned.2. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum).2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . 512 513 . What does this make the page directory look like? Below. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS... I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory.. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. 256 257 . all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present. This is 0 to 1Gb.. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. Table 5. 768 769 . It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). That would really be a waste. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range..0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory... Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB.

If it does. They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). along with the number of pages to deallocate. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. and whether or not it's currently in use. there will be no error. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. and DLLs. With a 1Gb address space. nor do you even care. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. or will return an error if it's not available. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). only that number will be deallocated. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory.Managing physical memory. They are simply new jobs. Each application (job) gets it own PD. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). it will create a new PT. but no stack. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. initial stack. It's loaded into these initial pages. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). MMURTL V1. you allocate physical memory from the top down. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page).All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. Now comes that easy part . Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. from a previous AllocPage() call. nor should it try to find out. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. If so. the caller passes in a linear address. but the memory will not be available for later use. The caller will never know. Device drivers. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. System Services. Device Drivers have code and data. It does not tell you whom they belong to. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). It is not important. If the physical memory exists. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. and data. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. but only from this caller's memory space. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). which is also my sister's name.

the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. you should do it before you read this section. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. But this gets away from memory management. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. Of course. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). the second job has access to other job's data. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. but that's trivial (a few instructions). The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. If it tries to deallocate them. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. Instantly. This will make more sense if you do. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. no data. With a page based system such as MMURTL. how could they be swapped?). Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. They share physical memory. When an application requests a service. and no stack. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. There is no new allocation of physical memory. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. They are there to be used as shared code only. an error will occur. They have only code. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space.

How they see the interface is very important. use it.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. When it's done its work. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. The programmer tracks his own memory usage.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. it responds. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. For MMURTL. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). One or more PTs for the OS. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed).

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I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. and the most significant at the lowest. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. however. aside from the instructions you give it. Therefore. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. in theory. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. As good as it sounds. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. It executes your instructions. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. and it simply runs. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. to interoperability with other systems.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. MMURTL V1. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. or for specific timing requirements. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. You provide a common. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. and speed. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. there are drawbacks to this idea. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. but that doesn't mean that you won't. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. But there's always more than meets the eye. jumps where you tell it.Chapter 6. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. is the interrupt or trap. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it.how it is accessed in memory. although I never thought so. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. The most common. The two that are obvious are code size. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data .

The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. just to name a few. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). They are actually very forgiving devices. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. but in some of the processor documentation. address. or CPU bus. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. The second is the address bus. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. EISA. Quite honestly. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. in that case. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. This is called the main bus. The most common is the relatively low-speed.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. Finally. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. For instance. I read many books about my target processor. There are many extensions to this bus . There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. no matter which device you must code. On the PC-ISA platforms. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. but I found the most valuable. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . internal bus. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. and especially the interface bus. PCI. ISA. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same.some proposed. On smaller systems. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. This is handy. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. or ISA Bus. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. MMURTL V1. such as those dealing with interrupts. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. The first set is the data bus. and most useful. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. and some that are available now. I've tried both methods. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). Multibus.

in many cases. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. Therefore. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. Unlike UART devices. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. and on some systems. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. or even memory to memory. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. MMURTL V1. but still very important. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. or HDLC. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. to name a few.. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. or network card). are synchronous communications such as those used with X. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. network frame handlers. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. and tape drives. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. SDLC. They have no way. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices.g. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. except for the hardware clock timing.Less commonly found. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. Parallel buses can move data faster. the infamous Centronics interface). In fact. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. They work with frames or packets of data. Quite often. but is really a device connected to the bus. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method.25 (an international link and network layer standard). Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. Another way is programmed I/O.

the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. Video hardware manufacturers realize this.500 bytes of memory space. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . This consumes the least amount of your address space. If you want 16 colors for each bit.g. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. this only consumes 4000 bytes. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. Video Like the keyboard. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). All the output would be via a serial port. In most cases. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. or Unicode. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. In fact. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. but you must realize the importance of this device. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. This could consume a vast amount of memory. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. Each bit array is on its own plane. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. this video memory will contain character codes (e.. Quite often. is worth more than I can indicate to you. This requires an interrupt service routine. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform.On many systems. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. If this is the case. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. However. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. This is known as planar pixel access. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. On an 80-column-by-25-line display. On the PC-ISA platform. In character-based systems. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. and MMURTL V1.

and to query the status of the move. and timing when you write to the video display area. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. In many cases. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. This includes cursor positioning. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. In some cases. The code for these two calls is shown below. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. I was interested in character-based.. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. interprocess communications.g.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. This is known as packed pixel access. this would be 16 planes at 37. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . and GetDMACount(). In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. non-overlapping video users. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). I took this into consideration also. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. however. “Video Code. “Memory Management. have to research hardware cursor control. except maybe an embedded system board. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. MMURTL V1. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. Your requirements will more than likely be different. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. Chapter 26. That equates to 600. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). and your tasking model. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). you'll have no problems. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). For a 256-color system. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware.allow you to switch between them.000 bytes.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. I did. multiple. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware.

0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .) MMURTL V1.Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h . DACK1 (etc. and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Ch 2 Word Count . while 23-17 are put in the page register.Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers. DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware. With word. the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.Ch 3 Word Count . but the standard include file MOSEDF.Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh . etc.Ch 0 Address . This is called a cascaded device.========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h . DMA moves (channels 5-7).Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Ch 1 Address .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Ch 2 Address .Read/Write Mode register . There are two 4-channel DMA devices. . etc.Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h .INC .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h . .Read/Write DMA Rq Register .Ch 1 Word Count .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h .Ch 3 Address . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.Read Status/Write Command .CODE With 8-bit DMA.DATA .Ch 0 Word Count .Read Command/Write Single bit mask .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.INCLUDE MOSEDF. There really is no data segment for DMA.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .DMA DACK0 Page register . Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller. Optimize it as you please.

. AL MOV AL. Verify). I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. . The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . Out. AL OUT DMA1Clear. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. AL MOV AL.CH 0 DMA 1 . AL OUT DMA2Mode. AL OUT DMA2Mode. 41h OUT DMA1Mode. AL AL.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. or 128K boundaries for a word move. AL RETN . If they do. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . 04 .All commands set to default (0) . dType.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . as you might assume).AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. 42h OUT DMA1Mode.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. we do math) MMURTL V1.6 and 7.Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. I do this for the caller. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL OUT DMA2Mode. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. . dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. 40h DMA1Mode. AL XOR AL. . even on word moves. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. the segment is wrapped around. AL . AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. . 43h OUT DMA1Mode. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. dChannel. . sdMem. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. . The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0C0h DMA2Mode. . which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. so they always specify byte count for the setup call. AL OUT DMA2Clear. For channels 5. .CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment.CH 0 DMA 2 . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. . AL XOR AL.Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL XOR AL. .

PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . 00000000b AL. 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. AL DMA1FF. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. 0 . MOV EAX. 2 = Out (Read memory) . AL EAX. 8 DMA10Add. 00001000b . Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. Lo byte address . 1 .ESP . AL AL. 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. [EBP+20] CMP EAX. dMode CMP EAX. 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . AL . Put it in BL MOV EAX.5. 00000100b . ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX.0 = Verify. dType . MOV EBP. 1 Single Cycle. 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX.0 Demand Mode. 04 . 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX..Jump table for channel selection . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. AL . 2 Block.6. . get dType AND BL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) .1. [EBP+12] . dPhyMem .0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . BL DMA1Mode. 6 .3. AL EAX. [EBP+16] . In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . 3 Cascade . dMode . Hi Byte . 1 = In (Write Mem). 0C0h . 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. OR with MODE . CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . MMURTL V1. . [EBP+28] DMA10Add. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL.2. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. Yes CMP EAX. dChannel (0. (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX.7) .

8 DMA10Cnt. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. AL EAX. 8 DMA12Add. 8 DMAPage0. CH2 . channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 00000010b AL. AL EAX. AL . 00000001b AL. AL AL. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 8 DMAPage2. AL AL. 8 DMA11Add. AL EAX. AL AL. sdMem . EAX DMAEnd . Highest byte (to page register) . [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. OR with MODE . AL AL. 8 DMAPage1. AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. Hi Byte . Hi Byte . AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. AL EAX. Lo byte address .SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. dPhyMem . 8 DMA11Cnt. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. BL DMA1Mode. 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. BL DMA1Mode. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . OR with MODE/TYPE . Highest byte (to page register) .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . Highest byte (to page register) . sdMem . CH1 . AL DMA1FF. AL AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Lo byte address . channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . dPhyMem . 8 DMA12Cnt. AL EAX. [EBP+28] DMA11Add.

8 DMA13Add.0 AL. CH1 on DMA 2 . Highest byte (to page register) . AL AL. Hi Byte . 0FFFFh EAX. AL AL. EAX DMAEnd . . AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. OR with MODE . AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. CH3 . AL EAX. EAX EAX.NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . . MMURTL V1. Hi Byte . . EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. AL EAX. 8 DMA13Cnt. . AL AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 15 DMAPage5. 00000001b AL. AL EAX. 8 DMA21Add. . AL EAX. AL EAX. .XOR EAX. AL EAX. . BL DMA2Mode. OR with MODE . 1 DMA21Add. EBX EAX. EAX DMAEnd . BL DMA1Mode. [EBP+28] DMA13Add. . channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . Lo byte address . AL EAX. sdMem . AL EAX. 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. [EBP+24] EAX. . We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMAPage3. 00000011b AL. [EBP+28] EBX. 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL DMA2FF. AL DMA1FF. dPhyMem . 8 DMA21Cnt. AL AL. [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL EAX.

1 EAX DMA22Cnt. 8 DMA22Add. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. OR with MODE . Highest byte (to page register) . channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. [EBP+24] EAX. Hi Byte . EAX EAX. EBX EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL EAX. Hi Byte . CH2 on DMA 2 . 15 DMAPage6. AL EAX. sdMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 8 DMA22Cnt.EBP MMURTL V1. AL EAX. AL AL. 00000010b AL. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL AL. 1 DMA23Add. 0FFFFh EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. EAX DMAEnd . 00000011b AL. AL EAX.DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . BL DMA2Mode. Lo byte address . EAX . AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. EAX EAX. sdMem . Rid of all but lower 16 . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. dPhyMem . [EBP+24] EAX. AL DMA2FF. 15 DMAPage6. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL AL. Lo byte address . OR with MODE . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . [EBP+28] EBX. Rid of all but lower 16 . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . dPhyMem . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . BL DMA2Mode. Highest byte (to page register) . AL DMA2FF. 8 DMA23Cnt.0 AL. 8 DMA23Add. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. 0FFFFh EAX. CH3 on DMA 2 . 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. EBX EAX. 1 DMA22Add. AL EAX. AL AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . -61- RICHARD A BURGESS .

. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. . The count is number of WORDS-1 . DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. dChannel (0. PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. you actually set the channel byte count 65. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetDMACount(dChannel. pwCountRet) . [EBP+16] MOV ESI.535: . for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. In this case. . this is bytes. .6. 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX.7) . 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX.3. you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. . 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. EBP+ 16 12 . You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. .5. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes.2. . . . On some devices. . pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where .0 .Channel . . DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made.ESP MOV EAX. 7 MMURTL V1. . the count will be returned. . DMA23Cnt CMP EAX.1. For channels 5 through 7. DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk.Return address for count . To move 64K.g. you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX.POP EBP RETF 20 . this will be the number of words. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. For channels 0 through 3. DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. no error from the floppy controller).

hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. Usually.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . EAX MOV ESP. or at set intervals. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. Therefore.DX MOV CH. program.No such channel! . A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. or even hours in some cases. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. . . Your job is to know how to program the PICU. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. . If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. and read as required. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. but it is critical that it's done correctly.AL IN AL. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. . ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. be responsible to program these dedicated timers. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. CX XOR EAX. The PICU takes care of this for you. Internally. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. In the process of an interrupt. 20 bytes of junk to dump . the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. many devices interrupt the processor.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . which determines the interrupt interval. . . and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . No Error . but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. . . they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. MMURTL V1. This is not very complicated.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. however. As you can imagine (or will have realized). A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. Quite often.DX MOV CL. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. .JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. The operating system may. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization.

MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will need the hardware manual for code examples.

we start with loading the operating system.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. and it's not exactly easy. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. For this reason. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. This can be done in more than one step if required. you'll have to do some research. If you're using another platform. This is known as a multistage boot. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. be organized with a file system. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. To be honest. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. The question is. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. including hardware. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. If this is true. This device will. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk." that's exactly what I mean. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. then jumping to the first address of the sector. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. no doubt. then go through each section of the basic initialization. memory. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset.Chapter 7.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . tasks. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions.at least not as a file from the file system. When I say "just enough code. In this chapter. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. MMURTL V1. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. more complicated. it executes from a reset state. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. In other words. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. In the PC world. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. then execute it. the boot sector code may load another. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. where boot ROMs usually reside. and important structures. I've done all your homework. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform.

it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. because they provide the BIOS. so you can begin execution. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. 8. This lead to two relocation efforts. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). and the code segment loads at a fixed address. then Drive C. 2. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. which they store in a small work area in RAM. 5. But it gets more complicated. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. 4. 5. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. the hardware commands. Where your operating system will reside in memory. 1. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. This was the case with my system. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). In my case. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program.. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. Second. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. This was a double problem. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. 7. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. 3. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. 3. such as a whole track). This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. then executed the next instruction at the new address. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. 6. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. 6. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. MMURTL V1. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). 7. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. 4. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. 8. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. 2. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. such as a fixed track or cylinder. then life is easy.g. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. In an ISA system. and where you stored it. First.

This contains additional information about the file system . There's no operating system here now.needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk. (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads . DS:CSEG.Resvd sectors .BASE (Linear) .Padding to make it 3 bytes . (worthless) . . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing. Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .nSectors/track .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.Drive boot sector came from .This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .disks.stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) . and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.nSect in FAT . Why not? I do own it.nTotalSectors if > 32Mb .nHeads .The .LIMIT 768 slots . The boot sector code also .0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .on this disk that the operating needs to know.instructions.Sect/Cluster . Examine the following code: .nBytes/Sector .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.11 bytes for volume name . The OS must . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) .Root Dir entries max . IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk. CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.386P directive is required because I use protected .386P .media desc. .nFATs .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors.This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.

Clear interrupts . . at the beginning of this code CLI . AX MOV DS. MOV AX. AX SP.Segment for new location . Its pseudo jump .Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. . MOV CX. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF . AX MOV BX.Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. 0078h .9000h SS. vector location. Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . DI AX. 7C0h DS.Source segment . 0Fh . some of the parameters to it from the boot sector.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX. 512 MOVSB .The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . CL BYTE PTR [SI+9].This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: ..Offset to new location (Next PUSH) . table so it can read the disk for us. 09000h ES. return address.Make DS correct again . nSectPerTrack .This is done by finding out where it is and writing . Push the . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. 8000h .This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. that I calculated after assembling it once.Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. AX SI.Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it.Destination segment . then "return" to it. It works. SI CX. AX DI.Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter .

Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . (3rd cluster is really the first allocated . AX .Save in CX .really IS the OS.STI MOV DL.waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in .The controller is reset.so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) .0020h .The layout of the Disk is: .Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. AX MOV AL..Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot . bBootDrive XOR AX.logical sector order. nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX.0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS .. nRsvdSect MOV CX.Reset failed. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file . AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot .Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX.Must set interrupts for BIOS to work . FATS (1 or more) . OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. CX . ADC DX. MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX. but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist .Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) . Hidden Sectors (optional) .Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . now let's read some stuff!! . We need the space for other code. nOSSectors . cluster because the first 2 are unused).AX is at sector for cluster 0.What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster . POP DS . MOV SI. WORD PTR nHidden .to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or .stage one of the a two stage loader should be).CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root .Required for Disk System Reset . nBytesPerSect BX AX. OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars . MOV CX.

BX AX .Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . 0Eh MOV BX.AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH. BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX. Cyl in AX DH.0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . 06000h MOV ES. BX .0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX. DX . nSectPerTrack SI . AX .Read 13h .Cyl into CX CL.Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH. 20h ES.BX will be zeroed at top of loop . OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX. 6 . CH .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads . AX has . ES BX.I increment ES and leave BX 0 . It's slow. DH . .AX 16h 19h . 2 . before we move it down to 0000h .512 bytes for segment .Number of sectors AH.This is a single sector read loop . MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC . ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI.Sector to read DX.Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI. 1 .Wait for keystroke .Leaves Head in DL. . bBootDrive DL.XOR INT INT AX.Head to DH.Next Sector MMURTL V1. BYTE PTR ResvdByte .OR with Sector number AL.This is segment where we load the OS. DL .Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte. Hi 2 bits to CL CL. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL. Drive to DL CX. Read a . but works well.Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL.

0D1h OUT 64h. move .Now we disable interrupts.64h TEST AL.So move the OS MOV DX. BX SI.64h TEST AL.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS .DI CX.WORD move . SI MMURTL V1.1000h ES.AX DI. SI AX. DX MOVSW . AX ES.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL.CX IBEmm2: IN AL. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX. .LOOP NextSector .A20 line should be ON Now . Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.CX IBEmm0: IN AL. 07000h DS. DX XOR SI.CX IBEmm1: IN AL. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX. 06000h DS. Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX. turn on the A20 line.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear. 8000h .AX DI. SI AX.AL XOR CX.DI CX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL.0DFh OUT 60h.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 .0 .the OS down to address 0.AL XOR CX. BX SI.WORD move . DX MOVSW .At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .64h TEST AL.

We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually . 0Ah.EXE header. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump . I left it in.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS .BX ES.Load Processor GDT Pointer .OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .Set protected mode bit .Set up segment registers .CR0 OR AL.2000h ES. 9000h MOV DS. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END .MS-DOS used this. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1. As you change and experiment with the boot sector.map). 0Ah.lst). 'Loading MMURTL'.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .'. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.BX . such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).BYTE move MOV BX. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. The segment and code size escape .referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction.EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX.BX GS.1 MOV CR0.BX SS.call JMP FAR 08h:10000h. The first 512 bytes is the .Clear prefetch queue with JMP .DI CX. 00h '. BX XOR EDX.Control Register .asm <Enter> This will make a . use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok. and a map file from the link (Bootblok. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX. EDX MOV DL. It's worthless. DX MOVSB .BX FS.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. 00h 0Dh. 'Bad Boot Disk!'.EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.Load Processor ITD Pointer . 10h DS.AX DI.

Register. After you have assembled your boot sector. Then copy the operating system image to the disk. This is easy to do. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. you can use Debug to load it as a . and Name commands. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. Keep in mind.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. To find where Debug loaded it. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. or after the fact. you should not do this to your active development drive. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. logical sector number. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS .bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). then write it to the disk. To read the boot sector from a disk. C:\>Debug BootBlok.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. From the MS-DOS prompt.bin in the root directory of drive C.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. Write.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. you can use the Dump command to display it.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. This will show you a segmented address. and number of sectors following it. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. It's quite easy to do with the Load. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. They may do this as they format the disk. The results can be disastrous.

Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. This single source file program (MMLoader. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. but it's not necessary. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. “Initialization Code. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. At this point. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. up to the point we jump the monitor program. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk.” MMURTL V1. I'm happy. Additionally. It is called MMLoader. If so.c) to properly build it. Good luck. This includes setting up the OS stack.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS .00 loader.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. It does everything that the boot sector code does. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. I couldn't. the Direct Memory Access hardware. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. It is all contained in the source file Main. It should help give you a picture of what's required. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. “The Hardware Interface. All of the hardware that is resident in the system .asm on CD-ROM.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). and basic timers . along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). They must simply be initialized to their default states. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. Hopefully. With MMURTL. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. Chapter 21. If it is in an executable format from a linker.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. understands.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed.C:\> Copy OS. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation.

As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. you've got your job cut out for you. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. If you desire. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. In all of the cases that were discussed. This leaves you with a few options . What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. on the Intel processors. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. Chapter 3. If you use one more bit. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. If you want to eliminate it. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. and also some basic variables. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. you can address above 1Mb. as well as one to switch to. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. is not trivial. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. setting up for multitasking. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. For instance. This depends on the platform. It's not that big. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. “the Tasking Model.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. The option is usually up to you. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. Being a little conservative. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. you just learn to live with it. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. I just left it alone. While in real mode. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls).the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. the A20 address line serves no purpose. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. Either way. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. MMURTL V1.

but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. If your machine doesn't support this method. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. and you can't manage or allocate it. This seems to work on most machines. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. but one I'm glad I didn't face. otherwise. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. although some people may still have problems with it. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. “Memory Management Code. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. back to the initialization (already in progress). where the address match will occur. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts).My goal was not to discover why it existed.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you went with a full blown demand paged system. It's not that much of a headache. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. I tried several methods. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). To make a transition to a paged memory environment. The following list is not all-inclusive. This piece of code may have a lot to do. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. or is at least loaded. or any number of things. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). If you chose not to do this. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. Meanwhile. The point is. Chapter 19. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. MMURTL V1. You don't know how much you have. At this stage of the initialization. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). some which didn't work on all machines.

Quite often though. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. If this happens to me.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . In any and all of these cases. life was easy in this respect. If the parameters are on the stack. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. No kidding! With UNIX. I'm still not entirely happy with it. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. Chapter 15. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). may be similar to another documented call on the system. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. The call is made. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. public distribution. I found. “API Specification. What could be easier? I can't imagine. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. an embedded system. the function does its job and returns. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. because the call they add. This may sound like a no-brainer. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. and leave undocumented.” shows you how I documented my calls.Chapter 8. what order are they in? If the stack is used. or your own consumption and enjoyment. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. UNIX was written with C. that on occasion. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. they do. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. In the following sections. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about.

This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. as if you couldn't guess). Pascal . I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. support several conventions. some use both. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. OS/2. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. code size. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). especially when it comes to speed. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. some use the stack. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. This device is extremely hardware dependent. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. Some use registers. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. the interrupt vector table). Many systems use an intermediate library. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. this is MMURTL V1.. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code.junkies). Your opinion may vary on this. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. has three or four calling conventions. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. no doubt. for example. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. First. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. Second. In other words. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C .g. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. I'm sure you know of several. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . Execution speed. or at least every time it's rebuilt. faster. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. It's up to you. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. but the stack is not used for parameters. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. However. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. and it required a fixed number of parameters. There are two reasons this library may be required. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction.

or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. the hardware will be obsolete. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). For the operating system source. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. When you need to return data from the call. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. However. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. If portability is near the top of your wish list. However. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. This may be a personal issue for me. the procedural interface is the key. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. then execute the interrupt instruction. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. The intermediate library would fill in this value. For application source code portability. and the call gates are really not a problem. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. right. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. MMURTL V1." Yeah. I really hope not. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore.

I set out to design the simplest. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. You more than likely will. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. For instance. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. and this wasn't my original plan. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. You need to consider these requirements in your design. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. Do you see what I mean? Internally. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. timers. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. Suddenly. and Statusing the driver. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. that it's almost impossible to separate them. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. If this is the case. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. They work with the hardware. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. and certain memory-management functions.

EBP+20 nDevices. The first call listed in this section.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. when one user is doing serial communications. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. pStatRet. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. In a multitasking system. pDCBs. . pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code.ASM. ndBlocks. This will give you a good place to start in your design. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. pInitData.0 . InitDevDr(dDevNum. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. nDevices. dLBA.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. 16 MOV EAX. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX.Set up local vars .InitDevDr(dDevNum. EAX MOV EAX.ESP SUB ESP. When you look at the code. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. “Systems Programming. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. .Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. . . [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. This is a common requirement on many systems. You'll see certain validity checks. so I won't go over it here. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. dOpNum. For example. EAX MOV EAX. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). nDevices MMURTL V1. . InitDevDr(). The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. EBP+24 .

dDevNum MMURTL V1.Next caller DCB .Empty.OK to replace existing driver? . 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 . 0 . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX. ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+16] nDevs.All went OK so far.All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: . prgDevs .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX. . we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX. rgpDCBs EAX. OK to use .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .Next devnum .Point EBX to rgpDCB . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX. 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12]. [EBP+20] .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.Set nDev to number of devices again .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX .dDevNum .12 .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX.Decrement nDevices .No .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. rgpDCBs MOV EAX. now move the DCB pointer(s) into array . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX]. and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX. dDevX SHL EAX.NONE left .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: . EAX EBX. ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .If we got here.nDevices . [EBP+24] EAX.Yes . 2 . 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: .pDCBx = 0 if not used yet .Now check to see if device is already installed .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].error exit . dExchTmp .Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs. 2 ADD EBX.JB InitDev01 MOV EAX.

2 .Any more DCBs?? . [EAX] . [EBP+20] MOV ECX.EAX points to first DCB .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .next p in rgp of DCBs . . SHL EBX.Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. . loop through each . ErcBadDevNum . rgpDCBs MOV EBX. [EBP+20] . EAX MOV EAX. ADD EAX. ECX [EBX]. -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. EAX . dExchTmp .0 .Set up for no error .the first customer to use.ADD EBX. CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20].also place Exchange into DCB. EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: .DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it.ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . EBX . and are not presented here.If the device driver was NOT reentrant . EAX EBX. 0 JNZ InitDev06 .for all devices that one driver controls. . 0 . nDevices . pInitData.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX.Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. sdInitData). DeviceInit(dDevNum.Now that EBX.ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: . and . MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch].EBX now points to correct pointer . This is the same exchange . DeviceOp() and DeviceStat(). 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX. 4 EAX. MOV EBP. .next DCB .Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . The other two calls. MOV EBX. You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB.Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX. A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. PUSH EBP .ESP . are almost identical to DeviceInit(). [EBP+20] . MOV EBX.device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . or reset it after a failure.we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . EAX and ECX are set up.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. .

MMURTL V1. ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType].dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.Save ptr to DCB . Send semaphore message to Exch .Push exchange number .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 . . 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP. 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX .Ignore kernel error .No.Ptr to message area .Get device error back . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .. This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.Is there a physical device? DevInit02: . but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. .All looks good with device number .Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] . adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.Get DCB ptr back .NO driver! .Get semaphore ticket .0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .Yes . If not we .so we check to see if driver is reentrant. It you use assembly language and provide code examples. ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd .Device IS reentrant . 0 . .Push all params for call to DD .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX. CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. 0 DevInit02 EAX..save ptr to DCB .Bogus Message .

as you discover the methods employed by this operating system.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . Terminology Throughout this section. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values).Chapter 9. usually passed on the stack.g. Call . I think you will find it useful.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . Argument .Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. Function . “Memory Management. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory.A value passed to a function or procedure.Same as Procedure. or a Procedure in Pascal. and a dword is also accessed at the same address.1 . The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. It may even be entertaining. but alas. Look at the table 9. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. or a Procedure in Assembler.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes).This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. Byte . If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. Before writing your first MMURTL program. If I were a perfectionist.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word . “Interprocess Communications. the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls.1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. WORD. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE. though.” and Chapter 5. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. and DWORD. MS-DOS). The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure .A Function in C or Pascal.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers..

In some C compilers. and assembly language. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. even the assembler or processor itself. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. not the real address of the SetXY function. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. and in some cases. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. or simply convey information that may. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. It may indicate an error. MMURTL V1. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. erc. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. and are expanded to 32-bit values. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. Pascal. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). “API Specification. Some do not. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. or dError. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files).0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . But the address is really a call gate. All parameters are pushed from left to right. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. This will be done by the compiler. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function.

40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . . MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. malloc() in C). This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e.. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages.. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). If you need a 2Mb array. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another... while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. you allocate it.2: Table 9.Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . There are no far data pointers. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you.. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. In fact. When you are done with it.. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. you should deallocate it. . Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language.. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor.g. “Interprocess Communications.2 . but she would much rather that you did it.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory. “The Tasking Model.” describe this in great detail. you simply allocate it. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096).” and Chapter 4.. She may pick up your dirty socks. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller.. MMURTL V1. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. The operating system resides at address 0. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. Chapter 3. MMURTL is a Paged memory system.

Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. SendMsg (dExch. This is not a problem. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. You allocate 5 pages. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. Of course. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. The operating system Code. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. dData0. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . However. Now you allocate 4 pages. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. pData1. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. however. pRqHndlRet. This means that in a multitasking environment. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. MMURTL does NOT. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. protect programmers from themselves. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. so long as you know it can't be addressed. dRespExch.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. dMsg1. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. Address 40100000h is returned to you. pData2. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. cbData2. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). npSend. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. dData1. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. Data. cbData1. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). wSvcCode. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages.

Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. If you do. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. and user interaction. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. but can also be destructive (to the entire system).0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . char sbJobName[14]. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. For instance. Other than that. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. printing. Messaging is very powerful. This eats all of your link blocks. such as data communications.LString */ MMURTL V1. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. The pointer is read-only. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. but you don't want that either. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. you need to know your job number. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. only your program will be trashed. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. /* User Name .Normally. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. MMURTL is not a mind reader. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. Prior to calling SpawnTask().c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack.

long VidMode. char fCursType. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. char JcbSysOut[50]. Chapter 13. char *pVidMem. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. long CrntY. long NextJCB. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. long nCols.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. unsigned char ScrlCnt. long nLines.LString */ std input . For most applications. with unused portions padded. char JcbCmdLine[80]. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. char fVidPause. char *pVirtVid.LString */ std output . /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . “Keyboard Service. char JcbExitRF[80]. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. To change data in the JCB. }. and special keys. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. char JcbSysIn[50]. long ExitError.char sbPath[70]. char fCursOn.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. long NormVid. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. The keyboard interface is a system service. MMURTL V1. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. editing. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . long CrntX. pPathRet.

#define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. The high bit of each. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24. and 9. Background colors describe the attributes. logically OR the Foreground. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. the high nibble is the background. Background. In this byte. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. Foreground colors.3 . is the intensity bit.4. and cursor positioning. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs. only the least significant byte is used.3. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. Tables 9.4096 bytes). Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. Table 9. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). The colors for TTYOut().Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. and low nibble is the foreground. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes).4 . and Blink if desired to form a single value.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . character placement.Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls.

0. or system calls. MMURTL V1. exchanges. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. "This is a test. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. BGBLUE|WHITE). It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). MMURTL has to hunt for them.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. This is done by calling the Chain() function. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. This includes any memory. Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. If no file is specified. 17.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint.". Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. and other things allocated while you were running. Remember.

or provide services to application programs. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. and memory management operations. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. service them.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. use messaging. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. Wait for messages. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. MMURTL V1. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. as well as for other services. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. Pascal. if required. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. It's not very useful. Service names are casesensitive. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services.Chapter 10. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. Additional tasks if required. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. if needed. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. such as: Additional memory. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. Additional exchanges. the service does the processing and Responds. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. Client programs make a Request. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. and Assembly language programmers. then Respond.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service.

/* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. long ServiceRoute. MainExch. else if (pRqBlk.pData1 = NextNumber++. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. long RQBRsvd1. char *pRqHndlRet. long dData2. long RQBRsvd2. }. char npSend. long dData1. long RespExch. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. NextNumber = 0. long cbData1. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. int ServiceCode. ErrorToUser.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. char npRecv. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. long dData0.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . long RqOwnerJob. Message). MainExch).Listing 10. while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError).ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. char *pData2. Message[2]. long RQBRsvd3. long cbData2. char *pData1.1. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ".

will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. The operating MMURTL V1. the service only defines one service code that it handles. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. As a system service. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. another CloseFile. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. This is the number 1 (one). where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. For example. For all other values of the service code. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. These items are dData0.The Request Block As you can see. because the operating system does not alias them as such. dData1. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. you define the data items you need. and dData2. As a system service writer. This is called the service code. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. cbData1 and cbData2. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . or any data movement back to the caller. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. when you receive a Request. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. The memory address of the Request Block. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. The complexity of your service. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. in the File System. In the simple example above. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. and another RenameFile. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. In fact. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. and what service you provide. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. and how much information a program must pass to you. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. For larger data movement to the service. one number represents OpenFile. They are 32-bit values.

then respond before waiting for the next request. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. In each of these cases. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. RAM disks. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. cbData2. and moves it to another exchange. However. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. An example of this is how the file system handles errors.system is “aware” of this. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. Synchronous services wait. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). If so. which is a valuable system resource. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. Disk drives. tape drives. receive a request. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. If this happens. you must respond to it immediately. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. but carries it one step farther. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. until you respond. In the keyboard service. cbData1 and pData2.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . If so. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. When you write system services. The first is the request block handle. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. communications ports (serial and parallel). This is the easiest way to handle requests. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. the file may not exist. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. before responding to any other requests you are holding. MMURTL is built in layers. MMURTL uses this concept.

device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). the PICUs. the file system is at user level (3). If a device driver controls more than one device. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. network link layer devices). which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. or is included in the OS code at build time. as well as where the data is on the device. basic video. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. Things like Device name. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. With InitDevDr(). For example. SCSI ports. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. to handling complex devices such as hard drives.. Sequential devices are things like communications ports. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. or a processor protection violation will occur. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call.and sequential-oriented. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. Block Size. multi-threaded environment. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed.e. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. This means message. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. powerful. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. or network frame handlers (i. I have made it rather painless to build fast.g.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. The interface is non-specific. keyboard. RAM DISK). timer hardware. or any OS structures. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. It does not directly access hardware. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. C and Pascal). and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. keyboard. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr().which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. hard disk.g. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. MMURTL V1. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. multitasking. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3).. interrupt vectors.

It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. and is programmed. Allocate exchanges. Do anything else you need before being called. The device driver looks. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. This layer of code performs several functions for you. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. The main entry point will never be called again. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). Check or set up the device’s. You can name them anything you want in your program. like any application in MMURTL. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. Call InitDevDr(). The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. At this point. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. The generic steps are described below. or in Pascal. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. if needed. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. if needed. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. In C this would be main().Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. just like any other program. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. it's the main program block. if required. InitDevDr() never returns to you. Set up interrupt service routines. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory.

direction. MMURTL uses paged memory. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. mode. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. although it’s not a requirement. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. If you use MMURTL V1. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). and size of a DMA move. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). In other operating systems.”API Specification. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS .” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. specifically DOS. This is often called an interrupt vector. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. especially if the driver controls two devices. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. or how much was transferred. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). Two calls provide these functions. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. Timer Facilities Quite often. device drivers are very close to the hardware.

IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. or assembler to construct the DCB. Alarm(). This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled).Alarm(). Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). each of the three PUBLIC device calls. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. but easy to figure out. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. you can use SendMsg(). and KillAlarm() functions.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB.) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper.1-. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). this is job ALLOCATE and 0. If you use SendMsg().0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. a structure in C. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. and how to implement them in your code. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. Table 10. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. Table 10.

sbDevName . It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. pDevInit. RETN is the proper instruction. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. and you read one sector past the end of that track. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. If the device is sequential. For devices that are not re-entrant. Each sector is considered a block. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. DevType . not the next track. Disk drives are divided into sectors. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. The Hard disk driver operates the same way.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. pDevOp. usually an unexpected one. In other words. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler).this indicates whether the device is addressable. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. MMURTL V1. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. and handle device conflicts internally. sector zero.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. but this is not much of a limitation. fDevReent . MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. head zero. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. For instance. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). If it is another device. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. This reduces disk arm movement which. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address).This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. increases throughput. we then move to the next head. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . the SendMsg().number of bytes per block. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512.Each driver names the device it serves. if you are on track zero. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. this is device dependent. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. In assembler. where several devices are controlled though one access point. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. znBPB . defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. then this should contain a 2. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose.When a driver encounters an error. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. ndDevBlocks . Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. For example. Each device name must be unique. dLastDevErc . but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. and WaitMsg() primitives.

The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on.pData). They equate to standard device operations such as read. pStatRet. and format.dLBA. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver.5. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. wJob . no job is currently assigned the device. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. this flag should be true (non-zero). pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device.dnBlocks. dLBA. OSUseONLY1. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. write.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS .2.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time.fSingleUser .If the fSingleUser is true. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32). The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register. verify. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. pInitData. Your function implementations must do the same.3. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. ndBlocks. If this is zero.6 . The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. dOpNum. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller.4. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously.dOpNum. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session.

5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver.pInitData. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored.dInitData). DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. this will simply be the number of bytes.dStatusMax.pStatRet. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. and so on. For sequential devices. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . parity.pdStatusRet).

DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. pDCBs. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If more than one device is controlled. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. MMURTL V1. the second at pDCBs + 128. and so on. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. This is because one controller. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. such as a disk or SCSI controller. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. This means the devices are number consecutively. After the Device driver has been loaded. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. and one DMA channel if applicable. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. If this is not the case. this is the first number of the devices. fReplace If true. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. nDevices. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. If the driver controls more than one device. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled.

MMURTL V1. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS .Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. then use it.

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the run file name are ignored. The name must start in the first column of a line. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication. One run file name per line. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input.1. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name. If you intend to write an operating system.Chapter 11. Even when a Job is not being displayed. . Listing 11.INITIAL. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. (e. The file name must contain the FULL .no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line .RUN) . Drive:\DIR\NAME.JOB.Maximum line length is 80 characters total.JOB . A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1.to the run file.JOB file. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. tabs or comments after . the keyboard. . No parameters are passed .g. or terminate. Sample Initial. The format is very simple.RUN <---. No spaces. a buffer in memory. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete..1 shows a sample INITIAL. Any spaces. The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up. When the user presses these global keys. the job he is currently viewing.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS .This is the initial jobs file. If it's displaying video data. In future versions of MMURTL. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL.system boot in this file.run C:\MMSYS\CLI.after each entry.Job file . as well as the video display. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen. . is assigned to the new job or is terminated.file name including path. Listing 11.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon . the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. C:\MSamples\Service\Service. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded.

The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk.RUN. and the parallel port (LPT) driver.1. RS-232 serial communications. job display.. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. Table 11. During this process. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . Once the initialization is complete. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. and access to the built-in debugger. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. They are displayed as typed. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job.This is the total count of task switches since boot up. priority task. any errors returned are displayed. MMURTL V1.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. Table 11.1 describes the function of each assigned key. Task switches total .End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization.1. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services.

Listing 11. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. Tasks Ready to Run .0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks.h" "MData. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor. but the count is fixed at OS build time.These are task-management structures. Response is made by the service.This is the number of free job control blocks left. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. See listing 11. but have a fixed count at OS build time. If this number is greater than zero. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory. the request block is returned for re-use.h" "MTimer. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase.h" "MJob. Free Link Blocks . Each job uses one. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time. This number may seem a little high.A small structure used by all messages sent and received.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".h" "MMemory.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do. the C library code can be used.CPU idle ticks (no work) . These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. Free Job Control Blocks .h" "MDevDrv.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run.h" "MVid. Free Task State Segments .h" "MKbd. MMURTL V1. Free Exchanges . They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. even in the same job. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated.h" "MFiles.2. including requests. There were no tasks ready to run. Each new task uses one of these.2. that don't get picked up right away.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated.

static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. MUltitasking. LastStatByte1. fKilled. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. date. All Rights Reserved".static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". static long time. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. fIntOnReset. LastStatByte0. LastSeekErc1. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". MMURTL V1. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. static unsigned long GP1Exch. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". Real-Time kerneL". /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. U32 BlocksMax. MngrHndl. KillError. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. 1990-1995.A. U32 blocks_done.Message based. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2].0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . LastErcByte0. LastErcByte1. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. Burgess. LastRecalErc1. MngrMsg[2]. KillJobNum. tick. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. gcode. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. MngrExch. LastSeekErc0. U8 type_now. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. U8 fNewMedia. static unsigned long GPHndl. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. unsigned long KillExch.

c */ HardIDE.U8 ResetStatByte. #asm MMURTL V1. static unsigned long nMemPages. BootDrive. nLBLeft. nHalts. nSlices. extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. char *ppJCBRet). static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. nEXCHLeft.c */ Fsys. nRQBLeft.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . xsprintf. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). nTSSLeft. /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. /* out to 64 bytes */ }. /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . hdisk_setup(void). char *pJCBRet). nReady. nSwitches. coms_setup(void). #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. InitFS(void).asm */ Floppy. static long StatStack[256]. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. fdisk_setup(void). U32 resvd1[2].c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch.c */ Parallel.c */ RS232. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. nJCBLeft. lpt_setup(void).

width = value = i = 0. 30h . zero = ' '.MOV EAX. zero. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . *ptr. total.No CMP AL.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. total = 0. 39h . chr. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr.[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. ptr = &numstk[32].0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. char *fmt. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. value. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0).EAX . minus. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. *ptr = justify = minus = 0.0 JL isdigit0 . JLE isdigit1 .0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX.[EBP+8] CMP AL. unsigned long width. justify. i. chr = *fmt++. long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. #asm XOR EAX. EAX MOV ESI.

} if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. case 's' : ptr = value. if(width) --width. } value = *--argptr. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. *--ptr = chr. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. } case 'u' : i = 10. ++argptr. break. ++minus. case 'o' : i = 8. break. break. ++total. case 'b' : i = 2. chr = *fmt++. break. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. break. break.width = (width * 10) + (chr .'0').0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . default: *--ptr = chr. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. } while(value /= i). case 'c' : *--ptr = value.

++i. return total. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. } /************************************ MMURTL V1. TTYOut(buffer. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. ++i. fmt.{ for(i = strlen(ptr).) { va_list ap. ++total.. char buffer[S_SIZE]. ++total. long total. ++total. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. strlen(buffer). just move into string *outptr++ = chr. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. i < width.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . return total. } /* move in data */ i = 0. } } *outptr = 0.. Color). fmt). .1. va_end(ap. fmt). va_start(ap. ++total. value = width . } } } else { /* not format char. ap).

80. SetXY(0. 24. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. &iLine). SetXY(0. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr().. fmt).Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s.1). *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. 24.0.22). rgStatLine. ap).80. BLUE|BGWHITE). char *fmt.) { va_list ap. iLine. PutVidChars(0. "%d". GetXY(&iCol. MMURTL V1. BLUE|BGWHITE). long total.23. BLUE|BGWHITE). 25.. fmt.1. it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. PutVidChars(54. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. i. va_start(ap. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. return. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. PutVidChars(27. Exch. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. PutVidChars(0. fmt). rgMonMenu1. When it gets one. rgMonMenu3. 24.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . va_end(ap. rgMonMenu2. 26. 26. Msg[2]. WHITE|BGBLUE). return total.1). . if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. tick). total = _ffmt(s.

/* sleep 0. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. Tone(440. The message has Error. if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate. /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. KillError).0. GetTimerTick(&tick). TSSExch in it. (time & 0x0f). tick).0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . PutVidChars(0. pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. tick). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). &pJCB). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). rgStatLine.5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). Sleep(50). 80. 80. /* month */ 0x0f). "%d". /* sleep 0. WHITE|BGBLUE). *pVid. for(. 0x0f). rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].0. PutVidChars(0.. KillMsg).. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. 0x0f). /* Day */ 0x0f). /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1].. "%d". rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date).U8 *pPD. CheckScreen().*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. ((time >> 16) & 0x0f).5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). /* year */ 0x0f).50). rgStatLine. Error: %d\r\n".) { GetCMOSTime(&time). KillJobNum. WHITE|BGBLUE). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). xprintf("Job number %d terminated. Sleep(50).

/* We're done (and so is he. 0.GetVidOwner(&i).0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . fKilled = 1. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD"..) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. j.. &MngrHndl. Exch. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1).. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. char *pJCB. i. 4.. Msg). MMURTL V1. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. DeAllocJCB(pJCB). 2). 0. We don't actually switch jobs. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. 0. 0. 1). if the debugger has the video. 1. */ DeAllocPage(pPD. 0. &gcode. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). 2. DeAllocPage(pVid. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. &i. 0. Also. MngrExch. fDone. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. 0. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. 0). It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch).

MngrExch. MngrMsg). 0. 0. i. &pJCB). } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. if (i==2) i = 3. erc = GetpJCB(i. &MngrHndl. 0. 0.. for(. 0. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. 0). &MngrHndl. 0. 4. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0). 0. 0. else if (i>34) i = 1. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 0. 0. 4.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. i = j. 0). erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. MngrMsg). 0.0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . fDone = 0. &gcode. 2. 0. while (!fDone) { i++. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). erc = KillJob(j). 0.4. 0. MngrExch. 0.

64h TEST AL. sdisk &= 0x7F. fcli. char arunfile[80]. 1=B.check port up to 64K times . i.0FEh OUT 64h.run and the last job loaded. 20). CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port.first we clear interrupts . cbrunfile. &ajobfile[1]. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM.return. /* 0=A. &fh). GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). 0. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli.JOB\0". sdisk += 0x41. while (!fdone) { i = 0. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . sjobfile.AL STI #endasm return. 2=C etc. job = 0. j.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. sjobfile. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit .Read Status Byte into AL . fcli = 0.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . fh. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). } . */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. do MMURTL V1. #asm CLI MOV ECX. unsigned char sdisk. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. char fdone. job. char ajobfile[50]. 1.

{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. Sleep(50). 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. erc = 0. CheckScreen(). erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. 0. MMURTL V1. job). /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. job = 0. xprintf("Loading: %s. erc). arunfile). } CloseFile(fh). */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job).run". Sleep(50). } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". assign the keyboard and video to it. &arunfile[i++]. if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". 1. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. CheckScreen(). &GP1Hndl. CheckScreen(). /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli.0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7].') continue.. cbrunfile. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". &j).. "cli. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). &job).\r\n". else fcli = 0. GP1Exch. if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. } } } else fdone = 1. 4.

Sleep(50). sdisk += 0x41. 1=B. job). iCol.RUN\0". GP1Msg). 0). 0. i. MMURTL V1. job. } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. acli[40]. 0. iLine. GP1Exch. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. ccode1. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". CheckScreen(). InitScreen(). 0. */ acli[0] = sdisk. 4. 0. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. &job). unsigned char sdisk.. &acli[1].0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char c. xprintf("Loading: %s. char text[70]. strlen(acli). sdisk &= 0x7F. SetVidOwner(job). 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". acli). CheckScreen(). erc = LoadNewJob(acli. unsigned long ccode. &GP1Hndl. 16).. 0). j. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. 2=C etc.JOB file not found in system directory. 0. job. job. GP1Msg).". /* 0=A. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. 0.\r\n"). } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. 0. } return erc. 0. *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. 0.0. k. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch.

Error: "). erc). erc). erc). erc). xprintf("Init floppy device driver. erc = lpt_setup(). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". 1 ). xprintf("%d\r\n".. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. Error: "). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. erc = InitKBDService(). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. erc). erc). erc). Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). 0..Tone(250. if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". i).. xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n".33). /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). Tone(1000. xprintf("MMURTL (tm) .Burgess. erc). 24. erc = coms_setup(). MUltitasking. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". erc).. xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc). &StatStack[255]. c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". xprintf("Copyright (c) R. erc = fdisk_setup().A. i).15). erc = hdisk_setup().0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS .Message based. xprintf("%d\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). c).

text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. j = 2. Error: %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. 0. 0. text). break. case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen(). SetXY(k+10. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40. text. if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". 0).j). /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. 0.) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". 1. xprintf("File System. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). pJCB->JobNum).. for (.. MMURTL V1. Tell it to wait for a key. /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there.\r\n"). &ccode.0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Line */ k = 0. 1 ). 1. GPMsg). 4. j++. &MngrStack[255]. 0. erc). */ LoadJobFile(). &GPHndl. erc). erc). GPExch. erc = InitFS(). erc = GetpJCB(i.xprintf("Initializing file system.j). /* Col offset */ for (i=1. c = ccode & 0xff. */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". xprintf("Name: %s\r\n". 13).. erc). i<nMaxJCBs. 10. /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". &pJCB). 0...

xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . 1. 1. 1. " ".0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . any other key to cancel"). case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". 1. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. PutVidChars(29.12). "-".future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. Sleep(12). PutVidChars(29. PutVidChars(29. nLBLeft). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. 1. Sleep(9). 1. "|". erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n".. 1. SetXY(0. \r\n"). "|". GREEN|BGBLACK). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. GREEN|BGBLACK). nRQBLeft). nEXCHLeft). 1). xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". nTSSLeft). Sleep(9). Sleep(9). 1. GREEN|BGBLACK).1). GREEN|BGBLACK).. nJCBLeft). PutVidChars(29. PutVidChars(29.loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). nSlices). nMemPages). PutVidChars(29.1). nHalts).} } break. "/". "-". break. xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(9). xprintf ("\r\n"). 1. xprintf(". 1. 1. break. xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n".. case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(12). 1. PutVidChars(29. nSwitches). PutVidChars(29. 1. xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). "\\". Sleep(9). 1. xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. case 0x12: /* F4 . 1.. "/". 1. "\\".Cancelled\r\n"). nReady). 1. } SetXY(0. Sleep(9). GREEN|BGBLACK). case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). break.

WHITE|BGBLACK). } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1.1.1). } } GetXY(&iCol.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS .23. 2.TTYOut (CRLF.22).80. &iLine). SetXY(0. 1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. WHITE|BGBLACK). else TTYOut (&c.

.

Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. the debugger is entered. MMURTL V1. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. It is not a separate run file. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. Certain debugger display functions. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. and why. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. will clear the screen for display. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key).0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . The registers can be examined to see where it happened. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. such as dumping data. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). function keys are across the bottom. along with the exception number that caused it. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. and the left side is the instruction and data display area.Chapter 12. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. non-symbolic debugger. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. the debugger is an assembly language. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. When this occurs. If the debugger was entered on a fault. and a red banner is displayed.

GDT .Goto CS:EIP. The address is displayed on the left. These values are hard coded at system build.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . . TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. The abbreviations are given in the following list. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). F12 AddInfo . The task number. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. This requests a linear address. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. This clears the single breakpoint. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed.Single Step.Request Block Array. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. F10 .Dump Dwords. LBs . This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. F3 ClrBP . This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. RQBs . Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. This becomes the active address.Interrupt Descriptor Table. and then dumps the bytes located at that address. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. TSS1 .Display Exchanges. JCBs . next.Dynamic TSSs. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. F5 Exch . Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed.Global Descriptor Table. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. F4 CS:EIP . You may move down through the instructions. F2 SetBP . The address is displayed on the left. the address of the TSS. with the down arrow key.Set Breakpoint. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right.Change Current Address. the associated Job number. a linear address. TSS3 . The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. MMURTL V1.Link Blocks. Each TSS is 512 bytes. The GDT contains many items. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. This displays all active tasks on the system. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. as most of them are. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. without executing them.Clear Breakpoint. This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. F8 CrntAdd . The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address.Ready Queue. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address.Services Array. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one.Display Tasks. low order). “Application Programming.Dump Bytes. that will be somewhere in this array.Address Information. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. This is an array of 512-byte structures. the address of the task's JCB. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. F6 Tasks . next.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS . This requests a linear address. This is the address of the Monitor TSS. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. RdyQ . This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. This returns to the application and executes one instruction. TSSs are numbered sequentially.First TSS. IDT .Job Control Blocks. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. F9 DumpB .” SVCs .

PUSH EBP MOV EBP. or for . locking up. without having to fill in special registers. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. listed in your ATF file. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler.and displayed as an unsigned number. and also how local variables are accessed. entering the debugger. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. There are four debug address registers in the processor. it is the index of that exchange in the array. For applications. such as [EBP+12]. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. With near calls like you would make inside your program. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. ESP . EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. Lots of code here MOV ESP. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. its down and dirty troubleshooting. This is the address of the array of timer blocks. like the older processors. actually a trap.Exchanges. or whatever). and placing an INT 03 instruction there. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt.ASM files.START in an assembly language program. MMURTL V1. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers.Timer Blocks. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. but for right now. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. Each exchange is 16 bytes. aTmr . Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. When it occurs. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. or at the beginning of any instruction. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. In MMURTL.Exch . You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. In some cases. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block.

1. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. you must be able to access all of its memory. Traps. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. but not quite. the current pRunTSS. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. The debugger becomes the active job. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. that can occur.Processor exceptions. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. No other task operates at a priority that high. Table 12. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. just like applications do. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. MMURTL V1.1. The debugger cannot debug itself. called exceptions. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). a page fault is fatal to a task. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . When writing an operating system. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. If you are going to debug a task. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. Instead. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. you will see that there are many interrupts.. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. is saved by the debugger. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. usually a blank screen and nothing else.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction.. a pointer to the currently running TSS. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. or faults. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. When the debug interrupt activates. including allocated memory. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. It almost.

The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. you should kill the offending job and restart. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. To do this. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. These contain the address of the exception handler. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. MMURTL V1. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. This makes the debugger transparent. which is exactly what you want. While you are in the debugger.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. When the debugger is entered. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. it displays the registers from the interrupted task.

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this is true multitasking). The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always).0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS .not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . 1.Not used (0) */ dData2 . &MyRqhandle. As described in chapter 10. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. 0. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. &KeyCode 4. It's easier to use.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access.Chapter 13. Available Services Table 13.Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. 0). MyExch. but not as powerful. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. 0. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. 1. 0 0.fWait for Key */ dData1 . “system programming.1 shows the services provided by the service code. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.

The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS . even if a key is not available.Not used = 0 . Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 .Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications. In this case.1. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3).Count of bytes in the code 0 . This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys.Table 13. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). the error should be 0.Not used. The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. described in detail later. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered.Return with error if no key waiting 1 . Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys. This allows for "hot-key" operation. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned.Wait for Key = 0 . fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . If you have an outstanding Notify request.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section.Not used 0 . A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. Unlike regular keystrokes.

4. Alt & Ctrl. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. The low-order byte is the actual key code. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key.3. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. etc. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. If you have an outstanding Notify request. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. as shown in table 13. as shown in table 13. Num.). Locks. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. and Scroll). Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. shown in table 13. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. this cancels it. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C).Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request.2.

This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1.Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned. Alt or Shift). Num or Scroll).If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. Table 13..3 shows how the bits are defined. This bit (Bit 0.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. Table 13. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad.2. Table 13. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned.3 .0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . shows how the bits are defined.2 . Table 13.

For example. Table 13. Key Codes Table 13. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . A description is given only if required.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc.4 .0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS . Ctrl. If a shift code is not shown.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1.1h to 7Fh). or Locks). the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. Alt.main keyboard. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column.. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key.

/ Space accent Enter semicolon apostr. ' .5 shows the key code value returned.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS .Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1.5 . Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality. Table 13.Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. Table 13. . bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.

Caps lock does not affect these keys.7. (Period) Cursor.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13.7.6 .Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1. 13. Edit.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 13.

when all else fails.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS . I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. Pieces of it may be useful for your system.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter.”Keyboard Code. Remember. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. MMURTL V1. or you may want more. if you desire. Chapter 25.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. the programmer will read the documentation. such as international key translations. as I have tried to do in this chapter.

This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). then up to three more characters. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. filename. and a node name is specified. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. The Service Name is "FILESYS ".Chapter 14. and optionally. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies.and finally the filename itself.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. the network service receives the request from the file system. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. MMURTL V1. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. When a network file is opened. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. there isn't anything new about the format. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. This ties its hands so to speak. will be routed to the service with the same name. but none as wide spread. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. a period.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. The third part is the filename as described above. the default name NETWORK is used. For example. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. just how we access it. a network name.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Make no assumptions about this number. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode.File Handles When a file is opened. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. This is a one page. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. MMURTL V1. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). This number is how you refer to that file until closed. a number called a file handle is returned to you. When a file is opened in Read mode. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. in any mode or type. or just reading alone. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4096 byte buffer. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword).

All message-based services use the same request-based interface.doc". Listing 14.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. &MyRqhandle.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. 1.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0.Block Type Access */ dData2 -. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service.1. Table 14.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. &"AnyFile.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. This is called a file pointer in some systems. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. You can make a request. 0). This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. MyExch. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. The file system actually runs as a separate task. &FileHandle 4.ptr to name */ cbData1 -. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking).Size of a handle */ dData0 -. Table 14. 1.ModeRead */ dData1 -. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file. It meets all the requirements. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. 1.1 . no matter what Mode the file was opened in. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. Listing 14. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. 11.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. or file pointer. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ".returned handle */ cbData2 -. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA).1 shows the service codes the file system supports. 0.size of name */ pData2 -. For Stream files.

The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. Table 14. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. KBD and VID devices only. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 14.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. The request is transparent to the caller.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. but only through the procedural interfaces.2 . VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. MMURTL V1.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. The Request interface will not allow device access. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL.

Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. dcbname. pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. If a file is open in ModeRead.pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. Procedural parameters: dHandle .pointer to the filename or full file specification. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS .DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file.Block = 0. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . If stream access type was specified. dOpenMode. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. all buffers are flushed and deallocated. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. dcbName .a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). dAccessType. pdHandleRet . Procedural parameters: pName . Stream = 1. Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName.READ = 0.

pDataRet. dLFA. One Block = 512 bytes. Procedural parameters: dHandle . This must always be a multiple of 512. pData. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. See the SetFilesize() section. pdnBlkRet . pDataRet .DWord with number of bytes to read. pdnBytesRet . pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. pData . This MUST be a multiple of the block size.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. dLFA.pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. dLFA . pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile.Logical File Address to read from. Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed.Logical File Address to write to.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512).Pointer to the data to write nBytes . Procedural parameters: dhandle . SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size. This must be a multiple of the block size.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. nBytes. This will always return a multiple of 512. nBytes .Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. MMURTL V1. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. dLFA . The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. nBytes.DWord with number of bytes to write.

Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA.Dword with number of bytes to read.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. pData. GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. nBytes. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file. The bytes are read from the current LFA. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). nBytes.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. nBytes . pdnBytesRet . pDataRet . Parameters: dhandle . pDataRet. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs.

Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle. pData .Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C).pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files.Dword with a valid file handle.Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword with a valid file handle. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. nBytes .Dword with number of bytes to write. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. Procedural parameters: dhandle .Pointer to the data to write. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF). as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet .0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdnBytesRet . Procedural parameters: dHandle . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle.a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned.

Dword with a valid file handle.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS .a Dword with the LFA you want to set. as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files. The file length. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. Procedural parameters: dHandle . and allocated space on the disk. Procedural parameters: dhandle .dLFA .a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned. pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically.Dword with a valid file handle. as returned from OpenFile() dSize .a Dword with the new size of the file.

System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. dcbName. and ready to be opened and accessed. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. empty file in the path specified.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1.Dword with length of the current filename pNewName . Procedural parameters: pName . dcbName .pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. Procedural parameters: pName .pointer to the new filename or full file specification.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbname.A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden. pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. dcbName .Dword with length of the filename dAttributes . The file is closed after creation. dcbNewName .pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.pointer to the current filename or full file specification.

This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. No further access is possible. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . specified in the Job Control Block.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. If only the new directory name is specified. as opposed to a full path. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. dcbPath . and the filename is available for re-use. Procedural parameters: dHandle . empty directory for the path specified. Procedural parameters: pPath .pointer to the path (directory name) to create. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. the directory is created in your current path.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access).Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1.

The path must contain the directory name as the last element. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). or directory name to delete.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. all files in this directory. The directory must exist in the path specified. If only the existing directory name is specified. the name is appended to the path from your job control block. the path in your JCB will be used. dcbPath . dcbPath. all subdirectories.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles .Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. dcbPath. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. Each sector contain 16 directory entries. pSectRet.pointer to the path. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. This call returns one sector from a directory. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. Procedural parameters: pPath .pointer to the path.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. or directory name. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. If no path is specified.If set to non-zero. Procedural parameters: pPath . to read tj sector from dcbPath . as opposed to a full path.

The FUBs contain the file pointer. If the file is opened in Stream mode. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. the open mode. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. MMURTL V1. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. Each opened file is allocated an FCB.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . while others are part of the operating system data segment. it's not allocating files. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. Quite a few of them use this same name. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. Because it is a pointer. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. buffer pointers. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. Some structures are dynamically allocated. When it reaches 0. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. FCB. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. Each FCB is 128 bytes.pSectRet . Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing.

Usually. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it.The disk is allocated in clusters. Directories are stored as files. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. If opened in Block mode. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. The list could go on and on. source files for compilers. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). the fifth points to the sixth. The file is open. If it's open in ModeWrite. Load FAT buffer if required. In this example. vector. Large database files are the major random users. The fourth entry points to the fifth. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). MMURTL V1. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. which is cluster size. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. return an error ErcFileInUse. On most hard disks. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. you can usually do it quite rapidly. This is in itself is time-consuming. because of the design of the FAT file system. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. Run files being executed. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. From this. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. and raster image files. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. That's a lot of FAT (or file). they use what is called a FAT16. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. That's 128Kb. allocate an FUB and attach it.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. If so. or three entries. L = Last entry in your file. the user will strike next. inside of a 400 Mb file. However. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. and the sixth is marked as the last. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. X = not your file. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode.

you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. Both copies must be updated.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. It sounds simple. MMURTL V1. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. and depends on how the file was opened. If the file is being extended. then write the data.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . Close This is the easy part. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. attach them to the chain. but much overhead is involved. If opened in block mode. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. you must find unallocated clusters.

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The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. They are listed by functional group first. “File System Service”). or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. Table 15.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. Table 15. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. An improperly. Table 15. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. The offset should be 0. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes . The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. The call address consists of a selector and an offset. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names.g. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. If you are going to write your own operating system.2 lists these additional prefix characters.2 . The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). I might add.0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 15. These are known as compound descriptions.1 .Chapter 15.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1.1 lists the prefixes.. Chapter 14.

grouped by type. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. If a parameter is a byte. or should be. Ret means Returned. and finally. dcbFileName . Max means Maximum. dMsg1. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. if a value is returned by the function. the most common returned value shown. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned.3 . pdDataRet . MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. The dError. The function name is followed by the parameters. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. be returned. Bytes and words (8.and optionally suffixes .accurately describes the provided or expected data types. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. dcbDataRetMax .0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. Pascal. Table1 5. It is processor (hardware) enforced.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. or Assembler. a colon with the returned value. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. dMsg1. and Min means Minimum.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15.3.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. Each compound set of prefixes . The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch.

pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. dData0. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. pInitData. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. pPathRet. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. pDestination. wCodeSeg. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. pData2. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. cbData1. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. cbData2. dData1. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dRespExch. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. fDebug. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. nDevices. pStatRet. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. dnBlocks. ppMemRet. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. pData1. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. dBytes) MMURTL V1. dPriority. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. dOpNum. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. dcbFileName. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. pRqHndlRet. dJobNum. dcbFileName. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. dLBA. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages.Request( pSvcName. pS2. pS2. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. cBytes. dcbMem. pDestination. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. dStatusMax. dPriority. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. wSvcCode. dfDebug. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. dESP. dExch. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dcbAliasBytes. pDCBs. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. LinAdd.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. pStack. npSend.

pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. dTextOut. nCols. dPort) OutWord(Word. nLines. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. fdRead. dLine. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. ddLine. dULline. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. dPort) OutWords(dPort. dMaxLen.dBytes) OutByte(Byte.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. nChars. dChannel. pDataIn. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. pDataOut.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. Speaker. dCrntLen. sdMem. pbChars. pbExitChar. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. pdLenRet. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dLine. nChars. pbCharRet.

This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. or 0 if all went well. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . They are passed in registers. This must be zero (0) for task gates. the parameters are not stack-based. dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). Unlike most other operating system calls. Parameters: AX . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. EAX Returns Error. They are passed in registers.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute.Returns an error. Unlike most other operating system calls. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX .Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. Parameters: AX . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. exception gates and interrupt gates.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use. the parameters are not stack based. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. and interrupts. exceptions.0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps.

dJobNum.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. It will always begin on a page boundary. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. pdPhyMemRet . If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. The overhead included in entry.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . ppRet . Each application has its own linear address space. If you do. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). This would be for the time-out function described above. the more precise the timing. AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. dJobNum . do some other processing.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. MMURTL V1. except you provide the exchange. The message that is sent is two dwords. Parameters: dnTicks .a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned.A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. dcbMem. and don't get placed in a waiting condition.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned.Dword (4 BYTES).Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). Alarm() can be used for a number of things. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. etc. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. dcbMem . even though it's very close. The larger dnTicks is. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned.). ppMemRet. In fact. Parameters: nPages . This means you can set an alarm.Job number from the other application. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. ppAliasRet . This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. except it can be used asynchronously. WaitMsg. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. Parameters: pMem . This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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pointer to the filename to run. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. initial Task State Segment. Interrupts are not disabled. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible.Parameters: dAlarmExch .pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. MMURTL V1. stack.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. pdJobNumRet . but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. Page Descriptor. Parameters: pFilename . Parameters: dn15us . although longer periods will work. and data pages.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . precise. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. Virtual Video. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. and you call this often enough.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. and the memory required to run code. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. dcbFileName. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. Parameters: dIRQnum . This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). dcbFileName .length of the run filename. so the time could be much longer. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately.

0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . Exch . dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. dPriority.The address of the port. Paramters: Dword . dESP. dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function.exchange where the Request is to be sent. No error is returned.Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . Parameters: dRqBlkHndl . dExch.The address of the port.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. ESP . then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS .Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. it is made to run. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS).Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . DPort .This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. dfDebug. OutWord OutWord(Word. Parameters: Byte .handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch .Exchange for TSS. DPort . OS=8 or User=18 Priority . dCodeSeg.The byte value to write to the port. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord.The dword value to write to the port. Parameters: JobNum .Which code segment. Parameters: MMURTL V1.

PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol.The address of the port. nChars.Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values. You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2).column to start on (0-79) dLine . It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned.line (0-24) dnChars . DBytes . Parameters: pdnPagesRet . This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.number of characters pbChars is pointing to. “Application Programming. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen.pointer to the text to be displayed nChars .The count of bytes to write to the port address.The word value to write to the port. dnChars. pbChars.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port.Word . Parameters: dCol .” describes all of the attribute values. dAttr . The Basic Video section in Chapter 9. dLine. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS . if not displayed. DPort . dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort. pDataOut. This is the number of Words * 2.column to start on (0-79) dLine .color/attribute to use during display. or virtual screen. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol. PdataOut . MMURTL V1. dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. Parameters: DPort . Parameters: dCol .The address of the port.number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . OutWords OutWords(dPort. Each page of memory is 4096 byte. dLine.line (0-24) pbChars .

the exchange to be associated with the service name. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. dData1. cbData2. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . Service names are case sensitive. npSend. dRespExch. This call blocks your task until completion. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. If fWait is false (0). This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. If no key was available. cbData1.If true (non-zero). if forwarded across a network. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. wSvcCode. and padded with spaces (20h).a pointer to an 8-byte string.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS .ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. pData2. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. fWait . Request Request( pSvcName. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. Parameters: BAddress . Parameters: pSvcName . or on what machine the request is being serviced. pData1.A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. If fWait is true (non-zero). Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. dData0. pRqHndlRet. The string must be left justified.

dMsgLo. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system.This is the operating system Request primitive. Parameters: pSvcName . dData2 .the size of the data being sent to the service. dError. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. npSend . This error is not the error returned by the service. MMURTL V1. 1 and 2. dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. pData1 .0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. See Respond(). Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. wSvcCode . are sending data to the service. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. Function Codes 0. dError. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). For example. or received from the service.dData0. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. With all kernel primitives. space padded. then npSend would be 2.same as pData1. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. 65534 (0FFFEh). pRqHndlRet . 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. With all kernel primitives. cbData2 . The service must be registered with the operating system. Respond Respond(dRqHndl. cbData1 .This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. service name.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. dData1. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. Zero will be returned if all was well. The use of dData0.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. dStatRet . of the message sent back to the requester of the service. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. Always assume it will be network-routed.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. Parameters: dRqHndl . This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. dData0. the value returned from the Request() call itself. pData2 . Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. This may be data sent to the service. dRespExch . These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data.a number (0. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message.

which is the first dword pushed. In this case the top line is lost.dULline. Parameters: dExch . This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system.80. Parameters: pCmdLine . The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. dMsgLo . Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange. linked with that task. and while Chaining to another application. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi. it will be into an array of dwords. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line. msg[0]. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. and is not enforced by the operating system.dnLines. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. This call stores the command line in the JCB. the new command line string. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0. dMsgHi. and the bottom line would be blanked. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned.The length of the command line string to store. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. and it is moved to the Ready queue. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state .25.1). The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. dcbCmdLine . If it were a Response from a service. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. msg[1]. the message is associated.The lower dword of the message.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols .The upper dword of the message. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. DnLines . The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. MMURTL V1. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs. Parameters: DULCol . dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine .The number of columns to be scrolled. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines.Points to an array of bytes. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value.The count of lines to be scrolled. dMsgHi .ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol. DfUp .0.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down.a polite term for crashed.dnCols.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. This is an agreed-upon convention.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange.

Table 15. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again.4 . the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. Parameters: pExitJob .The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space.If installed. Built-in device drivers assume these values.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). and its ExitJob is zero length. Parameters: dIRQnum . Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. When a job exits. pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. which will happen most often. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . This is typically used by a command line interpreter. dcbExitJob . Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. Initially. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 15. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. MMURTL V1. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). pVector . pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur. After the interrupt vector is set.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. The filename must not longer than 79 characters. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided.

If no job name is set by the application. Typically. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. dcbPath . Parameters: dNormVidAttr . MMURTL V1. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. This is a maximum of 13 characters. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color. the color of the characters themselves. and background colors may be changed by an application. Refer to the file System documentation). Longer values will be truncated. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. The path is 79 characters maximum. A zero length. Parameters: bPriority .SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. dcbJobName . The maximum length is 13 bytes.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. SetPath SetPath(pPath.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS .Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. Parameters: pPath . Parameters: pJobName . dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. then call ClrScr().This is the new priority (0-31). will clear the job name from the JCB. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. a text string. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default.

A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. Parameters: pFileName . dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application.The job number for new owner of the active screen.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. Parameters: DJobNum . The default name. Only ASCII data is returned from this call.SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. If the SysOut name is VID. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block.is the length of the string to store. The default name. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. is KBD. If the SysIn name is set to KDB. WriteBytes(). you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. dcbUsername . dcbFileName . and Chaining to another application. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes().0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is the user's name. Only ASCII data is saved to the file.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. Parameters: pFileName .points to a text string. is VID. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. if none is set by the application. dcbFileName . The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. Parameters: pUsername . If you desire to write data from your application to a file. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. if none is set. which is the one to be displayed.

fOSCode):dError This creates a new task.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. and clears the block when it reaches zero. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. should use priorities above 25. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. Certain system services are higher priority.This is a pointer to the function.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. DNewY . Tone Tone(dHz. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. Parameters: DNewX . If your task is a high enough priority. fDebug. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. or make it sleep. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. it is made to run. fDebug . fOSCode . and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.This is a number from 0 to 31. Parameters: pEntry . Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do.The new vertical cursor position row.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. dPriority . procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. such as the file system and keyboard. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. Application programs should use priority 25. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. 1 is accepted. dPriority. Parameters: dnTicks . The timer interrupt sends the message. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. or the real video screen if currently assigned. lower numbers. otherwise. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. This applies to the virtual screen. pStack. but testing will be required to ensure harmony.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task.The new horizontal cursor position column.

They will receive an error. Parameters: pSvcName . and padded with spaces (20h). UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. no characters are changed. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank.A pointer to an 8-byte string.The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. For character placement. The string must left justified.The cursor. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. will be moved down one line. DTextOut . If this line is below the bottom of the screen. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . Backspace will have no effect. If already at column 0. 08 backspace . The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. next active character placement. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled.The attribute or color you want. Service names are case sensitive. The backspace is non-destructive. Parameters: dIRQnum . DAttrib .The cursor will be moved one column to the left.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: dHz . dTextOut. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . from 30 to 10000. dTicks10ms .The number of characters of text. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line.A near Pointer to the text. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed .The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. if the cursor is in the last column of a line. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. Parameters: PTextOut .A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. A value of 100 is one second.

an array of two dwords. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. dExch .This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive.A pointer to where the message will be returned.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. Parameters: DError . This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. You've got to send mail to get mail. the task will be placed on the exchange specified. At that time. so this would be obvious to you. If no message is available. Of course. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. less than 8000000h.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . MMURTL V1. you would have had to make the request in the first place.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Directory listing Debug . I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. The CLI screen is divided into two sections.Delete a file Dump . “What's On the CD-ROM. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter.Chapter 16. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. It has been expanded.Remove directory Rename . but it's a good start. CLI version. MMURTL V1. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. The internal commands are: Cls . This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. It provides information such as date.Copy a file Dir .Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its.Hex dump of a file Exit . However.Clear Screen Copy . The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM.Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD .Rename a file (Current name New name) Run .g.Set file access path (New path e. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. The top line is the status line.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. use. The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL. it does work and it's useful in its own right.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS . D:\DIR\) RD .Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type .Enter Debugger Del . is described in the following sections. and your current path.Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help .RUN files). Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs. To see what has been included on the CDROM. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. job number for this CLI.Display list of internal commands Monitor . see Appendix A. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me).Make Directory Path . most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. time.

” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. “The Debugger. a period is displayed instead. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. or the same name in a different directory.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. MMURTL V1. If a file exists with the same name.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. If the character is not ASCII text. >Copy THISFILE. Both names must be specified. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full.TXT THATFILE. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set.

Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). This CLI will still be executing. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . renaming. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. the tree will only be extend one level.) MMURTL V1.).CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). In MMURTL. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI.. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. or external command that is executed for this CLI. In other words. listing. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. With any file-system operation (opening. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. etc. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). The path must end with the Backslash. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Unlike a single tasking operating system. and .

CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.CLI File The file COMMANDS.TXT Run (Execute a . No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number). There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME. pausing after each page. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below.run . The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.CLI Commands. The file must not be open by any other job. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM.RUN).Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk. MMURTL V1.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file. The contents of the file COMMANDS. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.CLI follows: .TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS .Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test.run New.End of Command. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix . It is a simple text file with one command per line. The first item on the line is the command name. The File COMMANDS. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. An example of COMMANDS.

h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.Ver.CLI file.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.CLI. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command. but other application might. In this case.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.1. 1. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 16.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed. CLI Source Code Listing . The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions.h> #include <string. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down.h> #include <ctype.0 of the Command Line Interpreter.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. CTRL-ALT-DELETE .h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor.Terminates the currently displayed job. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.

hlppath[60]. /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. char char char char sdisk. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". long cbPath. char ExitChar. /* "Help". /* "Del". cmdpath[60]. /* "xxxxx". long cbCmd = 0. /* "Dir". /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. /* "MD". unsigned long GPExch. syspath[50]. unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. char text[70].0 { 0 external */ 1 . unsigned long GPHndl. iLine. /* "Monitor". clipath[60]. /* "Ren". unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* "Cls". unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* "Debug". /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. date. /* "Dump". /* "Path".#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. /* "Exit". /* "RD". /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. char fUpdatePath.0 Job Path: ". /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. /* MMURTL V1. /* "Copy".not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . char aCmd[80]. long JobNum.

} dirent[16].. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. U16 StartClstr. U8 Rsvd[10]. U8 Attr.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0."Run". U16 Date. char *apParam[13].) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. It updates the status line which has the time and path. "Type". #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. U16 Time. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. }. U8 Ext[3]. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. long acbParam[13]. U32 FileSize.

STATVID). break. + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). 0). &aStatLine[47]. case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". break. 0x0f). case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". break. FillData(&aStatLine[47].0. break. case 208: pSt = "File in use". break. cbPath). switch (erc) { case 0: return.0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0x0f). case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. char st[40]. break. Sleep(100). break. break. break. case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". MMURTL V1. break. break. (time & 0x0f). /* month */ 0x0f). case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). aStatLine. /* Day */ 0x0f). *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. break. PutVidChars(0. break. case 1: pSt = "End of file". break. case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". 40. } GetCMOSDate(&date). aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). break. fUpdatePath = 0. CopyData(aPath. ' '). FillData(st. break. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". case 201: pSt = "No such drive". ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). 30. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). 80. case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". break. case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". ((time >> 4) & 0x0f).cbPath = 30. /* year */ 0x0f).

0. addr).default: sprintf(st. } SetXY(iCol. STATVID). GetXY(&iCol. break. j. ClrScr(). PutVidChars(0. &iLine). *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. unsigned char buff[17]. iLine = 2. aStatLine. erc = 0. return. } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). while (cb) { printf("%08x ". iLine). erc). if (fNew) { iCol = 0. } printf("%s\r\n". #asm INT 03 #endasm return. i. long cb. MMURTL V1. 80. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. pSt).0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . pSt = st. "Error %05d on last command". &iLine). GetXY(&iCol. KeyCode.

if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. &buff[0]). printf("%s\r\n". SetXY(0.1). Buffer. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. else cb=0.1). dret. if (!erc) { j=0. ++iLine. ModeRead. 512. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. } InitScreen(TRUE).23). k.23. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1].80. 1). } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. for (i=0."). i<j.1. MMURTL V1. } return erc. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. &fh). SetXY(0. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. 1.. erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). This expects to find the filename in param[1]. &k). if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. erc = 0. l. printf("ESC to cancel. /* ReadKbd.if (cb > 15) j=16. fh. erc. iLine =1. if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E.23). addr+=j.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . buff[i] = *pb++. any other key to continue. 512.*pb). } buff[i+1] = 0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. 0). i++) { printf("%02x ". else j = cb. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4.. acbParam[1].

SetFileLFA(fh. } SetXY(0. j. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. 0). &fh). long cbName) { long i. &dret). lfa+i). Buffer. &lfa). j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. dret = 1. fh. KeyCode. erc = ReadBytes (fh. lfa.1). if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. 512. 78. 1.iLine). j+=512. Buffer. 0. NORMVID). cbName. MMURTL V1.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . } CloseFile (fh).1. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. i = 1.80.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. } for (j=0. dret. j). i. erc. else l=k-j.23). dret. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. return erc. } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen.23. iLine. SetXY(0. iLine++. } erc = OpenFile(pName. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. erc = 0. j<=i. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n").

se). char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. erc). 1). yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . pDateRet. return erc. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.mi. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n". InitScreen(TRUE).0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS .hr. "%02d:%02d:%02d". This uses a conservative 4K buffer. fhFrom. sprintf(st.mo. This is used by the directory listing. U16 date. printf("ESC to cancel. pTimeRet. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. CloseFile (fh). if (yr > 99) yr -=100. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11.. CopyData(st.mo.hr.yr).da. sprintf(st. any other key to continue. U32 cbFrom.mi. CopyData(st. bytesLeft. da = date & 0x001F. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time.da.23).1900.1). 8). char *pTo. erc. char st[15]. /* ReadKbd.se. bytesGot. char *pTimeRet. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking."). 8). } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS. "%02d-%02d-%02d". MMURTL V1. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. bytesWant. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n")..if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. iLine =1. SetXY(0. Use block mode for speed.

} return(erc). if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. cbTo. erc = OpenFile(pFrom. dLFA = 0. } MMURTL V1. ModeModify.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* ReadKbd. bigBuf. &bytesOut). dLFA. bigBuf. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. 0. size).bytesOut. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. 0). bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. &size). ModeRead. &fhTo). } CloseFile(fhTo). if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. size. bytesLeft = size. bytesGot. cbFrom. } dLFA += bytesGot. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. dLFA. 0. 1). &fhFrom). erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. cbTo. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. bytesWant. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. else bytesWant = bytesLeft. KeyCode. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. &bytesGot). dLFA. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo.

1. iLine =1. } fDone = 0.1).Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st. st). fDone = 1.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS . iLine++.23./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. erc. SetXY(0. &st[33]. if (!erc) { for (i=0. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". &dirent[0]. } if ((dirent[i].Date.23). dirent[i]. 1). dirent[i].Time. char st[78]. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]. i.StartClstr).Ext. U32 SectNum. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. dirent[i]. dirent[i]. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.23). while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. KeyCode. SectNum = 0. i++) { if (!dirent[i].Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. &st[24]).Name[0]) { erc = 1. any other key to continue. SectNum)..").1). printf("ESC to cancel. dirent[i]. i<16.Name.80.Attr. printf("%s". *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. dirent[i]. } InitScreen(TRUE). acbParam[1]. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.. fDone = TRUE. /* ReadKbd. } } } MMURTL V1. 512.FileSize. SetXY(0.

iPrm. The format for a line entry in Commands. } return(erc). SectNum++. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams.. fdone. i.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. j. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. If it finds it. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. cmdline[90]. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. rawline[90]. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. k. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. iCmd++. MMURTL V1. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. for (iPrm=0. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0].. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. iPrm<nParamsMax.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . *f.} else fDone = TRUE.

cmdline[j] = 0.cmdline[0] = 0. "r"). if (f) { fdone = 0. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. f = fopen(cmdpath. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0.') /* a comment line */ continue.CLI not found. runfile[k] = 0. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. /* now move arguments if any. return(1). return(0). } } else printf("Commands. acbParam[0]). if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. rawline. /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. 89. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. cmdline). cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline.\r\n").

". erc. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). 1. } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. &fh). strlen(runfile). we go to the system directory. SetCmdLine(aCmd. runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. If we don't find one. strlen(runfile). &runfile[i]. erc = Chain(runfile. SetExitJob(clipath. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80].When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command.0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). cbCmd). SetCmdLine(aCmd. strlen(clipath)). we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. strlen(runfile). erc = Chain(runfile. 0). syspath).CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). } MMURTL V1. fh. ModeRead. 0). If so. we then go to COMMANDS. 0). strlen(clipath)). ModeRead. cbCmd). } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. ModeRead.RUN"). strlen(runfile). SetExitJob(clipath. SetCmdLine(aCmd. erc = OpenFile(runfile. SetExitJob(clipath. acbParam[0]).RUN file in the current path. cbCmd).RUN"). &fh). /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. strlen(clipath)). runfile. acbParam[0]). &fh). long i. CopyData(apParam[0]. ". erc = OpenFile(runfile. we first look for a . i = strlen(runfile). 1. strlen(runfile). if it's not there. erc = Chain(runfile. strcat(runfile. strlen(runfile). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile.

0. iLine). and help file.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . 8). GetJobNum(&JobNum). sdisk &= 0x7F. strcpy(hlppath. 24. i.CLI"). erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). strcpy(cmdpath. strcat(hlppath. if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. GetPath(JobNum."COMMANDS. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. syspath). "%02d". 1=B. MMURTL V1. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]./********************************************** Main function entry point. j. &iLine). sdisk += 0x41. fh. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc.CLI"). /* 0=A. strcat(syspath. syspath). JobNum). /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli.0". command file. SetJobName("CLI V1. strcat(cmdpath. strcpy(clipath. aPath. syspath). Note: No params to CLI. "\\MMSYS\\"). */ syspath[0] = sdisk. InitScreen(FALSE). SetXY(0. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). strcat(clipath. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. syspath[1] = ':'. */ cbPath = 0. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). &cbPath). syspath[2] = 0. syspath). &StatStack[255].RUN")."HELP. } else { strcpy (aPath. 2=C etc. 0). SpawnTask(&StatTask."CLI. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1.

switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. paCmds[i]. cbCmd = 0. acbParam[1]. apParam[0] = 0. strlen(clipath)). SetPath(syspath. SetXY(0. EditLine(aCmd. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1].0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). &iLine). break. break. TTYOut ("\r\n". break. 79.cbPath = strlen(syspath). ' '). &ExitChar. GetXY(&iCol. acbParam[1]. InitScreen(TRUE). 0. EDVID). 2. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. NORMVID). 79. iLine). apParam[2]. } erc = 0. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. 1. } i++. &cbCmd. break. acbParam[0] = 0. cbCmd. j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. aCmd[79] = 0. 1. if (!erc) MMURTL V1. SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(syspath)). else erc = ErcBadParams. CmdNum = 0. acbParam[2]). while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). TTYOut (">". &fh). } fUpdatePath = 1. NORMVID).

} break. MMURTL V1. 1. acbParam[1]). if (!erc) printf("Done. SetVidOwner(1). fUpdatePath = 1. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. SetExitJob(clipath. break. case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. acbParam[2]). break. 0. break.erc = DeleteFile(fh). break. 0. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. strlen(clipath)). break. GPMsg). default: break.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". ExitJob(0). break. acbParam[1]). else erc = ErcBadParams. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. acbParam[1]). break. aPath. 0. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). 4. acbParam[1]. 0). break. GPExch. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. break. apParam[2]. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). break. &GPHndl. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. acbParam[1]). SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. cbCmd-i). break. 0. 0. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". 0). case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. break. acbParam[1]. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1].\r\n"). strlen(hlppath)). 0). if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. &cbPath). erc = Chain(apParam[1].

&iLine). What's On the CD-ROM. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS .1. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands. The last line is used for data entry. Table 16. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections.80. status and error display.1). The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line).} CheckErc(erc). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes).1. current filename. The next 23 lines are the text editing area.23. SetXY(0. See Appendix A. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). The top line provides continuous status information.2.23). The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. } GetXY(&iCol. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1.

3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData. Listing 16.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. Listing 16. Editor Source Code /* Edit.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .h> #include <ctype.2.2 is the editor source code.h" MMURTL V1.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.h> #include <string.4 .

sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. fh. char aStat[80]. char *apParam[13]. /* cursor. U32 iAttrMark.. /* cursor. U32 iTabNorm. char aStat1[80]. /* sBuf . U32 oBufBound. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. char *pBuf1. U8 fVisible. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. char aCmd[80]. }. *pBuf2. b1. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]. long erc.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin.1 */ U32 iColMin. U32 sLine. U32 iAttrNorm.. unsigned char b. char fOvertype.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. U8 bSpace. U8 *pBufWork. 0. void clearbuf(void). unsigned char filler[100].#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. 0. U32 iColMax. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX].h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. char fModified. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. long cbFilename. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. struct EditRecType EdRec.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. U32 iRowMax. struct EditRecType *pEdit.

If fClose. %05d occured on ReadKbd". *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. "Error break. } for (i=0.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . "Error break. } return (erc). "Error break. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". case 2: sprintf(st. 39. if (erc) { FillData(st. st. 80. %05d occured on last command". %05d occured on OpenFile". Beep(). FillData(st. case 7: sprintf(st. STATVID). PutVidChars (0. 0). NORMVID). erc). "Error break. %05d occured on WriteBytes". %05d occured on ReadBytes". case 4: sprintf(st. i<40. erc). erc). %05d occured on SetFileSize". erc). PutVidChars (40. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. case 3: sprintf(st. erc). "Error break. 24. st.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. erc). "Error break. long erc) { char st[40]. i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. %05d occured on CreateFile". } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. If fPrompt is true. 0). 80. erc). case 5: sprintf(st. "Error break. erc). 40. long i. default: sprintf(st. case 6: sprintf(st. } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. 24. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. "Error break. this will prompt you to save.

ClearStatus(). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. fYes. SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. 43. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. SetFileSize(fh. ReadKbd(&keycode.and the buffer will be closed. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. clearbuf(). "DONE.0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . fh = 0. } fYes = 1. Sleep(150). SAVE IT? (Y/N)". } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. 0)). TTYOut("This file has been modified. int fClose) { U32 i. pEdit->oBufLast. 24. 24). unsigned char *pBuff. cbFilename = 0. if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). pEdit->oBufLast)). pBuf1. STATVID). } } MMURTL V1. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. 1). ClearStatus(). ClearStatus(). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20.. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh).. keycode. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. &i)). PutVidChars (0. 10. fModified = 0. ". WriteBytes (fh. BLACK|BGCYAN). SetXY(0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.

SetXY(50. 26. keycode. fh = 0. MMURTL V1. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4.". dret. filesize. it will prompts to create. 24). SetXY(10. 10. cbFilename = strlen(Filename). if (!name) { SetXY(0. pEdit->oBufLast = dret. &dret). BLACK|BGCYAN). OpenFile(Filename. PutVidChars (0. /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). BLACK|BGWHITE). TTYOut("Doesn't exist.24). } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. BLACK|BGCYAN). If not.24). ModeModify. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). 1. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. 1). cbFilename = 0. Create?? (Y/N)". if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. &b1. CreateFile(Filename. SetXY(50. 24). name. strncpy(Filename. "Filename: ". else erc = 0. 1). 13).0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. EditLine(Filename. 1. 0)). erc = 0. Beep(). ModeModify. pBuf1. &filesize). **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. &fh)). 0. &fh). cbFilename. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. ReadKbd(&keycode. erc). SetXY(0. &cbFilename. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists.0).24. 60. ReadKbd(&keycode. 29. cbFilename. BLACK|BGCYAN). cbFilename. } else { b1=0x0d. TTYOut("File is too large to edit.

cbFilename = 0. iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . return(nEols). *pBuff. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. i. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. i = 0. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. even though we word wrap always. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. } } else { cbFilename = 0. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. } } else CheckErc(1. nEols = 0. erc). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.if (erc) { fh = 0. ClearStatus(). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. unsigned char *pBuff. iEolMax.

0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . iEol = iBuf. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. j.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. char *pBuff. /* now find first non-space . while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. */ iEol = iEolMax. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line...1. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. i = 0. } } return(iEol).

iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pEdit->iAttrMark). iLn. if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc .i--. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart.pEdit->Line[iLn] . MMURTL V1. pEdit->iColMax . iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. iMarkLoc. iLn. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. iColFinish. if (i) i++. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. iColFinish .pEdit->Line[iLn]. pEdit->iAttrNorm). PutVidAttrs (iColStart. return(j). pEdit->iAttrNorm).pEdit->Line[iLn]. } while (i < oBufStart). iLn. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. iBoundLoc.0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS .1.iColStart +1.iColFinish. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.

} } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. pEdit->sLine. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. char fOK. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . *pBuff. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. pEdit->oBufInsert++.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. erc = 40400. cb). if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->oBufInsert++. Beep(). } return (fOK). } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.iLn. pEdit->pBufWork. fModified = 1. char fOvertype. pEdit->oBufLast++. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. pEdit->iAttrNorm). cb). char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. } } } else { fOK = 0.pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn.

pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. iBd. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. MMURTL V1. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. i<=iMk . i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. iMk. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .iMk.pEdit->oBufInsert . *pBuffWork. i <=iBd-iMk. i<=iBd-iMk.1.void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. iBd. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd.iBd + iMk .iBd . char *pBuff.1.1. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. for (i=0. } } } else Beep(). *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. for (i=0. pEdit->oBufInsert . iMk = pEdit->oBufBound.

iMk + 1. } } } else Beep(). *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. i. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. (hides it).0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS .pEdit->oBufInsert+1). pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY.iMk. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->sLine. } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufLast . } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. iBd-iMk+1).iMk + 1. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLast+1).char *pBuff. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.

else fProb = FALSE. *pBuffWork. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert . } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark.iBd + iMk . &pBuff[iMk]. char *pBuff. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed.might be off screen . else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. i = pEdit->iRowMin. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1.if it is. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . char fProb.iBd + iMk. iMk. iBd. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. } nullMarkBound (). CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). j. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd).normAttr (). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.1.

if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax.1. i. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf.i++. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . j = pEdit->iLine. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol . If oBufInsert is not onscreen. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. j = pEdit->iLine. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. if prev char <> CR.pEdit->iColMin. } i = pEdit->iLine. /* get to potential insert . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->iLine = i . } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen.is. /* if bogus line. } } MMURTL V1.

/* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. else for (j=i+1. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). k. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. k = pEdit->iRowMax. */ for (i = k. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . iLn./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. j. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. MMURTL V1. j<NLINESMAX. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. i<=k. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. cb. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. oBuf. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen.

iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. pFiller.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iAttrNorm). char *pBuff.oBuf + 1. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. 80. iLn. /* Make size. Called before use and after closure. 0x20). pBuff+oBuf. /* oBufInsert on screen . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. i<NLINESMAX. cb.char *pBuff. i = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. iLn. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. pEdit->sLine-cb. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. FillData(filler. makeOnScreen (). pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->Line[i] = 0. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. cb = i . if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pEdit->bSpace = 0x20.1. for (i=0. MMURTL V1. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iAttrNorm). i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. doMark (iLn). not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--.

char fSpecInsert. FillData(aStat. pEdit->iCol. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. fScreen = FALSE.fModified = 0. nullMarkBound(). k. char *pBuff. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". fDone = FALSE. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. for (i=0. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. 80. i. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. pEdit->oBufLast). key. fScreen = TRUE. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. normAttr (). normAttr (). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. *pBuffWork. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. unsigned char b. pEdit->iLine). pEdit->oBufLast = 0. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. j. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). erc = AllocExch(&exch). 0x20). pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. long exch. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). fOvertype = FALSE. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. sprintf(aStat.

fSpecInsert = FALSE. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE.Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . 3). case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. TRUE). if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. coordCursor_oBuf (). break.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1.CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . cbFilename). pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow .CopyData(Filename. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. STATVID). 0.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . PutVidChars (0. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. else CopyData("INS". i = pEdit->iLine. &aStat[77]. ReadKbd (&key. break. break. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. fScreen = TRUE. &aStat[77]. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. break. case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow .Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. b = key & 0xff. 1)). 80. 3). coordCursor_oBuf ().Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. break. i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. aStat.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. &aStat[40]. break.

pEdit->bSpace = 0x20.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. break. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. case 0x53: /* ALT S . if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. fScreen = TRUE. } fScreen = TRUE. } else { for (i=0. } break. } break.SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . default: break. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). break. FALSE). pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). break. OpenAFile(0). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. i = pEdit->iLine+1.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . TRUE). i <= pEdit->oBufLast. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. break.pEdit->Line[i]. fDone = TRUE.

pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf ().1. pBuffWork. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. default: break.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. findCursor (). if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace.0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. MMURTL V1.1. /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. break. fScreen = TRUE. if (!(putInBuf (b. pEdit->oBufLast+1). fOvertype. break. fSpecInsert))) Beep(). if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound ().} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff.

if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast . i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast .(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm).1. case 0x11: /* F3 -.1. fScreen = TRUE. for (i=1. fScreen = TRUE. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace.1.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. case 0x17: /* F9 . pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark.Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). fModified = TRUE. case 0x10: /* F2 -. } break. case 0x12: /* F4 -. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf ().UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). fScreen = TRUE. case 0x06: /* Home .if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. j = pEdit->iTabNorm . MMURTL V1. } break. break. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). moveData (). if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. fScreen = TRUE. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). i <=j. } break. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . FALSE.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. break. FALSE). if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--.

j = pEdit->iRowMax .COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). break. case 0x18: /* F10 .0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). i = pEdit->oBufLine0. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. i = pEdit->iRowMax. } break. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). fScreen = TRUE. break. } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). fScreen = TRUE. j--. /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. pEdit->oBufInsert = i.pEdit->iRowMin. k--. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). k = pEdit->iLine. } } break. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. coordCursor_oBuf (). } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i].break. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. CopyIt (). fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE.

fModified = TRUE. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. else fOvertype = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLast+1). pEdit->iCol = i. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. j = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). pBuffWork.pEdit->iLine++. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. } break. i = pEdit->iCol. } break. } } break. coordCursor_oBuf (). } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . default: MMURTL V1. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iLine = j. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } fScreen = TRUE. break. } break. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. pEdit->oBufLast--. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0.

pBuf2. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). &pBuf1). erc = AllocPage(32.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. ClrScr(). 23. U8 *argv[]) { long i. SetFileLFA(fh. &pBuf2). cbFilename = 0.pEdit->oBufLast)). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pBuf1. 80. 0. 0)). 0x20. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. SetFileSize(fh. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. WriteBytes (fh.0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. pEdit = &EdRec. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. erc = AllocPage(32. i <=pEdit->iBufMax.break. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. fh = 0. pEdit->oBufLast. 6). *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. } *pbExitRet = b. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. SetJobName("Editor". i. i <=pEdit->iRowMax. 0). } CloseFile(fh). &i)). 1. return. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. fModified = 0. 131071. 79. pEdit->sLine+1. /*sBuf . FALSE.

0. for (i=0. struct statRecC com.h> #include <string. 0. 0.h> #include <ctype.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. i = pEdit->iRowMin.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS ..h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. fModified = 0. 4. 0. 0. 0..sLine-1 */ cursor. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]). } Editor(&b). } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. i. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. EDVID. fOvertype = FALSE.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). 0x20). 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. EMPTY. i<NLINESMAX. Listing 16. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. MMURTL V1. ExitJob(0). 80.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler. EMPTY.3. pEdit->Line[i] = 0.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv.

dLBA.Baudrate com.0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* View other params which we could set. &com.parity = com. Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). %d\r\n".IOBase).h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. = 1.XBufSize). %d\r\n". &i). The structure is defined in commdrv. com. lastb. &i).stopbits = 9600. } /* If device init went OK. ExitJob(erc). if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". ClrScr(). we open the comms port */ /* device. com. } /* set the params in the block */ com. if (erc) { MMURTL V1. erc). 64). dOpNum.IRQNum). erc). &com.databits com. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. ClrScr(). %d\r\n". %d\r\n". pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. com. dnBlocks. 64.XTimeOut). but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). = 8. NO_PAR. 0.unsigned char b. com. char fOK. printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". 0. ClrScr().RTimeOut). %d\r\n". /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. com.RBufSize). ExitJob(erc). SetNormVid(NORMVID). printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. com. printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). CmdOpenC.

0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetNormVid(CLIVID). dnBlocks. */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. dnBlocks. CmdCloseC.. fOK = 1. dLBA. erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. ClrScr(). &i). 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. dOpNum. lastb = b.. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". } } else { /* device. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0. } } } } /* device. 0. /* This is it. erc). CmdWriteB.. dnBlocks.SetNormVid(CLIVID). NORMVID). dLBA. dOpNum. ExitJob(erc). else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. &b). 0. NORMVID). if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b.\r\n"). break. } } } MMURTL V1. 0. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". 0. 1. 0. &b). CmdReadB. &b). 0. erc = DeviceOp(6. 1. dLBA. CmdWriteB. 0.. ClrScr(). ExitJob(erc). default: break. dOpNum.

That's the intention of the design. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1.Display the file while printing \F . notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device. Listing 16.4. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . char name[80].2.Binary print.h" "\OSSource\MVid.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B .Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1. col = 0. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n . NoFF = 0. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device. fDisplay = 0.4 or 8) \D . struct statRecL lpt.h> <stdlib. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF. fBinary = 0.h" "\OSSource\Parallel.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver. long long long long long tabstops = 4.h> <ctype.h" "\OSSource\MKbd.h" "\OSSource\MTimer.4. FILE *f.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv.h> <stdio. Send with no translations. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver. In listing 16.h" "\OSSource\MJob.h> <string.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key.

printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. break. printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). break. break. exit(1). Version 1.void main(long argc. cl. erck. for(i=1. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. printf("/B Binary print. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . 79). argv[i]. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). SetJobName("Printing". i < argc. ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i].0x30.0\r\n"). lastb. } MMURTL V1. exit(1). NO translation. no FF\r\n\n"). case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. break. char fdone. printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n").No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. default: printf("Invalid switch"). 8). i.Tab stop translation value\r\n"). name[0] = 0. case 'B' : /* BINARY .0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. break. *ptr. unsigned char b.

b = 0. ExitJob(erc). } col = 0. i = 0. dLBA. CmdWriteB. name). /* This is it. "r").0 1. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n".h We do this just to see if it's a valid device./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. &lastb). if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. ExitJob(erc). if (!f) { /* device. dLBA. 0. cl = fgetc(f). &i). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. The structure is defined in parallel. } else { MMURTL V1. dnBlocks. -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . &i). erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". */ erc = DeviceStat(3. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++.. &lpt. &i).. name). 64. } /* If device status went OK.. } printf("Printing %s .. dnBlocks. */ f = fopen(name.\r\n". 0. dOpNum. 0. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. we open the printer port */ /* device. b = (cl & 0xff). erc). 0. CmdOpenL. ExitJob(erc). lastb = b. dOpNum. if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". fdone = 0. CmdCloseLU.

CmdWriteB. 0. %d\r\n". "\f"). 0. if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. CmdWriteB. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). 1. &i). /* reset */ break. erc = DeviceOp(3. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0. 1. &b). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. } fclose(f). erc). } } &b). 1.switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3.0 1. " "). 0. 0). /* device. CmdCloseL. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". dnBlocks. b). case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. &b). break. } while (col % tabstops). CmdWriteB. } erc = DeviceOp(3. col++. &lastb). CmdWriteB. break. col = 0. dLBA. erc = DeviceOp(3. erc = 4. CmdWriteB. lastb). if (erc) MMURTL V1. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". col++. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. CmdWriteB. dOpNum. 1.

“Systems Programming. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service.h> "\OSSource\MKernel.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. printf("Done\r\n"). The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. erc). ExitJob(erc). /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2]. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSource\MVid. Error: %d\r\n". ErrorToUser. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch.5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). long *pDataRet.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter.printf("Can't close LPT. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.” It has been expanded some. Listing 16.h" "\OSSource\MJob. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. run the TestSvc. keycode.RUN program to exercise the service. While this program is running. Service. MMURTL V1.

0. ErrorToUser). printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. 0). /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. Respond(pRqBlk. while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode.if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. &rqHndl. OSError). /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". 1. ClrScr().\r\n"). } pRqBlk = Message[0]. ErcNoSuchSvc). Message). SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). &keycode. 4. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. 1. 0.\r\n"). OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). 0.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. 0. NextNumber-1). MainExch). } DeAllocExch(MainExch). MainExch.. *pDataRet = NextNumber++. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError).\r\n". /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n".0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0].

Message). 0. 0. if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg.h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel. Error = Request("NUMBERS ". rqhndl. 0. You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available.\r\n". Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1.C Listing The program in listing 16. 4. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. &rqhndl. Error = AllocExch(&Exch).\r\n". Also try it when the service is not running.\r\n".6 exercises the sample system service listed previously.h" unsigned long Number. void main(void) { unsigned long Error. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. Listing 16. unsigned long Message[2]. 1. 0. Number).6.0. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service.0).C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. Error). TestSvc. Error).\r\n". } } DeAllocExch(Exch). /* No Send ptrs */ &Number.\r\n". Error). Message[1]). Exch. unsigned long Exch. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange.

which means its data will be at the lowest address. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. as you look through the code. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. MPublics. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. In fact. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. the human becomes a compiler of sorts.ASM . The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). A brief description of each of the main source files follows.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . common variables. The ordering for MMURTL V1. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). You may find some of the source files rather large. MAIN. but it is not used by the processor. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because.. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. I hope I’ve met this goal. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. MOSGDT. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. use the stack just as a compiler would. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function.Chapter 17. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. By including the comments.This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. and used by the processor. All source files are located in one directory. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. and structures together. The GDT is 6K in size..This is the first assembler file that contains code.This is also a table.ASM . MOSPDR.ASM . with the called procedure cleaning the stack. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. It helps me think. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading.ASM . This is the first file in the source.ASM . Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. This file should be left in the order I have it in. however.). I just expend the time up front instead of later. Quite a few of them. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. There are also header files for the C source. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. MOSIDT. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. In fact. Also some data is defined here.

0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . On the other hand. NumCnvrt. and the mode. and it works rather well. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain.ASM . It think it still works with MFM drives. JobC.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() . how much to move.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. but I don't have any more to test it. RS232. is in this file. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. It drives two channels. MemCode. JobCode. Debugging a debugger is even less fun.ASM .ASM .C . even in the earliest stages of a project. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled. but you never know where to put. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.C . if needed.ASM . This is one complicated driver. Debugger. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions. Parallel. but it's effective and accurate.C are contained in this file.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. Keyboard.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. HardIDE. they must handle it themselves.C .ASM .ASM .Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers.In many systems. MiscCode. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa.The code memory allocation. but can be modified for four.ASM .The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .ASM . Device driver writers will appreciate this. SVCCode. MMURTL V1. DMACode. RQBCode.This file is the debugger disassembler.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps).are in this file.C .ASM was one of the first files written. DevDrvr. you're on your own. Video. someday). It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. as well as port I/O support.the remainder of the modules is not as important. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents.Request block management code is in this file. It supports the 16550. Keyboard. If you have MFM drives. I was surprised.ASM .This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. undoubtedly.ASM . You only need to know the channel. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea.C .ASM . IntCode. This file has routines that handle DMA for you. UASM. You have to see what you're doing. It's not very pretty. FSys. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file.C .ASM . TmrCode. Floppy. when a device driver writers need DMA. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger.The simple parallel port driver is contained here.C .This file contains the RS-232 UART driver.

Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces). Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table .These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! . If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . InitCode. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM. Assembler Template File .ASM .INCLUDE MPublics.0 .1.Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.ATF It's truly that simple.The monitor program is contained in this file. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor. This takes about 1.ASM .ASM . Video code and data MMURTL V1. Monitor. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.ASM .ASM . Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. . but it really isn't part of the operating system.5 Pages. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler.INCLUDE Video.Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file.INCLUDE MOSGDT. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).C . Keyboard ISR and Service .INCLUDE MAIN. .ASM .INCLUDE MOSIDT. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL. Indirect calling address table . It provides a lot of the OS functionality. Listing 17.ASM .5 minutes on a 486/33. Main OS code and some data & START address . specify /E on the command line after the name. Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files.BAT) will build the entire operating system. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. CM32 (no switches needed).Kernel.INCLUDE Keyboard. a C source file and must be compiled first with .This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions. If you want an error file.DATA .All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. /L on the command line after the name. 6K) .0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM . . 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.ASM .C After all the C source files are compiled. DASM produces the operating system RUN file. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) . You could replace quite easily. and the DASM assembler (also included).” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM.INCLUDE MOSPDR.ASM . Except.

CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding.INCLUDE . You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. This is one thing you should watch. use another compiler for your project.INCLUDE . . In fact.array.ASM NumCnvrt. it is placed into the code segment in that order. code (string.. .INCLUDE . and they will work fine. .* .INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular.END Debugger. If your C compiler allows it. .0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .INCLUDE .ASM MiscCode. The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.INCLUDE .ASM Floppy. .ASM Except.INCLUDE . .ASM . .INCLUDE . you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. Otherwise.INCLUDE .ASM FSys.* .INCLUDE . . The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.* .ASM RS232. MMURTL V1. . I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system.INCLUDE .ASM HardIDE.INCLUDE .* . . no doubt.INCLUDE .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc. you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments .ASM Parallel.INCLUDE .C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort.ASM RQBCode. For instance.ASM MemCode.code and data. you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier).INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM JobCode.* :* .ASM SVCCode. .ASM IntCode. You will. As each piece of code is assembled.ASM DevDrvr.ASM Kernel. .INCLUDE . Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies.INCLUDE . you can take the file system code (FSYS.ASM Monitor. CM32 packs all structure fields completely.* .INCLUDE . .ASM JOBC.I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one. This is because DASM doesn't support structures.INCLUDE . You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures. The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.ASM DMACode.ASM TmrCode.ASM UASM.ASM InitCode. The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler. .

ASM. so I could get to them with the monitor program. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. See listing 18. Kernel data segment source . If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler.Chapter 18. and memory management tables. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C).INCLUDE .INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. These are things such as the task state segments.1. two underscores will be prepended to the name. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. I think it will make more sense to you. and kernel publics functions.INC DD 0 .INC TSS. These all change with respect to the task that is running. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them.INCLUDE . and offsets into structures and tables. a single underscore will be prepended to the name.INC RQB. Being an old "structured" programmer. Listing 18. For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables. local helper functions.INC JOB. the scheduler.INCLUDE . The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches).0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . The bulk of them are in the file Main.DATA . The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). job control blocks. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. internal public functions.1. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. The actual message handling functions.

and if a task is waiting there. OUTPUT : NONE . In MMURTL. . 0 .Next <= NIL. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant.. Listing 18. See listing 18.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. for example.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange.2. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return.EDX. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. link blocks.ESI. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. When a message is sent to an exchange. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. REGISTERS : EAX. and exchanges. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken.EAX . is coded in-line. pointed to by the ESI register. . we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. which means interrupts must be cleared.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . INPUT : ESI. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). if . pExch => EAX. JZ eqMsgDone . pLBin^.EAX .2. XCHG ESI. It's not that the routines are called so often.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy.FLAGS . . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. 0 . OR EAX. and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. This is strictly a speed issue.EAX . The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). MODIFIES : EDX . There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). This is important. This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places. This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. and therefore. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS.

MsgHead^. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN . See listing 18. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. .[ESI+fEMsg] . MMURTL V1.. ..MsgHead <= . deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. pLBout <= .. you return NIL (0). Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. but not both.msg.3.. MOV EBX. . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. EAX . If not.[EAX+NextLB] .ESI. If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it. If not. . No! (return 0) MOV EAX.3.4. MOV [EAX+ETail]. .MsgHead. ..ESI .[EAX+ETail] . INPUT : ESI .ESI . 1 . deMsgDone: RETN . See listing 18. Get Msg Flag OR EAX.EBX . As stated before. EAX .. JZ deMsgDone .Next. then MOV [EAX+EHead]. Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: . If not. MOV [EDX+NextLB].0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS .MsgTail <= pLBin. REGISTERS : EAX. Listing 18. OR EAX. MOV [EAX+ETail]. . MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. 1 . OUTPUT : EAX . MOV EAX. if pLBout = NIL then Return..ESI . deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there.ESI . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].EBX. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone .[ESI+EHead] .head and EBX . .FLAGS . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.NextLB <= pLBin. You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. MOV [ESI+EHead]. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .MsgHead <= pLBin. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].ESI .MsgTail^.JNE eqMNotNIL . exchanges can hold messages or tasks.ESI .MsgTail <= pLBin.

Listing 18. This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI .EBX . deTSSDone: RETN . The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists. algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority.FLAGS .EBX . pTSSin^.TSSHead^. . REGISTERS : EAX. De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: .EBX . EAX . INPUT : ESI . get the priority MOV BL. Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. in EBX XCHG EAX. XOR EBX.[EAX+NextTSS] . This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue.ESI.EAX . OR EAX. 3 . .EDX. JZ deTSSDone . MODIFIES : EAX. INPUT : EAX .EDX . You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list.[EAX+Priority] .RdyQ . one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL. . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: . if pTSS = NIL then return. 0 .[ESI+fEMsg] . This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI].TSSHead <= . REGISTERS : EAX. XOR EAX. . MOV [ESI+EHead]. OR EAX. . .Next <= NIL. Listing 18.[ESI+EHead] .TSSHead.EBX . pTSSout <= . Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX.FLAGS .0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS].5. head & tail per QUEUE).EDX . See listing 18. if pTSSout = NIL then Return. This . Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX.Next. The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers. 0 . Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. OUTPUT : EAX . .5.4. It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX. Priority => EAX. EBX JNZ deTSSDone . INC _nReady . OUTPUT : NONE .EBX... if Head = NIL MMURTL V1. MODIFIES : EAX.EBX. JZ eqRdyDone .EAX . . enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI . .. pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX.EBX. MOV EBX.

De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. .EBX eqRdyDone: RETN .ECX deRdyDone: RETN .6..nPRI .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . this returns NIL (0). . . that 0 is the highest priority. EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX.JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head]. . . OUTPUT : EAX .. . See listing 18. . . .FLAGS .Head <= pTSSin. This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . Keep in mind.Tail <= pTSSin. INPUT : NONE . .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX].EBX.6.. and 31 is the lowest. MODIFIES : RdyQ .[EBX] OR EAX. MMURTL V1. . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . RETURN Otherwise. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. . . IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ.ECX. then . . If there was no task queued.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. . Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ.NextTSS <= pTSSin. else .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. EAX is returned as NIL. queued on the RdyQ.RdyQ .Tail^. If none is found. .[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS]. The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list.Tail <= pTSSin. REGISTERS : EAX.. . deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . .EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. . MOV ECX. Listing 18.sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. . .

They are located in Kernel.FLAGS .RdyQ . Get pTSSout in EAX . is queued to run. This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. . EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX.ECX. They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation. When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. EAX is returned as NIL.8. Point to the next Priority Queue .sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. but someone's got to it. This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that .7.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures.7. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation.ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. check the next priority.[EBX] OR EAX. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB.8. If there was no task queued. Listing 18.nPRI . . IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . "It's a nasty job. . Listing 18. . . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . without actually removing it from the queue. OUTPUT : EAX . INPUT : NONE . MODIFIES : RdyQ . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. .EBX. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. See listing 18.0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . Removing a terminated task from the ready queue . . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. .ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. . Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. This why it's specified as PUBLIC. REGISTERS : EAX. This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1." See Listing 18. MOV ECX.

. . a job. 0 . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . Procedureal Interface : .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head].Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. MOV ECX. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.EAX .Next <= pFreeTSS. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. . EAX OR EAX.EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . . Yes. .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . .pFreeTSS . .RdyQ . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: .EBX .. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . PUSH EBP . . No MOV EDI. Point to the next Priority Queue . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .nPRI . .0 . Make EAX point to new head TSS . INC _nTSSLeft . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . deQueue the TSS . pTSSin^. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. EDI OR EAX. Fix link in Queue list .ESP . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . POP EBX MOV EAX. MOV EBP. All done (clean stack) . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . Is it Zero? . EDI PUSH EBX . RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . OUTPUT : NONE .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. EDI ADD EBX. No error . MODIFIES : RdyQ . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1.

Next <= pFreeTSS. These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 .0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. 0 . . char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. . . . No. back to check next at head of list . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. pTSSin^. . .This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. Next TSS .Jump the removed link . [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. Listing 18. INC _nTSSLeft . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. ESI PUSH EBX .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI.Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . SetExchOwner().pFreeTSS . Next Queue please . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. Trash it.JMP RemRdy0 .EBX . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB].EAX . See listing 18. . . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. deQueue the TSS . . . . The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange.9. This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. Yes. .Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. This function is used with the next one. POP . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX.9.Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI.Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. . This is not so if it's for a new job.EDI points to prev TSS .Yes.EAX points to crnt TSS . [EAX+NextTSS] . A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. . Finding the owner of an exchange . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin.

pJCBRet . SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. . . . .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. . No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch.prgExch ADD EDX. . not allocated . . . EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . Listing 18. . [EBP+12] CMP EAX.10. EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. . . . . mentioned previously. EAX XOR EAX. pJCBRet the exchange number. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . Exch is . No. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. .EAX MOV EAX. See listing 18. . This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP.nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. Valid Exch (Allocated) . . . . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. . Changing the owner of an exchange . . [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. MMURTL V1.Where to return pJCB of Exchange . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. Exch .10. .ESP MOV EAX. . .. continue Yes.0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. .

. . . . . EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. . . [EBP+12] MOV EDX. . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. . or the operating system itself. The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. If a program sent a request.0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . . The error it returns is of no consequence. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . We ignore the kernel errors. System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). Notifying services of a job’s demise . . .EDX MOV EBX. then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior.11. other services. . Listing 18. .OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum.. . EBX XOR EAX.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. If a service is holding a request from the job that died. See listing 18. .ESP MOV EAX.ESP MOV ESI. . SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. . Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). . telling them that a particular job has died. .11. . Get the address of rgSVC . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . . Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] .prgExch ADD EAX. . . it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. .nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. . .

asm.pData0 PUSH 0 . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls. . 0 JE SAB05 . [EBP+8] . next service PUSH ESI .Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive. The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block. wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1. Request kernel primitive code .12. except this function requires several more parameters. .JobNum PUSH EAX . NO.pName PUSH 0 . A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate.Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk .Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI. Valid name? . . See listing 18. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] .pHandleRet PUSH 0 .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS .dData0 PUSH 0 .CMP DWORD PTR [ESI]. These are functions such as GetPriority(). Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates.dData1 PUSH 0 .npSend PUSH 0 . The function that searches the array is GetExchange().Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI . [EBP+12] .cbData0 PUSH 0 .dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it.Next Service name . EAX MOV ESP. sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .pData1 PUSH 0 . Listing 18. and code for it is in the file SVCCode. The procedural interface to Request looks like this: .12.Abort Service Code MOV EAX. Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model.cbData1 MOV EAX.

[EBP+56] . EAX .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX.put .Put . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. . .Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 . Set up New FramePtr .Yes. JMP ReqEnd .put . .ESI still has the exchange for the service . .ESP . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX.Validate exchange MOV EDX. .No.nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX.Get . . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. . .. EAX MMURTL V1. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0].Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 .Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB . EAX MOV EAX.Get . Error in EAX register . .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- . . continue Yes.Get .pServiceName CALL GetExchange .Get . . EAX MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2].put .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.EAX .Yes. AX MOV [EBX+RespExch].Put . .EBX ... [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1].Put .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. .EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.put . [EBP+48] CMP EDX. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No.EDX still has the response exchange . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch]. ESI MOV EAX. [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. Sorry. ErcNoMoreRqBlks . .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . Save the Previous FramePtr .No JMP ReqEnd .Get . dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. return error Req02: . Req04: .0 .Get .

DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . . .Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) .0 . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch .EAX . CL .[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB..ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX. 2 CL.Get cbData2 . 0 . . 0 . [EBP+40] CMP EAX. [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].pFreeLB OR EAX. [EBP+44] MOV [EDI].The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it. .Give it to them .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . . pLB^. AL CL. . . . pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX. EBX . EBX MOV EDX. 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend]. RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi]. AL [EBX+npRecv].EDX ESI..EBX DEC _nLBLeft . No interruptions from here on .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.EDX . EAX <= pFreeLB.Ptr to return handle to .Get pData2 . . free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].Next . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. . . EAX MOV EAX.MOV EAX.ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.REQLB . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX.Next <= NIL. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. . sEXCH EDX EDX.put in RqBlk .The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use . Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO.put in RqBlk . Save pLB on the stack . MOV [EAX+DataLo]. Store zero in upper half of pLB^.ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1.Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. . .Must be 2 or less . . EAX MOV EAX.put in RqBlk . . [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2].Put npRecv in RqBlk .Leave in CL .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI.prgExch EAX. EAX MOV EAX. This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB].Data PUSH EAX .Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk .Number of Send PbCbs .Get cbData1 .ESI EDX.Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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message should be sent.18. the return to caller with error MOV EAX. MOV EDX. in the EAX register. MOV EBP.EBP . See listing 18. A result code is returned in the EAX register.We can be interrupted again .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated.ESP . CheckMsg(exch. CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . .nExch . . Chk01: MOV EAX. PUSH EBP . 0 .ercOutOfRange .0 -270- . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. . Procedureal Interface : .pdqMsg):ercType .EDX .18. . .ChkExchange . RETF 8 . . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories. . Listing 18. . . Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner]. POP EBP . .ESI . CheckMsg kernel primitive code . If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . MOV ESP.EAX . As with WaitMsg(). in the EAX register. pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored.prgExch . .sEXCH .REQLB MMURTL V1. Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . .EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. MOV ESI. Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. . . return with erc no msg .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. . return to the caller with error MOV EAX.ercNoMsg MOV ESP.ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. MOV ESI. .

DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX. No. pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. continue .dJobNum .Restore ptr to Link Block .Make stack right .. MMURTL V1. . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.Error?? . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP. Save ptr to Link Block . Treat it as a data link block ._AliasMem(pMem. .is cbData1 0? .Make stack right . [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.No. Get pRqBlk into EBX .dJobNum . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX. Get pRqBlk into EBX . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.is cbData2 0? . dJobNum. dcbMem.cbMem .Yes . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.is pData2 NULL? .Linear Address of pData1 . .Yes . . .Save again . .Offset to pData1 in RqBlk .Offset to pData2 in RqBlk .Second Pointer (pData2) .Linear Address of PData1 .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 ..[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX. continue . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. .cbMem .No. .Now we set up to alias the memory for the service .Error?? .0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS .is pData1 NULL? .pMem .pMem . pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX. [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.Yes .Set up params for AliasMem .Return Error. EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.JNE Chk04 .[EAX+DataLo] . .Set up params for AliasMem . EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .Return Error. [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX..Yes ..pLB.

. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . . The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs. Get pLB^. nPRI-1 MMURTL V1. pLBin^. stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. Exch. ESP.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX.0 . pFreeLB <= pLBin.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . .EAX MOV ESP. NewTask(JobNum. or page fault.ECX . STI . . . . NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in.Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] . INC _nLBLeft . .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. MOV pFreeLB. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation.ESP MOV EDX.19.EBX . CodeSeg. Priority.EAX .EBX [EDX+4]. . XOR EAX.Next <= pFreeLB. NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] . .[EAX+DataHi] EDX.[EAX+DataLo] ECX. Procedural interface: . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. .19.Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] . See listing 18. .Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] .8 for OS.pFreeLB . .x. EIP): dErcRet .ErcOK! (0) . NewTask kernel primitive code . For MMURTL version 1. fDebug. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection. .pCkMessage [EDX].Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS .Restore Ptr to Link Block . . The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.Data in specified memory space (EDX) . In future versions. MOV [EAX+NextLB]. Listing 18. 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] .

we can't be interrupted . ECX.Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 .Set up to call LinToPhy . NTS_EIP . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP]. 0 MMURTL V1.ercOutOfRange NTEnd .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS].Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .Save pNewTSS . NTS_ESP .Next . ECX.get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX. .0 .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority]. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.ECX MOV EBX.Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.Set up to call GetpJCB . NTS_Exch ECX.ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.Save pNewTSS again . NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX..EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP]. ECX . [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.DL .No.Put pJCB into TSS .pNewTSS into EAX .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.Restore pNewTSS to EAX .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX.EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].0202h .EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg.EBX EBX. .EAX now has pJCB .ECX now has pJCB .pFreeTSS OR EAX.EBX . NTS_CS .ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX.. .Exch in range? PUSH EAX . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch]. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].CX . nExch NT0001 EAX. . .

. As with NewTask().pRunTSS .New TSS -> EAX .JE NT0004 .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. Procedural Interface: .0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .BL . .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .20. .20.Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .Get priority of new task CLI . New TSS -> EDX .EAX .EAX MOV BX. 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. . . . fOSCode).New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX. SpawnTask(pEntry.Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX. See listing 18. pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. NTS_Pri .EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space. pStack.Save time of this switch for scheduler .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.ErcOk MMURTL V1. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it.ercOk JMP NTEnd .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.Jump to new TSS .Move new TSS into pRunTSS .We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP. Listing 18. .Save New TSS .CrntTSS -> EAX. It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs.Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority]. .Yes . fDebug. dPriority. SpawnTask kernel primitive code . .

EDX MOV EDX.Priority OK? . EAX JNZ STEnd . pRunTSS MOV EDX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].No.EAX JNZ ST0002 STI . [EBX+TSS_CR3] . .EDX . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. 1 .pFreeTSS OR EAX. . NewTSSST. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX. pStackST . . 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.we can't be interrupted .EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].EBX MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1. . bad news . 8 CMP dPriST. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Save new TSS EBX.two local DWORD vars .EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].EBX MOV EBX.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].0 . . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.ESP SUB ESP. JobCodeSel .Next . . .mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.see if we got an error .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 .0202h . NewExchST ..Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].pEntryST . 0 .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX .mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST.Allocate exchange .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.Yup..ercNoMoreTSSs .

If crnt >.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .ercOk . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.21. The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages.BL CLI MOV EDX.Old guy does. AllocExch(pExchRet):dError .Save time of this switch for scheduler . .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.New TSS -> Stack .pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority].Move new TSS into pRunTSS . . Zero the Exch Index . . . It is property of a Job (not a task). Listing 18.Return to caller . New guy does (lowest num) . 0 MMURTL V1.21.ErcOk .ESP XOR ESI. EBX <= ADR rgExch .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX.ESI MOV EBX. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .0 .EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP.put in TSS . Allocate exchange code .CrntTSS -> EAX. returned. This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange. . dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority]. Get number of exchanges in ECX . Procedural Interface : . . . . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES).Place crnt TSS on Q .EAX MOV BX.New TSS -> EAX . just put new guy on Q.we can't be interrupted .Jump to new TSS .nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner].Get who's running .MOV EBX. New TSS -> EDX . . . . .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. .Who got the highest Pri? .prgExch MOV ECX. .mov priority into BL . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. See listing 18. Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .

PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. DEC _nEXCHLeft . .ercOK (0) MOV ESP.22. . If we found a Free Exch.ESI .0 . .0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . . See listing 18. . . Those link blocks may also contain requests.pRunTSS EBX. RETF 4 .EAX .pRunTSS . . .sEXCH EDX EDX. . . Stats XOR EAX. TSSs. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX].[EBP+0CH] EAX.[EAX+Owner] EBX.0 . Procedural Interface : .ESI EDX. . . POP EBP .[EBP+0CH] .ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange.EDX . . . Messages are deQueued. This function has a lot more to do. This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. and request blocks are freed up as necessary. however. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX.JE AE001 ADD EBX.EBP .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner]. Make the Exch owner the Job STI . Listing 18.EAX . Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. it may have left over link blocks hanging on it.sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. . JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX.prgExch EAX. MMURTL V1. Deallocate exchange code . and link blocks. . . . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch().EAX EDX. . DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType . . . .EDX ECX. . .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP.22.

yes .EBX . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. JUMP MOV ESI. POP EBP .JE DE000 CMP EBX. RETF 4 . . Reset msg Flag. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. . MOV [EAX+NextLB].Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. JMP DE001 . .pFreeTSS .0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg].EAX . yes . if not owner. INC _nLBLeft .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: .EAX . Go And Check for more. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. 0 .with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . See listing 18. pLBin^. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. Go And Check for more. Go free the Exch. MOV pFreeLB. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . EAX JZ DE002 .Next <= pFreeTSS. ECX .pFreeLB . Free up the exchange.Next <= pFreeLB.only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow . pTSSin^. XOR EAX.0 . Stats STI .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. Nothing there. If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . pFreeLB <= pLBin. . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. Get the TSS off of the Exchange . CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg].23.ercOK (0) MOV ESP. INC _nEXCHLeft .EBP . ECX . CLI . 0 .ercNotOwner MOV ESP. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . JMP DE000 . These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. No. is this the OS??? . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. MMURTL V1. INC _nTSSLeft . 0 . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 .instructions or a service crashes! . NIL = Empty. Yes. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 .EBX . .EAX . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. 0 .

If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. GetTSS exchange code .ESP . . bPriority is a byte with the new priority. BL .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS .This sets the priority of the task that called it . PUBLIC __SetPriority . The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES).23. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .No error. GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError .ESP . returned. MOV EAX.Listing 18. MOV EAX. the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . . This doesn't really affect the kernel. RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. ErcOK POP EBP . Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. See listing 18. PUSH EBP . . PUSH EBP . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution.[EBP+0CH] .24 Listing 18. . .[EBP+0CH] . 01Fh . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX.24. Procedural Interface : . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. . Procedural Interface : . RETF 4 . POP EBP . MOV EBP.Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. Set priority code . MMURTL V1. SetPriority(bPriority):dError . ErcOK . . SetPriority . . EAX . .pRunTSS .EBX . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. [EAX+TSS_Exch] . .pRunTSS . EAX . MOV EBP. . to the priority specified in the single parameter. Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI.

See listing 18. SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . .ESP . . ErcOK POP EBP . . . Get priority code . Get the MOV EBX. EAX . DL . . Procedural Interface : . and passes it to bPriorityRet. PUSH EBP . PUBLIC __GetPriority . XOR EAX. RETF 4 .pRunTSS .25.0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over.25. bPriorityret is a pointer to a . Listing 18. MOV EAX. MOV EBP. the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error.This gets the priority of . priority returned. . Get the MOV DL.[EBP+0CH] . GetPriority . MMURTL V1.GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task.

INCLUDE JOB. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .User Readable (Code) .DATA . It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.Max is 2048 (64Mb) .CODE command. The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access. Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode.User Writable (Data) . Listing 19.INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h . The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS . As with all assembler files for DASM.System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections.1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code.Default to 1 MB .2048 bytes = 64Mb .Chapter 19.INCLUDE TSS.in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language.We alloc the "next" page table . Listing 19.ASM. 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt .Page Allocation Map . MMURTL V1. MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT . The task state segments are also used extensively.INC .1. the code section must start with the .INC .1 bit/4Kbytes . Memory management constants and data .INCLUDE MOSEDF. The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.User Writable . page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs). I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.Number of free physical pages left . I call these internal support code.

IN: .0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX .1FFFFCh XOR EBX. Listing 19. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree.Move in test string . . . We assume 1MB to start. It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX.Next Meg .Make it the last DWord again .top of 2 megs (for DWORD) . which was just loaded. The code in listing 19.Another megs worth of pages . Now you must fill in bits used by OS.InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. 0FFFFF000h .ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX.USED: .Are we above 64 megs .DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed. 0001h .OUT: .2. EAX CALL MarkPage .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data. Present MOV EBX. EAX . by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.100000h ADD _nPagesFree.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].Increase PAM by another meg .ECX MOV EBX. Its the law! Listing 19. Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code. which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh). Memory management initialization code .2. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.See if we got it back OK .0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. 32 CMP EAX. MOV EDX.NO! .'mrtl' test string value for memory . .Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX]. in megabytes. you have.Yes.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].Set oMemMax .1 Mb of pages = 256 . Continuation of memory management init.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. See listing 19.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX. neither of which you consider free. oMemMax must be last byte . OFFSET pTbl1 .Read test string into EBX .Next table entry MMURTL V1. PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED.EBX MOV ECX. 256 ADD sPAM. 4 . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree. and makes PTEs.Set it to zero intially . 256 MOV EAX.Supervisor.3.3 MOV _oMemMax.Yes! .3 ADD EAX.EAX SUB EAX.

and then writing it again.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX .Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage . Several chip sets on the market. Turning on paged memory management EAX. then reading CR0. EAX.Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 .Store in Control Reg 3 EAX. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. The initial page directory and the page table are static. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses. EAX . EAX . CR0 . IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX].0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . Continuation of memory management init. Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used.Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. EAX . Listing 19. See listing 19.No. 100000h .Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX. 0101b .6.Set paging bit ON CR0. 4096 EAX.Next PTE entry ADD EAX. EAX . Listing 19. SHL 2) . . 0FFFFF000h .EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . Now we can go into paged memory mode.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. The routine in listing 19.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. 4 . EBX.Get Control Reg 0 EAX.5.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.Make it index (SHR 12. EDX. This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. but I can't be sure everyone can do it.4.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].Physical address of OS page directory CR3. nor can I provide instructions to everyone. which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte. such as the 82C30 C&T. See listing 19.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) .1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . EBX.Next page please CMP EAX. OFFSET PDir1 . finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM. 4096 .Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM.5. go back for more .4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. ANDing it with 8000000h. EDX. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. 80000000h . C0000h –FFFFFh.

FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. .7.Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch .no memory left. Find highest physical page code . I'm afraid.No EAX.OUT : . assuming that you will allocate it. MemExch . Listing 19.Page Allocation Map . This reduces nPagesFree by one. Finishing memory management init.8.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn . this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it.Done initializing memory managment . It also marks the page as used. OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX.8. or 0 if error EBX. Of course. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated.IN : . Listing 19. 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. OFFSET pNextPT . PUSH 1 . Allocation of memory management exchange .EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Listing 19.. MMURTL V1.7. LEA EAX.0FFh .Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD. Get 'em! RETN .. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage . sPAM DEC EAX .6.0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 19.Where we are in PAM . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. See listing 19.All 8 pages used? FHP2 . 0 .

Add page number in byte .Set the bit indexed by EBX .Another Byte lower . Find lowest physical page code . EBX FHPf EBX.Page Allocation Map .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . 3 ADD EBX. DL SHL EAX. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it.\ Listing 19.FOUND ONE! (goto found) ..0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX.Back for next byte .9. . Once again.Get the byte with a whole in it. OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX. . See listing 19. EAX SHL EBX. This reduces nPagesFree by one.All 8 pages used? .One less available ...OUT : . EAX . assuming that you will allocate it.no memory left.Are we past at TOP of PAM? .DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX. . . It also marks the page as used. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Error (BAD CPU???) .No .Next bit .Set page in use . EDX MOV DL. or 0 if error EBX. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX.Another Byte lower .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .IN : .0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Test bits .Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 . we must call UnMarkPage to release it.9.At the bottom of the Byte? .Start at first byte in PAM . 7 XOR EDX. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX. sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .

8 FLPn FLP3 .One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1. EBX FLPf EBX EBX. OFFSET rgPAM . Code to mark a physical page in use . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.End of the Byte? .Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.OUT : . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Page Allocation Map AND EBX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX.Get the byte with a whole in it. EBX XOR EDX. DL SHL EAX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX.Set page in use .One less available . Listing 19. See listing 19. 3 ADD EBX. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX.Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . ..FOUND ONE! (goto found) . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX.BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX]. EAX SHL EBX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL. DL .Error (BAD CPU???) . MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use.IN : . .10. This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.Add page number in byte . This reduces nPagesFree by one.Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. 0FFFFF000h . [EAX+ECX] .Get the byte into DL BTS EDX.Set the bit indexed by EBX . .Test bits .Next bit . 15 . EBX SHR ECX.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDX MOV DL..Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree . 12 .XOR EBX. EBX . 07h .10.

EBX. DMA operations.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. USED: EAX. INPUT: EAX -. ECX MOV DL. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. This function supports the similarly named public routine.BitReset instruction . EBX -.ECX is now byte offset into PAM . Code to free a physical page for reuse .One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. Listing 19. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. ESI -. This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. This increases nPagesFree by one.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM . . Listing 19. ESI. .Page Allocation Map . See listing 19. . DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN . 12 AND EBX. EBX MOV [EAX]. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing .OUT : .POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address.0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS . . See listing 19.Linear Address of PTE for this linear address .IN : . .11. etc. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages.12. 07h ADD EAX. 15 SHR EBX.12.Linear address . The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating.Physical Address . OUTPUT: EAX -.11. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. [EAX] BTR EDX. EFlags .Round down to page modulo . EBX SHR ECX.

EBX . Listing 19.Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset . 2048 SHR EBX. The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist.EBX now points to Page Table entry! .EAX now has Linear of Page Table . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI.Get original linear back in EBX . .Index into shadow addresses from EAX .Address of PD saved here .Move to shadow addresses in PD . . This is either at address base 0 for the operating system.13. EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . EBX MOV EDX. or the 1Gb address mark for the user.Index into PD for PT we are working on .Cut off upper 22 bits of linear . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables. 2 ADD EBX. 003FFFFFh SHR EBX. The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow . EAX MOV ESI.Save it again . EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.Leaves pJCB in EAX . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX.Copy number of pages to ECX.EAX now has ptr to PD! . This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing. 00000FFFh OR EAX. 12 SHL EBX. Code to find a free run of linear memory .Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX.ESI now has ptr to PD . 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. 22 SHL EBX.get rid of lower 12 to make it an index .mask off lower 12 .Save Linear . . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX. 2 ADD EBX. See listing 19. [EBX] AND EAX. IN : EAX .Holds count of pages (saved for caller) .Get original linear . EAX MOV EAX.13.Get rid of upper 10 bits . in which case we return 0. EBX RETN FindRun . the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. .EBX/EAX now points to shadow . USED: EAX.Save this address for caller . EBX .PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .*4 makes it byte offset in PT . . Save in EBX .0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .Keeps count of how many free found so far . EBX MOV EAX. 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1.Physical base of page is in EAX . The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists. OUT: EAX .

while EAX was index into PT. . .EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address . .Times size of page (* 4096) . . . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4].EDX was index into PD. 12 OR EAX.MOV EDI. EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table.Not done yet.we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. EDI .EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1.empty (available) .EAX is next 10 bits of LA . keep testing .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. See listing 19.PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) .go INC MOV JMP FROK: .The starting linear address is equal to number of the last .If . The linear address of the run should be in EAX. SHL EDX. .If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . This is the way FindRun left them.Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 .One less page (0 offset) .No. next PTE please ECX. . or tables.0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system.One more empty one! .14. and the count of pages should be in EBX. 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . 12 SUB EAX. [ESI+EDX*4] . Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. EBX .Zero means it's . FR1: XOR EAX. .We found enough entries goto OK . 22 SHL EAX.We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 . go for it XOR EAX. Next PTE Please.Not empty. . The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. .In use . EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.Yes.Next PT! .Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI.Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .EBX still has count of pages. EAX.This is the linear address we ended at . EAX .From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX . if the run spans two or more tables. 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 .

Offset to shadow address of PD . . .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .At this point.SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) . [ESI] .Yes. USED: .Get index into PD for first PT . 4 .Make it index to DWORDS . EBX .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX.(save for caller) . AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX. EDX. .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . MEMSYS CMP EAX. [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI.ESI now has ptr to PD! . User ReadOnly . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS . 10 AR0: MOV EDI. MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].0 .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . . EDX. .then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .14. IN : .Restore linear address .Next PTE please.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .EDX . THEN store it in PT. .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX. . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX.Listing 19.EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) . OUT: . . EDI is pointing the next PT.LinAdd to EDX .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.No.Set PTE to present.See if it's a user page . CMP EDX. 4 . go do next PTE ADD ESI. 4096 .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . . EBX EAX 22 2 . ARDone: MMURTL V1. EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. EAX AND EDX. EDX MOV EDX. EDX.LinAdd into EDX again . . 2048 ADD ESI.Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. Adding a run of linear memory . next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.and OR in the appropriate control bits.

See listing 19. AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.or tables. this is the way FindRun left them. EBX EAX 22 2 . . 8 MOV AliasLin. IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . EBX Number of Pages to alias . EDX. ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) . . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . Adding an aliased run of linear memory .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . Once again. . (from find run) . USED: EAX. . Listing 19. [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. EFlags . EDX. ESI MOV AliasJob.(save for caller) .we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX.adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. .15.Make it index to DWORDS . .Get index into PD for first PT . Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. .LinAdd to EDX . . EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number.ESP SUB ESP. and the count of pages should be in EBX.This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . if the run spans two or more tables . . . The new linear address of the run should be in EAX.Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . .15. OUT: Nothing . EDX.

Are we past last PTE of this PT? . . AliasLin ADD AliasLin. [ESI] .Set system bits as ALIAS .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) . .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) .EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX .This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE.Are we done?? .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. to get a physical address into EAX. AliasJob MOV EBX. ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. 4 CMP EDX. . go do next PTE . . . 10 ALR0: MOV EDI.Linear address of crnt page table into EDI .Offset to shadow addresses in PD .Start at the entry 0 of next PT . 4 XOR EDX. . MEMALIAS POP ESI .LinAdd into EDX again . . AND EAX. 0FFFFF000h OR EAX. .EDX is index to exact entry .EAX now has physical address for this page . 2048 ADD ESI. MOV ESP.Set up for next loop (post increment) . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must .ESI now points to first PT of interest . EDI is pointing to the PT we are in. . .Address we are aliasing .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . next PDE (to get next PT) . .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1. . EAX AND EDX.mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT.Restore linear address .Yes. 003FF000h SHR EDX.Job we are aliasing .Next PTE please.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .POP EAX ADD ESI.0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS .cut off system bits of PTE .At this point. EDX MOV EDX.Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX.No. 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI.Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum .

Linear add back into EBX .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD . . EFlags .16. EAX MOV ESI. Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow). JcbPD ADD EDI.Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . .Offset to PcbPD in JCB .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX . This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. and sticks it in the user's page directory. This is easier than AddOSPT. ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. 2048 EBX. Adding a page table for user memory .ESI now points to PD . This will be in user address space above 1GB. EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 .no free phy pages!) . Next possible empty entry . See listing 19.Move to shadow . . . PUSH ESI .EDI points to UserPD Address . 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. . 4 MOV EBX. pNextPT [ESI].16. EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX.EAX will have Physical address .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. 2048 MOV ECX. EAX ESI. initializes it.Set user bits (Read/Write) .Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. Is it empty? . PUSH EDX . AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . [ESI] OR EBX. out of physical mem . Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . No! (Try again) .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . as shown in the following.Sorry. [EDI] ADD ESI. . USED: EAX. Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code. MEMUSERD [ESI].Physical address in lower half .(save for caller) PUSH ECX . PUSH EDI . MOV EAX. _nPagesFree OR EAX.See if have enuf physical memory . IN : Nothing . Listing 19.pJCB in EAX .

OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX.17. . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. PUSH EDI . Adding an operating system page table . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .0 .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .OS Job Number (Monitor) . MOV EAX.EAX will have Physical address . Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often.Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . 1 XOR EAX. _nPagesFree OR EAX. You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow).Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. PUSH ESI .AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . . .no free phy pages!) . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. ESI points to OS Pdir . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. 511 MMURTL V1. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . . . IN : Nothing . See listing 19. 1 MOV EBX.See if have enuf physical memory . . PUSH EDX . EFlags .Sorry. USED: EAX.next time.save pNextPT (the linear address) . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. in many cases.was there an error (0 means no mem) .. Find first empty slot MOV ESI. AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories.17. out of physical mem .size of request . Listing 19. . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running.

Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX . EBX . [ESI] OR EBX. EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . Next possible empty entry .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.No.EAX NOW points to PD of JCB . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all. pNextPT MOV [ESI]. PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI].Move to shadow . Not a valid JCB (unused) . . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX. 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1. .Save values on stack MOV EDX. . ESI EAX Get and . . 2048 . . nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX. ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. Get back JCB number .Source of Copy . EAX ADD ESI.Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) .Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . 4 MOV EBX. 2048 MOV EBX.Next JCB .Source EAX . The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) .Linear add back into EBX .Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX.Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. 2048 .Destination 1024 . Is it empty? . . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD .Physical address in lower half .Set present bit . .Get values from stack ADD EBX.Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .AOPT02: ADD ESI.0 . # of dynamic JCBs . JcbPD MOV EBX.Save nJCB we are on .

size of request .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined.save pNextPT (the linear address) . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) .AddRun . EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. . OUT: EAX Returns Errors. Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. . USES: EAX.was there an error (0 means no mem) . Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar.At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . ECX. 1 XOR EAX. EFLAGS MMURTL V1. EBX. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . . DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . else 0 if all's well . . allowing access to OS procedures.next time.Set ErcOK (0) . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . .18.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. Listing 19. DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. See listing 19. . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.18. IN: AX . Adding a call gate to the GDT . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . . ESI.0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate.. . .

EBX.Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. SI .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) .Extend INT Num into EDX . AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2].Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .Put Offset 31:16 into gate . CX SUB EBX.EDX now points to gate .see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . MOV EAX. Adding entries to the IDT . CX . EAX . The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap.not too low. ESI. 40h .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].make index vice selector CMP EBX. EDX. See listing 19. for a task gate. the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. interrupt. . .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX. . ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX].PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4]. USES: AX . . 8 .Put Offset 15:00 into gate . . . SI .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . AX . MOV EAX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. . ECX.19. AX MOV EAX.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. Listing 19. GDTBase . . ercBadGateNum .No. . 40 . CX SHL EDX.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. . 3 .Put Gate ID into gate . . 16 . IN: .Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX.19.Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . AX SHR EAX. .Yes. 3 ADD EDX.0 . BX MMURTL V1. or task gate.Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) . 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. nCallGates . EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX.call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX.

_nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX.Yes! Serious problem.These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space.EAX ALOSP00 EAX.20. Listing 19.See if have enuf physical memory . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. but not close enough to easily combine their code.No Error! EAX. .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . . See listing 19.Yes . If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . pRunTSS ADD EAX. . . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .ppMemRet): dError .(0 = No Runs big enuf) . placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request.Kernel Error?? . . Allocate each physical page.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS .n4KPages XOR EAX. A result code is returned in the EAX register.Can't be zero! . n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] . we're maxed out EAX. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage.Yes .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit .RETF . . The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory. PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.size of request .Sorry boss. Procedureal Interface : . This allows runs to span table entries.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.20.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1.n4KPages EAX. Allocating a page of linear memory . . ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX.More than 0? .size of request . The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.

POP EBP .dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . ppMemRet . .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. . Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space.Add a new page table (we need it!) . .Save last error PUSH MemExch . Exit. Code to alias memory . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . EAX .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX].Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX.CALL AddOSPT OR EAX.Does not return error .EAX now has linear address . Even if the address is only two bytes. . .Only an entry in a table. MMURTL V1.ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] . Procedureal Interface : . This wastes no physical memory. you need two pages.21. The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. pMem is the address to alias.See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) . dcbMem. PUSH EAX . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. If so.No error ALOSPExit: . . Listing 19.0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . dJobNum. . dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. EAX . .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX.EBP . ppAliasRet): dError .Go back & try again . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: . however . AliasMem(pMem. .ERROR!! . RETF 8 . See if they are available. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . No alias is needed.pMem EQU [EBP+24] . if it crosses page boundaries.JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around. Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. POP EAX . . . .

ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.Was there enough PTEs? .EAX has 0 or 256 . EAX. . EAX JMP ALSPDone . . .No. EAX. 0 for OS . .OS Job? .0 .Set up for OS memory space .See if it is OS based service . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.EBX still has count of pages OR EAX.MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . .Yes! Serious problem.0h JNE ALSPDone .Wait at the MemExch for Msg .Number of pages we need into EBX .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . User memory . .Kernel Error?? .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. EAX. EAX ECX.EAX is nPages-1 . 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.No. alias it . We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX. EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX.dcbMem EBX . we're done ALSPBegin: .Save nPages in ECX . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX.pMem into EAX 0FFFh . pRunTSS ADD EAX. .Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . .Add to dcbMem 12 . [EBP+16] CMP EAX.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Yes . EBX.Yes.Exit.See if it is OS based service .PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EAX is now nPages we need! EAX .Puts Current Job Num in EAX .Get Job number for pMem . PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough . ECX CALL FindRun . No Error .OS Job? .EAX is 256 for user space. EAX.Yes . .Yes . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.Now wait our turn with memory management . . [EBP+24] .Are they the same Page Directory?? . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.

PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . .EAX .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. . .Set .Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing .We are done ALSPExit: . . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP.Address to alias .Save alias page address base . dcbAliasBytes. EAX ESI. take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address .and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX.pAliasRet . . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1. PUSH MemExch . Code to remove alias PTEs .Returned address to caller! . .Go back & try again .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call. Listing 19.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . JobNum):ercType . Procedureal Interface : . pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .Job number . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . 0FFFh EDI. PUSH EAX . [EBP+12] [ESI].22.0 = NO Error . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines.original pMem .22. DeAliasMem(pAliasMem.Set to 0 (no error) .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. See listing 19. [EBP+24] EAX. . EDI EAX. . .ERROR!! . EAX MOV ESI. [EBP+24] MOV EDX. EAX .Get remaining bits . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time.EBX .Save last error .Now.

ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .EAX is now nPages we need! ECX. [EBP+16] .DO not zero it! .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.Add the remainder of address EAX. . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX. . DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . 0FFFh .ECX .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.but less than you asked for! ECX.Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.so we zero out the page.Yes. EAX MOV [ESI].Linear Mem to DeAlias .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy . .See if PTE is an alias.Is page an ALIAS? . EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.dcbAliasBytes .NO .. EAX . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get PTE into EBX . ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX.We did some.Is page present (valid)??? .We dealiased what we could.EAX is nPages-1 EAX . 12 .ZERO PTE entry .NO! (did we do any at all) .Add to dcbMem EAX. [ESI] TEST EBX.0 .pMem into EAX EBX.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX.Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX.Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX. PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP. [EBP+20] . .ESP .EBP MMURTL V1.and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS).None at all! . EBX .pAliasMem . . . . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 . if so just ZERO PTE.Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) .Next linear page .dcbMem EAX. it's page is present .Address of next page to deallocate . [EBP+20] .AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] . XOR EAX. EDI DALM011 EAX.If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy . EDX MOV EAX. .

DeAllocPage(pOrigMem.Number of pages to deallocate . pRunTSS ADD EAX. It will always free linear memory.Address of next page to deallocate . . pOrigMem AND EDX. PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. See listing 19.Error?? .See if PTE is an alias.POP EBP RETF 12 . Listing 19. providing it is valid. . . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. . .0 .Get PTE into EBX .Yes! . . . n4KPages):ercType .Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .and pointer to PTE in ESI. The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored . DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls.Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy . .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. deallocate.Yes. pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1.23.23.0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX.Now we have Physical Address in EAX . . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy . .Linear Mem to deallocate . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. [ESI] TEST EBX. if so just ZERO PTE. because we deallocate 4K pages. . Procedureal Interface : . Deallocating linear memory . Even if you specify more pages than are valid. its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX. This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias.Is page present (valid)??? .

0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.24.so we must unmark (release) the physical page.Kernel error has priority . Listing 19.save Memory error .24.get Memory error back .We did some.get rid of OS bits .Is page an ALIAS? . .None at all! MOV EAX.NO! (did we do any at all) .We deallocated what we could. . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX.CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias .. over memory error . . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit . 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. . . You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. EAX ADD EDX. Procedureal Interface : . .Yes. Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left. it's an Alias . .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. so next guy can get in . pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.but less than you asked for! . See listing 19. . ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . EAX MOV [ESI]. Code to find number of free pages .ZERO PTE entry . AND EBX. . .Send a dummy message to pick up . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .Next linear page . ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX.

Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. . pPhyRet):ercType . . . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. . EAX EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .25. [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI.pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . EAX XOR EAX. EAX ..25. . This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. . .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 19. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . pMemLeft EAX. .ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI.LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . See listing 19. . . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pPhyRet .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . GetPhyAdd(JobNum. Linear Address . MOV ESP.END OF CODE MMURTL V1. pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. LinAdd.ESP MOV EBX. [EBP+16] MOV EAX. . be returned . . left available returned . EAX MOV ESP. Public for linear to physical conversion .No Error . _nPagesFree [ESI]. Procedureal Interface : .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . No Error . . Job Number . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . . GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address.

.

As you well know.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. It's at the end of the timer ISR. It was 0. which is very conservative. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1.2 percent. divided by the total clocks for the same period.2 percent of available bandwidth.Chapter 20. MMURTL is no exception.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. my worries were unfounded. I experimented with several different intervals. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. actually the scheduler. See listing 20. which works out to about 1. In a 10ms period we have 200. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead.1. along with a piece of the kernel. I ended up with 10ms. The average is was far less. The average really depends on program loading. especially synchronous. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. however. with 100-MHz machines around. preemptive multitasking.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS .1.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case.. Even more important than total bandwidth. a slow machine. Somewhere between these two was the average. A single communications channel running at 19. Listing 20. was the effect on interrupt latency. Back when I started this project. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. memory wait-states. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. But even with these calculations.6 percent for the worst case. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. or 3000 clocks. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. Two of them will come in at 260us. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. I was consuming less than 0. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. etc. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing. as well as the fastest one possible. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly.

2. Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions.FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt.Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 .DD 00000000h . .Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone.320 clocks.2. 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. or one that has requested an alarm.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 . hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time.INCLUDE MOSEDF. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long . or 20us. The odds of this are truly astronomical. the exchange number of a task that is sleeping.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. These are the offsets into the structure . PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386. The Timer Block is a structure that contains . The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium.2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine.INC . Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 .INC .DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 . See listing 20. and finally with test programs. Listing 20.0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . . But. including the 10 percent overhead. SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt.DATA . This I could live with. Data and constants for timer code . TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . This doesn't cause a problem at all.ALIGN DWORD .INCLUDE TSS.

INT 20 . External functions for timer code .goto decrement it PUSH EAX . which is the one you interrupted.nTmrBlks CLD .4.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 .save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] . It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested.No . See listing 20.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do.Yes .Yes . priority than the task that is now running. The timer interrupt service routine . The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed.Timer Tick.FALSE .No .CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR . They may have been placed there by other ISRs. The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it.INTS are disabled automatically .0h . Listing 20. If so. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . Listing 20.Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 . You have now interrupted that task.No. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative. -1 . It is a small. See listing 20.ISend Message MOV EAX. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches.EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX. At all times on the system.Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode. The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism.ECX has count of Timer Blocks . You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more. the first things defined in this code segment. or higher. .Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. only one task is actually executing..ASM. allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX . The three external near calls. you switch to it. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown].ASM. If it is the same or higher.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS ..3.4.Yes! . The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require. The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement. yet very important part.3.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. and they may be of an equal.

and save in EDI . Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX. If so.unless were done .[EDI+Tid] .tell him his times up! POP ECX . Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick.DL is pri of current . If the Queued Pri is LOWER .0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS .We will now check to see if this guy has been running .number was higher and we DON'T . Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX. no need to check tasks . JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone .get count back POP EAX . TimerTick . Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .next block please! .. and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS. MOV EBX.get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV ESI.Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 . Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel.Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ ..BX .Is there one at all?? .bogus msg PUSH EAX . MMURTL V1. . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. PUSH 0 . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL. That means . ESI CALL enQueueRdy .Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX. we want to Switch. EAX .Compare current pri to highest queued .YES. his ..No. EAX JZ TaskCheckDone .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from .EDI ..sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 .FALSE .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed .keep going .for more then 30ms (3 ticks). EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX. CMP EAX.10ms more gone.is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX.skip decrement . EAX MOV EAX.or Equal.switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri .if we got a CARRY on the subtract. Put current one in EAX . pRunTSS MOV DL. Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .current pri. dfHalted OR EAX.PUSH EAX .bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg . SUB EAX.Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .Change this to change the "time slice" . we will ..Is this from a HALTed state? .If current is higher(lower num).

clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . This requires an exchange. POP EBP .FAR return from publics MMURTL V1. See listing 20.put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX . PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .TRUE . 0 .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].EBX . .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Listing 20.all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. DelayCnt CMP EAX.0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX. JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX. RETF 4 .rgTmrBlks . TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .unless were done MOV EAX.ErcOk .Must do this before we switch! .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.EBX .5.ErcNoMoreTBs . IRETD . The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].TSS_Msg .DelayCnt .Sorry.ESP .Empty block? JNE Delay02 .sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .nTmrBlks .[ECX+TSS_Exch] .FALSE .5. Sleep() .Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD . The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP.Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.Count of timer blocks CLD . The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].EBP .No .pRunTSS . MOV EAX.goto next block MOV EBX. MOV EBP.

AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].6.Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel. nothing will stop it.7.put it in timer block! . The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.ErcOk . DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Procedural Interface: .FALSE .all is well Alarm03 .Empty block? Alarm02 . It must be set up each time.It's OK to interrupt now . See listing 20.Sorry. MOV EBP. Listing 20. AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .unless were done .nTmrBlks . See listing 20.EBX . -312- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 . out of timer blocks . AlarmCnt):dErc . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. AlarmCnt CMP EAX.ESP .clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. . KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange.No .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.Count of timer blocks CLD .0 .Up the blocksInUse count EBX.6.Get delay count [EAX+CountDown].EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP . . MMURTL V1.rgTmrBlks .EBX .TRUE . Code for the Alarm function .ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP.Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX.It's OK to interrupt now EAX. which means the message has already been sent. .goto next block EBX. MOV EAX. Alarm(nAlarmExch.AlarmCnt .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . The message is not repeatable.

nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .clear direction flag .It's OK to interrupt now .EAX points to timer blocks . Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1.Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX. which drives the processor clock. KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . .FALSE .Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. Listing 20.ErcOk .Listing 20. 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .ALl done -. KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc . This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.Block in use? KAlarm02 . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers. so we get out! .7.unless were done . The task is actually not suspended at all. .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].8. PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Get exchange for killing alarms to .Count of timer blocks .sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX. . . This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds). The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled. Code for the MicrDelay function . . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS .Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].No .No blocks in use . But it's still very much needed. The count is in 15us increments.EAX MOV ESP.8.KAlarmExch LEA EAX.goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. See listing 20. Procedural Interface: . .0 .EBX . Code for the KillAlarm function .TRUE .

.9.AL IN AL.check refrest bit . [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.04h OUT 70h. 8 MOV EAX. EAX MOV ESP. 8 MOV EAX. Listing 20.Seconds .Hours .ESP MOV ECX. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. the next byte is the Hours in BCD.00h OUT 70h.Get system status port .Minutes .AL IN AL. MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally. AL SHL EBX. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH. .0 . Code to read the CMOS time .No toggle yet .AL MOV ESI.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .ESP XOR EBX.02h OUT 70h. and the high order byte is 0. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. the next byte is the minutes in BCD.AL IN AL. See listing 20. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). EBX MOV EAX. AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.MOV EBP.get out if they came in with 0! . Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL. . 10h CMP AH. . . 61h AND AL.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS .Clear time return .71h MOV BL. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI].71h MOV BL.9.Get delay count .Toggle! Move to AH for next compare . EBX MMURTL V1.71h MOV BL. .Check toggle of bit .AL SHL EBX.

07h OUT 70h. See listing 20. 8 MOV EAX.Clear date return MOV EAX. .ESP . 0-6 0=Sunday).10. . Procedural Interface: . . . EAX MOV ESP.Day of week .71h MOV BL. Listing 20.0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS .08h OUT 70h. GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. . 8 MOV EAX. EBX XOR EAX. . MOV EBP.AL MOV ESI. AL SHL EBX. 8 MOV EAX. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99). pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP . EAX MOV ESP. Code to read the CMOS date . EBX .AL IN AL. pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. MMURTL V1.71h MOV BL. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. XOR EBX.10.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31).06h OUT 70h.AL SHL EBX.71h MOV BL. No Error . GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .AL IN AL.AL IN AL.Year .Give 'em the time .Month .09h OUT 70h.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . AL SHL EBX.Day of month . No Error . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12).71h MOV BL.AL IN AL. .XOR EAX.

which is connected to the system internal speaker. 10110110b OUT 43h. See listing 20. this amounts to 262. pTickRet MOV EAX. .This does all work for BEEP and TONE . Listing 20. pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror . 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h.11. The procedural interface: .193182Mhz .12.No Error .193182 Mhz . See listing 20. EDX MOV EAX.Timer 2. AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h. . Binary .11. divide 1. . Listing 20. is used to generate tones. 61h MMURTL V1. Because it is a dword. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep(). The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord).12. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down. Hardware timer number 2. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() . MSB. EAX XOR EAX. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months.To find the divisor of the clock.1. .Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL MOV AL.000 ticks per month. Code to return the timer tick . The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. TimerTick MOV [ESI]. .GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. LSB.193182Mhz by Desired Freq.800. . AL IN AL.DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . . AL XOR EDX. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. With a 10ms interval. .ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL.ESP MOV ESI.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ .0 .

ESP MOV EBX. Code to produce a tone . 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. . 800 MOV ECX. Listing 20. Code to produce a beep . . Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq. See listing 20. Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. . See listing 20. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . MMURTL V1. . I would have called it Beep_Beep().13. .OR AL. I couldn't resist. .14. . . . CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL.Freq . This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. (Sorry. Listing 20. . 11111100b OUT 61h. 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS .14. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker.350ms . AL PUSH ECX . 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . AL RETN Beep() . if it had. This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier.13.

MMURTL V1. . .PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . ToneFreq MOV ECX. ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 .ESP MOV EBX.

access to the data is faster if it is.======================================================= . The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL .ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler.INC for structure details. For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . It is the entry point in the operating system. Initial OS Page Table (PT). the first instruction executed after boot up. Kernel Structures .ASM. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the .INC .ASM.INCLUDE JOB. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. Initial OS Page Directory (PD). It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 .INCLUDE TSS.Chapter 21. The first file is Main. “OS Initialization. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files.INC . and Public Call Gate table.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files.DATA . Global Descriptor table (GDT).INC .INCLUDE MOSEDF. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) .” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary. and I don't worry about the rest of it.ALIGN DWORD . a workhorse for Main. The assembler does no alignment on its own.1. Listing 21. In chapter 7.ALIGN command. Periodically you will see the . The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS .See MOSEDF. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) . The second file is InitCode.ASM which is presented later in this chapter. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main. I generally try to align data that is accessed often. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process. OS Global Data Listing 21. . This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.ASM. Main Operating System Data .

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;InitMemMgmt allocates an exch so

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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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; Clear allocated memory for TSSs

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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. OSCodeSel .SUB EBX.Single Step MOV EAX.DPL 3.Breakpoint MOV EAX.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. 16 . 08E00h . PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX. 0 .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04].Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.========================================================================= . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. EBX. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. software and hardware interrupt handlers. adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . GDTBase . First.make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. AX .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . MOV ESI.call DPL & ndParams RETN . Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. 3 . 40 . .DPL 3. Used : ALL registers and flags . MOV ESI. . Second.Divide By Zero MOV EAX.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. 3 . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. ESI. Out : Nothing . CX .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. 1 .DPL 3. EAX. 08F00h .This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI.DPL 3.0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS . 08F00h . SI . ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector.Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. 08F00h . handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. 4 . .Overflow 08F00h .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. . IN : Nothing . 255 . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . InitIDT .DPL 3. 8 . SI . Trap gate MOV EBX.

MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 20h .DPL 3. OSCodeSel .Seg Not Present MOV EAX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . 08E00h .DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. ESI. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int Page Fault MOV EAX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX.DPL 3. 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h . 08F00h . 0Dh . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. 8 . MOV ESI.DPL 3.DPL 3. MOV ESI. 08F00h . 0Eh . OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 6 .Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX.DPL 3. 08F00h . OSCodeSel .Int TIMER MOV EAX.GP fault MOV EAX. MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . IRQ0 IRQ1 22h .DPL 3. MOV ESI.DPL 3.Invalid TSS MOV EAX.Double Exception MOV EAX. OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Ch . OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 21h . 0Ah .DPL 3.Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . 0Bh . OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08F00h . OSCodeSel .0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . 08F00h . OSCodeSel . EBX. EAX.

..Int ... 29h .. 25h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX... MOV ESI. 24h . 28h .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX...DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ .DPL 3. 2Bh ... MOV EAX. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX..Int COM2 MOV EAX.0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS ..IntLPT1 MOV EAX.DPL 3.. OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h . OSCodeSel . 23h .DPL 3. ESI. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.. 2Ah ... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel .. 08E00h . OSCodeSel ... OSCodeSel ..FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.... OSCodeSel . 08E00h ...Int LPT2 MOV EAX.. MOV EAX.DPL 3. 27h .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI.Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX.... 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.... MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h .Int . MOV EAX..DPL 3. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int .Int COM1 MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. MOV EAX..Int . IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1.. 26h . 08E00h .DPL 3.. MOV ESI. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE . MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . ... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3.. MOV ESI.Int . OSCodeSel . EBX.

0EC01h . OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! . OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.....SendMsg -. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. before initcallgates.1Dword param. This can't . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 .. InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates. MOV ESI.Int .DPL 3. 2Eh . DPL 3 MOV ECX.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int . 08E00h .2 DWord Params. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1. MOV ESI. MOV EAX. 08E00h . DPL 3 MOV ECX...DPL 3.ISendMsg -. 2Fh ...3 DWord Params..DPL 3. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel MOV ESI... IN : Nothing ..CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX... 50h MOV DX.0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. but MUST be called before the first far call to any . DPL 0 MOV ECX.. 48h MOV DX. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! . 40h MOV DX..3 DWord params.. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. Out : Nothing .... 58h MOV DX. 08E00h .. 08C03h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV EAX. MOV EAX. 0EC03h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX.WaitMsg -.. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. Used : ALL registers and flags ..Int .========================================================================== . .. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.Set Priority . OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. DPL 3 MOV ECX. 0EC02h . 2Dh .

RETN MMURTL V1..0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .The rest of the call gate set ups go here.

and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS .jobs (Monitor & Debugger) . pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs .INCLUDE MOSEDF. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.asm . the JCB. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD . Ptr to free Job Control Blocks .1. the monitor. It was every bit as difficult as I imagined.1 Listing 22.DATA . Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. These calls. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out. exchanges. TSSs. Job Management Subroutines . request blocks. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. Pieces of related code in the kernel. INPUT : EAX -. this is the where you'll end up. and finally starting the new task.CODE . For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . Before I wrote this code.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . and finally the operating system memory. When things don't work right.INCLUDE JOB. link blocks. Job Management Helpers The file JobCode.INCLUDE TSS. EBX -.INC . The process of allocating all the resources. can be a complicated scenario. See listing 22.======= End data. In the functions ExitJob() and Chain().Begin Code ================== .Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1. it is usually quite a mess. many of them public functions. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. are used by almost every module in the operating system. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. JCBs are in allocated memory . PUBLIC InitNewJCB: .Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in . From Main. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources.Chapter 22.INC . The program loader is in this chapter.================================================================ .

.EBX.Make last one NIL RETN . EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information. EBX . InitFreeJCB .Video number is in JCB . . . The JCBs are also sequentially numbered.size is filled in .pbJobName ECX -. EDX .EBX MOV EDI.Size of JCBs .Move it in . OUTPUT : NONE . . . . . . EDI.EAX .EDI points to JCB .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX. . INPUT : EAX . in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger).ECX. ESI -. EAX ADD EDI.1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. MMURTL V1. USED: EAX. 3 . This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run.Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. 7 MOV EAX. . PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB.EAX .EAX .EDX.first byte of name .EDX . 0 .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs.Count of JCBs .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB]. . . . EDX. EBX. others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated. .Put Ptr to PD into JCB .Now to JobName . The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ECX . . ECX.Address of JCBs to be initialized . . ESI. EAX . .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum].0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs. EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols]. 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). We can't use its position .. ECX is count of JCBs. . .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX.ESI EFLAGS . CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. .============================================================================= .cbJobName EDX -. EDX is size of each JCB. MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. EAX points to the first JCB.Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. pJCBs . . while . . [EAX+JobNum] RETN . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI].

This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. the free pool. INPUT : EAX . If none exists.Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). .EBX. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB .. The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . . EAX ECX. .pFreeJCB . . 4096 EDI. . . . Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 .[EAX+NextJCB] . . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return.============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . . OUTPUT : NONE . MOV EBX. . Get 'em! . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL.0 .================================================================ .DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. . then EAX will contain NIL (0).0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBX .FLAGS . OUTPUT : EAX . CMP EAX.IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX. NewJCBDone: RETN . INPUT : NONE . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . . pJCBs MOV ECX. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . 0 . pJCBs STOSD .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . MOV EAX. nJCBs MOV EDX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. JE NewJCBDone . . JE DispJCBDone . REGISTERS : EBX. REGISTERS : EAX. 0 .Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1.FLAGS . This routine will also . . . .Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX.

Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. EFlags . Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. INPUT: Nothing . GetpJCB . . in EAX. The Job number . . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. All TSSs are . . EFlags . USED: EAX. OUTPUT: EAX -.============================================================ .Move it into newly freed JCB .Current Job Number .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number .EBX MOV pFreeJCB. INPUT: Nothing . EFlags . OUTPUT: EAX -.Linear Address of current JCB . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. .EBX has OS ptr to free list . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX.============================================================ . INPUT: EAX -. All TSSs are . This is based on which Task is executing. pRunTSS . . . 2 MMURTL V1.Current JCB RETN . A Job may have more than one Task. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . Many OS functions deal with the Job number.Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . All TSSs are assigned to a Job.============================================================ . assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. [EAX+JobNum] . . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. . assigned to a Job. This is based on which Task is executing. GetCrntJobNum . GetpCrntJCB . USED: EAX.MOV EBX.EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . . . . . is a field in the JCB structure.pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB].Job Number of desired pJCB . . USED: EAX.Pointer to JCB RETN . OUTPUT: EAX -. .

. Many OS functions deal with the Job number. pJCBs POP EDX RETN . .Within range of JCBs . AllocJCB (NEAR) . [EAX+JobNum] . . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. . GetJobNum .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX.============================================================ . .Times size of JCB . Get a new JCB . . . . ppJCBRet):ercType . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB. EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX.JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. . .Current JCB RETN . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. . . Procedureal Interface : .Add in two static JCBs . . . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). 3 MOV EDX.0 . . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. call to support the public job management calls in high level . out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. We got one! . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. .Now points to desired JCB . EFlags . . This is a NEAR . .============================================================ . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Sorry. languages.Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . USED: EAX. AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. . is a field in the JCB structure. OUTPUT: EAX -. The Job number .Current Job Number . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX.

This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . languages in the OS code. . .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . . you specifiy.Job Num . . MMURTL V1. . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. . . . pJCB . . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . Procedureal Interface : . GetpJCB . . .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . . .pJCBRet . This is a NEAR . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. call to support the public job management calls in high level . EAX MOV ESP.ESP MOV EAX. EAX MOV ESP. .============================================================ . . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . . EAX XOR EAX. . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. . . . Procedureal Interface : . Get a new JCB . . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX.============================================================ . . . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . . .MOV ESP. . .No error . . pJCBRet):ercType . GetpJCB(dJobNum.============================================================ . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). . EAX MOV ESI.

dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX.Leave jobnum in EAX .pJobNumRet . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 . RETF 8 . . This is . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. or 0 will be returned with the data. . . RETF 8 . EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . . POP EBP . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. . . POP EBP . . RETF 8 . 0 .pJCBRet MOV [ESI].0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . . nJCBs + 2. MOV ESP. [EBP+12] . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP.. .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX.EBP .============================================================ . POP EBP .EBP .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. ErcInvalidJCB . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid .No Error . ErcBadJobNum . EAX MOV ESP. GetJobNum .Job Num OR EAX. . MMURTL V1. .EBP . EAX XOR EAX. . Procedureal Interface : .0 is invalid CMP EAX. . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . the job that the task that called this belongs to. pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . . This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job. . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned.ESP . MOV EAX. [EBP+16] .

It's really not a filesystem function either. variable _BootDrive defined in Main. MOV EAX. This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the .c. EAX .============================================================ . Jobc.asm. And will .. . MOV EBP. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) .2.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. AL .get rid of high bits MOV ESI.No Error POP EBP . loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . the number representing the system disk is returned.================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. . RETF 4 . . . Procedureal Interface : . _BootDrive AND EAX. and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module.c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. . . disk that the system booted from. pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where . Jobc. This is from the public .ESP . Listing 22. contains all of the major high-level functions for job management.0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. 7Fh . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . [EBP+12] . It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. XOR EAX. PUSH EBP . GetSystemDisk . . ending jobs. . pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk . . This code is here for lack of a better place. . Functions for starting new jobs.

char *ppJCBRet).h" #include "runfile.h" "MFiles.h" "MData. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB). /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it. . */ static long TmpStack[128]. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. long cb).0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. long Exch). MMURTL V1. /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. char *pJCBRet).h" "MVid. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. char *pNewJCB).h" "MTimer.. GetExchOwner(long Exch. SendAbort(long JobNum.h" "MJob.Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel.h" "MKbd.ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet.h" "MMemory.). SetExchOwner(long Exch.

char *pMem. BogusMsg[2]. static char aFileE[80]. static long offCode = 0. extern unsigned long KillExch. static long sCode. unsigned long *pPT. 0. for (i=768. *pData. When all PTs have been cleaned. we eliminate the user PDEs. *pStack. ExchE.static long JobNum. filetype. i++) { MMURTL V1. 0. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. j. ercE. static unsigned long oCode. erc. k. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. oData. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. 0. i<1024. offData = 0. 0. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. static long cbFileE. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. iE.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. static struct tagtype tag. *pPDE. 0. sStack. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. sData. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. 0. job_fhE.

for (j=0. reads and validates the run file.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. MMURTL V1. offData = 0. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. 1. nDDFIX = 0. oDDFIX = 0. long cbFileName. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. nCCFIX = 0. nCDFIX = 0. 5. dret. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. junk. &dret). If all is well. k). &filetype. oCDFIX = 0. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). oDCFIX = 0. long *pfhRet) { long erc. nDCFIX = 0. switch (tag.id = 0. &fh).0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . &tag. erc = ReadBytes (fh. j<1024. char fDone. *pfhRet = 0. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. &dret). 1. offCode = 0. while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. cbFileName.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. i. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. 0. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. fh. oCCFIX = 0.

if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCode+tag. /* skip it break. nDDFIX = tag. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &oDDFIX).len/4. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &oCDFIX).len/4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE.len).0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oDCFIX+tag.len/4. nDCFIX = tag. /* skip it break. nCCFIX = tag. if (tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break.len). &oCode).break. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &oData). nCDFIX = tag. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &i).len). &dret). i+tag. 4. &sCode. 4.len/4.len). oCCFIX+tag. &sStack. &dret). /* skip it break. &offCode. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. break. break. MMURTL V1.len). &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &offData. oDDFIX+tag. &oDCFIX). &pStart. 4. &oCCFIX). case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. 4. oCDFIX+tag. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oData+tag.len). &sData. &dret). break. 4. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &dret).len). break. &dret). /* skip it break.

pRunRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. return (erc). pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. MMURTL V1. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. return(0). else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. long dcbPath) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB). i). if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". &pTmpJCB). long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. i. &pTmpJCB). dcbRunFile).break. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. GetpJCB(JobNum. } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). else { CopyData(pRunFile.0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). erc). &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. } return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pdcbRunRet = i. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet.

else { CopyData(pPath. } return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbUser) { long JobNum. *pdcbCmdRet = i. pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. MMURTL V1. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(erc). long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. erc. pPathRet. pCmdRet. i). GetJobNum(&JobNum). } return(0).0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . else { CopyData(pCmd. i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. return(0). &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. dcbPath). *pdcbPathRet = i. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. i). &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. char *pPathRet. &pTmpJCB). pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd.else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. GetpJCB(JobNum. dcbCmd). long *pdcbPathRet) { long i.

*pdcbUserRet = i. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. &pTmpJCB). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. &pTmpJCB). else { CopyData(pName. i). GetJobNum(&JobNum). else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. } return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). pFileRet. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. } return(0). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. pUserRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. i). *pdcbFileRet = i. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. GetpJCB(JobNum. dcbUser). return(0). else { CopyData(pUser. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. dcbName). GetJobNum(&JobNum). pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. long dcbName) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). i.0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS .GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. return(0).

GetJobNum(&JobNum). erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. i. *pVid. dcbName). U32 PhyAdd. &pTmpJCB). i. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. long *pFix. &pTmpJCB). *pPT. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. long cbFileName. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. dcbName). dret. i). &fh). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. cbFileName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. return(0).0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). fh. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. long dcbName) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0). else { CopyData(pName.{ long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. GetpJCB(JobNum. *pOSPD. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. return(0). pFileRet. *pdcbFileRet = i. nPages. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. unsigned long *pPD.

GetpJCB(1. &pData). &PhyAdd). FillData(pVid. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. &pCode). 0). xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". pPT = pPD + 4096. /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). pVid = 0. xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". pPD = 0. pPT. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". &pStack). pOSPD[768] = pPT. 4096. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. 1). 0). /* Job's PD. nPages = sCode/4096. pPD). if (sCode%4096) nPages++. if (sData%4096) nPages++. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. MMURTL V1. 4096./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. &pPD). PhyAdd). /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". &pNewJCB). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. pNewJCB = 0. pPT). pVid = pPD + 8192. pPT = 0. sStack = nPages * 4096. nPages = sData/4096.0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. &pTmpJCB).

4. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). &i. pCode. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. &i. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offData + pData. pFix = pData + i. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. sData. &dret). oCode)./* Right now. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offCode + pCode. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. sCode. &dret). &dret). */ CopyData(pOSPD. the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. pFix = pCode + i. 4. &i. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oDDFIX).offData + pData. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. pPD. oData).0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . oCDFIX). so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.offCode + pCode. } MMURTL V1. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. pFix = pCode + i. pFix = pData + i. 4096). &dret). &dret). oDCFIX). oCCFIX). &i. pData. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.

&pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. 1024. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. pStack+sStack-4. pNewJCB).0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . pStart+pCode-offCode). 0). pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. pNewJCB->nCols = 80. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). 0). /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. i. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. 25. 3). pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. 3). /* Size */ CopyData("VID". pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. 1024.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. 0x18.

sStack = nPages * 4096. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. sData. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCode). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. oCDFIX). The PD. if (sData%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. long fh) { long erc. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. nPages. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. erc = AllocPage(nPages. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). dret. nPages = sCode/4096. &pStack). nPages = sData/4096. oData). } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. pCode.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . sCode. &pCode). /* All Job memory is now allocated. &dret). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. long *pFix. pData. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. return(erc). pNewJCB = pJCB. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. i. &pData). Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. &dret). if (sCode%4096) nPages++.

4. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.offCode + pCode. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oCCFIX). pFix = pData + i.offData + pData. &dret). pFix = pCode + i. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. MMURTL V1.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . return(erc). &dret). } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. 4.PT and video. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh).offCode + pCode. /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pFix = pData + i. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE).offData + pData. &dret). and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i. 4. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. &i. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pFix = pCode + i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. oDDFIX).erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. &i. &i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . This task. oDCFIX). } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. its exchange.

This is used to kill run-away jobs. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. BogusMsg). ercE = 0. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. CleanUserPD(pPDE). while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. ExchE. WaitMsg(ExchE. GetTSSExch(&ExchE). /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. BogusMsg). ErcOpCancel). It results in a violent death for the job specified. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &pTmpJCB). SetPriority(31). A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. ISendMsg(KillExch.0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. &pTmpJCB). */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). if (erc) return(erc). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel.GetpJCB(JobNumE. Debugger or the current job.

ESP. Priority. 3. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. ExchE). We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). &pExchJCBE). The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. iE++. We send "Abort" messages to all services. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. iE = 0. GetpJCB(JobNumE.ercE = 0. fDebug. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. return(erc). pTmpJCB). ExchE. &pCrntJCB). /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. &_KillTask). Exch. CodeSeg. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). 0. 0x08.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . } ercE = 0. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &TmpStack[127]. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service.

The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). &cbFileE). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. &pExchJCBE)./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . iE++. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). */ SendAbort(JobNumE. Send Abort messages to all services. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. ercE = 0. /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. EAX. If no exit run file. ESP. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. iE = 0. ercE = 0. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. EBP. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. CleanUserPD(pPDE). ExchE). /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. ercE = 0.

MOV EBX. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. */ #asm MOV EAX. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. SUB EAX. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . MOV ESP. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. cbFileE. &job_fhE). /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. SetPriority(31).0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercE). Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. MOV EBP. ADD EAX. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. job_fhE). /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. WaitMsg(ExchE. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. BogusMsg). ExchE.

iE++. ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. &pCrntJCB). long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. In other words. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. cbFileName). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue.error loading the Job. iE = 0. } CloseFile(job_fhE). if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. */ MMURTL V1. cbFileE = cbFileName. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). &job_fhE). &pExchJCBE). aFileE. long cbFileName. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. cbFileName. ercE = 0. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. Send Abort messages to all services. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE).0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetpJCB(JobNumE.

cbFileE. /* Try to load the Chain file. EAX. if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). CleanUserPD(pPDE). /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD.SendAbort(JobNumE. cbFileE. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. ExchE). Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . ESP. &job_fhE). job_fhE). /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. job_fhE). OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. &job_fhE). we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. ercE = 0. */ MMURTL V1. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). EBP. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). If no exit run file. &cbFileE). if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. The original user's job is destroyed. ercE = 0. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB.

0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. ExchE.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. ercE). BogusMsg). MOV ESP. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . MOV EBP. SUB EAX.#asm MOV EAX. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). MOV EBX. ADD EAX. WaitMsg(ExchE.

===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted.ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. Get EIP of offender for debugger . Listing 23.1. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. They are made to match those of the interrupted task. I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. The debugger is a separate task. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger . All of the debugger's .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . . . It has grown substantially. If we get here. This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). on which exception is was. debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). Breakpoints. but is still very immature. so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS.EnterDebug . . task (without going through the kernel). . . . I have left them as individual procedures. Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . See listing 23. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task.1. Get EIP of offender for debugger . then it jumped here to enter the debugger. Get CS .Enter debugger . and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. First we copy the Page Dir . While writing the operating system.Enter debugger .0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . entry from the current job into the debuggers job. Get Flags . then copy the CR3 . . small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed.Chapter 23. This makes the . Next. which are all debug exceptions.

BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . EBX EAX. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. pRunTSS EBX.current CR3 -> EBX . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].ALIGN DWORD .INC . with the exception of the disassembler. You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.pCrntJCB -> EAX .2 presents the debugger code in its entirety.INCLUDE . pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave.INCLUDE .Put the stack back the way it was . EnterDebug: PUSH EAX .DATA . EAX EAX." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code.INC JOB. caller's registers them before the into the debugger .2. Debugger Data and Code .Save the current pRunTSS .INCLUDE .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 23. then jump to the debugger's selector.External near Variables MMURTL V1.Install Debugger's as current .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS . OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3].make his registers right! .pDebuggerJCB -> EDX . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.pDebuggerTSS -> EDX .When the debugger exits. .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX.INCLUDE MOSEDF.pRunTSS -> EAX .we MUST save PUSH EBX . .INC TSS. [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX.Switch tasks to debugger . pRunTSS.CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX .Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23. EAX This switches tasks. EBX EAX. . [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. and restore PUSH EDX .INC RQB.. we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .Set up debugger selector . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.

' '.'Tasks'.' '.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .0B3h.Active bytes in buf2 .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1. ESC to quit.flag 1 = Msg.0B3h.General purpose DDs (used all over) .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .' ' ' .0B3h.'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.'SetBP'..TO save the TSS we interrupted .'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'. 0Ah DB 0 .For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.0B3h.'ClrBP'.Address of instructions we are displaying .0B3h.0B3h.Boolean.To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .Has Dbg Video been initialized? .ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .are we dumping DWORDS? .'DumpD'.CR LF for Dump etc.'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS . DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .For ReadDbgKbd . 0 = Exch .0B3h. . dbgExchMsg .0B3h.Address we are setting as next .Address we are dumping .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses . ..General use buffers DB '0000000000' . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'. .0B3h. .

'ESI: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'CR3: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .'EFL: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .==================== End Data.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .'EAX: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.'EBX: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.'ESP: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.'EIP: 0B3h. OFFSET DbgVidSave . Begin Code ========================== .'TSS: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.' ES: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .' FS: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.

.NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! . .REF .See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX.way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 .NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .When a fault or debug exception occurs.Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.procedure was entered. 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.the Instruction Pointer. (we chanage the tasks) .0 .EBX .PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit. is always entered as a procedure. 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].BX MOV EBX. .EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX. so we shouldn't have to reset it. DbgpTSSSave .Display fault message and . the values of . the handler is a procedure (NOT a task).the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS.dbgOldCS .dbgOldEIP .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. MOV EBX.. This only applies if . But we do. and flags are not the . MOV EBX.Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. when the handler is entered.[EAX+TSS_EFlags] .Dbgr is Job 2 .0 . CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. .EBX . Code Seg.We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt . .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger. and number at 0 .EBX . The debugger .NO .dbgOldEflgs .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .0FFh . .

=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid . 0FFh LEA EAX. . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .Single Step (F1) .ESCAPE (Exit) .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX.Fall through to keyboard loop .Set BP (Current Address .reset fault indicator . EAX .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Set TF in flags for single step . 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.=========================================================== .CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX. 0FFh . EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY. 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.DbgpTSSSave .Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .Color White on black .0 . 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1.dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.Reset X & Y to 0.Get USER pUserTSS .1 .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags]. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. MOV EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Display menu PUSH dbgX .Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV dbgX. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .

. EAX dbg00 EAX. .MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL. . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Clear BP saved address .Task array display (F6) . dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd. EBX EAX.DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. . 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX. .BP0 Set global .0 . EAX DR6. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Return to CS:EIP (F4) .Display Exchanges (F5) . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX. 11h dbg04 EAX. 00 MMURTL V1.F3) .Clear BP (Current Address .See if we need to scroll up . EAX EAX.Full display . EAX DR7. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. EAX dbg00 . 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. EBX DR0.This puts the instruction on the line . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 .Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX.Address displayed .See if we need to scroll up .This puts the instruction on the line . . 00000002h DR7. 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. EAX dbgBPAdd.Set Disassembly Address (F8) .Save it so we know where BP is .Not used yet .Sets NextEIP .Back to where we were . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.

This compares the current breakpoint the address . dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL. 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX. 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL.0 . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .EAX must be preserved MOV EBX. If they are the same.Back to begining .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.MOV dbgfDumpD.See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX. .Return saved pRunTSS .we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .============================================================== dbgShowBP: .Query XY .we are about to display.GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner . .Info Address dump (F12) .Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL.Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) . .Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) . EAX BX. .This puts the instruction on the line . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL. [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. BX .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .

Number of this TSS .This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter . dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.============================================================== .[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.07 MOV ESI.05 MOV ESI.MOV ECX.06 MOV ESI.01 MOV ESI.information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.EAX MOV AX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.03 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .BP Address .Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .EBX Display .OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.04 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX Display .00 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.Save EAX across call .3 params to TTYOut .EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .EBP Display MMURTL V1.TSS Display .0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.ESI Display .EDI Display .[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.02 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.EDX Display .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX. ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ECX Display .[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.

OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.CR3 Display .12 MOV ESI.10 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.20 MOV ESI.FS Display .dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.EAX MOV AX.08 MOV ESI.CR2 Display .EAX MOV AX.MOV ECX.09 MOV ESI.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.15 MOV ESI.DS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.13 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.ES Display .[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.16 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.19 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.GS Display .[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EIP Display .CR0 Display .18 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.17 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ESP Display .EFlags Display .[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CS Display .[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.0 .11 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.SS Display .14 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.

Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1. We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.========================================================================== . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .============================================== . This is for Debugger Register display . .CALL DispRegs RETN .

PUSH EAX .Max size LEA EAX.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . dbgChar CMP AL.Goto Query Line .Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1. cbBufLen2 .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX. dbgChar .=========================== . DbgBuf2 . EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .did they exit with CR? . PUSH EAX .Convert String to DD .=========================== .. .ptr to string .Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.ptr to destination DD .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .Ignore error if any MOV AL. PUSH EAX . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Go home. 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone .Crnt size PUSH 8 . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX.0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .. dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP. . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.length of string .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN . 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX.

0 . .ptr to string .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 ..Ignore error if any MOV AL.Goto Query Line . dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . LEA EAX..PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. dbgSpace MMURTL V1.Convert String to DD . dbgChar CMP AL. PUSH EAX .line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. 4 . 0 JNE DumpDone . 24 .Go home.byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd .length of string . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. PUSH EAX .Max size LEA EAX.Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. PUSH EAX .ptr to destination DD . 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX.did they exit with CR? . dbgChar . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . cbBufLen2 . DbgBuf2 .convert address to text LEA EAX. 6 LEA EAX.

dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX.go to display bytes LEA EAX. dbgfDumpD .point to second 2 bytes .get dump address MOV EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL. [EBX] .make it a DD Text LEA EAX.Display First byte . 0 JE DumpB . dbgBuf ADD EAX.ignore error .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX . dbgBuf . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. display 1 space . dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 2st byte . dbgDumpAdd . dbgBuf ADD EAX.NO . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.0 . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.ignore error . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.Display 1 spaces . 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.

dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.ignore error . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. LEA EAX.NO . dbgCRLF ."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.ignore error LEA EAX.go back for next 4 bytes .Query XY PUSH dbgX . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgCont .size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.ignore error .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.a space .display 4th byte . 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS . DEC dbgGPdd1 .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut . dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .NO .Yes .done with 4 quads?? .

Do CR/LF 0 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .line we are one .First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . PUSH 54 .Convert Exch number for display . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX. Exch number .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 0 RETN . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1. 1Bh .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX. dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 . sEXCH EDX EDX. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.prgExch . .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .Exch# we are on .Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .MOV EAX. 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . dbgGPdd2 EDX.Col PUSH 0 . . 0FFh . 1 .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX.=========================== .

Line OFFSET dbgBuf .MsgFlag -> EBX . [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . but would be confusing later. [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX.Col dbgGPdd1 . . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX.Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .Is is 1 (a message)? .pExch -> EAX . EAX MOV EBX. MOV EAX.Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) . . .Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Flag to indicate we are doing messages .. Go check for tasks .0 . .Save dMsg2 . .EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Save for loop . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.Get dMsg1 . [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .ADD EAX.pMsg -> EBX 20 . [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.Convert dMsg1 . EAX MOV EAX. EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. . Go to next Exch .For next msg in chain (if it exists) .Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5.Is is NIL (no msg or task)? . [EAX+EHead] .Could have left it on stack..Yes.Convert Job Number 10 .No.Get dMsg2 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX.pMsg -> EBX .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . EAX OR EBX. 0 . .See if there is a first message MOV EAX. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .

EAX AX. All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.0 . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 . EAX EAX. MOV EAX. [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Next line please . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5.Col . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Clear pNextTask .Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Convert Task Number 1 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 0FFh CMP EAX.Lop off key status bytes .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .Col 24 .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5.Line OFFSET dbgCont .Line .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS .No . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. nDynEXCH . INC dbgGPdd1 . 31 . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone . .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.pExch -> EAX .Save ptr to next task if it exists .pTSS -> EBX . .Is is 0 (no TSS)? .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. [EBX+TSSNum] . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. 23 .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Get Number of Task at exch . MOV EAX.

1 .If so. OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) . OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX.=========================== . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .Col PUSH 0 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. 2 dbgDT03 EBX.We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX.Messages INC dbgGPdd2 .for the next one dbgDT01: . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX. . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.line we are one . 1 .Another pointer in the link? . We are on line 1 again . 0 RETN .Line for labels .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid .No . nDynEXCH .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX. . PUSH 54 .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg .NonZero if we are doing tasks . Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. we increment TSS number and go back .Col . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Set up to loop for next msg/task . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX.Length of message . Task number .If not. EAX. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. MMURTL V1.Displays Tasks that are active along with .Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . dbgGPdd2 EAX. 1 dbgDT02 EBX. Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Tasks .line. .

back for next one dbgDT05: . JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. EAX MOV EBX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd3 . [EBX+Priority] .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. ECX MOV EAX. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . 8 . [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3. EBX . DDtoHex 10 .EAX has pJCB OR EAX. EAX .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf . 512 ECX EBX.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4. EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 . dbgGPdd4 .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6.Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf .Save pJCB for display . .Col dbgGPdd1 .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV CL.Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX.Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX . ECX . dbgGPdd2 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 8 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . nTSS . DDtoHex 20 . go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX. pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Not used.of TSSs .

====================================================================== . 1Bh . continue prompt dbgDT01 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgGPdd6 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 8 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. MOV EAX.Col 24 .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . DDtoHex 30 . 0FFh .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.No.PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . 31 . .go for next Task number . . Call with: .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . 23 .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX. nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. go back for next 0 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. This is for Debugger Address Info display . EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 .Yes. 0 RETN . EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .Col dbgGPdd1 .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save number to display MMURTL V1.Line OFFSET dbgCont . DDtoHex 40 .Col dbgGPdd1 .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Save it for the top MOV EAX. We save all registers cause the vid calls don't .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 8 .

Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM5 . pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM6 .OFFSET DbgM4 .OFFSET DbgM3 .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .JCBs MOV EAX. pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.ptr to line . OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Do it . rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1.Vid Attribute . prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.GDT LEA EAX.LBs LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM7 .Length of line .RQBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM9 .OFFSET DbgM0 .PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .MonTSS MOV EAX.RdyQ LEA EAX.Exchs MOV EAX.SVCs LEA EAX.IDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM2 .OFFSET DbgPA . GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM8 . IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM1 .DbgInfo .PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.pTSS3 MOV EAX.=============================================== .

Line 0-24) 0 66 . .======================================================= .No.between colums 0 and 66. we scroll up the text area by one line. 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .and the register display. 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 .OFFSET DbgMB .MOV ESI. rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 . go back for next key 0 .======================================================= .ignore error RETN .Query XY (See what line and Col) . and line 0 to 24.Yes.Got to Column 0.Columns 0-65 24 . The other . query line.Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX. .Col 0.areas are resrved for the menu.0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1. .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.If so. .Timer Blocks LEA EAX. Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. Scroll test area (Col 0-64.This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23.Lines 0-23 1 .All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .Clear the query line (Line 23. Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .

.

so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. Comments. There are no include files. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. S8 *pDCBs. you're on your own. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. This seems to be the best. Time was the deciding factor. unsigned long int). in addition to those in the code itself. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. They were designed that way. but I try not to. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code.. The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. U32 nDevices. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. U32 dfReplace).Chapter 24.g. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. See listing 24. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. All of the hardware commands are well documented. many device drivers are written in C. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). In fact.1. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file.1. but I think you're OK. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. though I would rather have done them in assembler. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. If you have MFM drives. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers. Listing 24.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). this device driver should work with MFM drives. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum.

U32 dLBA. U32 count). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 msg1. U16 wPort). U32 *pMsgRet). static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. void OutWord(U16 Word. U16 wPort).2. /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. U32 dBytes). U32 dBytes). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. I needed a method to get data to the screen. U32 msg2). While writing the operating system. static U32 check_busy(void).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). MMURTL V1. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. U32 msg2). U32 HdSect. static void hd_reset(void). U32 dnBlocks. void OutByte(U8 Byte.. static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. OutWords(U32 dPort.2. static U32 hd_wait (void). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U8 *pDataIn). static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U8 *pDataOut). void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. It's called xprintf(). U32 dOpNum. U8 *pDestination. U32 dnBlocks. InWords(U32 dPort. static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). U8 *pDataIn. U32 msg1. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch.. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). See listing 24. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 Sleep(U32 count). You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. U16 InWord(U16 wPort).0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS .). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U8 *pDataOut. Listing 24. . U32 dnBlocks. U32 nBlks). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U8 *pDataRet). U32 *pMsgRet). U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). U32 dBytes). U32 dnBlocks). static U32 send_command(U8 parm). S8 *pIRQ).

bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. U32 *pdSatusRet). static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. S8 *pInitData. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum..0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . hddev_stat(U32 dDevice.U8 static U32 *pData). U32 dStatusMax. S8 * pStatRet.. U32 sdInitData).

write data (1F0h . then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag.status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives..Set.0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .high cyl (1F5h) 6 .error register (1F1h) 2 .command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 . Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.sector number (1F3h) 4 .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .sector number (1F3h) 4 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 . can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver.sector count (1F2h) 3 . head and Sector number.low cyl (1F4h) 5 .16 bit) 1 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.read data (1F0h .16 bit) 1 . This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.sector count (1F2h) 3 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . wait 50us.

hd0_cyls. */ /* Current number of heads. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Current Physical Drive. statbyte.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. hd_control. hd1_heads. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS .3. Listing 24. /* Calculated from LBA . fDataReq. See listing 24. hd0_heads. 0 or 1 */ hd_head.3. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. hd1_type. /* Calculated from LBA . I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. If I did one member. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. hd1_secpertrk. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate.which head */ hd_nsectors. cylinders.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. hd0_secpertrk. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1.

ResetStatByte. U32 OS1. /* Number of bytes per sect. U8 fDevReent. LastStatByte0. LastRecalErc1. U32 OS4. S8 *pDevInit. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. S8 *pDevSt.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. }. U32 BlocksMax. }. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. S8 *pDevOp. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. U32 OS6. 32 bytes out to here. U32 blocks_done. U32 OS5. S8 sbName.static U16 hd1_cyls. U32 nBlocks. fIntOnReset. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. U32 OS2. U32 OS3. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. filler1. LastErcByte1. LastErcByte0. U8 type_now. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. S16 nBPB. MMURTL V1. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. U8 fNewMedia. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. LastSeekErc0. S8 type. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. U8 fSingleUser.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . LastSeekErc1. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. U32 last_erc. LastStatByte1. S16 wJob.

sbName hdcb[0]. See listing 24.Name[2] hdcb[0]./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch. In a loadable driver. &hddev_stat. Listing 24. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17.type hdcb[1]. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19). '0'.type hdcb[0]. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. 524288. 3.pDevInit hdcb[0]. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0].sbName hdcb[1]. /* Random */ 512.nBlocks hdcb[1]. 1.nBlocks hdcb[0].Name[2] hdcb[1]. 1.Name[0] hdcb[0]. /* largest disk handled . this would be the main() section of the C source file. static U32 hd_msg. &hddev_stat. /* Random */ 512.nBPB hdcb[0].Name[0] hdcb[1]. 3. '1'. 'H'. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* largest device handled . /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read. 524288. 'D'. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A). MMURTL V1.pDevOp hdcb[0].pDevInit hdcb[1]. 'D'. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.Name[1] hdcb[0].4. hd1_secpertrk = 17. static long HDDInt.nBPB hdcb[1]. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024. &hddev_init. &hddev_init.pDevOp hdcb[1]. static U32 hd_msg2.4.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.pDevSt hdcb[1].pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. hd1_cyls = 1024. hd1_heads = 16.Name[1] hdcb[1].

and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. */ /* Reset the HDC . hd0_type = 0.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). We have to do it once. They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. We have to make this sucker work the hard way.erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). SetIRQVector(14. The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. hd1_type = 0. erc = hd_recal(0). drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. } } /* if we got here. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. */ erc = hd_recal(0).0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ hd_reset().last_erc = erc.last_erc = erc. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. then try both physical drives. but they don't. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. UnMaskIRQ(14). */ hd_reset(). */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. They vary from BIOS to BIOS. It seems like a lot of work. but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. MMURTL V1. &hdisk_isr). /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. If the second drive is not there.

OutByte(4. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). 2. UnMaskIRQ(14).fIntOnReset = 0. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. It just waits for an interrupt. 0xfffffff0. &hdcb. 1)). /* 200ms . } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. HD_REG_PORT). else hdstatus.fIntOnReset = 1. EndOfIRQ(14). This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. The caller should call check_busy and check the error. HD_REG_PORT). /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . MicroDelay(4). } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple.ResetStatByte = statbyte. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. ISendMsg(hd_exch. Sleep(20).seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch.erc = hd_recal(0). This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup.last_erc = erc. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. HDDInt = 1. and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. hdcb[0]. if (i) hdstatus. &hd_msg). gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. 0xfffffff0). } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12.

erc = hd_wait(). See listing 24. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. Listing 24. /* set max heads. hd_Cmd[4] = 0.5. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. hd_Cmd[3] = 0. } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. check_busy(void) count = 0. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady).0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. return(erc). /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. etc. even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. nSectors. Sleep(5).). /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange.3 seconds.5.

/* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. else hdstatus. /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). Time-out and return if no interrupt. hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). KillAlarm(hd_exch). return(ok). } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt).LastRecalErc1 = erc. KillAlarm(hd_exch).0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (drive) hdstatus. ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0.Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. &hd_msg). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL).LastRecalErc0 = erc. /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). return(erc). 300). Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1.

HD_PORT+5). setupseek(U32 dLBA. /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. HD_PORT+1). seek). msg[2]. HD_REG_PORT). format. } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. OutByte(hd_control. For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. write. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). verify. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. HD_PORT+3). HD_PORT+2). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6].0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). HD_PORT+4). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. HD_PORT+7). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. return(erc). *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. } erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+6). if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0.alarm or int messages before we send a command. MMURTL V1. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). &msg) == 0). U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. U16 cyl. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. hd_nsectors = nBlks. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. if (!erc) erc = check_busy().

} /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1.LastSeekErc0 = erc. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk.. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff./* we now know what cylinder. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). The error checking is based on the command that we sent. 1). /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. return(erc). /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). hdstatus. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. /* cyl & 0xff.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. /* hd_sector. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk.. } = = = = = nBlks. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait().

/* We shouldn't see the controller busy. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). else return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. he interrupted us with status. } return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. After all. else hdstatus. */ erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). if (hd_drive) hdstatus. break.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . else return(erc).LastErcByte1 = errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC.LastStatByte0 = statbyte.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. default: break. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault. if (hd_drive) hdstatus.LastErcByte0 = errbyte. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok.U8 statbyte. } else { erc = check_busy(). errbyte. MMURTL V1. else hdstatus. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break.

hd_sector. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. nSoFar. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. nSoFar++. hd_sector. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. pDataOut. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive].nBPB. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). erc = setupseek(dLBA. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. nBPS). This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. U32 dnBlocks. pDataRet.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . nleft. } } return(erc). U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc.nBPB. dnBlocks). erc = check_busy(). nBPS. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. --nleft. U32 dnBlocks. nBPS. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT.else erc = ErcBadHDC. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. dnBlocks). pDataRet+=nBPS. erc = setupseek(dLBA. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. pDataOut+=nBPS. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. nBPS).

pDataOut. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. HD %d. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. dnBlocks). This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. erc = setupseek(dLBA. Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. pDataOut+=nBPS. SEC %d\r\n".0 -404- . hd_sector). /* hd_sector. nBPS). U16 cyl. hd_head. return(erc). Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. head and Sector number. U32 HdSect. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. nSoFar++. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. /* cyl & 0xff. hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d.erc = hd_wait(). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. return(erc). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. cyl. erc = hd_wait(). cyl = Cylinder.

*******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. Listing 24. See listing 24. U32 dnBlocks.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). else hd_drive = 1.” discussed device driver interfaces. “Programming Interfaces. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. &hd_msg). erc = hd_wait(). If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. U32 dLBA. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. return(erc).blocks_done = 0. erc = 0. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus.6. pDataRet. } Chapter 8. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. 512). } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. U32 dOpNum.6. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). For Hard disk. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. MMURTL V1. 12=0 and 13=1. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS .

break. break. dnBlocks. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. return(erc). dnBlocks. pData). dnBlocks. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. /* Null Command */ break. pData). break. U32 dStatusMax. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. break. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. break. default: erc = ErcBadOp. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). break. } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. */ break.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. pData). Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. pData). break. S8 * pStatRet. dnBlocks. dnBlocks). case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset().} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive].last_erc = erc.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. erc = 0.

hdstatus.nBPB. hdstatus. pStatRet. hdstatus.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect.nBPS = hdcb[1].nBPB. hdstatus.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS .nCyl = hd0_cyls. } /* Calculate size of status to return. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.type_now = hd1_type. *pdStatusRet = i. return ok.). This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit. hdstatus.{ U32 i.last_erc. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. hdstatus. hdstatus.erc = hdcb[1]. CopyData(&hdstatus. i). Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax. } else { hdstatus. hdstatus. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc.type_now = hd0_type.nBPS = hdcb[0]. else i = sStatus.erc = hdcb[0]. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat). hdstatus.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. hdstatus. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded.nCyl = hd1_cyls. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters. S8 *pInitData.last_erc.nHead = hd0_heads.nHead = hd1_heads. The DCB values are updated if this is successful.

i. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp.nSectors * HDStatTmp.nHead. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive].nSectors. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.nBlocks = HDStatTmp.nCyl.nSectors. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.nHead.last_erc = 0. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. return(erc). i).nHead.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . } hdcb[hd_drive].nBPB = HDStatTmp. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp. &HDStatTmp. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive).type_now. } /* If no error. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. else hd_drive = 1. erc = 0.type_now. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. /* If no error.{ U32 erc. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0. CopyData(pInitData.nBPS.nCyl.last_erc = erc. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive].nCyl * HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive]. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive). } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp. else i = sdInitData.

7.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. unsigned long RBufSize. as well as status. It needs more work. */ 150-38400 */ 0. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. which is a block oriented random device.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. the driver. unsigned long LastTotal. unsigned long XTimeOut..h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. unsigned char parity. unsigned long resvd[6]. 1=even. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. unsigned long XBufSize. unsigned char stopbits. which is a sequential byte-oriented device. 16450. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. 150 . 0=none.. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. unsigned char databits. unsigned long RTimeOut. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port. See listing 24.. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS .. unsigned long Baudrate. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. Listing 24. */ It's already open.38400 */ Parity for this port. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file. unsigned char IRQNum. */ It's opened by someone else. unsigned long IOBase. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. as well as by the driver itself. RS-232. or 16550 UARTs. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port.. it is a fully functional driver. other than that. and this driver.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. MMURTL V1. “MMURTL Sample Software.. but. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob.7. unsigned long LastErc.

See listing 24. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. All other command are specific to this driver.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). U32 nDevices. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. Listing 24. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2).8. U8 **ppMemRet). you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. U32 dfReplace). S8 MMURTL V1.}. Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. S8 *pDCBs.0 *pIRQ). extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. RICHARD A BURGESS -410- .8. U32 nPages). RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232.

U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. /* local prototypes. U32 dnBlocks. U32 dLBA. U8 *pData). */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. These will be called form the device driver interface. U32 sdInitData). U32 dBytes).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 msg2). #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). void OutByte(U8 Byte.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . U32 dStatusMax. U32 dOpNum. set and reset signal line condition and functions. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. U32 msg2). U32 Sleep(U32 count). */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U16 wPort). U32 msg1. U32 *pdStatusRet). S8 *pMsgRet). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. S8 *pStatRet. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). U32 count). U8 *pDestination. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 msg1. S8 *pInitData.

fExpectInt[2]. MSR[2]. tail_send[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. FCR[2]. LSR[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. sSendBuf[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. IIR[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. mstat_byte[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. DLAB_HI[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. IER[2]. LCR[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . cSendBuf[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. stat_byte[2]. head_recv[2]. tail_recv[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. head_send[2]. int_id[2]. MCR[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10.

You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.9. \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -. Listing 24.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. \___________ = 0. MMURTL V1.1 char 01 . I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion. RX data.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0. Divisor Latch LSB IER -. 1 = Multichar 0.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 chars 10 . FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 .FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char. 0.4 chars 11 .Interrupt Enable.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.TX data.

RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2]. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter.Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints. Listing 24. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232. static struct statRecC *pCS. MMURTL V1. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.10.10.H.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1. See listing 24.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Name[0] comdcb[0]. S8 fSingleUser. U32 OS5.0 = 'C'. }. S8 fDevReent. and they are contiguously defined. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 24. U32 OS1.11. See listing 24. U32 OS2. U32 nBlocks.12. 8N1. S16 nBPB.12. as is required by MMURTL. See listing 24. One for each channel. This means it's ready for business. U32 last_erc. S8 *pDevOp. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600. U32 OS6. = 'O'. S8 sbName. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc.Name[2] MMURTL V1. U32 OS4. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. U32 OS3. Listing 24. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. S8 *pDevSt. S16 wJob. static void interrupt comISR1(void). Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. S8 *pDevInit. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. = 'M'. S8 type.11. Note that there are two of DCB’s.Name[1] comdcb[0]. /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void).

pDevInit comdcb[0]. return(erc = InitDevDr(5. &comdev_stat.type comdcb[1].nBPB comdcb[0]. SetIRQVector(4.XTimeOut comstat[0]. = 0. MaskIRQ(4). &comdev_init. sRecvBuf[1] = 4096. &comdev_stat.comdcb[0]. /* 1 byte per block */ 0. 4.stopbits comstat[1].Name[2] comdcb[1]. SetIRQVector(3. = 4096. sRecvBuf[0] = 4096.databits comstat[0]. = 4096.Name[0] comdcb[1]. /* Sequential */ 1. = 2.parity comstat[0]. 0x2F8. /* COM1 */ /* COM2 */ = 9600. 1)). 2.sbName comdcb[0].databits comstat[1].pDevOp comdcb[1]. comstat[1]. &comdev_init.Baudrate comstat[1]. &comdcb.pDevOp comdcb[0]. = 4096. = 1.XTimeOut comstat[1]. = 0.nBlocks comdcb[1].XBufSize comstat[0]. 0x3F8. &comISR1).pDevSt comdcb[1]. /* none */ = 8.XBufSize comstat[1].sbName comdcb[1].RBufSize sSendBuf[1] = 4096. = 100.IOBase = comstat[0].RTimeOut comstat[1]. &comISR0).Name[2] comdcb[1]. '2'. = 2. 'C'. = 9600.RTimeOut comstat[0].RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. /* Set default comms params in stat records */ comstat[0]. 'M'. 2.nBlocks comdcb[0].0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS . = 1. = 4096.IRQNum = comstat[1].IRQNum = comstat[0].Name[1] comdcb[1].pDevInit comdcb[1]. 2. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. 'O'. MaskIRQ(3).type comdcb[0]. /* none */ = 8. /* Sequential */ 1.Name[2] comdcb[0].stopbi