MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

-xii-

RICHARD A BURGESS

................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ............................................................................................................................... Code for the Sleep function ........................305 Listing 19...........2....................................................................................................................................... Code for the MicrDelay function .............................................................309 Listing 20..................................................15.......................4.....296 AddIDTGate..................................................314 GetCMOSDate() ............297 AllocOSPage.............................................................. Data and constants for timer code.............................................12......................................................................... Code to alias memory ........................................................................................................................................................................... Allocating a page of linear memory....................................................................................................................... Loop in timer ISR .............................................................................................................................................................................6....................................................307 INTRODUCTION ..........................304 GetPhyAdd .............................................................................................................................. Code to produce a beep........................................................................303 QueryMemPages....288 AddRun .............................................................316 Listing 20....... Code for the Alarm function ......... TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ....................................................................13..........................................................................14................................304 Listing 19...............................................................................................................................................................313 Listing 20.....................................................................................................................................................................................................3........................................................................................................................................307 TIMER DATA .......................................309 Listing 20.............................................................................16...........................................................290 AddAliasRun ...........................................................................................................19....................303 Listing 19.........................................298 AliasMem ..................................................................................................294 Listing 19................................................................................................................. Code to read the CMOS date ...............................................................317 MMURTL V1................311 Alarm().................25............296 Listing 19................................................................................296 AddGDTCallGate ................316 Beep_Work() ..................... Adding a page table for user memory........................................................301 Listing 19.........................................................................289 Listing 19.........................................................314 Listing 20.... Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ....................................10..................................FindRun ......................... Adding a call gate to the GDT ............................................................................................................................... External functions for timer code ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to find a free run of linear memory....... Code to produce a tone .....................................................................................................................................317 Tone()..........................................................23...............................................301 DeAllocPage ..................................309 Sleep() ................................................. Code to remove alias PTEs...................................................313 GetCMOSTime() .......................17....................................................................................309 The Timer Interrupt .......................................................................................20..............................................................317 Listing 20..........................................305 CHAPTER 20......316 Beep()..............................................................................................................308 Listing 20....................................................... Adding an operating system page table .............................................................. Deallocating linear memory.................312 KillAlarm().................... Public for linear to physical conversion.............................................................. Adding a run of linear memory.............11...............................7.............................................................................................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ......291 AddUserPT ......................................................................13..........................................24.................................................................................................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory.................................................................................................................................................................9..............................................................................................................................................14..............................313 MicroDelay() .....315 GetTimerTick()...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ...................................312 Listing 20...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................293 AddOSPT ........................................................................................................................................... Code to find number of free pages.......................293 Listing 19...299 Listing 19.............................................................................................. Adding entries to the IDT ..................................................................................................................................................312 Listing 20.....................................................................22...........311 Listing 20.............................................................................................................................................299 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................... Code for the KillAlarm function...5...........................................8...........................................................................18....................................................................... Code to return the timer tick ...........................315 Listing 20...................................................................................................308 TIMER CODE ...................307 Listing 20...21........................................................................................................................................................................................316 Listing 20.. Code to read the CMOS time..................................................298 Listing 19............................................291 Listing 19.. The timer interrupt service routine ....288 Listing 19............................................1...............................................297 Listing 19.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................317 Listing 20................................

......................................................................................................................................................................10................................................................. 389 Listing 24..............................................................................................................................................1.......................... JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ...... RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ................................................7.....................................................................................................................................................................4............................................................................................................................................................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE .......... 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ................................. 417 Listing 24... 389 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) .......................................................................................................6..... 410 Listing 24........................................................................................ 325 Listing 21....................................1...................................... 442 Listing 25..... 429 KEYBOARD CODE .......13................................ 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES .................................................................... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER................................................ Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) .......................1...... 424 CHAPTER 25.2...............................................................................................2........ 337 Listing 22. 438 Reading the Final Buffer ................................................11............. 390 Listing 24................................................................................. 389 Listing 24..............................1........................... 337 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 429 INTRODUCTION ......................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ......................... 438 Listing 25...........................................4....................... 321 Listing 21..................................................................................... 366 CHAPTER 24...........................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS .......................................................7......................................... 436 Keyboard Translation...................9............................................................................1.................................................................................................................................................3............................................................12..... Continuation of OS initialization.................................................................................................. 319 INTRODUCTION .5........... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA ............................................................................ 409 Listing 24............................................................ Main Operating System Data ........................................................................................................................................................ 436 Keyboard ISR.... 344 CHAPTER 23....................................h Header File ...................... 365 INTRODUCTION ............................... 327 Listing 21.................................................. SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE............................................... 415 Listing 24............... Initialization Subroutines....................... 331 CHAPTER 22...................................................... OS Initialization Code and Entry Point.............................................. Jobc................3........................................................................................................................................................................................ Keyboard Data and Tables ............................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ................................................................................ 436 Listing 25.............. 398 Listing 24..............4......................................................................................... KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE......................................... End of Initialization Code.............................................. 326 Listing 21................................................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ............................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) .......................... Read Keyboard Buffer Code ............................ 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ............................................ Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ..........................14.............................................................................................................. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ...................................................................................................................................... 328 Listing 21. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)...................................................................2...................................................................................................... 365 Listing 23.....................c source code.................. Continuation of OS initialization................. Job Management Subroutines............... RS-232........... 393 Listing 24.................................................................6....................... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER .. Keyboard Translation Code............................ 413 Listing 24......................................................................... Keyboard ISR Code................................................. 442 MMURTL V1.............................................................................................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ......................2....... INITIALIZATION CODE ............................................................ 321 Listing 21....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) .....................................................................................2............... 415 Listing 24........................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ................................................................................................. 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ....................... Initialize call gates amd the IDT.............................................. 429 Listing 25... 366 Listing 23...................................................................................................... 409 Listing 24......... 344 Listing 22..............................CHAPTER 21. 319 Listing 21......................................................................................................................................... Debugger Data and Code....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3................................................ DEBUGGER CODE ......................................8.................................................................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ........................... 395 Listing 24........ 429 KEYBOARD DATA............................ 414 Listing 24...................5..................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ...............

.............................................................................................................................................. Code to set Normal Video Attribute .13.................. Code to get the Normal Video Attribute.......464 Listing 26.............................................................451 Listing 25....452 Hardware Helpers ...................................462 Listing 26...................................................539 DASM CONCEPTS .............................................................................................................................. Simple Application Template File ................................................473 Logical Block Address (LBA)....................................................... Video constants and data ....................................................................................................................................................539 INTRODUCTION ............................................14..... Code to Clear the Screen .............................................................................. Code to Initialize Video .......448 Listing 25............................................................................................................. Debugger Read Keyboard Code .....................................461 Listing 26...................................542 MMURTL V1........................................457 THE VIDEO CODE ..1...................................................................................541 Errors Only Option ..........................472 CHAPTER 27..457 Listing 26..................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ....541 List File Option ..........................541 Command Line Options .........................................................................................................................................................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ...................................................0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ...........474 CHAPTER 28........542 Dynamic Link Libraries ............................................. Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen................ Code to Return Current Cursor Position ..........................................................................................................................................................................8..........10.......................................................................................................................................................................4........................................................................ Code to Edit a Line on the Screen............... Keyboard system service code..................................................................7.................................................................................................... FILE SYSTEM CODE........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................458 Listing 26............................................................................................................................................7.............................................................460 Listing 26..........................................................................................................................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization ...........9................................16.....................................................................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up....................................................................... Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen .........6......9..............................................474 Listing 27...........458 Listing 26..........465 Listing 26........................................3.........457 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. DASM................474 File System Initialization .............................................................................................................................................................................540 Listing 28............................................................................. Code to Get a Character and Attribute.....................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................................................................................. Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position.................. Code to Screen Video Attributes ....................................540 Application Template File.....................................................................................542 Device Drivers .......1..................................... A More Complicated Template File ..........................................................................................2.......................................................................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING .............................................................................................................540 Listing 28........................................................................448 Debugger Keyboard...........473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT .........539 USING DASM.....................................................468 Listing 26......473 Hidden Sectors.........469 Listing 26..........................................................8....................................... Code to Set the Video Owner ...............................................................15......................................................................................................12...................................................................................1................................................................................................................................................. A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER .........10...........................................................................................................453 Listing 25..........473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers.450 Listing 25........................ Code to Set Cursor Position.........................................................................................................................................................................................................6.........................................................The Keyboard Service ............................................................................................................................................................... VIDEO CODE ..............5..................................................................................................................468 Listing 26.........................5..........................................................................................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ................ Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call .....................466 Listing 26.................... Code to Get the Current Video Owner...............................................443 Listing 25................................................................................................................ MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................473 INTRODUCTION ....................................................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector .....................2..............461 Listing 26............................................................459 Listing 26......................460 Listing 26.......................................................................................................... Low-level Keyboard Control Code...................................................................................... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware .............................................................................................................................................................. Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ...........................................464 Listing 26.453 CHAPTER 26..........................................................................452 Listing 25........................................................................... Keyboard Service Initialization ....................................................................................................................................................11......................................................................................................................................

.................................... 569 Library Code Examples ................................................................................................................................................... 556 Tag Descriptions............................................................................................................................ Standard file I/O for MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 FAR Calls .............................DASM Source Files .............................................................................................................................................. 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ................... 548 Labels and Address.......................................................................1.......................................................................................................................................................................... 542 Memory Model........ 545 Table 28..................................................................... 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information......................................................................... 555 Table 28............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 563 Supported C Language Features ............................................................Supported Instructions ....................................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 568 Library Functions ........................................................................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ........................................................................................................................................................................ 561 INTRODUCTION ....................... Standard String Functions for MMURTL ........................................................................................... 547 DF (Define Far Word) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................2....................................................................................................... 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 562 Interrupt Functions......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DB (Define Byte)..............3................................................................... 548 PUBLIC Declarations.... 562 Variable Length Argument Lists .................................................................................... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ............................................................................................................................ 552 Table 28............................................................................................... 579 INDEX ............................................................................................................................. 559 CHAPTER 29..........................................................................3 .................................................................................................................................................................. 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ..................... Alternating data and code in a template file .......................... 570 Listing 29......................................................... 543 DOT Commands ............. 569 Listing 29...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DW (Define Word) ............................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations ................................ Supported Library Functions .................................................................... 575 APPENDIX A -..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 565 Far External Functions ..................... CM32......... 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ...................... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ......................................................................................................................................................................... 563 Library Header File Access...................................................... 545 DASM Addressing Modes ..............................................................................................................3.......................................................... 542 DASM Program Structure ............. 565 Structure Limitations .........CD-ROM CONTENTS ................................................................... 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ..................... 566 Initialization of Static Variables ................................................................................................................................................................................. 568 Command Line Options .................................... 568 USING CM32........................ 581 MMURTL V1........ A 32-BIT C COMPILER ........................................................... 543 Listing 28..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers............................................................1 ...............................................................................................................................................................................Specifying Memory Operands............................................................................................................................... 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax .................................................. 558 Your Own Assembler? ................................................................... 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ...................................................... 570 Listing 29....................... 545 Storage Declarations...............................................................................................................................................................................................................2 .......................................................................... 548 EXTRN Declarations...................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ..............................................................................................................................Tag Usage ................................................................................ 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ..............................................

0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .MMURTL V1.

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It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. memory model. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. You. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. But I wanted a small API. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. I would just make a list. I determined the specifications for the final product. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. and the programming interface. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. are the tasking model. do some research on each of the desirables. As coding began. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. MMURTL V1. In the early days. code. NOT SO FAST THERE. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. If you're an experienced programmer. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. not his IQ. Realizing this. They use them. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. I set the ground rules. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. Unfortunately. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. When I started out. or Sun. it's unlikely they'll use it. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. When OS/2 was first developed. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. That was part of my wish list. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. as viewed by the outside programmer. I have documented what it takes to really write one. You don't need to design your own. IBM. however. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. The most obvious of these. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. and begin coding. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. it's a complete system. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. but very light on specifics. they work with them. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. It's up to you. In the case of my own operating system. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface.Chapter 1. If you write something that no one can use. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. portability issues size and speed. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. I decided what stayed and what went.

One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. along with all the tools necessary to build. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. This was completely intentional. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. For instance. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. but it was a "must" for me. multitasking. MMURTL V1. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. or all of it if you wish to write your own. or write your own. You can use pieces of it. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. This was the 16. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). they are effectively super-386 processors. Serial and Parallel Ports. real-time. You may or may not want to do this for your system. Even though they have added speed. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. so I've removed the mystique. a few more instructions. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. Once again. Hardware Timers. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. hardware interface. portability issues. Throughout this book. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. change it to suit your needs. 80486 (486). will provide the information for you to use my system as is. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. In fact. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. ideas from it. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. In my opinion. I'm sure it won't. programming interfaces. which I felt. The source code. would help me write better application software for it. For this reason. But that's not what this book is about. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit.to 32-bit jump.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. size and speed. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. and some serious "turbo" modifications. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. modify. the memory model. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . message based. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. It clouds far too many real issues these days. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. redesign it to meet your requirements. your goals may be different. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set.

the Request and Respond primitives could be removed.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). You may start with my list and modify it. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . the humans. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. LIM. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. I also wanted to maintain a small. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6.” and chapter 8. are outside events. I discuss this in chapter 6. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. and 4 (Interprocess Communications).Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. If you're going to write your own. If it is another processor. I'll discuss some of your options. “Programming Interfaces. “Programming Interfaces. if we knew how.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. If you don't have this requirement. or start one from scratch. I use the stack. Power without BLOAT. Message agents could be added to any platform. but real multi-threading . and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements. such as C or Pascal. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. We. but not all the options. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language.” Protection from other programs . UMBs. hardware paging. or maybe a little less? Of course. Extended. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. and most of them are grossly under used. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired.” Simplicity . I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. HIMEM. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. MMURTL V1. yet powerful enough to get the job done.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model .. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done.Keep the system as simple as possible. Client/Server design . A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. Real-time operation . LOMEM. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors.The ability to react to outside events in real time. you may have a different platform in mind. and what my end result was. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). and 4 (Interprocess Communications). YOURMOTHERSMEM.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). is with a procedural interface. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice.. many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. and also what I decided on. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. “The Hardware Interface. Chapter 5 covers memory management. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. calling conventions. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). General Discussion and Background. the right mix of capability and simplicity. “The Hardware Interface. Easy programming . but I don't recommend it. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification.But not the programmer. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. We want the system to react to us.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks.My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . I didn't want to do this. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management.Not just task switching between programs. and for a very good reason.

Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. and 64K of data). In the educational field. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. be of value in your other programming projects as well. Real-Time. If you intend to run MMURTL. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. I put together my own operating system. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. If you don't like my acronym. kerneL. no doubt. but only a distant cousin. the code. or use any of the tools I included. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. Sections of the source code will. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. And of course. and the initialization entry point jumped to. Then again. or for general reference. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. make up your own! But. Multitasking. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). If you don't want to start from scratch. Real-Time. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. nor is it intended to directly replace them. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. If you're not worried about memory consumption. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). MMURTL V1. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . I'm sure. x86/Pentium processors. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. the tools. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. Yes. Dedicated. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. expand it to your heart's desire. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. Message based. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code.

If yours isn't. The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. but only out of convenience. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided.25" and 3. The processor must be an Intel 80386. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines.x (IBM). that is. IBM and other clone processors. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it).The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. 8250. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. you can change the code as needed. Hence. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. IDE is preferred. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used).5" are supported. EISA (Ed. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. also – 2000). but a few are not). MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. MMURTL V1. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. but still. If you want to run DOS. (or even MS-DOS). The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. you can ignore this section. One Megabyte of RAM is required. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. not at all the same. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. eases the development burden. This includes Cyrix. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. AMD. Both 5.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . and more importantly. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. 80486. Pentium. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). via the keyboard serial controller (most are. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. Note: PCI bus designs work well. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats.

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make a lot of sense. for no apparent reason). That was 1989. add. here it is. It was a 32-bit system. and borrowed with great respect. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. you might not want to). I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. It does. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. no doubt. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. simplified memory management. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. merged).0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system.k. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life.000. MMURTL V1. I would not let this happen. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). however. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). etc. That worked out just about right.Chapter 2. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. take away. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. In fact. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. affect its design. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. “Overview. Far too often. has had an effect. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size.a. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. client server designs. a. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). As you can see. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. Five years later. I might add). write your own operating system. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system.). the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. Burroughs and Sperry. my schooling. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. my reading of various publications and periodicals. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. Every little thing you've run across will. In Chapter 1. improve. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. It whet my whistle. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. and just make it better if you have the desire. as well what may influence your design. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate.” I covered what my final design goals were. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. Borrow from mine.

there was no such thing. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. I really had no choice. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. a lure that could not be suppressed. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. but the tools just worked better. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. like a bad virus. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation.1. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. or even OS/2. There was no turning back. Again. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. was a must. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors .After I got involved with the IBM PC. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. It's the place to start. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. The next major decision was the software development environment. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage.x linker. Once again. and a few others. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. As you may be aware.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS .x assembler and 2.. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). but the tools worked. and utilities . however. In fact. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. It is just now becoming popular. Message-based. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. Then those were the 2. Memory access was limited. or ported to a system. at times it was quite difficult.including assembler. I thought about other processors. Of course. but it worked nonetheless. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. however. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. maybe. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . It was limited to the small memory model. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages.0) and later moved to 5. compiler. Operating system developers.all but ancient history now. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. in the process of using these other tools. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's. MS-DOS was everywhere. but as you well know.. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. popular platform. I'm not a Borland salesman. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development.

IBM published theirs. no linker. such as Chips & Technologies. Needless to say. or may not. but I pretty much built from scratch. interface design. in itself. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. I think many people started there. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). I was into Pascal long before I was into C. That set me back four months.” Assembly language has its place in the world. and a few other minor utilities. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. That's right. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. etc. I plead the "Fifth" on this.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington.. It is tied to the internal bus. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. but another port is in the works.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. I do so because its bus. Many different books. discreet devices in the IBM AT system." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. These documents are usually free. as well as the software control of these devices. as you may understand. SX MMURTL V1. want or need. It's simply not needed. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. in which case. The C compiler produces assembly language. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. Developing this assembler was. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work.some tools from the major software vendors. and the called function cleans the stack. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. documents. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. In fact. To fully understand this. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. a disassembler. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. etc. DMA. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. TTL. Computer chip manufacturers. There is no linker. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits.. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. you will need to read chapter 28. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. articles. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system.). or even port MMURTL to it. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. which is 32 bits for the most part. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. a major task. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. Parameters are passed left to right. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. Besides. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. which is fed to the assembler. at least. DC. Communications controllers. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept".

etc. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. There was no loader. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. anyway. of course.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. no way to get test programs into the system. During this time. from a 16-bit code segment. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. This was timeconsuming. [Thunking is when you interface 32. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. this is a year you won’t have to go through. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. In a paged system. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. Memory Management. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. I had to meet my design goals. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. All of the early test programs were in assembler. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines).. I discuss several options you have. but this is transparent to the programmer. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. If you write your own system. This easily consumed the first six months. MMURTL V1. as you will see. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently.g. powerful.x. gentler" environment I was after. timers.). This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. you'll be ahead of the game. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. EISA. but it presented several serious complications. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. all implementations of UNIX). The thought was rather sickening. OS/2 version 2. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. but not a fully segmented model . This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. anyway (e. as well as the stack storage. The segmented memory idea was canned. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. aliasing is also required. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI.). If you use Intel-based platforms.x. But as you may be aware.two segments per program and two for the OS. In chapter 5. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. but it's not at as complicated. "Thunking" was out of the question. all based on their own selectors. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). but instead a lean. This simple model could allocate and manage memory.and 16-bit code and data. Windows version 3. It was a "kinder. even the operating system writer. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. etc. It has turned out very nicely. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution.

or how much time you really have to invest. For example. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. Go for the kernel. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. how much knowledge you have. Of course. I was really interested in communications. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. The Critical Path Along your journey. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities.anything that you think you'll need to remember. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. the actual application may not be so important. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. This may sound a little humorous. Select your hardware platform. you'll NEVER really be done with it. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. You can then “port” the prototype. of course. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. I envy you. Decide on your basic models. but they just didn't say. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. The level of complexity. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. Document the problems. There are so many platforms out there. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. I have provided such an operating system with this book." It is difficult for me to do this also. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. memory model and basic programming interface. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. do it. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. But. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. "You start here. hints are about all I CAN give you. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. Memory management is next. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. you know that it can be a very daunting task. MMURTL V1. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. and there will also be background noise.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. Know your desired application. This includes the tasking model. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. get to know it very well. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. compilers and utilities. the discoveries . If this has never happened to you. will depend on the memory model you choose. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. you will no doubt find bugs. Or at least when you get it working. but I'm very serious. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). garbage collection. But I'll try. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. and overall program management – as you see fit. It may be RISC. but whatever you decide on. Get to know your assemblers. Investigate your tools. it may be CISC. I'll tell you the easiest. This is called the critical path. the rest is real work. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. It will be worth the time spent. but there wasn’t. I say this from experience. you know that certain items in a project must work. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications.

I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. Good luck. Document as you go. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. It will be blood. all the way. I had my wish list well in advance. These tools include documentation for the hardware. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). it's worth the time. and then I write the code. compilers. As I mentioned above. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. dependable pickup truck. I write the documentation. sweat and maybe some tears. Sounds backwards? It is. it won't be luck. I lay out my notes for what I want.Working Attitude Set your goals. But really. Work with small. MMURTL V1. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work.” Once satisfied. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. But don't set them too high. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. easily digestible chunks.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . I moved on from there.

One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model.This term is not disputed very much. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. but doesn't expect the interrupt. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). but I hope you will accept them. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. MMURTL V1. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. Generally. You may not agree with the definitions. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. I admit some guilt here too). After all. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. coffee and soda spilled on them. or at least coming to agreement on them.. Tell the programmers what you mean.Chapter 3. be specific about it. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. and most people refer to. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. TASK . The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. In other words.” while others call it a “thread. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). When a task is suspended from execution. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. This makes it a very small kernel. at least temporarily. Some documentation. and more specifically. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. but it is.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. however. In its executable form. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. MS-DOS TSRs . An operating system that you use may be preemptive. Some operating systems call a task a “process. then start another task running. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. CPU utilization. It shouldn't be. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. But this is not cast in stone either. If you write your own. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out." which means communications between tasks. save its state.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . KERNEL . and I'm not talking about programming languages. Hence. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using.” In most instances I call it a TASK.g. it’s PREEMPTIVE. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .

or even network connections for logons. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. In other words. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. I deal with one user at a time. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. On the other hand. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. and hardware (Timers. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. "Everything should be as simple as possible. execute programs as the new users desire. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. but it may not be so easy for you. This is its only real purpose in life. One of my friends suggested the motto. But in almost all of these systems. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. Interrupt Controller Units. Managing these resources in a simple." but needless to say. Single vs. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. "simple software for simple minds. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). Input/Output (I/O) devices. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. disk. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. Some are communications programs (FAX software. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. It may have memory assigned to it. Single User. and why. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs.In other words. When I wrote these programs. etc.).” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. or the user was done. and some are user-oriented software. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). keyboard. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). Multitasking. How tasks are handled. You may MMURTL V1. In each case. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. when the mission was accomplished. Quite obviously. These are the real resources. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). Task Management Tasks begin. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. including video.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . Tasks end. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. DMA. comms programs). yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. memory management. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. good old Albert). it didn't sit too well with me. Nor did I want it to be. Tasks crash.

The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. This will be the heart and brains of the system. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. "It's 11:00PM. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. It's actually easier than it sounds. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. it would seem to return at its leisure. In the case of hardware interrupts. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. When you change tasks. Yet. Microcomputers spoiled me. I had my very own processor. The CPU takes care of it for you. This is where the hardware-state is saved. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. Then I asked.want to deal with many. MMURTL V1. If you must do it yourself. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. We were each getting a piece of the pie. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. It was crude. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. My first programs were written with that attitude.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . but effective. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. this is usually a no-brainer. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. When you restore a task. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. it was a breeze. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. The software state can consist of almost nothing. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. In a multitasking operating system. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. but an important one. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off.

Meanwhile. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. which I cover in this chapter. And yes. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). the ability to cut a task off at the knees. and basic input/output. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. An important point here is that in a cooperative system." From there. MMURTL V1. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits.I'm done with the CPU for now. however. you are cooperating with the operating system. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). This may be in milliseconds. A task that has the processor gives it up. or to pause when it has nothing to do. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. "Hey . For instance. Cooperative and Preemptive. and in some cases. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). In many single tasking systems.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . if necessary. however. you basically have a hardware manager. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. This can be for a number of reasons. do an adequate job in many cases. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. management of CPU time is easy. a single threaded system may be the best solution. With these calls. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. It may not always be obvious when it happens. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. the screen and everything else looks frozen. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. or a combination of the two. interrupt servicing. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. he then monopolizes the CPU. They can. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. In a single tasking operating system. In fact. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. In this case.

the entire "state" of your task is not saved. When do we switch tasks. the task that's running. after the interrupt is finished. In a preemptive system. there is going to be a desire. When. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals.communicating. or a few other hardware-related things.. or after a set period of time. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. outside events. the scheduler simply determines who's next. MMURTL V1. On most platforms. Generally. or the operating system from an external device (e. To expand on that definition. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. and how long does that task get to run? Who. the scheduler. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). The next section is the tricky part.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. controlling. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. It does nothing to prepare for it. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). As I also mentioned earlier. Also. this adds the requirement of timing. In fully cooperative systems. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. and maybe memory context.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. Most of the time. disk drive. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. a program. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. The timer can help determine when to preempt. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. or monitoring. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. However. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. is a preemptive system. They are also. we must now decide which task runs next. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later).). quite often. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). As you can see. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. The currently running task is preempted. hardware timer. or even a requirement.g. it doesn't expect it. or it may be for something extremely critical. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. communications device. These parties include the programmer. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. to which task do we switch. connected to the outside world . and maybe (if we're nice) the user. etc. For the preemptive system. when a task is preempted. This is where the scheduling fun really begins.

each task will get a fixed amount of time . it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. its complete hardware and software state is saved. The others may see a slow down. the one with the highest priority will be executed.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. Time slicing is an old technique. This is usually not very effective. Who determines which task gets more time. In the simplest time sliced systems. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. but it won't be on their terminals. "a slice of time. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. and if a user interface is involved. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. For example. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue.all tasks will get the same slice . This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. But it has some major drawbacks. In some systems. Not quite that simple. otherwise. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. it can serve admirably." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. A simple queuing system suffices. When a task's time is up. only the very highest would ever get to run. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). For example.000 burgers. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS .and they will be executed in the order they were created. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. In a cooperative system. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. and the next task in line is restored and executed. each task gets 25 milliseconds. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. In a time sliced preemptive system. (the others will be flipping 8. This gives the scheduler something to work with. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run.

take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. The buffer will overflow. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. things are never as simple as they seem. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. In a message based system. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors.to go around on the system. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. and we want our machines responsive to us. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry.g. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. This IS real-time stuff. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. come do something with this data before I lose it"). For instance. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. These are communications and user interface issues.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. But I opted to "get real" instead. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. Thus. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. Now. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. clean communications. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. dependable. or the user. We want good. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster.. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. but it makes the point. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. computers are everywhere. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. but one channel is handling five times the data. but it's not dramatic enough. Therefore. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time.

however. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. Some Cooperation In this type of model. and even help define the tasking model. To be honest. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. A very simple. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. Primarily Cooperative. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). you have a few ideas of your own. Time Sliced. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. In addition. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. based on the number of tasks scheduled. Fully Time Sliced. even though these methods are very important. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). See what works for your applications. it would still be scheduled to execute. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. MMURTL V1. Users on a larger. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. But even when the task has nothing to do. all tasks will get to run. In this type of system. although such systems exist. A task may. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. I can't picture a system without it. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. No doubt.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time.

and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. The timer-interrupt routine. I wanted a priority based. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions.PERIOD. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. To me. The task based ISR is slower. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted.Primarily Cooperative. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. It's faster – actually. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. This could have presented some protection problems. and limit the functionality if at all possible. To briefly explain my tasking model. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. Limited Time Slicing category. Keep them short. and the next task with the highest priority executes. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. goes into a "waiting" state. file access. much faster. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. "Experience is a wonderful thing. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. real-time operating system. monitors the current task priority. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. multitasking. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. Go for the fastest option . if you have 256 priorities. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. preemptive. timer services. I never wanted to miss outside events. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. The less time the better. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. After all. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . For instance. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. In such a system. or whatever. and no. Other processors may offer similar options. This is a speed issue. and in reality.

it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). you switch tasks. or even possibly the users. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing.management headaches. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. For instance. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . who's to say when Mr. or Ms.only the user knows. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. In a cooperative environment. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. On systems that are primarily time sliced. MMURTL V1. After a period of time has elapsed. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. the problems didn't surface. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit.

some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. As you will see in this chapter. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. if it's being allocated). This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. Of course. However. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. it could cause some serious problems. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. In operating systems that use semaphores. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. On a single CPU. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores." MMURTL V1. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine.Chapter 4. In other words. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. As I described in earlier chapters. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. only one task can execute at a time. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. As the name implies. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). nor should they have to. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. portions of the code will not be reentrant. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. where it waits. or is suspended when it can't run. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. perform operations on the semaphore structures. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. what operation you want to perform. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it.

Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. ReadPipe(). or schedule tasks for execution. OS/2. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. OS/2 is one such system. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. destroy tasks.In most cases. I have added a second. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. a program is made up of one or more tasks. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. In fact. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. on most real-time operating systems. but I used a second form of messaging instead. tasks are not wholly independent.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. He or she will make a system call for some resource. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. such as those procedures that create new tasks. This is much more efficient. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. or similar ones. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. But once again. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2.). In my humble opinion. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. more powerful. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. You will see these commands. In fact. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. and WritePipe(). If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. such as MMURTL. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. you should study how they are used on other systems. which will consist of one or more tasks. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. etc. OpenPipe(). As you can see. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. In my system. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). public pipes are very handy. ClosePipe(). In a message-based system. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. I refer to a program as a “job. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. I didn't. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. If you intend to implement semaphores.

Zork to forget it. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). request() and respond(). In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. Now. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . Consider the phone again. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. WaitMsg(). CheckMsg(). the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). but we have enough to finish the basic theory. char *pMsgRet). give it the message and away it goes. In MMURTL's case. for which you expect no response. In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. You also need a way to send the message. his offer is the pits. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. it's a little more complicated than that. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. a task is born. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. dExch is the destination exchange. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. provide some other pieces of information. and VIOLA. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. SpawnTask(). The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. but enough that we can talk about them. In an operating system's case. such as. The task is the human. You point to a piece of code.not in detail yet. char *pMsgRet). There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. If you're lucky. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). SendMsg(). unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). "Tell Mr. Not too large to move around. Yes. or whatever you call it. I called it an Exchange. long dMsgPart1. the message is received right away. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. It does just what it says . unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. It returns 0 if all goes well. long dMsgPart2). Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. You tell it what exchange. If there is no task waiting at that exchange.it sends a message. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. You can send one way messages to a person. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. MMURTL V1. only one task is actually executing instructions. the answering machine is the exchange. an exchange point. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. a bin. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. Now I have some very important terms and functions .functions. but large enough for a couple of pointers." This is an example of a one way message. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). or just about any other name you like. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges).

it's not called the kernel zone. very small.). Kernel attaches message to Exch1. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. You start with a single task executing. Task2 is higher. Task1 is ready to run. It's still task 2. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS .I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. Task2 allocates Exch2. None found. Table 4. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. As we move down the table in our example. In this example. What it's doing isn't important. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. Just kidding. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. Task2 is still running.. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. None are waiting. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Table 4. Kernel makes Task1 run.. time is passing.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling.

. They are ideal for things like file systems. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. This can simplify the scheduler. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. queued file management. The name must be unique on the machine. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number.. In fact. Each time an interrupt occurs. From the simple example in table 4. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. It gives task2 the message. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. keyboard input. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. and also need to be shared with multiple applications.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. BBS systems. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. the list could go on and on. but the name will always be the same. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it .. unsigned int wSvcCode. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. each service installed is given a name. This may not work on all types of processors. 10 or even 15 system services. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. With MMURTL. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. When the service is first installed. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. MMURTL V1. . If there is a task at the exchange.1. In some systems. A fully loaded system may have 5. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. If there is one. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. only the service name. the receiving task is made to run. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. it will be made to run. They are dedicated types. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later).. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . The processing is carried out by the service. printing services. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. FAX services. This way.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). e-mail services. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. I didn't do this with MMURTL. Each service can provide up to 65. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. they must be waiting for something.

long dcbData1SR.This is the same as dcbData1. At first glance. and spacepadded on the right. dnpSend . Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. dcbData1 . If it is 80000000h or above.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service.long dRespExch. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). dData1. you'll need to know which one is responding. it is NOT a response. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. Second. if the request was serviced (with no errors). If you remember. The service already knows this. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). dcbData2 . long dcbData2SR. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. Second.Number of the specific function you are requesting. These are documented independently by each service. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). They are described below: dRqHndl . pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service).This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. in the file system OpenFile() function. this would be the size (length) of the filename. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName .the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. wSvcCode .0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. Zero (0) usually indicates no error. This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. long dData0.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. In many functions you will not even use pData1.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). long dData1.the status or error code returned to the requester. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. Where is the response data and status code? First. and dData2 . If you made more than one request. These can never be pointers to data. For instance.is the number (0. But. long *pdRqHndlRet. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. Two questions arise: 1. long dStatRet). dRespExch . but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords.Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). char *pData2SR. If this is the response. Using the Open File() example. There's still a little work to do. Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is).Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. *pData2 . dnpSend would be 1. all capitals. *pData1 . long dData2 ). although its exact meaning is left up to the service. dData0. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. dStatRet . A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. long dnpSend char *pData1SR.Pointer to the service name you are requesting. This will be explained later in memory management. or pData2 to send data to the service. The service name is eight characters. but network transport mechanisms do not. *pdRqHndlRet . and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill.

To really understand this issue. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. Not as difficult as you expect.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. An exchange is a small structure in memory. right? But let me guess . As you can see. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. As you know. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. even in a multitasking system. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. it is preempted. MMURTL V1. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. Also. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. there was only one buffer left. checks the semaphore. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem().it's crash time. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. When each task is done with the allocation routine. Semaphores are used on many systems. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. but still very important. and WHAMO . Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. It's really quite simple. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. Each task that enters the code. So. it's a mess. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. Now. But when it reaches PointX. but this would slow things down a bit. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. For the sake of understanding this. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. task1 gets to run again. Now. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. only one task can really be running at a time. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. Not very big. The buffer is gone. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. or pauses in the middle of them. pointers are off the ends of arrays.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . So the code goes in. lets look at an example. and show you what can happen. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well.to read or write data. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant.

A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. and also "the biggie" . Also. “Memory Management. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. I started with one and abandoned it early on. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. WHOA THERE . then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19.If the instruction sequence is short enough. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems.x? You will lose data.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot.200 baud in Windows 3. and maybe even not often enough. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5.” MMURTL V1. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. it will simplify IPC greatly . A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores).0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. let's look at a real-world example. In the kernel code.000.000 * 3).task switches. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. You didn't disable interrupts. but my testing shows I did OK. In theory. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. This is 1/38. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. Don't blame Windows though. The next sections discuss this. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. You will lose data. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). It will be the only way. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25.

I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. it's all basically the same. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. With the Intel processors. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. Some do it with internal paging hardware. This greatly affects the next three items. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). or another complicated applications. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. Address 0 is the first. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. Instead. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. Whether or not you use paging hardware. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. I do make some assumptions about your processor. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. The memory model you choose. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. For instance.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. Either way. Basic Terms Once again.Chapter 5. if available. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. so does an operating system. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. There are some major differences though. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. MMURTL V1.

different memory allocation schemes (top down. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. at least for the operating system. In this type of system. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. MMURTL V1. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. and bad. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. As programs are loaded. With this scheme. This can be good. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. chunks of physical memory called pages. As programs are loaded.). Figure 5. No address translations take place in hardware. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). Figure 5. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses.1. etc. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. You may be restricted from using some of these options. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. bottom up. and possible partitioning for each program. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement.

Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. With paged memory. more than likely a hard disk drive. Figure 5. With this scheme. direct access storage device. For example. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. For instance.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur.Figure 5. MMURTL V1.2 . This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. Figure 5. Figure 5. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. or even 64 MB). the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. With demand-paged memory.

but it sure looks like it is. and the hardware allows it. MMURTL V1. it means that you're lying to your programs. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL. With paging hardware. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . and indeed you are. as in virtual reality. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. The minute you apply this term to memory management.Figure 5.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme.3 . you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. all the programs still use the same linear space. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces. Look at Figure 5. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one).

you will think of. In order to allow multiple. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS .Figure 5. A way around this to use a shared memory area. Note the advantages here. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. yet. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. The options here are almost mind boggling. memory is NOT flat. there are many possible variations. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. Once again. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. Note also the disadvantages.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. parallel linear spaces. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. and implement some of your own. MMURTL V1. No doubt. which is the idea. In Figure 5. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program.4 . the memory management hardware must support it. different data or code). This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone.

They used something called a segment register. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. In fact. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. When you use a selector. This means you can save the time rewriting it. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. What they came up with is called Segmentation. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors.g. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). and you need to understand the implications. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. and generally the most efficient. However. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. This was actually several registers. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. or even an 8-bit one. When a page has been written to. When this was a 16-bit world. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. MMURTL V1. and 80286).” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. Likewise. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. This is a very handy feature. To make this work. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. 20 to be exact. They are not limited to 64K. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. and the popular Zilog Z80). 8088. they needed to identify and manage those segments. The LRU schemes have many variations. It's just what it sounds like. one for code and several for data access. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . All of the Intel products are very well documented. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. 80186.. we had some pretty limited address spaces. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. it is usually termed as "dirty. The most common. so I won't go into further detail. OS/2 or Windows). The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. When the 80286 came on the scene. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. They allowed multiple sequential. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e.

and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . one person). You'll have to make a decision. This way. This can be a real hassle. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. Remember. Allocating memory for applications. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. each block holds its own link. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. I will give you a good idea what it's like.” Before you decide which method to use. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. I learned this the hard way. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. and Handling protection violations. If you do. MMURTL V1. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. Allocating memory to load applications and services. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. which will be defined by the paging hardware. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. I'll discuss each of these things. But in many systems. when one application crashes. if your hardware supports it. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. You make the rules. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. Other factors include how much memory you have. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. With this scheme. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. it usually takes the whole system down. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. the type of applications you cater to. How you store the links in this list can vary. They are “linked lists” and “tables. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. Tracking client linear memory allocations. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. and it will be based on many factors. but not in the order I listed them. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. you ARE the operating system.With a 32-bit system. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. when one application crashes.

MMURTL V1. For my description. In the following simple linked list scheme.pNext = 0. I haven't disassembled their code. pFree. struct MemLinkType pFree. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic. } When a client asks for memory.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS .The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory.owner = 0. pMemInUse. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. but I'll touch on it some. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size.pPrev = 0. No next link yet. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. char *pPrev. pMemInUse. long owner.pPrev = 0. These are the first links in your list. which means you can't honor the request. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. pLink->owner = 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. /* " " */ long Client = 0. pLink->pNext = 0. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. pMemInUse. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . you must remember that pLink. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. or you reach a link where pNext is null.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there.owner = 0. struct MemLinkType *pLink. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. This is done by following pLink.size = 0.pNext = 0x100000. pMemInUse. pLink->pPrev = &pFree.16. In the process of memory management initialization.pNext until pLink. pFree. This is another topic entirely. pFree and pMemInUse. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext.size is large enough. you would set up the two base link structures. pFree.size = 0. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. Of course. You now have an idea where they went. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. }.

pNewLink->owner = 0. The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. And believe me.pNext. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. The function returns the address of the new memory. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. Client is the owner of the new block. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. pLink->size = WantSize. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request.16.WantSize . You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. it WILL get fragmented..pNext = &pLink. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse.. } /* Sorry . pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. If you use this code. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. } } return(0). WantSize is the size the client has requested. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16). char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . Granted.

He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. This is where the fragmentation comes it.16. or you can do it all after the fact. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. then move it to the pFree list. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. if at all possible. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. But we can't add our size to pFree. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. In other words. but cleanup will be a snap. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. But you can't depend on this.pNext. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. This will be useful in the following routine. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). Combining blocks can be done at the same time. and you insert it there. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. depending on the order of deallocation. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null.deallocate. which returns memory to the free pool. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. /* scan till we find out where we go. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. This will add time to deallocation routines. change its owner. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. You have the linear address. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. This makes the most sense to me.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. There are several thoughts on cleanup. validate the link. This provides instant cleanup. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link.

pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. You can expand on them if needed. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. */ /* In this case. there are physical pages assigned to it. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . return(0). In the case of the paging hardware. pLink = pNextLink->pNext.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. The two must be synchronized. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0).or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. you will have two memory spaces to track. we couldn't be combined with the previous. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you don't use the paging hardware. } } /* If we got here. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. It should give you a great number of ideas. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. MMURTL V1. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. you can decide how you want them setup. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. pNewLink->owner = 0.

“OS Initialization. You must consider where the operating system loads. This can get complicated. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. trap. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. “the Hardware Interface. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory.When you work with paging hardware. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. and turn on the paging hardware. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. Wherever you load it. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. you will have independent tables for each application. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. It will be the page’s size. For instance.” but once the operating system is loaded. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. If your processor gives you these types of options. In some cases. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. it will generally be in a block of addresses. MMURTL V1. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. You will be allocated these up front. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. and you should take that into consideration. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. But it's up to you. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. From there. Batteries fail. If you use paging. it becomes allocated memory right away. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. add the translations you need and are already using. you will have to move it all. You must set up tables. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS .

This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. For instance. This greatly simplifies every program we write. If you have no desire to use them. and even larger with demand page memory. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. The common data segment is 10h. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. The operating system code segment is 08h. but in a very limited fashion. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. the initialized data segment. Small. 32-bit offset). I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. the concept of program segments is an old one. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. you know that with MS-DOS. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. set them all to one value and forget them. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. the application code segment. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. and one or more code segments. uninitialized data segment. This could change in future versions.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. and many others. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. and one data segment for all programs and applications. I use almost no segmentation. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. It can be very complicated to use on any system. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. I wanted only one program memory model. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. Medium. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. but will have no effect on applications. Large. This was too complicated for me. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. and I even use the Intel segment registers. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. If you are familiar with segmented programming. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. Compact. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. but nice to have. The user code segment is 18h.

1. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. is that you really do need most of this capability. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. The operating system itself is technically not a job. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). What you don't see. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. Each PTE is four bytes long. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. Besides. Each of the PDEs points to a PT. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory.967. No. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. If you want just a few bytes. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing.294. Right? Wrong. If you get our calculator out.runs in the task of the job that called it. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. its not magic. Every Job gets its own PD. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). but you need it in pieces. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. Each PDE is also four bytes long. For instance. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. it has code and data and a task or two. and each application the same thing. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. Because of this. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory." huh?). Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). This is done with something called a page directory (PD). I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon.memory. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. MMURTL V1. but it’s close. Sure. but most of the operating system code – specifically.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). because I haven't explained it yet. the kernel .0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . which can have 1024 entries.

then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). but it does this with very little overhead.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K.Table 5. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. Besides. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. If you remember. Read on and see what I did. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. Likewise. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. Sounds like a lot of work. Now it's got the PTE. In the scheme of things. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. but when you start talking 10. the secret is out. and it needs it fast. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. Code. in a word. certainly less overhead than this explanation). Sure. I could have built a separate table and managed it. When I started the application. Of course.1 .MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. yes. This is fine for one address per job. However. 20. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. I wanted to keep the overhead down. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. possibly several for each application. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). Well. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. But it was for a good cause (No. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. Now that it knows where the PD is. but it wasn't needed. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. MMURTL V1.

all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present. and how I use the processor's paging hardware.. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors. This is 0 to 1Gb. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. it would be transparent to applications anyway. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. As shown. 512 513 . 256 257 . They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum). I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. AllocPage().0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . That would really be a waste. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. Table 5.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. in fact. If I desired. in Table 5. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes.. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB.1. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want.. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. AllocOSPage().... but you get the idea.2. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). 768 769 . but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address.. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. If I decided to do it. MMURTL V1. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. all the shadow entries are marked not present..Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind.

For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. there will be no error. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. and data. from a previous AllocPage() call. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). and whether or not it's currently in use. If the physical memory exists. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. which is also my sister's name. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array.Managing physical memory. MMURTL V1. If so. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. They are simply new jobs. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). With a 1Gb address space. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). or will return an error if it's not available. System Services. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. the caller passes in a linear address. It is not important. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). nor should it try to find out. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). and DLLs. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. Device drivers. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. initial stack. Each application (job) gets it own PD. Device Drivers have code and data. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. but the memory will not be available for later use. The caller will never know. it will create a new PT. If it does. It's loaded into these initial pages. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. but no stack. but only from this caller's memory space. Now comes that easy part . nor do you even care. along with the number of pages to deallocate. you allocate physical memory from the top down. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. It does not tell you whom they belong to. only that number will be deallocated. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code.

Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. Of course. how could they be swapped?). DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. If it tries to deallocate them. Instantly. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. With a page based system such as MMURTL. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. no data. There is no new allocation of physical memory. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. They share physical memory. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . When an application requests a service. the second job has access to other job's data. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. an error will occur. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. This will make more sense if you do. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. but that's trivial (a few instructions). you should do it before you read this section. They have only code. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. But this gets away from memory management. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. and no stack. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. They are there to be used as shared code only.

Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. When it's done its work. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. it responds. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. MMURTL V1.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. How they see the interface is very important. use it. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). One or more PTs for the OS. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. For MMURTL.

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and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes.how it is accessed in memory. It executes your instructions. there are drawbacks to this idea. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. You provide a common.Chapter 6. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. is the interrupt or trap. The two that are obvious are code size. The most common. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. but that doesn't mean that you won't. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. MMURTL V1. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. however. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. aside from the instructions you give it. Therefore. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. and speed. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). As good as it sounds. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. and it simply runs. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. But there's always more than meets the eye. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. although I never thought so. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. in theory.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . Hardware Interface As a resource manager. to interoperability with other systems. and the most significant at the lowest. jumps where you tell it. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. or for specific timing requirements. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system.

Multibus. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. This is called the main bus. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. and some that are available now. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. internal bus. They are actually very forgiving devices. The most common is the relatively low-speed. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. EISA. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). or ISA Bus.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS .some proposed. and most useful. Finally. or CPU bus. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. and especially the interface bus. This is handy. I read many books about my target processor. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). Before you plan some grand interface scheme. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. Quite honestly. PCI. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. such as those dealing with interrupts. but I found the most valuable. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. just to name a few. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. address. I've tried both methods. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. but in some of the processor documentation. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. ISA. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. For instance. On smaller systems. The first set is the data bus. MMURTL V1. no matter which device you must code. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. On the PC-ISA platforms. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. The second is the address bus. in that case. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. There are many extensions to this bus .

the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. Parallel buses can move data faster. Another way is programmed I/O. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. Therefore. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. Unlike UART devices. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method.Less commonly found. but is really a device connected to the bus. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series.. network frame handlers. They have no way. the infamous Centronics interface). Quite often. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. or even memory to memory. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. They work with frames or packets of data. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. SDLC. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. but still very important. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. In fact.25 (an international link and network layer standard). Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. and tape drives. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. in many cases.g. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. or HDLC. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. except for the hardware clock timing. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. MMURTL V1. and on some systems. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. or network card). You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. to name a few.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you intend to design a true multitasking system. are synchronous communications such as those used with X.

600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. Quite often. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard.500 bytes of memory space.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS .On many systems. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. This could consume a vast amount of memory. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. On the PC-ISA platform. In fact. This requires an interrupt service routine. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. All the output would be via a serial port.g. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. or Unicode. and MMURTL V1. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). Each bit array is on its own plane. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. If you want 16 colors for each bit. Video Like the keyboard. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. In most cases. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. is worth more than I can indicate to you. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. this video memory will contain character codes (e. However. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. but you must realize the importance of this device. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange).. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). On an 80-column-by-25-line display. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. In character-based systems. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. This is known as planar pixel access. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. If this is the case. this only consumes 4000 bytes. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. This consumes the least amount of your address space.

Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. multiple. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware.allow you to switch between them. you'll have no problems. The code for these two calls is shown below. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. interprocess communications.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. have to research hardware cursor control. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. and timing when you write to the video display area. In many cases. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. I was interested in character-based. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. “Memory Management. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). In some cases. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. I did. This includes cursor positioning. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). and to query the status of the move. I took this into consideration also. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. this would be 16 planes at 37. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. MMURTL V1. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. Your requirements will more than likely be different.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). and GetDMACount(). however. That equates to 600. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). This is known as packed pixel access. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. non-overlapping video users.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users.. “Video Code. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA().g. and your tasking model. Chapter 26. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. For a 256-color system. except maybe an embedded system board.000 bytes.

Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h . There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Read/Write Mode register .) MMURTL V1. The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware.Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Ch 0 Address . but the standard include file MOSEDF.Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch . .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h . Optimize it as you please.INCLUDE MOSEDF.Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh . while 23-17 are put in the page register.Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . DACK1 (etc.Read Command/Write Single bit mask .INC .DMA DACK0 Page register .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h . the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA. The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed. With word.DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h . There really is no data segment for DMA.Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits . etc. DMA moves (channels 5-7). DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16). This is called a cascaded device.0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Ch 1 Word Count .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h .Ch 1 Address .INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller. Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .Ch 2 Word Count . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Ch 3 Address .Read Status/Write Command .Ch 2 Address .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h . .DATA .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah .Ch 0 Word Count .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 3 Word Count .Read/Write DMA Rq Register .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh . etc.CODE With 8-bit DMA.

AL OUT DMA2Mode. . 41h OUT DMA1Mode.CH 0 DMA 2 .6 and 7. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4.Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. . 42h OUT DMA1Mode. we do math) MMURTL V1. For channels 5. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. sdMem. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. . which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . AL AL. Out.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. AL XOR AL.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 .Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. . so they always specify byte count for the setup call. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. AL MOV AL. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. as you might assume). AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. AL XOR AL.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. Verify). AL OUT DMA2Clear. If they do. . AL OUT DMA2Mode. AL OUT DMA2Mode. AL RETN . I do this for the caller. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd.All commands set to default (0) . . PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . .CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . AL MOV AL. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. . or 128K boundaries for a word move.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. 04 . AL . the segment is wrapped around. even on word moves. 0C0h DMA2Mode.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . . 40h DMA1Mode. dType. dChannel. AL OUT DMA1Clear. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. . I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . . AL XOR AL.CH 0 DMA 1 .

. AL DMA1FF. AL AL. OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL.. 1 = In (Write Mem).ESP . ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. dPhyMem .2. 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. 1 . 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. [EBP+20] CMP EAX. [EBP+28] DMA10Add. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . 1 Single Cycle. 00001000b .0 Demand Mode. 2 Block. [EBP+12] .Jump table for channel selection . Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . AL EAX. [EBP+16] . . 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. 6 . 8 DMA10Add. Yes CMP EAX.6. get dType AND BL.3. dChannel (0. MOV EBP. MOV EAX. MMURTL V1. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX.0 = Verify. 2 = Out (Read memory) . dMode . 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. 3 Cascade . dMode CMP EAX. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. dType . Hi Byte .7) . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. AL . 00000000b AL.0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . OR with MODE .1. Put it in BL MOV EAX. (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . AL . Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. 0 . Lo byte address . BL DMA1Mode. 00000100b . 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. 04 . 0C0h .5. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP .

AL EAX. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. dPhyMem .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL EAX. OR with MODE . [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. OR with MODE/TYPE . 8 DMA12Add. EAX DMAEnd . Highest byte (to page register) . [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. AL AL. channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . AL AL. 8 DMAPage1. BL DMA1Mode. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . [EBP+28] DMA12Add. 8 DMA11Add. AL AL. AL EAX.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. AL DMA1FF. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. Hi Byte . AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . AL DMA1FF. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMAPage0. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000010b AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. CH1 . sdMem . [EBP+28] DMA11Add. sdMem . 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. Lo byte address . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 8 DMA12Cnt. BL DMA1Mode. 8 DMA10Cnt. Lo byte address . 8 DMAPage2. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. Hi Byte . 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. dPhyMem . 00000001b AL. AL . Highest byte (to page register) . AL AL. 8 DMA11Cnt. Highest byte (to page register) . CH2 .

0FFFFh EAX. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 00000001b AL. AL EAX. EAX EAX. . AL AL. Highest byte (to page register) . channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL AL. 8 DMA13Add. AL EAX. AL EAX. . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . [EBP+28] DMA13Add. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. 00000011b AL. . EAX DMAEnd . AL AL. [EBP+28] EBX. 8 DMA13Cnt. OR with MODE . AL DMA1FF. .NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . [EBP+24] EAX.0 AL. AL EAX. EBX EAX. Lo byte address . AL DMA2FF. BL DMA2Mode. MMURTL V1. AL EAX. 8 DMA21Cnt. EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. . [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. 8 DMA21Add. EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. AL EAX. . 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. CH1 on DMA 2 . . Hi Byte . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . . AL EAX. sdMem . 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. dPhyMem . 1 DMA21Add. . OR with MODE . AL EAX. BL DMA1Mode. Hi Byte . 8 DMAPage3. AL EAX. AL EAX. We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . 15 DMAPage5. CH3 . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . AL AL.XOR EAX. 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ .

AL AL.0 AL. 00000011b AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . EAX . Rid of all but lower 16 . EAX EAX. AL EAX. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. sdMem . AL EAX. Hi Byte . channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. dPhyMem . 15 DMAPage6. AL EAX. 8 DMA22Add. Highest byte (to page register) . AL DMA2FF. CH2 on DMA 2 . Hi Byte . 15 DMAPage6. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. [EBP+28] EBX. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . 1 DMA22Add. [EBP+28] EBX. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) .DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . OR with MODE . dPhyMem . AL AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. Lo byte address . EBX EAX. AL EAX. 1 DMA23Add. AL AL. Lo byte address . EAX DMAEnd . 0FFFFh EAX. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL EAX. 0FFFFh EAX. CH3 on DMA 2 . AL DMA2FF. 8 DMA22Cnt. 8 DMA23Add. Highest byte (to page register) . BL DMA2Mode. EAX EAX. 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . BL DMA2Mode. 8 DMA23Cnt. sdMem . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. AL AL. Rid of all but lower 16 . [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. EBX EAX. AL EAX. OR with MODE . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . 00000010b AL. [EBP+24] EAX.EBP MMURTL V1. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer .

. For channels 0 through 3. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. GetDMACount(dChannel. For channels 5 through 7. . you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. In this case. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. . you actually set the channel byte count 65.g. 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX.3. . EBP+ 16 12 .Channel . pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where .2. . You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. To move 64K.535: .POP EBP RETF 20 ..6.1. DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX.0 . . DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. 7 MMURTL V1. pwCountRet) . On some devices. you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. The count is number of WORDS-1 .Return address for count .5. this is bytes. PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+16] MOV ESI. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX.7) . the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. . 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. the count will be returned. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. no error from the floppy controller). DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX.ESP MOV EAX. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. . dChannel (0. . 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. . . . this will be the number of words. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX.

hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. . Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. . or at set intervals. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. program. . One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board.DX MOV CH. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. which determines the interrupt interval. EAX MOV ESP. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . many devices interrupt the processor.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is not very complicated. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. or even hours in some cases. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. . The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt.DX MOV CL. .No such channel! . MMURTL V1. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. No Error . Your job is to know how to program the PICU. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. be responsible to program these dedicated timers. Internally. Usually. . A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI].CX has words/bytes left in DMA . however. . The operating system may. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. . these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. Therefore. Quite often.AL IN AL. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. and read as required. The PICU takes care of this for you. . A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. CX XOR EAX. In the process of an interrupt. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. As you can imagine (or will have realized). This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. 20 bytes of junk to dump .JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. but it is critical that it's done correctly.

0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS .All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses. MMURTL V1. You will need the hardware manual for code examples.

For this reason. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. This can be done in more than one step if required. then jumping to the first address of the sector. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . then execute it. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. more complicated. tasks. This device will. If you're using another platform. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. we start with loading the operating system. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. I've done all your homework. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. In this chapter. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. The question is." that's exactly what I mean. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. This is known as a multistage boot. no doubt. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. and it's not exactly easy. and important structures. In the PC world. where boot ROMs usually reside. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. If this is true. then go through each section of the basic initialization. the boot sector code may load another. To be honest. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. In other words. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. When I say "just enough code. it executes from a reset state. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. you'll have to do some research. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. be organized with a file system. including hardware. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. MMURTL V1.at least not as a file from the file system. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know.Chapter 7. memory. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up.

5. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. 7. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. In an ISA system. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes.. First. such as a fixed track or cylinder. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. then Drive C. 8. 5. In my case. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. 2. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. the hardware commands. 3. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. and where you stored it. such as a whole track). it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. But it gets more complicated. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). This was a double problem. Second. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. Where your operating system will reside in memory. 4. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. then life is easy. MMURTL V1. 1. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. then executed the next instruction at the new address. 3. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. 4. 6. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. because they provide the BIOS. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). 8. This lead to two relocation efforts. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. 6. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives.g. 7. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. This was the case with my system. so you can begin execution. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. which they store in a small work area in RAM. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. 2.

Sect/Cluster .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .Padding to make it 3 bytes . This contains additional information about the file system .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.media desc. .BASE (Linear) . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' .nBytes/Sector . DS:CSEG.LIMIT 768 slots . The boot sector code also . Why not? I do own it.BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk.The . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .instructions.386P directive is required because I use protected .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.nSect in FAT .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors. ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.Root Dir entries max . and are not part of the above boot sector data structure. (worthless) . .Resvd sectors .386P .nHeads .0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .disks. Examine the following code: .nFATs .Drive boot sector came from .nTotalSectors if > 32Mb . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single .on this disk that the operating needs to know.nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) . IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h . The OS must . (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads .and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible . There's no operating system here now.nSectors/track .11 bytes for volume name .

table so it can read the disk for us. 09000h ES. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9].Segment for new location . AX MOV BX.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV CX. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. 0078h .Source segment . vector location. AX DI. nSectPerTrack . at the beginning of this code CLI . return address. . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. MOV AX. Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . AX SI.Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . AX MOV DS. that I calculated after assembling it once. It works. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF .Clear interrupts .Make DS correct again . SI CX. 512 MOVSB . then "return" to it. some of the parameters to it from the boot sector.Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX.Get this while DS is correct XOR AX.9000h SS. 0Fh . 7C0h DS. Its pseudo jump .This is done by finding out where it is and writing .Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1.Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. 8000h . .This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: .This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump .The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt .Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. Push the .Destination segment . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. AX SP.. DI AX.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) .

WORD PTR nHidden . MOV CX.Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX. ADC DX.0020h ..The layout of the Disk is: . but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist . nOSSectors . POP DS .0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS . .really IS the OS. AX MOV AL.What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster . FATS (1 or more) .waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.The controller is reset. bBootDrive XOR AX.Required for Disk System Reset . nBytesPerSect BX AX.so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be.CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root .We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file . AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot .STI MOV DL.Reset failed.Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot . OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated . nRsvdSect MOV CX. nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX.Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) . CX . We need the space for other code. cluster because the first 2 are unused).Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) .logical sector order.to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or .AX is at sector for cluster 0. Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX.on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in .stage one of the a two stage loader should be). MOV SI.Must set interrupts for BIOS to work . Hidden Sectors (optional) . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) .Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it .Save in CX . OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX. now let's read some stuff!! . AX ..

DL . OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX. Read a . CH . 20h ES. but works well.0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX.OR with Sector number AL.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte. AX has .Wait for keystroke .Sector to read DX. bBootDrive DL.I increment ES and leave BX 0 . 1 .This is segment where we load the OS.Cyl into CX CL. 0Eh MOV BX.Head to DH. DX . Drive to DL CX. before we move it down to 0000h .Leaves Head in DL.Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL.Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . BX AX . shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL.Read 13h .BX will be zeroed at top of loop . .Next Sector MMURTL V1.Number of sectors AH. DH . BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX. nSectPerTrack SI . BX . Hi 2 bits to CL CL. AX .XOR INT INT AX. ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI.Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI. ES BX. It's slow. Cyl in AX DH.AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH.512 bytes for segment . 6 . . BYTE PTR ResvdByte .0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH. MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC .This is a single sector read loop .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads .AX 16h 19h . 2 . 06000h MOV ES.

AL XOR CX. move .AX DI.CX IBEmm2: IN AL.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL. BX SI. Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX. SI AX.CX IBEmm1: IN AL.WORD move .At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .WORD move . DX MOVSW . .DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS .0DFh OUT 60h.AL XOR CX. 07000h DS.64h TEST AL. BX SI.So move the OS MOV DX. DX MOVSW .AX DI. 06000h DS. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS. DX XOR SI.DI CX.A20 line should be ON Now .1000h ES. SI AX. SI MMURTL V1.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL.64h TEST AL. 8000h .02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 .64h TEST AL.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.LOOP NextSector .Now we disable interrupts.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear.0D1h OUT 64h. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.the OS down to address 0.0 .DI CX. AX ES. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX. turn on the A20 line.

The first 512 bytes is the .AX DI.Load Processor GDT Pointer .lst). BX XOR EDX. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector. I left it in.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are . 'Bad Boot Disk!'. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. 00h 0Dh.Clear prefetch queue with JMP . such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate). and a map file from the link (Bootblok. 00h '. The segment and code size escape . The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.Set up segment registers . 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END .BYTE move MOV BX.2000h ES. 0Ah. EDX MOV DL.EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.BX ES.MS-DOS used this.BX SS. 10h DS.EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX.We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually .BX FS.map).DI CX.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction.1 MOV CR0. DX MOVSB .'.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS .Load Processor ITD Pointer .BX GS. 0Ah. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok.asm <Enter> This will make a .Control Register .OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .BX . It's worthless.EXE header. 'Loading MMURTL'.call JMP FAR 08h:10000h. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX. 9000h MOV DS.CR0 OR AL. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. As you change and experiment with the boot sector.Set protected mode bit .by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump .

If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. then write it to the disk. It's quite easy to do with the Load. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. This is easy to do. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. From the MS-DOS prompt.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. Register.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. logical sector number. The results can be disastrous. To read the boot sector from a disk.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. To find where Debug loaded it. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. C:\>Debug BootBlok. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). Then copy the operating system image to the disk. This will show you a segmented address. or after the fact. you should not do this to your active development drive. and Name commands.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. Keep in mind. They may do this as they format the disk. Write. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. you can use Debug to load it as a .bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. and number of sectors following it. After you have assembled your boot sector.bin in the root directory of drive C. you can use the Dump command to display it. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok.

and loads the image into RAM then executes it. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. With MMURTL. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. This includes setting up the OS stack. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. It does everything that the boot sector code does. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). If it is in an executable format from a linker. Chapter 21.C:\> Copy OS.asm on CD-ROM. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment.00 loader. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. “The Hardware Interface. I couldn't. This single source file program (MMLoader. the Direct Memory Access hardware. All of the hardware that is resident in the system .such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. “Initialization Code.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. It is all contained in the source file Main. up to the point we jump the monitor program. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. I'm happy.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS .” MMURTL V1.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. but it's not necessary. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. At this point. Good luck. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. Hopefully.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. It is called MMLoader. They must simply be initialized to their default states. If so. and basic timers .C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers.c) to properly build it. understands. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. Additionally. It should help give you a picture of what's required. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time.

This leaves you with a few options . and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. and also some basic variables. as well as one to switch to. on the Intel processors. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. If you use one more bit. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. setting up for multitasking. Chapter 3. For instance. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. If you desire. you've got your job cut out for you. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. If you want to eliminate it. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). I just left it alone. Being a little conservative. you just learn to live with it. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). the A20 address line serves no purpose. “the Tasking Model. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. is not trivial. While in real mode. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. Either way.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. In all of the cases that were discussed. This depends on the platform. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. The option is usually up to you. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. you can address above 1Mb. MMURTL V1. It's not that big. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it.

if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). This seems to work on most machines. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode.My goal was not to discover why it existed. If your machine doesn't support this method. “Memory Management Code. I tried several methods. You don't know how much you have. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. MMURTL V1. If you chose not to do this. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. Meanwhile. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. although some people may still have problems with it. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. and you can't manage or allocate it. The following list is not all-inclusive. It's not that much of a headache. otherwise. where the address match will occur. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. At this stage of the initialization. This piece of code may have a lot to do. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. but one I'm glad I didn't face. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. some which didn't work on all machines. back to the initialization (already in progress). or is at least loaded. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. or any number of things. Chapter 19. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. The point is.

including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). because the call they add. life was easy in this respect. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. In any and all of these cases. “API Specification. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. an embedded system. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). may be similar to another documented call on the system. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. In the following sections. If this happens to me. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. If the parameters are on the stack. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. The call is made. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. This may sound like a no-brainer. and leave undocumented. what order are they in? If the stack is used. Quite often though. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. public distribution. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. Chapter 15. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. the function does its job and returns. they do.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . No kidding! With UNIX. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. UNIX was written with C. I found. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. that on occasion. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. What could be easier? I can't imagine. I'm still not entirely happy with it. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call.” shows you how I documented my calls. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system.Chapter 8. or your own consumption and enjoyment. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing.

and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. This device is extremely hardware dependent. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. this is MMURTL V1. In other words. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt.g. First. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. or at least every time it's rebuilt. Your opinion may vary on this. I'm sure you know of several. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. some use both. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. OS/2. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. has three or four calling conventions. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. the interrupt vector table).0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates).. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. It's up to you. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. some use the stack. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. as if you couldn't guess). support several conventions. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. Second. especially when it comes to speed. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. Many systems use an intermediate library. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. for example. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. Execution speed. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. and it required a fixed number of parameters. Some use registers. There are two reasons this library may be required. However. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. Pascal .junkies). The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. code size. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . faster. but the stack is not used for parameters. no doubt. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different.

then execute the interrupt instruction. When you need to return data from the call.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. the hardware will be obsolete. and the call gates are really not a problem. For application source code portability. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. I really hope not. the procedural interface is the key. right. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. However. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. However. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. MMURTL V1. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. For the operating system source. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal)." Yeah. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. If portability is near the top of your wish list. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. This may be a personal issue for me. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. The intermediate library would fill in this value. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. but this is the computer industry of the 90s.

0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. You need to consider these requirements in your design. that it's almost impossible to separate them. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. timers.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. If this is the case. and certain memory-management functions. You more than likely will. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. They work with the hardware. Suddenly. For instance. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. I set out to design the simplest. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. Do you see what I mean? Internally. and this wasn't my original plan. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. and Statusing the driver.

EBP+24 . . In a multitasking system.InitDevDr(dDevNum. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. “Systems Programming. ndBlocks. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself.ASM.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). nDevices MMURTL V1. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. pDCBs. EBP+20 nDevices.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV EAX. . . The first call listed in this section.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. InitDevDr(dDevNum. InitDevDr(). . when one user is doing serial communications. When you look at the code. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant.Set up local vars . The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. For example. You'll see certain validity checks. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. This will give you a good place to start in your design. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs.ESP SUB ESP. dLBA. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system.0 . so I won't go over it here. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. EAX MOV EAX. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. This is a common requirement on many systems. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). pStatRet. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. 16 MOV EAX. pInitData. dOpNum. . nDevices. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice.

Empty.pDCBx = 0 if not used yet .Set nDev to number of devices again .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs.No .Next caller DCB .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS .error exit . ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: .12 . .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX. OK to use . dExchTmp . [EBP+24] EAX. ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .Now check to see if device is already installed .All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: .Next devnum .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX. 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX. 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX]. [EBP+16] nDevs.All went OK so far. EAX EBX.Point EBX to rgpDCB .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].NONE left .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX. 2 . 0 .If we got here.dDevNum . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. 0 JNZ InitDev06 .nDevices .Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .Decrement nDevices . rgpDCBs MOV EAX.Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX. [EBP+20] .Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX . 2 ADD EBX.dDevNum MMURTL V1. prgDevs . 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12]. ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd . dDevX SHL EAX. we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX. rgpDCBs EAX.is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.OK to replace existing driver? .Yes .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.

and are not presented here.ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh .ADD EBX.device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . loop through each .also place Exchange into DCB. ErcBadDevNum . ADD EAX.Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. PUBLIC __DeviceInit: .for all devices that one driver controls.EBX now points to correct pointer . sdInitData). EAX .next DCB . The other two calls. 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX.Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .Set up for no error . DeviceInit(dDevNum.Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP.If the device driver was NOT reentrant . CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. [EAX] . EAX MOV EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . nDevices . . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it.EAX points to first DCB . pInitData.we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . rgpDCBs MOV EBX. A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now that EBX. You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB. PUSH EBP . .Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX.ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: . [EBP+20] MOV ECX.Any more DCBs?? . and . dExchTmp . ECX [EBX]. [EBP+20] . MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch]. or reset it after a failure.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX.ESP . EAX EBX.next p in rgp of DCBs . SHL EBX. This is the same exchange . are almost identical to DeviceInit(). DeviceOp() and DeviceStat(). EBX . [EBP+20] .the first customer to use. 2 . EAX and ECX are set up.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. . MOV EBX. MOV EBP.0 . MOV EBX. . . 4 EAX. 0 .

save ptr to DCB .call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 . .Device IS reentrant . but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.Yes .Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .Get semaphore ticket . MMURTL V1.No. CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.so we check to see if driver is reentrant.Get DCB ptr back . 0 . This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design. Send semaphore message to Exch .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . . 0 DevInit02 EAX. ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd .Get device error back . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX .dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.Ignore kernel error .YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP. ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType].save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].All looks good with device number . If not we .0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save ptr to DCB .Bogus Message . The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.NO driver! . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.. .Push all params for call to DD . It you use assembly language and provide code examples. adding the procedural call examples is a good idea..Push exchange number .Is there a physical device? DevInit02: .Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] .Ptr to message area .

but alas. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. Function .Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e. usually passed on the stack. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. or a Procedure in Pascal. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. Call . It may even be entertaining. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application. and a dword is also accessed at the same address. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE. Before writing your first MMURTL program. Terminology Throughout this section. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment.. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements.g.” and Chapter 5.Chapter 9.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. If I were a perfectionist. and DWORD. MS-DOS).A value passed to a function or procedure. WORD.Same as Procedure. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. Look at the table 9. Byte . I think you will find it useful. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. “Memory Management.1 . or a Procedure in Assembler. though.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS .a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values).1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word .a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter .A Function in C or Pascal. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. Argument . The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. “Interprocess Communications. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using.

It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. It may indicate an error. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). not the real address of the SetXY function. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. But the address is really a call gate. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS .) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. even the assembler or processor itself. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). “API Specification. erc. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. and are expanded to 32-bit values. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. or simply convey information that may. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. In some C compilers.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. Some do not. and assembly language. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. All parameters are pushed from left to right. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. MMURTL V1. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. Pascal. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. or dError. and in some cases. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. This will be done by the compiler.

MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). you should deallocate it. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. “The Tasking Model.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. If you need a 2Mb array. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. MMURTL is a Paged memory system.. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh .. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. you allocate it. MMURTL V1. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. She may pick up your dirty socks.. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory.. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated).0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . but she would much rather that you did it. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested.” describe this in great detail. In fact... MMURTL is kind of like your mother. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. malloc() in C). you simply allocate it. When you are done with it. Chapter 3. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector.2: Table 9.. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0).Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. The operating system resides at address 0.. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once.. “Interprocess Communications. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. . . There are no far data pointers. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it.g. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e.2 .” and Chapter 4.

pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). pData1. dRespExch. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. npSend. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . however. However. MMURTL does NOT. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). Now you allocate 4 pages. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. This means that in a multitasking environment. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. dData1. SendMsg (dExch. so long as you know it can't be addressed. cbData2. dMsg1. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. pData2. Of course. pRqHndlRet. cbData1. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. protect programmers from themselves. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. You allocate 5 pages. The operating system Code. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. Address 40100000h is returned to you.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). dData0. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. wSvcCode. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. Data. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. This is not a problem. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program.

The pointer is read-only. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. you need to know your job number. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). such as data communications.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. printing. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. Messaging is very powerful.Normally. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . Other than that. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. /* User Name . You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. For instance. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. char sbJobName[14]. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. This eats all of your link blocks. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. MMURTL is not a mind reader. If you do.LString */ MMURTL V1. but you don't want that either. only your program will be trashed. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. and user interaction.

There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. }.char sbPath[70]. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. char fCursType. Chapter 13.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. long nLines. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. The keyboard interface is a system service. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. pPathRet. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. long NormVid.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. To change data in the JCB. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. char fCursOn. char JcbExitRF[80]. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. For most applications. char JcbSysOut[50]. char fVidPause. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. long NextJCB. char *pVidMem. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. long CrntY.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. unsigned char ScrlCnt. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . MMURTL V1. long nCols. long ExitError. and special keys. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet.LString */ std output . “Keyboard Service. long VidMode. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. char *pVirtVid. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. char JcbSysIn[50]. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum.LString */ std input . long CrntX. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. with unused portions padded. char JcbCmdLine[80]. editing.

4. In this byte. and Blink if desired to form a single value. The colors for TTYOut(). and cursor positioning. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79.3. the high nibble is the background.3 . Background. logically OR the Foreground. Table 9. and low nibble is the foreground. and 9. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . Foreground colors. Tables 9. PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. character placement. The high bit of each. Background colors describe the attributes. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24.Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls.4 . Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes). only the least significant byte is used. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. is the intensity bit.4096 bytes).

Remember. If no file is specified. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). Any task in your job may call ExitJob().". The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. 17. BGBLUE|WHITE). You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. MMURTL has to hunt for them. 0. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. or system calls. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. exchanges. and other things allocated while you were running. This is done by calling the Chain() function. This includes any memory. MMURTL V1. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. "This is a test. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated.

It's not very useful. Client programs make a Request. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. then Respond. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. as well as for other services. if needed. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. if required. the service does the processing and Responds.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. and Assembly language programmers. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. use messaging. service them. Additional exchanges. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS .) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. Wait for messages. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. or provide services to application programs. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. Pascal.Chapter 10. and memory management operations. MMURTL V1. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. Service names are casesensitive. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. Additional tasks if required. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. such as: Additional memory. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist.

long RqOwnerJob. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. Message[2]. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk.1. long dData2. MainExch). /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. long cbData1. char *pRqHndlRet. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". else if (pRqBlk. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.pData1 = NextNumber++. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError.Listing 10. long ServiceRoute.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. long dData0. Message). long dData1. while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. MainExch. }. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. char npRecv. NextNumber = 0. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). char *pData2. long RespExch. char *pData1. ErrorToUser. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). long RQBRsvd1. long cbData2. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. long RQBRsvd2.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . int ServiceCode. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. long RQBRsvd3. char npSend.

As a system service.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. They are 32-bit values. cbData1 and cbData2. and dData2. The complexity of your service. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. you define the data items you need. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. For example. and what service you provide. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). This is the number 1 (one). The first dword is the Request Block Handle.The Request Block As you can see. because the operating system does not alias them as such. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. and how much information a program must pass to you. in the File System. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. one number represents OpenFile. For all other values of the service code. The memory address of the Request Block. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. The operating MMURTL V1. In the simple example above. the service only defines one service code that it handles. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. These items are dData0. dData1. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. or any data movement back to the caller. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. another CloseFile. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. when you receive a Request. For larger data movement to the service. In fact. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. and another RenameFile. This is called the service code. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. As a system service writer.

system is “aware” of this. However. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. cbData2. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. This is the easiest way to handle requests. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. which is a valuable system resource. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. RAM disks. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. If so. MMURTL is built in layers. If this happens. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. Synchronous services wait. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. the file may not exist. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. Disk drives. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. and moves it to another exchange. you must respond to it immediately. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). This type of service is defined as asynchronous. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. When you write system services. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. communications ports (serial and parallel). before responding to any other requests you are holding. cbData1 and pData2. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. but carries it one step farther. MMURTL uses this concept. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. In the keyboard service. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. then respond before waiting for the next request. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. tape drives. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. If so. receive a request. In each of these cases. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. until you respond. The first is the request block handle.

MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. For example. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. interrupt vectors. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. basic video. keyboard.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. Sequential devices are things like communications ports. The interface is non-specific. keyboard. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. as well as where the data is on the device. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. multitasking. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. This means message. It does not directly access hardware. hard disk. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. powerful. Things like Device name. timer hardware.. the file system is at user level (3). to handling complex devices such as hard drives. the PICUs. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk.e. I have made it rather painless to build fast. RAM DISK). Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware.g. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). or network frame handlers (i. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. MMURTL V1.g. or is included in the OS code at build time. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. or any OS structures. If a device driver controls more than one device. SCSI ports. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. With InitDevDr(). network link layer devices). Block Size. or a processor protection violation will occur.. C and Pascal). Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). multi-threaded environment.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it.and sequential-oriented. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space.

This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. if required. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. At this point. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. it's the main program block. You can name them anything you want in your program. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. The generic steps are described below. Allocate exchanges. if needed. if needed. Set up interrupt service routines. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. and is programmed. Do anything else you need before being called. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. The device driver looks. just like any other program. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. or in Pascal. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). Call InitDevDr(). Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. In C this would be main(). if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. InitDevDr() never returns to you. The main entry point will never be called again. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. Check or set up the device’s. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. like any application in MMURTL. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. This layer of code performs several functions for you.

or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time.”API Specification. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. Two calls provide these functions. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. specifically DOS. mode. This is often called an interrupt vector. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. especially if the driver controls two devices. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. device drivers are very close to the hardware.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. If you use MMURTL V1. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. Timer Facilities Quite often. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. In other operating systems. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. MMURTL uses paged memory. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. and size of a DMA move. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. or how much was transferred. although it’s not a requirement. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). direction.

See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg().) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. Table 10. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. Alarm(). you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. and KillAlarm() functions. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. If you use SendMsg(). If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. and how to implement them in your code. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. but easy to figure out. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB).1-. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. Table 10. you can use SendMsg().Alarm(). or assembler to construct the DCB.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). a structure in C.

the SendMsg(). defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. Each device name must be unique. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). usually an unexpected one. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. Disk drives are divided into sectors. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. The Hard disk driver operates the same way. this is device dependent. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. If it is another device. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. if you are on track zero.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). we then move to the next head. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks).This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device.Each driver names the device it serves. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. For devices that are not re-entrant. pDevOp. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. This reduces disk arm movement which. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. ndDevBlocks . RETN is the proper instruction. then this should contain a 2. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name.number of bytes per block. and WaitMsg() primitives. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. For example. For instance. sector zero.When a driver encounters an error. In assembler. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. sbDevName . MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. increases throughput. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. dLastDevErc . The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. where several devices are controlled though one access point. Each sector is considered a block. DevType . but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName .This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. If the device is sequential. and handle device conflicts internally. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. but this is not much of a limitation. head zero. Some names are standardized in MMURTL.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . and you read one sector past the end of that track. In other words. not the next track.this indicates whether the device is addressable. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. znBPB . fDevReent . pDevInit.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . MMURTL V1.

pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. wJob .4. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller.3. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . pInitData. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. verify. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session.dLBA. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. no job is currently assigned the device. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. write.fSingleUser . If this is zero. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. dLBA. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. They equate to standard device operations such as read. dOpNum. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device.pData).dOpNum. and format.6 . ndBlocks. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.dnBlocks. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on. this flag should be true (non-zero).5. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls.If the fSingleUser is true. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. pStatRet. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr.2. Your function implementations must do the same. OSUseONLY1. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32).

pStatRet. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . and so on. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. For sequential devices. Not all devices will return status on demand. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified.pdStatusRet). you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. parity.dInitData).dStatusMax.pInitData. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. this will simply be the number of bytes.

The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. If the driver controls more than one device. this is the first number of the devices. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. and so on. such as a disk or SCSI controller. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. After the Device driver has been loaded. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. pDCBs. fReplace If true. the second at pDCBs + 128. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. This is because one controller. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. and one DMA channel if applicable. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. nDevices. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. If this is not the case. If more than one device is controlled. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. and a very good knowledge of the hardware.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the devices are number consecutively.

If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status. then use it. MMURTL V1. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS .Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed.

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.1 shows a sample INITIAL.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file.RUN <---.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line .JOB. a buffer in memory. The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with.INITIAL.the run file name are ignored. as well as the video display. When the user presses these global keys. (e. C:\MSamples\Service\Service.1. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. Sample Initial.RUN) . only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. Even when a Job is not being displayed. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. the job he is currently viewing.g. Listing 11.Maximum line length is 80 characters total. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen.to the run file. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. is assigned to the new job or is terminated. One run file name per line. or terminate. Listing 11.run C:\MMSYS\CLI.This is the initial jobs file. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. Drive:\DIR\NAME. . The format is very simple. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name. Any spaces. If it's displaying video data.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1.system boot in this file. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing. . The name must start in the first column of a line.after each entry.Chapter 11. In future versions of MMURTL.JOB . .JOB file. No spaces.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon .Job file . The file name must contain the FULL . A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. the keyboard.file name including path. tabs or comments after . If you intend to write an operating system. No parameters are passed .

Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. Once the initialization is complete. job display. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. any errors returned are displayed. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. During this process.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. Table 11. and access to the built-in debugger.RUN.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. priority task.This is the total count of task switches since boot up.1. Table 11. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. RS-232 serial communications. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. Task switches total .1. They are displayed as typed. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. MMURTL V1. and the parallel port (LPT) driver. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages ..1 describes the function of each assigned key.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job.

MMURTL V1.h" "MFiles. There were no tasks ready to run. but have a fixed count at OS build time. Response is made by the service. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time. Free Exchanges . Each new task uses one of these. Free Link Blocks .2.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated.h" "MDevDrv. even in the same job. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. Listing 11.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run.h" "MJob.This is the number of free job control blocks left.These are task-management structures. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks. the request block is returned for re-use. If this number is greater than zero. See listing 11. Free Job Control Blocks .h" "MKbd. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval.h" "MVid.CPU idle ticks (no work) . you will see the preemptive task switch count increase. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel.h" "MData.h" "MTimer.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each job uses one.A small structure used by all messages sent and received. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do. Tasks Ready to Run . Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated. that don't get picked up right away.h" "MMemory. the C library code can be used.2. but the count is fixed at OS build time. Free Task State Segments . They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. including requests. This number may seem a little high.

fKilled. LastErcByte0. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". KillError. All Rights Reserved". unsigned long KillExch.Message based. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. LastStatByte1. gcode. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. MMURTL V1. Burgess. MUltitasking. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". static unsigned long GPHndl. LastSeekErc0. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. MngrExch. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK.A. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) .static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ".0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 blocks_done. 1990-1995. MngrHndl. MngrMsg[2]. static long time. LastRecalErc1. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. static unsigned long GP1Exch. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. LastStatByte0. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. LastSeekErc1. U32 BlocksMax. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. fIntOnReset. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". U8 fNewMedia. KillJobNum. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. tick. date. Real-Time kerneL". U8 type_now. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. LastErcByte1. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2].

/* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. nHalts. char *ppJCBRet).c */ HardIDE. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg.c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. nTSSLeft. nRQBLeft. static unsigned long nMemPages. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. /* out to 64 bytes */ }. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . lpt_setup(void). /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. static long StatStack[256].asm */ Floppy. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. hdisk_setup(void). nEXCHLeft. nSwitches. xsprintf. nReady.c */ RS232.U8 ResetStatByte. nJCBLeft. U32 resvd1[2]. nLBLeft. fdisk_setup(void). extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. coms_setup(void). InitFS(void).c */ Fsys. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax.c */ Parallel. nSlices. BootDrive.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . #asm MMURTL V1. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. char *pJCBRet).

**************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr. long *argptr) { char numstk[33].EAX . *ptr = justify = minus = 0. justify.MOV EAX. JLE isdigit1 .0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . total. ptr = &numstk[32]. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . #asm XOR EAX. unsigned long width. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. minus. chr. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. total = 0. width = value = i = 0.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. 39h .[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI].0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer.[EBP+8] CMP AL. value. chr = *fmt++. zero. zero = ' '. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). 30h . *ptr.0 JL isdigit0 . i. EAX MOV ESI. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. char *fmt.No CMP AL.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX.

0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1.'0'). case 's' : ptr = value. chr = *fmt++. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. } while(value /= i). break. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. break. } value = *--argptr. } case 'u' : i = 10. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. break. default: *--ptr = chr. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. ++minus. ++total.width = (width * 10) + (chr . break. case 'o' : i = 8. *--ptr = chr. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. break. case 'c' : *--ptr = value. case 'b' : i = 2. ++argptr. if(width) --width. break.

++i.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). return total..1. } /************************************ MMURTL V1. just move into string *outptr++ = chr. ++total. fmt). ++total. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. char buffer[S_SIZE]. ++total. long total. TTYOut(buffer. . ++i. strlen(buffer). ap). } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. ++total. } } *outptr = 0. } /* move in data */ i = 0. va_start(ap. } } } else { /* not format char. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. return total.) { va_list ap. i < width. Color). fmt. fmt). /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt..0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . va_end(ap. value = width .

} /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. 80.0. tick). long total. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. ap).. it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. fmt. rgStatLine. BLUE|BGWHITE). fmt). rgMonMenu2. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. PutVidChars(27. va_start(ap.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . Msg[2]. When it gets one. PutVidChars(54. iLine.80. rgMonMenu3. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. MMURTL V1. rgMonMenu1.1. Exch. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. GetXY(&iCol.22). **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. . char *fmt. 26. PutVidChars(0.. total = _ffmt(s. PutVidChars(0. &iLine). 26. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). BLUE|BGWHITE).1).Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. fmt). SetXY(0. BLUE|BGWHITE). SetXY(0. va_end(ap.) { va_list ap. return total. i. 24. return. "%d". Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor.1). WHITE|BGBLUE). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. 24.23. 24. 25.

rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). 80.. ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD.. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. rgStatLine. /* sleep 0. KillMsg). /* year */ 0x0f). /* Day */ 0x0f). ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). /* month */ 0x0f). KillJobNum. CheckScreen(). tick). rgStatLine. Tone(440. KillError). Sleep(50). WHITE|BGBLUE). 80. The message has Error. xprintf("Job number %d terminated. tick). PutVidChars(0. (time & 0x0f). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]..) { GetCMOSTime(&time).0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0x0f).U8 *pPD.5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. PutVidChars(0. WHITE|BGBLUE). /* sleep 0.5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f).50). TSSExch in it. &pJCB). *pVid. pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. for(. 0x0f). GetTimerTick(&tick). if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate.*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1.0. "%d". Error: %d\r\n". "%d". if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum.0. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. Sleep(50).

GetVidOwner(&i). DeAllocJCB(pJCB). /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. Exch. 1).0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS .. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. We don't actually switch jobs. if the debugger has the video. &i. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. i. MMURTL V1. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc.) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. char *pJCB. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. &gcode. /* We're done (and so is he. 0. DeAllocPage(pVid. 0. Msg). 0. 0. 2). /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. */ DeAllocPage(pPD. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). 1. 0.. 4. 0). So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot.. Also. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". j. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. 2.. fDone. fKilled = 1. &MngrHndl. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). MngrExch. 0.

4. 4. 0. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. 0. else if (i>34) i = 1. 0. MngrMsg). MngrMsg). erc = GetpJCB(i. 0. &MngrHndl. 0). } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . erc = KillJob(j). MngrExch. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). i = j. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". &gcode. 0. 0. MngrExch. &pJCB). 0. 0. 0. 2. 0. 0).. erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch.0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . fDone = 0. i. 0. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. for(. 0.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. &MngrHndl. while (!fDone) { i++. if (i==2) i = 3. 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0). 0.4. 0.

cbrunfile. if (!erc) { fdone = 0.JOB\0". This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. sdisk += 0x41. char fdone. 0. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command.check port up to 64K times . 1. char arunfile[80].0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . while (!fdone) { i = 0. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. /* 0=A.AL STI #endasm return. job. unsigned char sdisk. } . sjobfile.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . 20). i. fh.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file.Read Status Byte into AL .Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. job = 0. &ajobfile[1]. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli. 1=B. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . fcli. 2=C etc. #asm CLI MOV ECX.0FEh OUT 64h. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. sjobfile.first we clear interrupts .return. sdisk &= 0x7F. j.run and the last job loaded. fcli = 0. do MMURTL V1. char ajobfile[50]. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. &fh).64h TEST AL. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk).

CheckScreen(). erc = 0. } } } else fdone = 1. erc = Request("KEYBOARD".run". 1.\r\n".0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS .. else fcli = 0. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. assign the keyboard and video to it. Sleep(50). &job). } CloseFile(fh). &j). &arunfile[i++].. CheckScreen(). */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job).{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. erc). Sleep(50). if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. CheckScreen(). GP1Exch. arunfile). "cli.') continue. cbrunfile. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. &GP1Hndl. MMURTL V1. job). while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. job = 0. 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. 4. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. xprintf("Loading: %s. if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. 0.

0.. } return erc. &GP1Hndl. 0. 16). 0. unsigned char sdisk. ccode1. 0. GP1Msg). Sleep(50). strlen(acli). 0.RUN\0". xprintf("Loading: %s. GP1Exch. CheckScreen(). GP1Msg). erc = LoadNewJob(acli. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". erc = Request("KEYBOARD". sdisk += 0x41. job. 0. iLine. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. sdisk &= 0x7F. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. acli[40]. &job).0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI.0. unsigned long ccode. 4. InitScreen(). 0). *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. /* 0=A.\r\n"). 0. 0. char text[70]. *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. job. unsigned char c.JOB file not found in system directory. 0. 0. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. iCol. CheckScreen().. 1=B. 2=C etc. MMURTL V1. &acli[1]. SetVidOwner(job). i. */ acli[0] = sdisk. j. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. job). acli). 0). k. job.".

erc).. xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). erc = lpt_setup(). 1 ). Error: "). 0. xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . xprintf("%d\r\n". i). erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). erc). if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". erc).. Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK.Tone(250. xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n".A.Burgess. erc). &StatStack[255]. i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc = coms_setup(). xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages).15). xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch).0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . MUltitasking.Message based. erc). erc). Error: "). /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). xprintf("Init floppy device driver. erc = hdisk_setup(). /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). 24. erc). erc = fdisk_setup(). c). xprintf("Copyright (c) R. Tone(1000. xprintf("%d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n".. erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). erc). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask.33). xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. i).. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". erc). erc = InitKBDService(). i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024.

. 0. Error: %d\r\n".. erc). SetXY(k+10. 0. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40. /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there.) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. erc). 4. 0). */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD".j).0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 ). j = 2. &ccode. &GPHndl. case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen(). /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1].\r\n"). GPExch. 13). &MngrStack[255]. GPMsg). erc = GetpJCB(i. MMURTL V1. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. 1..j). erc). Tell it to wait for a key. text). j++. */ LoadJobFile(). xprintf("Name: %s\r\n". /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. 0. 1. erc = InitFS(). 0. /* Col offset */ for (i=1. if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". xprintf("File System. break.xprintf("Initializing file system. for (. if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0.. c = ccode & 0xff. 10. &pJCB). xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". i<nMaxJCBs. 0. text. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". erc). /* Line */ k = 0. pJCB->JobNum)..

Cancelled\r\n"). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. "/". nMemPages). 1. PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK).12). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. 1). Sleep(12). 1. nEXCHLeft).1). case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). break. PutVidChars(29.. 1. "/". " ". erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. Sleep(9). 1. 1. "\\". 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). "|". erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). Sleep(9).1). PutVidChars(29.future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. 1. break. PutVidChars(29. nSlices). Sleep(9). while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. nHalts). 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. nRQBLeft). 1. 1. Sleep(9).. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(9). 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf ("\r\n").. xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. Sleep(9). GREEN|BGBLACK). any other key to cancel").0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x12: /* F4 . xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). nJCBLeft). \r\n"). break. PutVidChars(29.loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). "|". 1. 1. 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). 1. "\\". xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". "-". 1. SetXY(0. nTSSLeft). GREEN|BGBLACK).} } break. xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. "-". xprintf(". xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). nSwitches). xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". Sleep(12). PutVidChars(29. } SetXY(0. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. nReady). xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . nLBLeft)..

1.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS .TTYOut (CRLF. WHITE|BGBLACK). WHITE|BGBLACK). } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1.80. } } GetXY(&iCol.22). 2. &iLine). else TTYOut (&c. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.1).1.23. SetXY(0.

.

When this occurs. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. the debugger is entered. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. will clear the screen for display.Chapter 12. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. function keys are across the bottom. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. and why. MMURTL V1. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. non-symbolic debugger. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. and a red banner is displayed. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. It is not a separate run file. such as dumping data. the debugger is an assembly language. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. Certain debugger display functions. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). along with the exception number that caused it. If the debugger was entered on a fault. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again.

Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. next. The GDT contains many items. GDT . This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries.Request Block Array. next. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS .Services Array. This displays all active tasks on the system. low order). Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. without executing them. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. This requests a linear address. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution.” SVCs . and then dumps the bytes located at that address. F9 DumpB . These values are hard coded at system build. F2 SetBP .Goto CS:EIP.Interrupt Descriptor Table. RdyQ . The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array.Dynamic TSSs. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling).Single Step. The abbreviations are given in the following list. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. with the down arrow key. the associated Job number. You may move down through the instructions.Dump Dwords. that will be somewhere in this array. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI.Display Exchanges. TSS1 . and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. TSS3 . The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. This is an array of 512-byte structures. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. The address is displayed on the left. F4 CS:EIP . This clears the single breakpoint. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. the address of the TSS. F10 . The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. F8 CrntAdd .Address Information. “Application Programming. This becomes the active address. These structures can also be very useful during program debugging.Display Tasks. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. This requests a linear address. F12 AddInfo .This is the address of the array of currently registered services. JCBs . This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. F5 Exch .Link Blocks. . TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. RQBs . This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution.Change Current Address. LBs .Global Descriptor Table.Dump Bytes. the address of the task's JCB.Clear Breakpoint. IDT .Job Control Blocks. This is the address of the Monitor TSS. as most of them are. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. F6 Tasks . This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. TSSs are numbered sequentially. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3.Set Breakpoint. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right.First TSS. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. The address is displayed on the left. a linear address. The task number. This returns to the application and executes one instruction.Ready Queue. The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. Each TSS is 512 bytes. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. F3 ClrBP . MMURTL V1. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address.

They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. listed in your ATF file. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. There are four debug address registers in the processor. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. locking up. and also how local variables are accessed. MMURTL V1. or whatever).0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . entering the debugger. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem.ASM files. Lots of code here MOV ESP. such as [EBP+12]. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. When it occurs. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. Each exchange is 16 bytes. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. actually a trap. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. like the older processors.and displayed as an unsigned number. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. or at the beginning of any instruction. without having to fill in special registers. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. With near calls like you would make inside your program. but for right now. ESP . This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory.Exch . You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. or for . The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks.Timer Blocks. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features.Exchanges. In some cases.START in an assembly language program. aTmr . This is the address of the array of timer blocks. For applications. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. In MMURTL. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. its down and dirty troubleshooting. it is the index of that exchange in the array.

This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image.Processor exceptions. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on.. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. It almost. The debugger becomes the active job. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. a pointer to the currently running TSS. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. usually a blank screen and nothing else. Table 12. The debugger cannot debug itself. No other task operates at a priority that high. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. or faults. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. including allocated memory.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . just like applications do. When the debug interrupt activates. When writing an operating system. Instead. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. you will see that there are many interrupts. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. becomes a task in the job it interrupted.1. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). If you look through the 386/486 documentation. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). is saved by the debugger. MMURTL V1. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger.1. called exceptions.. that can occur. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. the current pRunTSS. but not quite. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. you must be able to access all of its memory. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. a page fault is fatal to a task. If you are going to debug a task.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. Traps.

If the debugger was entered because of a fault. To do this. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. These contain the address of the exception handler. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. This makes the debugger transparent. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. While you are in the debugger. MMURTL V1. which is exactly what you want. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. you should kill the offending job and restart. When the debugger is entered. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS .Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS.

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&KeyCode 4. 0 0. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". 1.fWait for Key */ dData1 .Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. It's easier to use. 0. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. “system programming. 0). the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. As described in chapter 10. MyExch.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 .0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. this is true multitasking). Available Services Table 13. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services.Chapter 13. 0.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. 1. but not as powerful.Not used (0) */ dData2 . Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number.1 shows the services provided by the service code. &MyRqhandle.

Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS .Not used 0 . The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered.Table 13.Count of bytes in the code 0 .Not used. the error should be 0. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available.1. This allows for "hot-key" operation. described in detail later. The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available.Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed.Wait for Key = 0 .Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys.Return with error if no key waiting 1 . Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. If you have an outstanding Notify request. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). even if a key is not available. Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 . The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications. In this case. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned.Not used = 0 . It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. Unlike regular keystrokes. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter.

The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. this cancels it. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. Alt & Ctrl.3. Locks. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. Num. shown in table 13. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application.). and Scroll). as shown in table 13.4. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. If you have an outstanding Notify request. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C).2. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. as shown in table 13. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. The low-order byte is the actual key code.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . etc. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts.

3 . LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. Table 13.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. Table 13. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned. Num or Scroll).If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. Alt or Shift). shows how the bits are defined. This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1. Table 13. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps. This bit (Bit 0.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code.3 shows how the bits are defined.2 .2. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned..Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. Table 13.

. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift.4 . If a shift code is not shown.main keyboard.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. Key Codes Table 13. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned. A description is given only if required. or Locks). The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS . Alt. Ctrl. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. For example. Table 13.1h to 7Fh).

bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert.5 shows the key code value returned. . / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 13.5 . Table 13. ' . Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1.

13. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active.7.6 .0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS .Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1. (Period) Cursor. Table 13.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. Caps lock does not affect these keys. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13. Edit.7.

Pieces of it may be useful for your system. Chapter 25. as I have tried to do in this chapter. such as international key translations.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. MMURTL V1. or you may want more.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. if you desire. when all else fails. Remember.”Keyboard Code. the programmer will read the documentation. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Chapter 14. a network name.and finally the filename itself. and a node name is specified.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. The third part is the filename as described above. MMURTL V1. and optionally. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. then up to three more characters. the network service receives the request from the file system. a period.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". just how we access it.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. the default name NETWORK is used. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. but none as wide spread. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. filename. there isn't anything new about the format. For example. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. will be routed to the service with the same name. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. This ties its hands so to speak. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. When a network file is opened. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters.

MMURTL V1. Make no assumptions about this number. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. 4096 byte buffer. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. When a file is opened in Read mode. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. a number called a file handle is returned to you. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. or just reading alone.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. This is a one page. in any mode or type. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required.File Handles When a file is opened. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword).

Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ". The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA).1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. or file pointer. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -.ptr to name */ cbData1 -. 1. Table 14. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service. 0). This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. MyExch.doc". Listing 14.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. Listing 14. 0. 1. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.1. You can make a request. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from.ModeRead */ dData1 -.Block Type Access */ dData2 -. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. For Stream files.1 shows the service codes the file system supports.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes.size of name */ pData2 -. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. &MyRqhandle.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. 1. &"AnyFile.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. Table 14.returned handle */ cbData2 -. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. &FileHandle 4. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking). File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service. This is called a file pointer in some systems. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file. All message-based services use the same request-based interface. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. The file system actually runs as a separate task. It meets all the requirements.Size of a handle */ dData0 -. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -.1 . no matter what Mode the file was opened in.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. 11.

Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. MMURTL V1.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. Table 14.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. The request is transparent to the caller. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. KBD and VID devices only. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. but only through the procedural interfaces. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. The Request interface will not allow device access.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 . Table 14. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself.

it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: dHandle . dcbname. dAccessType. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName.a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). If stream access type was specified. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path.pointer to the filename or full file specification.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode .File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. pdHandleRet . dcbName . Procedural parameters: pName .pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. dOpenMode. If a file is open in ModeRead. Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType .Block = 0. Stream = 1. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file.READ = 0. all buffers are flushed and deallocated.

dLFA.Pointer to the data to write nBytes .wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. This must be a multiple of the block size. pdnBlkRet . nBytes . This MUST be a multiple of the block size. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. dLFA . This will always return a multiple of 512. See the SetFilesize() section. dLFA. pDataRet.pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle.DWord with number of bytes to write. nBytes.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. pData.DWord with number of bytes to read. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512). The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. MMURTL V1. This must always be a multiple of 512.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. dLFA . One Block = 512 bytes. pData . Procedural parameters: dhandle .Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. Procedural parameters: dHandle . nBytes. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS .Logical File Address to read from. pDataRet . pdnBytesRet .Logical File Address to write to. Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed.

Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS .pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. pDataRet. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. nBytes. pdnBytesRet . pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. pDataRet . The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs.Dword with number of bytes to read. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. The bytes are read from the current LFA. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. pData.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. Parameters: dhandle . GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. nBytes. nBytes .

The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C).Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). nBytes . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. pdnBytesRet .Dword with a valid file handle.Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword with number of bytes to write. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF). An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. pData .Pointer to the data to write.Dword with a valid file handle. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet . Procedural parameters: dHandle . dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access.0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle. as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: dhandle .a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned.

pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. as returned from OpenFile() dSize . dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. Procedural parameters: dhandle .a Dword with the new size of the file. The file length.a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned. as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File.Dword with a valid file handle. Procedural parameters: dHandle .dLFA .Dword with a valid file handle. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. and allocated space on the disk.a Dword with the LFA you want to set.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS .

dcbName. dcbNewName .pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. Procedural parameters: pName .Dword with length of the filename dAttributes . pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. Procedural parameters: pName .A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden. empty file in the path specified.pointer to the new filename or full file specification.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1. dcbName .pointer to the current filename or full file specification. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. dcbname. and ready to be opened and accessed. The file is closed after creation. dcbName .Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .

Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. dcbPath . This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. dcbPath): dError This creates a new.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . No further access is possible. Procedural parameters: dHandle . empty directory for the path specified.Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: pPath . the directory is created in your current path. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. If only the new directory name is specified. as opposed to a full path.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system.pointer to the path (directory name) to create.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. specified in the Job Control Block. and the filename is available for re-use.

fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. or directory name. dcbPath . Each sector contain 16 directory entries.If set to non-zero.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. as opposed to a full path. pSectRet. dcbPath. If only the existing directory name is specified.pointer to the path. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. all files in this directory.pointer to the path. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. dcbPath. This call returns one sector from a directory. If no path is specified. all subdirectories. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. the path in your JCB will be used. Procedural parameters: pPath .0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . The directory must exist in the path specified. The path must contain the directory name as the last element. the name is appended to the path from your job control block.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . to read tj sector from dcbPath . Procedural parameters: pPath . or directory name to delete.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1.

If the file is opened in Stream mode. When it reaches 0. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. The FUBs contain the file pointer. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . Because it is a pointer. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. FCB.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. Each opened file is allocated an FCB. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. buffer pointers. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. it's not allocating files. Each FCB is 128 bytes. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. MMURTL V1. the open mode.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. Some structures are dynamically allocated. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. Quite a few of them use this same name. while others are part of the operating system data segment.pSectRet . Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing.

and raster image files. MMURTL V1. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. On most hard disks. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. which is cluster size. they use what is called a FAT16. return an error ErcFileInUse. vector. The list could go on and on. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. and the sixth is marked as the last. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. or three entries. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. Run files being executed.The disk is allocated in clusters. The file is open. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. the user will strike next. This is in itself is time-consuming. In this example. source files for compilers. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. allocate an FUB and attach it. because of the design of the FAT file system. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. Large database files are the major random users. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. If it's open in ModeWrite. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. L = Last entry in your file. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. Usually. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. inside of a 400 Mb file. The fourth entry points to the fifth. X = not your file. However.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. From this. the fifth points to the sixth. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. Directories are stored as files. If opened in Block mode. you can usually do it quite rapidly. Load FAT buffer if required. That's 128Kb. That's a lot of FAT (or file). If so. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open.

On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. and depends on how the file was opened. but much overhead is involved. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. If the file is being extended. Both copies must be updated.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. If opened in block mode. Close This is the easy part. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. you must find unallocated clusters. attach them to the chain. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. It sounds simple. then write the data.

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Chapter 14.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. Table 15. Table 15. The call address consists of a selector and an offset. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. An improperly.0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . “File System Service”). These are known as compound descriptions.g. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. They are listed by functional group first. The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names.1 lists the prefixes. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e.2 .1 . Table 15. I might add.2 lists these additional prefix characters.. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT).4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes .Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use. Table 15. If you are going to write your own operating system. The offset should be 0.Chapter 15.

and optionally suffixes . Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. grouped by type. dMsg1. dcbFileName . Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. If a parameter is a byte.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. Table1 5. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl. The function name is followed by the parameters. dcbDataRetMax . if a value is returned by the function.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. a colon with the returned value. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. The dError. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch. Max means Maximum. or should be. or Assembler. Pascal.3. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. the most common returned value shown. Each compound set of prefixes . and Min means Minimum. Ret means Returned.3 .a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. Bytes and words (8. It is processor (hardware) enforced.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. pdDataRet . be returned.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. and finally. dMsg1. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1.

dBytes) MMURTL V1. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. pDCBs. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dLBA. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. pInitData. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. dfDebug. dcbFileName. wCodeSeg. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. cbData2. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. pS2. pS2. dExch. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dPriority. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. dcbFileName. cbData1. pData2. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. cBytes. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. ppMemRet. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. npSend.Request( pSvcName. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. fDebug. dcbAliasBytes. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. dPriority. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. dRespExch. pStatRet. dcbMem. pData1. pDestination. dData0. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. pPathRet. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. wSvcCode. dESP. pRqHndlRet. dData1. dOpNum. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dnBlocks. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. pDestination. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. LinAdd. pStack. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. dJobNum. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. nDevices. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. dStatusMax.

pbExitChar. Speaker. nChars. dPort) OutWord(Word. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. dMaxLen.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. sdMem. dTextOut. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. pbChars. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. pDataIn. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. ddLine. dChannel. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. dLine. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. pDataOut. dCrntLen.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdLenRet. dPort) OutWords(dPort. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. nCols. dULline. fdRead. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. nLines. pbCharRet. nChars. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. dLine.

Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. the parameters are not stack-based.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX .0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. This must be zero (0) for task gates. EAX Returns Error.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). but can be used by experienced systems programmers. Parameters: AX . and interrupts. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined.Returns an error. dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). Unlike most other operating system calls. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. exception gates and interrupt gates. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. Unlike most other operating system calls. They are passed in registers. They are passed in registers. Parameters: AX . and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . the parameters are not stack based. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. exceptions. or 0 if all went well.

pdPhyMemRet . pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. The message that is sent is two dwords. ppAliasRet . This would be for the time-out function described above. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. WaitMsg. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. dJobNum . dcbMem. The larger dnTicks is. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. even though it's very close. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. the more precise the timing. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). The overhead included in entry. etc.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. If you do. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). This means you can set an alarm. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). Parameters: dnTicks . Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. Parameters: nPages .). each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. Alarm() can be used for a number of things. and don't get placed in a waiting condition. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. except you provide the exchange. In fact. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. Parameters: pMem . One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications.Job number from the other application. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space.Dword (4 BYTES).a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. except it can be used asynchronously. It will always begin on a page boundary.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange.A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. dcbMem . MMURTL V1. do some other processing.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. dJobNum. ppRet . Each application has its own linear address space. ppMemRet. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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Parameters: dn15us .pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. pdJobNumRet . The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. and you call this often enough. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl.Parameters: dAlarmExch . dcbFileName. Page Descriptor. stack. Parameters: pFilename . although longer periods will work. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. Interrupts are not disabled.length of the run filename. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. and data pages. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: dIRQnum .is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. initial Task State Segment.pointer to the filename to run. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. precise. dcbFileName . so the time could be much longer. Virtual Video. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. MMURTL V1. and the memory required to run code.

dfDebug. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. dESP.exchange where the Request is to be sent.Exchange for TSS.The address of the port.Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. Parameters: MMURTL V1. dPriority. dCodeSeg.The byte value to write to the port. Paramters: Dword .Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . DPort .Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. DPort .Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . ESP . If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. OS=8 or User=18 Priority . OutDWord OutDWord(DWord.Which code segment. The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution.The address of the port. OutWord OutWord(Word. NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. Parameters: Byte . Exch .The dword value to write to the port. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . Parameters: dRqBlkHndl . it is made to run. No error is returned. else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS . dExch. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS).handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch . Parameters: JobNum .

Parameters: dCol . Parameters: DPort . “Application Programming. pDataOut.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port.color/attribute to use during display. Parameters: dCol .column to start on (0-79) dLine .pointer to the text to be displayed nChars .line (0-24) pbChars .number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib .a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned.column to start on (0-79) dLine . dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. or virtual screen. dLine. pbChars.The count of bytes to write to the port address. DPort .line (0-24) dnChars . Parameters: pdnPagesRet .number of characters pbChars is pointing to.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS .The address of the port. dnChars. PdataOut . You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2). if not displayed. Each page of memory is 4096 byte. dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort. OutWords OutWords(dPort.Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to. It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.” describes all of the attribute values.Word .The word value to write to the port. This is the number of Words * 2. nChars. dLine. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol.The address of the port. MMURTL V1. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. dAttr . DBytes .

pData1. wSvcCode. Service names are case sensitive. dData1. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. dRespExch. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. and padded with spaces (20h). Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. fWait . pData2.the exchange to be associated with the service name. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . If fWait is false (0). Request Request( pSvcName. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. The string must be left justified. cbData1.a pointer to an 8-byte string. Parameters: BAddress .A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. dData0. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . pRqHndlRet. This call blocks your task until completion. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. If fWait is true (non-zero). if forwarded across a network.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. cbData2. If no key was available. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. or on what machine the request is being serviced.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function.If true (non-zero). Parameters: pSvcName . npSend. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet .

dData1. Zero will be returned if all was well.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. pData1 . wSvcCode . cbData2 . is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. or received from the service. the value returned from the Request() call itself. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. dStatRet . Respond Respond(dRqHndl. With all kernel primitives.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. dError. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. Parameters: dRqHndl . if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned.same as pData1. dError. Function Codes 0. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). This error is not the error returned by the service. dData2 . The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend.a number (0. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service.the size of the data being sent to the service. of the message sent back to the requester of the service.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . dMsgLo. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service.This is the operating system Request primitive.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. For example. then npSend would be 2. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. dRespExch . service name. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. The use of dData0. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. pRqHndlRet . dData0.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. 1 and 2. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. are sending data to the service. This may be data sent to the service.dData0. cbData1 . With all kernel primitives. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. MMURTL V1.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. See Respond(). The service must be registered with the operating system. npSend . This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. 65534 (0FFFEh). An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. space padded. Always assume it will be network-routed. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. pData2 . Parameters: pSvcName . dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system.

80.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value.The upper dword of the message. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. the new command line string. dMsgHi . dMsgHi. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. msg[0]. msg[1]. and it is moved to the Ready queue. Parameters: DULCol . This is an agreed-upon convention. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down.Points to an array of bytes. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index.The lower dword of the message. In this case the top line is lost. in C this is unsigned long msg[2].dnCols. the message is associated. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange. and is not enforced by the operating system. Parameters: pCmdLine .0.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. it will be into an array of dwords. Parameters: dExch .dULline.The number of columns to be scrolled. DfUp . If it were a Response from a service. MMURTL V1.a polite term for crashed. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. and while Chaining to another application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system.25. and the bottom line would be blanked. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line. dcbCmdLine . SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. linked with that task.The length of the command line string to store. dMsgLo . which is the first dword pushed. This call stores the command line in the JCB. If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. DnLines . Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application.1). the parameters would be ScrollVid(0.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol.The count of lines to be scrolled. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum.dnLines. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs.

SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. dcbExitJob . pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. When a job exits. the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. and its ExitJob is zero length. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. MMURTL V1. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). The filename must not longer than 79 characters. Initially.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. pVector . of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Built-in device drivers assume these values.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. Table 15. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: pExitJob . these should follow ISA hardware conventions.If installed. This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set.4 .Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. After the interrupt vector is set. Parameters: dIRQnum . which will happen most often. Table 15.

a text string. Refer to the file System documentation). If you SetNormVid() to Black On White.SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. SetPath SetPath(pPath. and background colors may be changed by an application.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. This is a maximum of 13 characters. A zero length. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. If no job name is set by the application. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. The path is 79 characters maximum. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function.This is the new priority (0-31). The default foreground color. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. Parameters: dNormVidAttr .This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. the color of the characters themselves. dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. dcbJobName . Parameters: bPriority . then call ClrScr(). The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. dcbPath . The maximum length is 13 bytes.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. Parameters: pPath . Longer values will be truncated. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. Typically. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. will clear the job name from the JCB.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. Parameters: pJobName .Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter.

if none is set by the application. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen.is the length of the string to store. dNewY): dError MMURTL V1.The job number for new owner of the active screen.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. If the SysOut name is VID. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. is KBD. if none is set. which is the one to be displayed. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes().points to a text string. dcbUsername . dcbFileName .The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. Parameters: pFileName . SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. If the SysIn name is set to KDB.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbFileName . If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. Parameters: pFileName . writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). and Chaining to another application. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. is VID.SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. Parameters: DJobNum . This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. WriteBytes(). Only ASCII data is returned from this call. Parameters: pUsername . This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. which is the user's name. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. The default name. The default name. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName.

If your task is a high enough priority.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. it is made to run. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. should use priorities above 25. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. but testing will be required to ensure harmony. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. lower numbers. pStack. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task.This is a number from 0 to 31. 1 is accepted. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry.This is a pointer to the function. Parameters: dnTicks . Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. fOSCode .If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. otherwise. dPriority . when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS .A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. Tone Tone(dHz. such as the file system and keyboard. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. Certain system services are higher priority. Parameters: pEntry . The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry.The new horizontal cursor position column. or make it sleep. dPriority.The new vertical cursor position row. This applies to the virtual screen.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. DNewY . The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . Application programs should use priority 25. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. fDebug . The timer interrupt sends the message. and clears the block when it reaches zero. Parameters: DNewX . fDebug. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. or the real video screen if currently assigned. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up.

0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . The backspace is non-destructive. 08 backspace . Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. DTextOut .A near Pointer to the text. next active character placement. Service names are case sensitive.The number of characters of text. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. The string must left justified. A value of 100 is one second.The attribute or color you want.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. Parameters: pSvcName .The cursor will be moved one column to the left. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). DAttrib .The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. if the cursor is in the last column of a line.A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line. from 30 to 10000. no characters are changed. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . Parameters: PTextOut . If this line is below the bottom of the screen. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. dTextOut. For character placement. If already at column 0.A pointer to an 8-byte string.The cursor. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . They will receive an error. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return .The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. Parameters: dIRQnum .pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. Backspace will have no effect. Parameters: dHz . dTicks10ms . The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. and padded with spaces (20h). will be moved down one line. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.

the task will be placed on the exchange specified. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. Parameters: DError . the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. an array of two dwords.A pointer to where the message will be returned. you would have had to make the request in the first place. At that time.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . You've got to send mail to get mail. dExch . it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. If no message is available.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. Of course. less than 8000000h. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. so this would be obvious to you.

D:\DIR\) RD .Delete a file Dump . The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt.Hex dump of a file Exit . This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI.Copy a file Dir . The internal commands are: Cls .Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . time. The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me).Remove directory Rename . MMURTL V1. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. see Appendix A.Clear Screen Copy . most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. To see what has been included on the CDROM. job number for this CLI. It has been expanded.Display list of internal commands Monitor . MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.Enter Debugger Del . use. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs. However.Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its.Make Directory Path . CLI version. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL.Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help . is described in the following sections.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS .g.Chapter 16. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system.Set file access path (New path e. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. it does work and it's useful in its own right.Directory listing Debug .Rename a file (Current name New name) Run . and your current path. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. It provides information such as date. “What's On the CD-ROM.RUN files).Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD .” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. The top line is the status line. but it's a good start.

Dump pauses after each screen full of text. or the same name in a different directory. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. >Copy THISFILE. To exit the Debugger press the Esc.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. If a file exists with the same name. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full. “The Debugger.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device.TXT THATFILE. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. MMURTL V1. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. Both names must be specified. a period is displayed instead.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. If the character is not ASCII text.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes.

Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. renaming. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. Unlike a single tasking operating system. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. This CLI will still be executing.) MMURTL V1. the tree will only be extend one level.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. In MMURTL. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. The path must end with the Backslash. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI.). Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. In other words. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. etc. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. or external command that is executed for this CLI. With any file-system operation (opening. and .0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS .. listing. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job.

Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS .run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number). Additional spaces and tabs are ignored. The File COMMANDS. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. pausing after each page. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist). The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands. MMURTL V1. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.CLI File The file COMMANDS.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name.run New. The first item on the line is the command name.CLI follows: . It is a simple text file with one command per line. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix .RUN).CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.TXT Run (Execute a .CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test. The file must not be open by any other job. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print.CLI Commands.End of Command.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI. An example of COMMANDS. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time. The contents of the file COMMANDS.run .

0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.1.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. Listing 16. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions.0 of the Command Line Interpreter.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.Ver. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. CTRL-ALT-DELETE .h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.h> #include <ctype. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. CLI Source Code Listing . The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command.CLI file.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .CLI.h> #include <string. 1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData. but other application might. In this case.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.Terminates the currently displayed job.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.

0 Job Path: ". clipath[60]. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* "Help". /* "RD". unsigned long GPHndl. long cbPath. /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. /* "MD".not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* "Ren". char text[70]. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. /* "Copy". /* "Dump". /* "Del". /* "Debug". /* "Cls". unsigned char Buffer[512].#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. long cbCmd = 0. unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. syspath[50]. /* "Path". iLine. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. /* "Exit". /* "xxxxx". unsigned long GPMsg[2].0 { 0 external */ 1 . /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. char aCmd[80]. char char char char sdisk. /* "Dir". /* "Monitor". hlppath[60]. cmdpath[60]. char ExitChar. long JobNum. date. /* MMURTL V1. char fUpdatePath. unsigned long GPExch.

It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. } dirent[16]. char *apParam[13]. U16 Date. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(."Run". U16 Time. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. U8 Rsvd[10]. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. U8 Attr.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . }. U8 Ext[3]. U16 StartClstr. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records.) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. long acbParam[13]. "Type". It updates the status line which has the time and path.. U32 FileSize.

((time >> 16) & 0x0f). case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". break. CopyData(aPath. MMURTL V1. STATVID). switch (erc) { case 0: return. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). /* Day */ 0x0f). case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". /* month */ 0x0f). break. break. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). case 201: pSt = "No such drive".cbPath = 30. break. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". aStatLine. case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". case 208: pSt = "File in use". char st[40]. &aStatLine[47].0. *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. break. (time & 0x0f). case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". break. FillData(st. case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". 0x0f). PutVidChars(0. FillData(&aStatLine[47]. break. case 1: pSt = "End of file". case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". break. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f).0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". break. break. break. 40. fUpdatePath = 0. case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". break. + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). /* year */ 0x0f). case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". 0). cbPath). break. Sleep(100). break. break. case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". break. ' '). break. } GetCMOSDate(&date). 80. /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. 0x0f). 30.

} SetXY(iCol. unsigned long addr) { U32 erc.0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . "Error %05d on last command". pSt = st. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. } printf("%s\r\n". PutVidChars(0. erc = 0. i. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. MMURTL V1. &iLine). long cb. } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger).default: sprintf(st. iLine). return. while (cb) { printf("%08x ". pSt). GetXY(&iCol. GetXY(&iCol. aStatLine. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. &iLine). } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb.0. #asm INT 03 #endasm return. addr). *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . 80. STATVID). unsigned char buff[17]. iLine = 2. KeyCode. j. erc). } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. break. *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). ClrScr().

if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. 512. ModeRead. iLine =1.1.. &fh). 1. } InitScreen(TRUE). MMURTL V1.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. } buff[i+1] = 0. erc = 0.23. else cb=0. &buff[0]). 512. if (!erc) { j=0. &dret).*pb). i++) { printf("%02x ". fh. buff[i] = *pb++. SetXY(0. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. erc. k. } return erc. 0).. acbParam[1]. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh.1). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. Buffer. any other key to continue. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. This expects to find the filename in param[1]. i<j. addr+=j. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16.if (cb > 15) j=16. l. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. for (i=0."). while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. SetXY(0. dret. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. /* ReadKbd. else j = cb. 1).23). if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. &k).80.23). printf("ESC to cancel.1). ++iLine. erc = ReadBytes (fh. printf("%s\r\n".

iLine. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. dret.iLine).0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. } CloseFile (fh).23). else l=k-j. erc. 78. j. cbName. iLine++. &fh). Buffer. i. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. 512. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. } SetXY(0. Buffer. } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. j<=i. erc = 0. i = 1. &dret). while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. SetXY(0. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer.1). j+=512. erc = ReadBytes (fh. SetFileLFA(fh. long cbName) { long i. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. 0). return erc. dret = 1. fh. } erc = OpenFile(pName. } for (j=0.80. 0.1. dret. MMURTL V1. lfa+i). &lfa). lfa. j).23. KeyCode.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. NORMVID). 1.

mo. bytesGot.da. U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. U32 cbFrom.if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0.mi. This is used by the directory listing. pDateRet. This uses a conservative 4K buffer.se.mo. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. 8). SetXY(0. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. U16 date.hr. "%02d:%02d:%02d". InitScreen(TRUE)..da. "%02d-%02d-%02d". printf("ESC to cancel. /* ReadKbd. return erc. char st[15]. char *pTo. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . if (yr > 99) yr -=100.1)..se). ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time. char *pTimeRet. erc. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking. da = date & 0x001F. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. erc). sprintf(st. bytesWant.yr). Use block mode for speed. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4)."). any other key to continue. 1). CloseFile (fh). MMURTL V1. pTimeRet. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. fhFrom.1900. CopyData(st. iLine =1.mi.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . 8). sprintf(st.hr.23). } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n". CopyData(st. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. bytesLeft. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11.

&bytesOut). 0). } CloseFile(fhTo). if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. dLFA. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. bytesGot.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1). } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. else bytesWant = bytesLeft. 0. } MMURTL V1. 0. bytesLeft = size. &bytesGot). KeyCode. } return(erc). if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom.bytesOut. dLFA. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. ModeModify. bigBuf. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. cbTo. size. &size). &fhFrom). while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. erc = OpenFile(pFrom. ModeRead. size). cbTo. dLFA. cbFrom. if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. &fhTo). if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. bytesWant. dLFA = 0. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. bigBuf. } dLFA += bytesGot. /* ReadKbd. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.

char st[78]. &dirent[0]. } InitScreen(TRUE). } fDone = 0.Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st..Name[0]) { erc = 1.Attr. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.Time.1. dirent[i]. fDone = TRUE. iLine++. &st[33]. 1). 512. } if ((dirent[i].Ext.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS . fDone = 1. i<16. st). dirent[i]. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. SetXY(0. erc. SetXY(0. printf("ESC to cancel.1). KeyCode."). CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i].FileSize. /* ReadKbd. SectNum = 0. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". iLine =1.1). printf("%s". } } } MMURTL V1. dirent[i]. U32 SectNum.Date. dirent[i].Name[0]) && (dirent[i].Name. if (!erc) { for (i=0. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. SectNum).23). dirent[i]. dirent[i]. any other key to continue. ReadKbd(&KeyCode./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path..StartClstr). wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1].80. &st[24]). i.23.23). *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. acbParam[1].

/* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. rawline[90]. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. iPrm. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. SectNum++.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. i. j..} else fDone = TRUE. If it finds it. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. The format for a line entry in Commands.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0].. MMURTL V1. *f. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. iPrm<nParamsMax. iCmd++. cmdline[90]. } return(erc). k. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. for (iPrm=0.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. fdone.

89. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++].CLI not found. if (f) { fdone = 0.') /* a comment line */ continue. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. return(0). cmdline). return(1). } } else printf("Commands. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. "r"). runfile[k] = 0. rawline. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. acbParam[0]). /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++].cmdline[0] = 0. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. f = fopen(cmdpath. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0].\r\n"). /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. cmdline[j] = 0. /* now move arguments if any.

if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. ModeRead. strlen(runfile). strlen(clipath)). ". erc. SetExitJob(clipath. ModeRead. &fh). we first look for a . } MMURTL V1. strlen(runfile). acbParam[0]). If we don't find one.RUN"). cbCmd). strcat(runfile. } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. SetExitJob(clipath. &runfile[i]. if it's not there. ".CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. erc = Chain(runfile. strlen(clipath)). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). runfile. strlen(clipath)).RUN file in the current path. erc = Chain(runfile. If so. cbCmd). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. strlen(runfile).0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS .RUN"). strlen(runfile). } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. 1. 1. erc = OpenFile(runfile. 0). cbCmd). /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. 0).When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. 0). ModeRead. SetCmdLine(aCmd. erc = OpenFile(runfile. SetExitJob(clipath. syspath). we then go to COMMANDS. strlen(runfile). CopyData(apParam[0]. erc = Chain(runfile. i = strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). we go to the system directory. 1. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). SetCmdLine(aCmd. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). SetCmdLine(aCmd. acbParam[0]). runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. &fh). &fh). ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. fh. long i. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it.

&iLine). &StatStack[255]. &cbPath). if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. sdisk += 0x41. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. SetXY(0. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. strcpy(hlppath. aPath. syspath[2] = 0. */ cbPath = 0. strcat(cmdpath."COMMANDS. SetJobName("CLI V1. syspath). sdisk &= 0x7F. iLine). if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. /* 0=A. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. strcat(hlppath.RUN"). erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). } else { strcpy (aPath. i.CLI"). syspath[1] = ':'. and help file. 8). 0).0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen.CLI"). strcat(clipath. 24. strcat(syspath. syspath). j. syspath). GetJobNum(&JobNum). erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). GetPath(JobNum. 2=C etc. 1=B."HELP./********************************************** Main function entry point. MMURTL V1. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. 0. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk)."CLI. "\\MMSYS\\"). SpawnTask(&StatTask. InitScreen(FALSE). command file. "%02d". syspath). strcpy(cmdpath. strcpy(clipath. Note: No params to CLI.0". JobNum). fh.

NORMVID). /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. acbParam[2]). cbCmd. iLine). SetXY(0. case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). EDVID). TTYOut ("\r\n". SetPath(syspath. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). cbCmd = 0. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. 1. NORMVID). break. acbParam[0] = 0. apParam[0] = 0. 79. &iLine). while (1) { FillData(aCmd. apParam[2]. acbParam[1]. acbParam[1]. 2. } i++. CmdNum = 0. InitScreen(TRUE). paCmds[i]. ' '). if (!erc) MMURTL V1. aCmd[79] = 0. } erc = 0. if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. &ExitChar. 0. else erc = ErcBadParams.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS .cbPath = strlen(syspath). GetXY(&iCol. } fUpdatePath = 1. 79. strlen(clipath)). &cbCmd. if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. break. 1. strlen(syspath)). &fh). EditLine(aCmd. break. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). TTYOut (">". SetExitJob(clipath. break.

case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). strlen(clipath)). else erc = ErcBadParams. acbParam[1]). break. 0). break. case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. 0. acbParam[1]). if (!erc) printf("Done. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. SetExitJob(clipath. cbCmd-i). case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. acbParam[2]). acbParam[1]). case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1].\r\n"). while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. &GPHndl. break. GPExch. } break. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. 0. 0. GPMsg). 0). break. strlen(hlppath)). case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. break. ExitJob(0). &cbPath). break. fUpdatePath = 1. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). break. acbParam[1]). case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. acbParam[1]. 1. 4. break. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. break.erc = DeleteFile(fh). 0. if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. 0. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". break. case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. break. 0). case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". apParam[2]. MMURTL V1. 0.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . default: break. aPath. SetVidOwner(1). break. acbParam[1].

Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands.2. Table 16. SetXY(0. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1.80.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS .} CheckErc(erc).23). The last line is used for data entry.1. What's On the CD-ROM.1. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). status and error display. The next 23 lines are the text editing area. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line). Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections.23. The top line provides continuous status information. } GetXY(&iCol. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM. current filename.1). &iLine). and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). See Appendix A.

File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.h> #include <string.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.h" MMURTL V1. Listing 16.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.h> #include <ctype.4 .2. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio. Editor Source Code /* Edit. Listing 16.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.2 is the editor source code.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.

struct EditRecType EdRec. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. long erc. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX].h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60].h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. b1. U32 iAttrNorm. U8 fVisible. char fOvertype. U8 bSpace. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. char aStat1[80]. /* sBuf .cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. U32 iTabNorm. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. long cbFilename. 0. U8 *pBufWork. U32 sLine.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. U32 iAttrMark.1 */ U32 iColMin. char fModified. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. char *pBuf1. char aStat[80].. fh. void clearbuf(void). U32 iColMax. *pBuf2. unsigned char filler[100]. /* cursor. }. unsigned char b.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. U32 oBufBound..sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. char *apParam[13]. 0. struct EditRecType *pEdit.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. /* cursor.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 iRowMax. char aCmd[80].

erc). "Error break. default: sprintf(st. erc). %05d occured on SetFileLFA". st. case 6: sprintf(st.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. erc). %05d occured on WriteBytes". "Error break. } for (i=0. long i. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. i<40. erc). 0). } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. "Error break. this will prompt you to save. If fPrompt is true. case 4: sprintf(st. *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. case 2: sprintf(st. 40. i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. st. "Error break. If fClose. case 5: sprintf(st. 80. case 3: sprintf(st. if (erc) { FillData(st. } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. 80. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. PutVidChars (40. 0). %05d occured on last command". NORMVID). 24. 39. erc). %05d occured on ReadKbd". %05d occured on ReadBytes". Beep(). erc). "Error break. "Error break. %05d occured on SetFileSize". erc). %05d occured on OpenFile". long erc) { char st[40]. "Error break. "Error break. %05d occured on CreateFile". } return (erc). case 7: sprintf(st. 24. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. STATVID). erc). PutVidChars (0. FillData(st.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS .

if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. SetFileLFA(fh. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. cbFilename = 0. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". ClearStatus(). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. pEdit->oBufLast. 43. Sleep(150). pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. keycode. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. 1). SetFileSize(fh. } } MMURTL V1. ClearStatus().. SetXY(0. 24). ClearStatus(). fYes. if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). ReadKbd(&keycode. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). fh = 0. 0)).. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. 24.and the buffer will be closed. pEdit->oBufLast)). pBuf1. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. } fYes = 1. fModified = 0. WriteBytes (fh. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. STATVID). **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. &i)). int fClose) { U32 i. BLACK|BGCYAN). "DONE. 10. PutVidChars (0. ". if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0.0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char *pBuff. TTYOut("This file has been modified. clearbuf().

pEdit->oBufLast = dret. BLACK|BGCYAN). &fh)). cbFilename.0). 60. BLACK|BGCYAN). 13).24).24). ReadKbd(&keycode. erc = 0. TTYOut("Doesn't exist. Create?? (Y/N)". &fh). &dret). CreateFile(Filename. ReadKbd(&keycode. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. OpenFile(Filename./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. SetXY(50. if (!name) { SetXY(0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. TTYOut("File is too large to edit. 1. else erc = 0. keycode. 26.". Beep(). cbFilename. fh = 0.24. name. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. ModeModify. &b1. &cbFilename. SetXY(0. 24). MMURTL V1. 0. EditLine(Filename. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep().0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. 10. 1). SetXY(10. &filesize). ModeModify. cbFilename. erc). dret. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. pBuf1. 0)). 24). "Filename: ". 1). cbFilename = 0. SetXY(50. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. strncpy(Filename. cbFilename = strlen(Filename). /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). BLACK|BGWHITE). BLACK|BGCYAN). } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. PutVidChars (0. it will prompts to create. } else { b1=0x0d. 29. If not. filesize.

even though we word wrap always. erc). while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). nEols = 0. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. iEolMax. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. } } else { cbFilename = 0. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.if (erc) { fh = 0. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. cbFilename = 0. } } else CheckErc(1.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char *pBuff. *pBuff. i. i = 0. return(nEols). iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. ClearStatus().

if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.1. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1.. iEol = iBuf. i = 0. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i. j. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. */ iEol = iEolMax. char *pBuff. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. } } return(iEol).0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. /* now find first non-space . while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++.. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line.

else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin.pEdit->Line[iLn]. } while (i < oBufStart). iLn. iBoundLoc. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iColFinish. iLn.pEdit->Line[iLn]. iColFinish . iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.i--. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. pEdit->iAttrMark). PutVidAttrs (iColStart. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command.iColStart +1.pEdit->Line[iLn] . iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. iLn. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.iColFinish. return(j). /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. if (i) i++.1. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . MMURTL V1. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->iColMax . pEdit->iAttrNorm).0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . iMarkLoc.

*************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. fModified = 1. Beep(). CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. cb). char fOvertype. pEdit->oBufInsert++.pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. pEdit->sLine. pEdit->pBufWork. erc = 40400. pEdit->oBufLast++. pEdit->iAttrNorm). if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. } } } else { fOK = 0. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. pEdit->oBufInsert++. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn.iLn. CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. char fOK. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . cb). if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *pBuff. *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. } return (fOK).

} else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. char *pBuff. i<=iBd-iMk. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1.void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. iMk. iBd. i<=iMk .iBd + iMk . i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i]. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk.iBd . pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . for (i=0. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark.1. MMURTL V1. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. iBd. } } } else Beep().iMk. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. for (i=0. pEdit->oBufInsert . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. i <= pEdit->oBufLast.1. *pBuffWork. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.pEdit->oBufInsert .1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i <=iBd-iMk. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i].

iMk + 1.char *pBuff. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. *pBuffWork. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. } } } else Beep(). i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufLast+1). if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.pEdit->oBufInsert+1). for (i = pEdit->iRowMin.0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.iMk.iMk + 1. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. (hides it). pBuffWork. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->oBufLast . if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. pEdit->iAttrNorm). *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. i. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. iBd-iMk+1). pEdit->sLine. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . MMURTL V1. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd .

char fProb.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.1. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1.iBd + iMk. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. j. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. *pBuffWork.if it is. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. } nullMarkBound ().iBd + iMk . iMk. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.normAttr (). if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .might be off screen . if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. char *pBuff. else fProb = FALSE. iBd. &pBuff[iMk]. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert . i = pEdit->iRowMin. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling).

pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iLine = i . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . j = pEdit->iLine. } } MMURTL V1. i. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. if prev char <> CR.is. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol .i++.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. j = pEdit->iLine. /* if bogus line. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen.pEdit->iColMin. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. } i = pEdit->iLine. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--.1. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. /* get to potential insert .

MMURTL V1. j<NLINESMAX. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). k. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . j. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. oBuf. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. else for (j=i+1. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). */ for (i = k. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. cb. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. i<=k. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. k = pEdit->iRowMax. iLn.

80. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->iAttrNorm). i<NLINESMAX. i = pEdit->iRowMin. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. Called before use and after closure.oBuf + 1. for (i=0. doMark (iLn). pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. /* Make size. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE.char *pBuff.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. makeOnScreen (). pFiller. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax.1. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuff+oBuf. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. FillData(filler.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->Line[i] = 0. pEdit->sLine-cb. cb = i . char *pBuff. MMURTL V1. iLn. iLn. iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. /* oBufInsert on screen . not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. cb. 0x20).

if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. 0x20). i <=pEdit->oBufLast. nullMarkBound(). while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. fOvertype = FALSE. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". pEdit->iLine). pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0.fModified = 0. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. *pBuffWork. long exch. normAttr (). /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). char *pBuff. unsigned char b. pEdit->oBufLast). } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. fScreen = TRUE. i. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. fScreen = FALSE. FillData(aStat. fDone = FALSE. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. sprintf(aStat. for (i=0. key. pEdit->iCol. pEdit->oBufLast = 0. k. normAttr (). j. erc = AllocExch(&exch). 80. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. char fSpecInsert.

pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. 3). break. i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . break. case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . i = pEdit->iLine. &aStat[40]. cbFilename). if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. 0. 80.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. break. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. break. else CopyData("INS".Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. &aStat[77].CopyData(Filename.Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". fSpecInsert = FALSE. coordCursor_oBuf (). 3). break. coordCursor_oBuf (). aStat. PutVidChars (0. fScreen = TRUE. b = key & 0xff. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. STATVID). fScreen = TRUE.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. 1)). ReadKbd (&key. TRUE). case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow .Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. break. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -.CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. &aStat[77].0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow .

fScreen = TRUE. } break. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . break. case 0x53: /* ALT S .pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. break. break. TRUE). } break. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). i <= pEdit->oBufLast.pEdit->Line[i]. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. OpenAFile(0). } else { for (i=0. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. fDone = TRUE. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0.SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . fScreen = TRUE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. break. default: break. i = pEdit->iLine+1. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. FALSE). pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. fScreen = TRUE. } fScreen = TRUE. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf().

CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . pBuffWork. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . fOvertype. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. pEdit->oBufLast+1). fSpecInsert))) Beep(). findCursor (). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. default: break. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. break. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff.1.} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. MMURTL V1. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. fScreen = TRUE. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (!(putInBuf (b.1.0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . break.

if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast . fModified = TRUE. i <=j. fScreen = TRUE. } break.Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast .1. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . fScreen = TRUE. MMURTL V1.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x06: /* Home .1.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. FALSE). break. FALSE. case 0x17: /* F9 . j = pEdit->iTabNorm . case 0x10: /* F2 -. i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). fScreen = TRUE.1. } break. for (i=1. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iLine.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf ().Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. } break.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. moveData (). case 0x12: /* F4 -.(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm).if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. case 0x11: /* F3 -. if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. break. } break.

break. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. fScreen = TRUE. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine.break.pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. CopyIt (). k = pEdit->iLine.COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. fScreen = TRUE. break. i = pEdit->iRowMax. } } break. j = pEdit->iRowMax . case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufInsert = i.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x18: /* F10 . if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). k--. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. i = pEdit->oBufLine0. j--. fScreen = TRUE. coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf ().

default: MMURTL V1. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1].pEdit->iLine++. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. else fOvertype = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. } break. j = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. pBuffWork. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. } fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iCol. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). pEdit->iLine = j. fModified = TRUE. } break. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. break. pEdit->oBufLast+1). if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. pEdit->oBufLast--. pEdit->iCol = i. } } break. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++.

80. pBuf1. erc = AllocPage(32. cbFilename = 0. 0. 79. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. &pBuf2). &i)). fh = 0. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. i <=pEdit->iRowMax. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. WriteBytes (fh. return. U8 *argv[]) { long i. 0). } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. FALSE. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. i.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . fModified = 0. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pEdit = &EdRec. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. /*sBuf . SetFileSize(fh. } CloseFile(fh). ClrScr(). *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. SetFileLFA(fh. pEdit->oBufLast. pBuf2. 23. 6). i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. } *pbExitRet = b. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5.pEdit->oBufLast)). pEdit->sLine+1. &pBuf1).0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. 0x20. 131071. erc = AllocPage(32. 1.break. and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. 0)). It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). SetJobName("Editor".

for (i=0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd..cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler. pEdit->Line[i] = 0.3. 80. EDVID.h> #include <string. fModified = 0.h> #include <ctype. 0. fOvertype = FALSE. i = pEdit->iRowMin. 0x20).pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). struct statRecC com. EMPTY. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. EMPTY. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. 0. 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. ExitJob(0). 4..h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. 0. Listing 16.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. i. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. i<NLINESMAX.sLine-1 */ cursor. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver. MMURTL V1. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 0. 0. } Editor(&b).

CmdOpenC. */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". SetNormVid(NORMVID).unsigned char b.parity = com. %d\r\n".Baudrate com. com.stopbits = 9600. &i). 0. erc). /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver.h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. &com. com.databits com. char fOK. 0. lastb. we open the comms port */ /* device. com. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6.XBufSize). if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). erc). } /* If device init went OK. ClrScr(). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). 64. ClrScr(). %d\r\n". %d\r\n". dOpNum. /* View other params which we could set. com. } /* set the params in the block */ com. NO_PAR. 64). &com. com.IOBase).XTimeOut).RBufSize). %d\r\n".IRQNum).0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . com. %d\r\n". printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". ExitJob(erc). = 1. ExitJob(erc). but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". The structure is defined in commdrv. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). dnBlocks. ClrScr().RTimeOut). if (erc) { MMURTL V1. dLBA. &i). if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). = 8.

pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. CmdWriteB. dOpNum. erc = DeviceOp(6. dLBA. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0. 0. } } else { /* device.\r\n"). default: break.0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. dLBA. break. 0. */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. &b). 0. NORMVID).SetNormVid(CLIVID). dnBlocks. 0. &i). &b). ExitJob(erc). ClrScr(). 0. erc). /* This is it. NORMVID). dLBA. } } } MMURTL V1. } } } } /* device. fOK = 1. ExitJob(erc). 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. ClrScr(). lastb = b. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". 1. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6... erc).. dOpNum. CmdWriteB. &b). dnBlocks. dnBlocks. CmdCloseC. 0. dOpNum. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n".. CmdReadB. else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. 1. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. SetNormVid(CLIVID).

long long long long long tabstops = 4. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.2.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv.h" "\OSSource\MJob.h> <string.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B . char name[80].Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1. Send with no translations.h" "\OSSource\Parallel. struct statRecL lpt.h" "\OSSource\MKbd. NoFF = 0. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. That's the intention of the design. FILE *f. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). In listing 16. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n .4 or 8) \D .h> <ctype.h> <stdlib.h" "\OSSource\MTimer. fDisplay = 0. col = 0.h" "\OSSource\MVid.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver.Binary print.4.h> <stdio. Listing 16. fBinary = 0. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key.Display the file while printing \F . The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device.4.

0\r\n"). break. break. i. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. erck. case 'B' : /* BINARY . argv[i]. SetJobName("Printing". char fdone.No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. for(i=1. cl. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. *ptr.void main(long argc.Tab stop translation value\r\n"). break. i < argc. break. default: printf("Invalid switch"). exit(1). name[0] = 0. printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . no FF\r\n\n"). break.0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . Version 1. unsigned char b. lastb. unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. 79). 8). exit(1). } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. printf("/B Binary print. } MMURTL V1.0x30. NO translation. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File.

while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n".\r\n". 0. erc). 0. &i). 0. name). CmdCloseLU. dOpNum. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. cl = fgetc(f). &lastb).. */ f = fopen(name. dLBA. CmdWriteB. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". "r").. we open the printer port */ /* device. } /* If device status went OK. dnBlocks. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. The structure is defined in parallel.h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. ExitJob(erc). /* This is it. } printf("Printing %s . name).. ExitJob(erc). if (!f) { /* device. dOpNum. */ erc = DeviceStat(3. CmdOpenL. ExitJob(erc). &i). -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 64. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. 0. dnBlocks. b = (cl & 0xff). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. lastb = b.. if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". erc). dLBA.0 1. b = 0. i = 0. fdone = 0. } col = 0. &i). } else { MMURTL V1. &lpt.

1. CmdWriteB. erc = DeviceOp(3. &b). dLBA. 1. } fclose(f). 0. &lastb). 0. erc). /* reset */ break. 0. } } &b). case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. CmdCloseL. /* device. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. col = 0. dOpNum. if (erc) MMURTL V1. 0. erc = 4. "\f"). b). break. CmdWriteB. 0. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. CmdWriteB. 0. " "). CmdWriteB. 1. break. CmdWriteB. col++. %d\r\n". } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). erc = DeviceOp(3. 1. if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. &b). 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. dnBlocks. col++.switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". CmdWriteB. } while (col % tabstops). &i). -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . lastb). } erc = DeviceOp(3.0 1. 1. 0. 0). if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n".

C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen.RUN program to exercise the service. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. Error: %d\r\n". run the TestSvc. “Systems Programming. long *pDataRet. erc). MMURTL V1. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). While this program is running. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. Listing 16. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError.printf("Can't close LPT. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. ExitJob(erc). } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. ErrorToUser.h> "\OSSource\MKernel.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . keycode.” It has been expanded some. Service. printf("Done\r\n"). /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2].h" "\OSSource\MJob.5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.h" "\OSSource\MVid. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources.

SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". 1. /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". Message). /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. 0. 1. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError).\r\n". } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode.\r\n").. while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. ErrorToUser). MainExch). OSError). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. 0. 0).if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. MainExch. } DeAllocExch(MainExch). ExitJob(ErcOpCancel).. ErcNoSuchSvc). Respond(pRqBlk. *pDataRet = NextNumber++. NextNumber-1). printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. &rqHndl. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). 0. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ClrScr(). /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". &keycode. 0. } pRqBlk = Message[0]. /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4.\r\n"). Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0].

0). TestSvc. } } DeAllocExch(Exch). if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg. 4. Also try it when the service is not running. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. unsigned long Exch. &rqhndl. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio.h" unsigned long Number. 0. Error). 1. Error = Request("NUMBERS ".6. Message[1]). 0.6 exercises the sample system service listed previously.h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel.\r\n". void main(void) { unsigned long Error.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS .C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. Message). } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1.\r\n". /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. Number). Exch.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc.\r\n".\r\n". 0. if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. Error). rqhndl. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. Listing 16. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service. 0.\r\n".0. unsigned long Message[2]. Error = AllocExch(&Exch).C Listing The program in listing 16. Error).

This is the first file in the source. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. All source files are located in one directory. MAIN. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler).This is the first assembler file that contains code. This file should be left in the order I have it in.Chapter 17. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. MPublics. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment.This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right.This is also a table. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. and used by the processor. common variables. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. and structures together. The GDT is 6K in size. MOSGDT. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. In fact. as you look through the code. In fact.ASM . It helps me think. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. Quite a few of them. There are also header files for the C source. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register.. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor.).ASM . There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). Also some data is defined here. You may find some of the source files rather large. use the stack just as a compiler would.ASM . I hope I’ve met this goal.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. MOSPDR. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS .This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). but it is not used by the processor. I just expend the time up front instead of later. The ordering for MMURTL V1. the human becomes a compiler of sorts.ASM . The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. which means its data will be at the lowest address. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. By including the comments. however. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. MOSIDT.ASM ..

ASM . Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. NumCnvrt. if needed.ASM .ASM was one of the first files written. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions. MemCode.C . but it's effective and accurate.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file. RS232. You only need to know the channel. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. and it works rather well. RQBCode.ASM .Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers. TmrCode. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain.C .The simple parallel port driver is contained here. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people.Request block management code is in this file.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here. If you have MFM drives.ASM . This file has routines that handle DMA for you. but you never know where to put. DevDrvr. is in this file.ASM .This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write.ASM . they must handle it themselves. Floppy. DMACode. Debugging a debugger is even less fun. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done.The code memory allocation. Keyboard. you're on your own. JobCode.In many systems.ASM .0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . HardIDE. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work. when a device driver writers need DMA.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() . how much to move. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. but can be modified for four. It provides stream access as well as block access to files. someday). but only to enable the input buffer (which helps). Video.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. SVCCode.ASM . On the other hand. FSys.are in this file.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC. Parallel.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .ASM . UASM.C are contained in this file. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. and the mode. It drives two channels. This is one complicated driver. I was surprised.C . IntCode. Debugger.ASM . undoubtedly.This file is the debugger disassembler. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison.the remainder of the modules is not as important. Device driver writers will appreciate this. It's not very pretty. MMURTL V1. Keyboard. as well as port I/O support.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa. It think it still works with MFM drives.C .C .The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service. It supports the 16550. JobC.C . MiscCode.ASM .Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either. but I don't have any more to test it. You have to see what you're doing.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver. even in the earliest stages of a project.ASM .C .The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system.

INCLUDE Video.ASM .1. Indirect calling address table .0 . If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. Except.INCLUDE MOSPDR.INCLUDE MAIN.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! .ASM .INCLUDE MOSGDT. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger. 6K) . OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) .5 minutes on a 486/33.Kernel. It provides a lot of the OS functionality.” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM.ASM . One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. Main OS code and some data & START address .INCLUDE Keyboard. CM32 (no switches needed).C After all the C source files are compiled. DASM produces the operating system RUN file. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. Listing 17.ASM .ASM .All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF). “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. InitCode. Video code and data MMURTL V1. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important.0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM . /L on the command line after the name. .ASM .ASM . Monitor. a C source file and must be compiled first with .ASM . Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table .DATA .5 Pages. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor. . You could replace quite easily. This takes about 1. Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces).ATF It's truly that simple.INCLUDE MOSIDT. but it really isn't part of the operating system. and the DASM assembler (also included). Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files.Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file.C .This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions. . specify /E on the command line after the name. An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.ASM . The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL.INCLUDE MPublics.BAT) will build the entire operating system.The monitor program is contained in this file. If you want an error file. Assembler Template File . Keyboard ISR and Service .

If your C compiler allows it.INCLUDE .ASM MemCode.* . . .INCLUDE . In fact.ASM Except.ASM Floppy.* :* . The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.ASM RS232.INCLUDE .ASM HardIDE. For instance.INCLUDE . MMURTL V1.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .END Debugger. .INCLUDE .ASM InitCode.INCLUDE .ASM .ASM MiscCode.ASM IntCode.ASM UASM.ASM JOBC.I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one. Otherwise.INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular. .ASM DMACode.ASM TmrCode. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies. .INCLUDE .ASM RQBCode.ASM Monitor. you can take the file system code (FSYS.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM Kernel.ASM FSys. and they will work fine.INCLUDE .* .* . .array. As each piece of code is assembled. code (string.. . it is placed into the code segment in that order.ASM NumCnvrt.ASM JobCode.INCLUDE . CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention.ASM DevDrvr.* . You will. Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files. . This is one thing you should watch. use another compiler for your project.* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort. This is because DASM doesn't support structures. no doubt. CM32 packs all structure fields completely. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM. . . you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments . I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way.INCLUDE . you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier).INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM SVCCode. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. . You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures.* . . you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language.ASM Parallel. . The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.INCLUDE . .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location.code and data.

the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small.1.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. These are things such as the task state segments. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. and kernel publics functions. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler.INC DD 0 . job control blocks.ASM. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . and memory management tables. I think it will make more sense to you. The bulk of them are in the file Main. internal public functions.DATA . local helper functions. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. two underscores will be prepended to the name.INCLUDE . The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches).INC RQB. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). a single underscore will be prepended to the name. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes. so I could get to them with the monitor program. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them.1. and offsets into structures and tables. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data.Chapter 18. Kernel data segment source . Listing 18. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1.INC TSS. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. These all change with respect to the task that is running. The actual message handling functions. Being an old "structured" programmer.INCLUDE . See listing 18. the scheduler.INC JOB.INCLUDE .

if . I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. See listing 18. .CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return.. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. This is strictly a speed issue. . If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . and therefore. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. 0 . pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. . JZ eqMsgDone . INPUT : ESI. This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.FLAGS . You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. which means interrupts must be cleared.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code.EAX . pExch => EAX.EAX . XCHG ESI. This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!).EAX . is coded in-line. 0 . When a message is sent to an exchange. It's not that the routines are called so often. This is important. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. pointed to by the ESI register. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. MODIFIES : EDX . an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). and exchanges.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . and if a task is waiting there. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. for example.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1.ESI. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources.Next <= NIL. In MMURTL.EDX. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. Listing 18. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message.2. OR EAX. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. OUTPUT : NONE . pLBin^. and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. link blocks. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). REGISTERS : EAX.2.

[ESI+fEMsg] .MsgTail <= pLBin. Put pExch Back in ESI RETN .ESI .MsgHead <= . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .ESI. MOV [EAX+ETail]. MOV [ESI+EHead].msg.EBX .. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. If not. 1 . Listing 18. MOV EBX. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. MOV [EAX+ETail]. if pLBout = NIL then Return.NextLB <= pLBin. MOV [EDX+NextLB]. exchanges can hold messages or tasks. As stated before.head and EBX . See listing 18.MsgTail <= pLBin. MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. REGISTERS : EAX. INPUT : ESI . deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there.3. OR EAX.[EAX+NextLB] . If not.MsgHead.ESI . . deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone . you return NIL (0). MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].FLAGS .ESI . Get Msg Flag OR EAX.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS . pLBout <= .4.JNE eqMNotNIL .3. See listing 18.Next.[ESI+EHead] .ESI . MMURTL V1. 1 . . Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN ... it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. . then MOV [EAX+EHead]. . You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. EAX .ESI . De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: . EAX . MOV EAX. but not both. .MsgTail^.MsgHead^.[EAX+ETail] .. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. JZ deMsgDone . . If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it. OUTPUT : EAX . No! (return 0) MOV EAX..ESI . If not. ..EBX. . deMsgDone: RETN .MsgHead <= pLBin. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg].

[ESI+fEMsg] . algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority. This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue. EBX JNZ deTSSDone . This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI .Next. get the priority MOV BL. 0 .FLAGS . You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list.EBX . . 0 .[EAX+NextTSS] .EDX . . OR EAX.ESI. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI].4. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. REGISTERS : EAX. MODIFIES : EAX. Priority => EAX. pTSSout <= .EDX .EDX. . JZ deTSSDone .0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . INPUT : ESI . MOV [ESI+EHead]. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI .EBX .FLAGS . De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . XOR EAX. EAX . pTSSin^. pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX.Next <= NIL.RdyQ .[ESI+EHead] . . .EBX . 3 . MOV EBX. Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX. . Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX.5.EBX. EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head].[EAX+Priority] . . deTSSDone: RETN .5. OR EAX.. Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: .TSSHead. The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS]. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1. one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL. JZ eqRdyDone . See listing 18..TSSHead^. Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. OUTPUT : NONE .EAX . INPUT : EAX .Listing 18. if pTSS = NIL then return. Listing 18. in EBX XCHG EAX. if pTSSout = NIL then Return.. INC _nReady . register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. MODIFIES : EAX. . REGISTERS : EAX.EBX . XOR EBX. head & tail per QUEUE). It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX.EBX.EBX. . Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX.TSSHead <= . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers.EAX . OUTPUT : EAX . This .

sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX.EBX eqRdyDone: RETN .RdyQ . Listing 18.. MOV ECX. . EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX.ECX. MODIFIES : RdyQ .Tail^. OUTPUT : EAX . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX.nPRI . RETURN Otherwise.JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head]. . . MMURTL V1. this returns NIL (0). and 31 is the lowest. EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX. . INPUT : NONE . The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list.Head <= pTSSin. De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . EAX is returned as NIL. .6.[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS].Tail <= pTSSin.EBX. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ..NextTSS <= pTSSin. If none is found. .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. . Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. then . IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ.[EBX] OR EAX.6.ECX deRdyDone: RETN . This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . else ..[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX]. . Keep in mind.Tail <= pTSSin. See listing 18. deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. .EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. . . queued on the RdyQ. . If there was no task queued. . .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . .FLAGS . . .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. . that 0 is the highest priority. . REGISTERS : EAX. . ..

MOV ECX.EBX. is queued to run. OUTPUT : EAX . It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. . "It's a nasty job. This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . This why it's specified as PUBLIC." See Listing 18. Listing 18. When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . . They are located in Kernel. Get pTSSout in EAX . RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. . .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue .ASM because they work closely with kernel structures. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . Listing 18.nPRI . . . EAX is returned as NIL.8. without actually removing it from the queue. Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. .FLAGS . but someone's got to it.[EBX] OR EAX.RdyQ .7. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. . See listing 18. They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX.ECX. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. INPUT : NONE .sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN .8. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: .ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. MODIFIES : RdyQ .0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . Point to the next Priority Queue . This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. If there was no task queued. This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. .7. REGISTERS : EAX. check the next priority.

PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . MOV EBP. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. 0 . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .RdyQ . . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. deQueue the TSS . OUTPUT : NONE . . Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . Make EAX point to new head TSS . a job. EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. . No error . INC _nTSSLeft .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . EDI ADD EBX. PUSH EBP .pFreeTSS .Next <= pFreeTSS. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . Is it Zero? . RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . EDI OR EAX. Procedureal Interface : . MODIFIES : RdyQ .Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. No MOV EDI. pTSSin^. POP EBX MOV EAX.EBX . Yes. . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB].nPRI . All done (clean stack) .0 . . Point to the next Priority Queue . EDI PUSH EBX .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX.ESP . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]..EAX . EAX OR EAX. Fix link in Queue list . REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . . MOV ECX. . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . .

. OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. . This is not so if it's for a new job.Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: .Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX.9. The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. . . back to check next at head of list . . Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. . Trash it.Jump the removed link . . See listing 18. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. POP . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI.pFreeTSS . .EDI points to prev TSS . ESI PUSH EBX . INC _nTSSLeft .EAX points to crnt TSS .EBX .Next <= pFreeTSS. ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . Next Queue please . .0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . SetExchOwner().Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. . deQueue the TSS . . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates).This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS].Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . . Finding the owner of an exchange .9. 0 .JMP RemRdy0 . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. Next TSS . pTSSin^. No. This function is used with the next one. This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block.EAX . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. . . ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. [EAX+NextTSS] .Yes. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. Yes. ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. Listing 18.

char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. . ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. . . pJCBRet .0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . Valid Exch (Allocated) .nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. No. [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. . . . . . See listing 18. . . . MMURTL V1.ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch.prgExch ADD EDX. continue Yes. EAX XOR EAX. This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP.10. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. . . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . Listing 18. Exch is . . Exch . .ESP MOV EAX.. EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . [EBP+12] CMP EAX.EAX MOV EAX. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). . pJCBRet the exchange number. . Changing the owner of an exchange . mentioned previously. [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . not allocated . .10. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . . .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . . is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.

. . . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . EBX XOR EAX. . other services. .. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. . [EBP+12] MOV EDX. the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. Notifying services of a job’s demise . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . . . The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .11. We ignore the kernel errors. . . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. . Get the address of rgSVC . .EDX MOV EBX. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. . . . it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message.11. .ESP MOV ESI. The error it returns is of no consequence. .ESP MOV EAX. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. See listing 18. Listing 18. If a service is holding a request from the job that died. Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum.prgExch ADD EAX. . or the operating system itself. . . . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). telling them that a particular job has died. SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job.0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. . . . . .OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. If a program sent a request.

NO.dData1 PUSH 0 .npSend PUSH 0 .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS .12.dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block. Request kernel primitive code . . next service PUSH ESI . The function that searches the array is GetExchange(). A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it. These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate. wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI. . [EBP+8] . The procedural interface to Request looks like this: .dData0 PUSH 0 .Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk .12. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX. and code for it is in the file SVCCode.cbData0 PUSH 0 .asm.pHandleRet PUSH 0 .Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI .Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates. Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] .pName PUSH 0 . . 0 JE SAB05 . These are functions such as GetPriority().Next Service name .pData1 PUSH 0 . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model.Abort Service Code MOV EAX. A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications.pData0 PUSH 0 . See listing 18. except this function requires several more parameters. Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive. [EBP+12] . Listing 18. The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.CMP DWORD PTR [ESI].JobNum PUSH EAX .cbData1 MOV EAX. EAX MOV ESP. Valid name? .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .

Req04: . [EBP+48] CMP EDX. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0]. .. .Get . .EAX .Validate exchange MOV EDX.Put .Get . Set up New FramePtr .0 . EAX . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. .Get . . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2].No.Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 .Get . .pServiceName CALL GetExchange . return error Req02: .Yes. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. Error in EAX register . continue Yes.ESI still has the exchange for the service . Save the Previous FramePtr . . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob].EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. EAX MOV EAX. .Yes.Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 . .put . .put . . EAX MOV EAX. ErcNoMoreRqBlks .Get .ESP .Put .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX.Get . EAX MOV EAX. dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+56] . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch]. EAX MOV EAX..EDX still has the response exchange . .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX. .EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX. EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX. ESI MOV EAX. AX MOV [EBX+RespExch].put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- .put . [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1].Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB . JMP ReqEnd .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX.No JMP ReqEnd . Sorry.ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . . [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode].Put .EBX . EAX MMURTL V1..put .

. .REQLB .EDX .Put npRecv in RqBlk . EAX <= pFreeLB.prgExch EAX. AL [EBX+npRecv].ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1.Give it to them . sEXCH EDX EDX. . EBX MOV EDX.EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX.Data PUSH EAX .Ptr to return handle to . [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2].it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. EAX MOV EAX.EDX ESI.Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. [EBP+40] CMP EAX. . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX.put in RqBlk . . 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend]. .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI .Next <= NIL.At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.Get pData2 .Leave in CL . .Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.Next . . . Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. Save pLB on the stack .EBX DEC _nLBLeft .ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.put in RqBlk .ESI EDX. pLB^. MOV [EAX+DataLo].put in RqBlk . AL CL. Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . Store zero in upper half of pLB^.The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use . . 0 . . RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. CL .[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB.Get cbData2 . EBX .MOV EAX.The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it. DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . .ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.. . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB].pFreeLB OR EAX.Get cbData1 . 2 CL. free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. .EAX . .Number of Send PbCbs . 0 . EAX MOV EAX.Must be 2 or less . . pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^. [EBP+44] MOV [EDI].0 .. No interruptions from here on . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) .

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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MOV EDX. POP EBP . .prgExch . pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. See listing 18.18.ercOutOfRange .ESI .EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . MOV ESP.EAX . RETF 8 . CheckMsg kernel primitive code . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . A result code is returned in the EAX register. 0 . Chk01: MOV EAX.ChkExchange . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . the return to caller with error MOV EAX. CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories.We can be interrupted again . . . . Listing 18. As with WaitMsg(). .EBP .ercNoMsg MOV ESP. .sEXCH .pdqMsg):ercType . . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. Procedureal Interface : . CheckMsg(exch.EDX .0 -270- . in the EAX register.REQLB MMURTL V1. message should be sent.nExch . . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. PUSH EBP . . . .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return .ESP . . . Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner]. Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. MOV ESI. . . return to the caller with error MOV EAX. return with erc no msg .ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 .18. MOV EBP. in the EAX register. . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV ESI.

EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX. Treat it as a data link block .Error?? .Make stack right .[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX.Save again . pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. Save ptr to Link Block ..cbMem . .Error?? .dJobNum .Second Pointer (pData2) . continue . . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.[EAX+DataLo] ._AliasMem(pMem. ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. .Return Error. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX..Yes .Make stack right . continue . dcbMem. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.Offset to pData2 in RqBlk . . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX.is cbData2 0? .No.Linear Address of PData1 . . (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .is pData1 NULL? .Return Error. EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. MMURTL V1.Now we set up to alias the memory for the service .is cbData1 0? . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.cbMem . EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.is pData2 NULL? . .No.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX.JNE Chk04 . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP. .pLB.pMem .Offset to pData1 in RqBlk .Linear Address of pData1 . Get pRqBlk into EBX .Yes .Set up params for AliasMem . . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX..Yes .dJobNum . Get pRqBlk into EBX . [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.Restore ptr to Link Block ..pMem .Yes . . ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX.Set up params for AliasMem . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. No.0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS . dJobNum.

fDebug. . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . EIP): dErcRet .[EAX+DataHi] EDX. .[EAX+DataLo] ECX. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . Get pLB^.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . MOV pFreeLB. 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] .EAX . NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter.Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] . . XOR EAX.ESP MOV EDX. .Restore Ptr to Link Block . NewTask(JobNum.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX. CodeSeg. In future versions. . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] .Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX.EBX . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. . . STI . NewTask kernel primitive code . pLBin^.Data in specified memory space (EDX) . Listing 18. or page fault. ESP.ErcOK! (0) .pCkMessage [EDX]. .Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1. . This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in.EAX MOV ESP. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection. .ECX . and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation.8 for OS. INC _nLBLeft . .19.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .pFreeLB . Priority.EBX [EDX+4].Next <= pFreeLB.0 . NTS_Pri CMP EDX. .19. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. Exch. Procedural interface: . See listing 18. The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. For MMURTL version 1. . pFreeLB <= pLBin. .x.

NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch]. ECX .Save pNewTSS .No.pNewTSS into EAX .EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^..Next . .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX.ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX.put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].pFreeTSS OR EAX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.Save pNewTSS again .we can't be interrupted .Put pJCB into TSS .EAX now has pJCB .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS. .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.ECX MOV EBX. .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS]. .EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0]. NTS_ESP .Restore pNewTSS to EAX .CX .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP].Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can .Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS . NTS_Exch ECX. ECX.Set up to call LinToPhy .0202h . NTS_EIP .mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].ECX now has pJCB .Exch in range? PUSH EAX . .Get Physical Address for PD into EAX . .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].EBX EBX. 0 MMURTL V1.Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 . [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.. NTS_CS . ECX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].ercOutOfRange NTEnd . nExch NT0001 EAX.0 .DL .Set up to call GetpJCB . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return. NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.EBX .

pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] . . pStack. .ErcOk MMURTL V1.Move new TSS into pRunTSS .New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX.Get priority of new task CLI .JE NT0004 .EAX MOV BX. 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. . .EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space. .BL . Procedural Interface: .ercOk JMP NTEnd . the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].20.Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX. .pRunTSS .EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP.20. .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. Listing 18.Jump to new TSS . See listing 18.Save New TSS .Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.New TSS -> EAX .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs. SpawnTask(pEntry. fOSCode).We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS . SpawnTask kernel primitive code . New TSS -> EDX .EAX . . fDebug. .CrntTSS -> EAX.Save time of this switch for scheduler . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. dPriority. NTS_Pri . As with NewTask().Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority].Yes . .

EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0]. nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.Allocate exchange . 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST. EAX JNZ STEnd . . . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.pFreeTSS OR EAX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. . 1 .Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3]. .0 . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .Yup. [EBX+TSS_CR3] . .No.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.. JobCodeSel .Next .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.pEntryST .mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. 8 CMP dPriST.two local DWORD vars .EDX .Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].ESP SUB ESP.Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS .see if we got an error .ercNoMoreTSSs . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.we can't be interrupted .ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX. pRunTSS MOV EDX. NewTSSST.EBX MOV EBX. 0 . NewExchST .EBX MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .EDX MOV EDX. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX.PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0202h .Priority OK? .EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]..Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. pStackST . EAX .Save new TSS EBX. bad news .EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 . .

.prgExch MOV ECX.BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.MOV EBX.EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. It is property of a Job (not a task).21. See listing 18.Return to caller . New TSS -> EDX . Allocate exchange code .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.Place crnt TSS on Q . .New TSS -> Stack . . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .Get who's running . just put new guy on Q. PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. returned. .Save time of this switch for scheduler .mov priority into BL . .Who got the highest Pri? . Listing 18. The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES).If crnt >.nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- . .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() .0 . EBX <= ADR rgExch .we can't be interrupted .BL CLI MOV EDX. The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages. . .ErcOk . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.Old guy does. .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.New TSS -> EAX .Jump to new TSS .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. .21. Zero the Exch Index . . Get number of exchanges in ECX .ercOk .put in TSS . 0 MMURTL V1.EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. .pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority].ESI MOV EBX.Move new TSS into pRunTSS .EAX MOV BX. AllocExch(pExchRet):dError .CrntTSS -> EAX. dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority]. New guy does (lowest num) . Procedural Interface : . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange.ESP XOR ESI.

ercOK (0) MOV ESP. . Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner].0 . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. RETF 4 . .pRunTSS EBX. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges.sEXCH EDX EDX. . . . Listing 18.JE AE001 ADD EBX. . PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released.ESI . . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). MMURTL V1. Messages are deQueued.EDX . Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. See listing 18.EAX . .EBP .22. .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. This function has a lot more to do. . . .[EAX+Owner] EBX. . DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType . . POP EBP . .[EBP+0CH] . . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. .0 . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX. If we found a Free Exch. . . Procedural Interface : .ESI EDX. Stats XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX.pRunTSS .22.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. it may have left over link blocks hanging on it. .sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. DEC _nEXCHLeft . however. . and link blocks. Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange.EAX EDX. and request blocks are freed up as necessary. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX.prgExch EAX.EDX ECX. This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector.[EBP+0CH] EAX. . .0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . Make the Exch owner the Job STI . Those link blocks may also contain requests. TSSs.EAX . Deallocate exchange code .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] .

EBP . 0 . MOV pFreeLB. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . CLI .Next <= pFreeTSS. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 . . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. INC _nTSSLeft . . POP EBP . Go And Check for more.EAX . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. EAX JZ DE002 .EAX . Nothing there. CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. Get the TSS off of the Exchange . yes . MOV [EAX+NextLB].JE DE000 CMP EBX. Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. INC _nEXCHLeft .with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . Go And Check for more. 0 . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. pTSSin^.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. JUMP MOV ESI. INC _nLBLeft . pFreeLB <= pLBin. JMP DE001 .EBX .only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. RETF 4 . Go free the Exch. . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . is this the OS??? .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead].pFreeTSS . If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . . See listing 18. No.0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. Free up the exchange. 0 .instructions or a service crashes! .Next <= pFreeLB.ercNotOwner MOV ESP. These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 .EAX . yes .EBX . MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. JMP DE000 . ECX . pLBin^. XOR EAX.pFreeLB . MMURTL V1. ECX . .23. Yes. Reset msg Flag. if not owner. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB].0 . NIL = Empty. Stats STI .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. 0 .

Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. returned.This sets the priority of the task that called it . . . to the priority specified in the single parameter. ErcOK . MMURTL V1.[EBP+0CH] .24. RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . bPriority is a byte with the new priority. PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. . EAX .No error.24 Listing 18. Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. . . MOV EBP. The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). . . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX.23. MOV EAX. SetPriority(bPriority):dError . If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. EAX . POP EBP . . BL .pRunTSS .EBX . MOV EAX. See listing 18. SetPriority . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. GetTSS exchange code . PUSH EBP .Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. Set priority code . Procedural Interface : . PUSH EBP . ErcOK POP EBP .ESP .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EBP. Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. 01Fh .ESP .[EBP+0CH] . [EAX+TSS_Exch] . This doesn't really affect the kernel. Procedural Interface : . . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. . PUBLIC __SetPriority .pRunTSS . RETF 4 . .Listing 18. GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution.

pRunTSS .25. RETF 4 .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. MMURTL V1. XOR EAX. PUSH EBP . bPriorityret is a pointer to a .This gets the priority of . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error. Get the MOV DL. BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. Procedural Interface : . MOV EAX. . GetPriority . priority returned.ESP . . DL . See listing 18. . and passes it to bPriorityRet. Get the MOV EBX. EAX .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS .25. PUBLIC __GetPriority . . . ErcOK POP EBP . SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . . MOV EBP.[EBP+0CH] . Get priority code . Listing 18.

INC . Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM). It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS . 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .INCLUDE TSS.Default to 1 MB .We alloc the "next" page table .Page Allocation Map . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .Deafult is 32 (1Mb) . The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.User Writable (Data) . The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code. Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode.INC . the code section must start with the .DATA .Chapter 19. The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .2048 bytes = 64Mb . I call these internal support code.System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections.Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt . I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code. The task state segments are also used extensively.INCLUDE JOB.User Readable (Code) . Listing 19.INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h .in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language.Max is 2048 (64Mb) . MMURTL V1.1. Listing 19.INCLUDE MOSEDF. page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs).1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code.User Writable .Number of free physical pages left .1 bit/4Kbytes . As with all assembler files for DASM.ASM. Memory management constants and data .CODE command.

Move in test string . The code in listing 19.3.Increase PAM by another meg . EAX .Another megs worth of pages .top of 2 megs (for DWORD) . oMemMax must be last byte . OFFSET pTbl1 .EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX. by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test. . and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.2.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX.EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .3 ADD EAX.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . you have. Listing 19. MOV EDX. Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.Supervisor.2.Make it the last DWord again .InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory.Next table entry MMURTL V1. This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used .100000h ADD _nPagesFree. .Set it to zero intially .IN: . Its the law! Listing 19.NO! . 32 CMP EAX.Next Meg . . neither of which you consider free.Read test string into EBX .USED: .Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].Are we above 64 megs .ECX MOV EBX.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].EAX SUB EAX. which was just loaded.3 MOV _oMemMax.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.Set oMemMax . It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax. EAX . We assume 1MB to start. See listing 19. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree. 0001h .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].Yes.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. Continuation of memory management init. Memory management initialization code . 4 . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree.'mrtl' test string value for memory .3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data. 0FFFFF000h .3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed.OUT: . Present MOV EBX. 256 MOV EAX. EAX CALL MarkPage .EBX MOV ECX.See if we got it back OK . Now you must fill in bits used by OS.ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX. in megabytes.1 Mb of pages = 256 . and makes PTEs.0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].Yes! . PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED.1FFFFCh XOR EBX. 256 ADD sPAM. which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh).

See listing 19.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX. EAX . then reading CR0. 0101b . go back for more .No.4. ANDing it with 8000000h. EAX .Reserve 192K for OS (for now) .Set paging bit ON CR0. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM.Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage . SHL 2) . such as the 82C30 C&T.Get Control Reg 0 EAX. 4096 .1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX .ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . Now we can go into paged memory mode. This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. 0FFFFF000h . CR0 . The routine in listing 19. The initial page directory and the page table are static.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. and then writing it again.Make it index (SHR 12. EDX.EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM.5.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].Next page please CMP EAX. OFFSET PDir1 .Next PTE entry ADD EAX. 100000h . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte. EAX. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. Turning on paged memory management EAX. See listing 19. EAX . 4 . IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX]. nor can I provide instructions to everyone. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . Several chip sets on the market.Store in Control Reg 3 EAX.Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 . Listing 19. Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used.6.Physical address of OS page directory CR3. C0000h –FFFFFh. 4096 EAX. 80000000h . EDX. EBX. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. Continuation of memory management init.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. Listing 19. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 .5. .Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. EBX. but I can't be sure everyone can do it. EAX .4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory.

Of course.no memory left.7.6.Listing 19. MemExch . Listing 19. PUSH 1 . LEA EAX.Done initializing memory managment .0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .7. this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it.IN : . Finishing memory management init.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD. See listing 19.0FFh . sPAM DEC EAX . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. Find highest physical page code .No EAX.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. Allocation of memory management exchange .EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].8. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage . FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller.Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch .8. or 0 if error EBX.. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated. MMURTL V1.OUT : . . I'm afraid. OFFSET pNextPT . See listing 19. Get 'em! RETN . 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX.. It also marks the page as used. OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX.Where we are in PAM .All 8 pages used? FHP2 .Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn . This reduces nPagesFree by one.Page Allocation Map . Listing 19. assuming that you will allocate it. 0 .

USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX.FOUND ONE! (goto found) . .No .Next bit .Set the bit indexed by EBX .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1.All 8 pages used? . OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX.Get the byte with a whole in it.\ Listing 19.Page Allocation Map .Start at first byte in PAM .. Find lowest physical page code . See listing 19.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . It also marks the page as used.OUT : .. 7 XOR EDX. EDX MOV DL.Another Byte lower . EAX SHL EBX.Another Byte lower . if we call FindLoPage and don't use it.Set page in use .. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].no memory left. or 0 if error EBX.IN : .Back for next byte .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. assuming that you will allocate it. This reduces nPagesFree by one.Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller.. we must call UnMarkPage to release it.Add page number in byte . Once again. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX. sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS . DL SHL EAX. EAX .At the bottom of the Byte? . 3 ADD EBX. .0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].9.Test bits . . 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 .Error (BAD CPU???) .9.DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX.One less available . .0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX. EBX FHPf EBX.Are we past at TOP of PAM? .

. EDX MOV DL.One less available .End of the Byte? .XOR EBX.FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Next bit . EBX FLPf EBX EBX.Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. 3 ADD EBX.0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS . This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.Error (BAD CPU???) . EBX XOR EDX.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL.Test bits . . [EAX+ECX] . Code to mark a physical page in use . EAX SHL EBX. EBX SHR ECX.Page Allocation Map AND EBX. OFFSET rgPAM . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX. 07h .10. 0FFFFF000h .Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree . 8 FLPn FLP3 . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX..Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX.OUT : .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .Set page in use . MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use.BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX]. Listing 19.Get the byte with a whole in it. DL SHL EAX.One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1. 12 . EBX . See listing 19.Get the byte into DL BTS EDX. DL . . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. 15 ..Add page number in byte .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX.IN : .Set the bit indexed by EBX . This reduces nPagesFree by one.10.

Code to free a physical page for reuse . ECX MOV DL. Listing 19. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. EFlags .Page Allocation Map .Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . OUTPUT: EAX -.OUT : . The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. .11. [EAX] BTR EDX. See listing 19. This increases nPagesFree by one. EBX. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . Listing 19. DMA operations. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. ESI. EBX MOV [EAX]. 15 SHR EBX.IN : . DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN .POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address.Physical Address .12. ESI -. See listing 19. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages. .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM . 12 AND EBX. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM . EBX SHR ECX. . This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. 07h ADD EAX.BitReset instruction . The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. . This function supports the similarly named public routine. EBX -.Round down to page modulo . USED: EAX.Linear address . INPUT: EAX -.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . etc. . UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again.12.11.0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS .

*4 makes it byte offset in PT .Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. . EAX MOV ESI. USED: EAX. 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1. .13. EBX MOV EAX. . EBX . Listing 19.Save Linear . The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . 00000FFFh OR EAX.Get original linear back in EBX . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. IN : EAX . or the 1Gb address mark for the user. 22 SHL EBX. EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI .Keeps count of how many free found so far . This is either at address base 0 for the operating system.Index into PD for PT we are working on .Leaves pJCB in EAX . EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.Address of PD saved here . Code to find a free run of linear memory . [EBX] AND EAX.Index into shadow addresses from EAX .ESI now has ptr to PD .Save this address for caller .EBX now points to Page Table entry! . in which case we return 0.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . OUT: EAX . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS.Get rid of upper 10 bits .0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .mask off lower 12 . . . EBX RETN FindRun .Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI.Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .Move to shadow addresses in PD . EAX MOV EAX.get rid of lower 12 to make it an index . the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory.Get original linear . 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. 2048 SHR EBX.Physical base of page is in EAX . The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist. 2 ADD EBX. This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing. 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. Save in EBX . See listing 19.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables. 12 SHL EBX. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.EAX now has ptr to PD! . EBX MOV EDX.PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX.Save it again .EBX/EAX now points to shadow .EAX now has Linear of Page Table . 2 ADD EBX.Copy number of pages to ECX. [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX.13. 003FFFFFh SHR EBX. EBX .*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow .

. EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4].Not empty.From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: .EAX is next 10 bits of LA . This is the way FindRun left them.We found enough entries goto OK .EBX still has count of pages.Not done yet. and the count of pages should be in EBX.Yes. if the run spans two or more tables. EAX. If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system. EBX . Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed.This is the linear address we ended at .Zero means it's . Next PTE Please.we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. .EDX was index into PD.Times size of page (* 4096) . [ESI+EDX*4] .MOV EDI.0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . 12 OR EAX. See listing 19. EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. . go for it XOR EAX.Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 . keep testing . . . while EAX was index into PT. 12 SUB EAX.The starting linear address is equal to number of the last .EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. The linear address of the run should be in EAX. next PTE please ECX. .go INC MOV JMP FROK: . or tables.We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 . .Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. EAX .One less page (0 offset) .PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . FR1: XOR EAX.empty (available) . .No. .Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .In use . 22 SHL EAX. 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 . SHL EDX.EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .One more empty one! .14. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . . EDI .If .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .Next PT! .

Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX.Restore linear address .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .LinAdd to EDX .0 . . 4 . AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX.SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. [ESI] . Adding a run of linear memory .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. OUT: . MEMSYS CMP EAX.No. .Listing 19.At this point. ARDone: MMURTL V1. IN : . go do next PTE ADD ESI.and OR in the appropriate control bits. EDX.EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) . . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. 4 . . . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . 10 AR0: MOV EDI.ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) . User ReadOnly . .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX.Set PTE to present.Make it index to DWORDS . next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.Yes.then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER . EAX AND EDX. 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX. EBX . USED: . EDX.14.Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . EDX.EDX . .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 .Next PTE please.(save for caller) .Offset to shadow address of PD . EDI is pointing the next PT.Get index into PD for first PT . 2048 ADD ESI. EDX MOV EDX. 4096 . CMP EDX.See if it's a user page .ESI now has ptr to PD! . EBX EAX 22 2 . [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. THEN store it in PT.LinAdd into EDX again .Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 . . 003FF000h SHR EDX.EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . .

EBX Number of Pages to alias . EBX EAX 22 2 .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . USED: EAX. (from find run) .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table .Get index into PD for first PT . .(save for caller) . . ESI MOV AliasJob. IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . . EDX. Listing 19. Once again. . . . See listing 19.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . 8 MOV AliasLin. EFlags . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . EDX. . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. EDX.15. OUT: Nothing .adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. this is the way FindRun left them.ESP SUB ESP. The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. .POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun .LinAdd to EDX . if the run spans two or more tables . . .15. Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span.we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX.This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . . and the count of pages should be in EBX. EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . .or tables.Make it index to DWORDS . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . to get a physical address into EAX. EAX AND EDX. 10 ALR0: MOV EDI. . EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . . .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) . 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI.EDX is index to exact entry . MOV ESP.Start at the entry 0 of next PT . . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Offset to shadow addresses in PD .Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must .EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. .Set system bits as ALIAS . AliasJob MOV EBX. EDX MOV EDX.Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].cut off system bits of PTE . . . . .Yes.Next PTE please. 4 CMP EDX.EAX now has physical address for this page .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. go do next PTE .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1.Job we are aliasing .This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE. 0FFFFF000h OR EAX. next PDE (to get next PT) .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Are we done?? .Set up for next loop (post increment) .ESI now points to first PT of interest .mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT. 2048 ADD ESI. .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) . . . MEMALIAS POP ESI .LinAdd into EDX again .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . AliasLin ADD AliasLin.Restore linear address .POP EAX ADD ESI.No. [ESI] . . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX.At this point. AND EAX.Address we are aliasing . 4 XOR EDX.

_nPagesFree OR EAX. MEMUSERD [ESI]. Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow).Physical address in lower half .ESI now points to PD . Next possible empty entry . and sticks it in the user's page directory.Sorry. No! (Try again) . This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write.16. MOV EAX.pJCB in EAX .EDI points to UserPD Address . 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. See listing 19. . EFlags .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX ESI.Move to shadow . . as shown in the following. 2048 MOV ECX. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . EAX MOV ESI. JcbPD ADD EDI. Adding a page table for user memory . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX. .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. .EAX will have Physical address . . EBX .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. [ESI] OR EBX. ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . [EDI] ADD ESI. This is easier than AddOSPT. . PUSH ESI .Linear add back into EBX .Offset to PcbPD in JCB . 2048 EBX. pNextPT [ESI]. USED: EAX. This will be in user address space above 1GB. because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. out of physical mem . Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code. Is it empty? . PUSH EDX .See if have enuf physical memory . Listing 19. AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . 4 MOV EBX.Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . PUSH EDI .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .Set user bits (Read/Write) .Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . IN : Nothing . Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI.16. initializes it.(save for caller) PUSH ECX .no free phy pages!) .

OS Job Number (Monitor) . PUSH EDX .was there an error (0 means no mem) .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .. .next time.EAX will have Physical address .17. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . See listing 19. Listing 19. OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX. .no free phy pages!) .save pNextPT (the linear address) . Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. in many cases.See if have enuf physical memory . EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow). PUSH ESI . IN : Nothing . PUSH EDI . USED: EAX. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. Find first empty slot MOV ESI. Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . _nPagesFree OR EAX.Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . 1 MOV EBX. MOV EAX. ESI points to OS Pdir . . out of physical mem . You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. . Adding an operating system page table . EFlags . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. 511 MMURTL V1. 1 XOR EAX. .0 .AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. . .size of request .Sorry.17.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. .

2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX. pNextPT MOV [ESI]. JcbPD MOV EBX. . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 .Next JCB . EBX . The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) .Destination 1024 . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. 2048 . 2048 . Get back JCB number . ESI EAX Get and .0 . 4 MOV EBX. . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX . .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD .Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) . Next possible empty entry .Get values from stack ADD EBX. EAX ADD ESI. No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . .No.Save nJCB we are on . [ESI] OR EBX. PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI].Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . .Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX.Move to shadow . Not a valid JCB (unused) . Is it empty? .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all.Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX.AOPT02: ADD ESI.Save values on stack MOV EDX.Source EAX . .Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX.Set present bit .Linear add back into EBX . # of dynamic JCBs .Source of Copy . nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX.Physical address in lower half . 2048 MOV EBX.Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX .

EFLAGS MMURTL V1. . . EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. else 0 if all's well .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . Listing 19. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. . USES: EAX. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. allowing access to OS procedures. . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . . . EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar.0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS .18. AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate.18. DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) .save pNextPT (the linear address) . ESI. . DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. OUT: EAX Returns Errors. Adding a call gate to the GDT . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. . ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute .next time. IN: AX .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) .size of request .Set ErcOK (0) . ECX. EBX. . EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.AddRun . Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. See listing 19.was there an error (0 means no mem) .At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . . 1 XOR EAX. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.

.see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . . for a task gate. or task gate. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX.Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) .19.No.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. Listing 19. IN: . CX SUB EBX. .19.EDX now points to gate . CX SHL EDX.Put Gate ID into gate . USES: AX .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2].make index vice selector CMP EBX. EBX.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. AX MOV EAX.call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX. AX SHR EAX. .Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .Yes.Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . ECX. 3 ADD EDX. CX . See listing 19.Put Offset 15:00 into gate . 8 . ercBadGateNum . nCallGates . SI .Put Offset 31:16 into gate . ESI.0 . . . . RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX.Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EAX. EAX . 40 . the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. EDX. interrupt. BX MMURTL V1. 40h . EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX.not too low. Adding entries to the IDT .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap. ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX].Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. . .Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . MOV EAX. .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. . GDTBase .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. 16 . SI . 3 .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . AX . .Extend INT Num into EDX .0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4].

The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree.Yes . See listing 19.n4KPages XOR EAX. we're maxed out EAX.No Error! EAX. . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages.These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .EAX ALOSP00 EAX.ppMemRet): dError . If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .Yes .If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1.n4KPages EAX. pRunTSS ADD EAX. This allows runs to span table entries.See if have enuf physical memory .size of request .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. . _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX. placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request. .0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . Allocate each physical page. but not close enough to easily combine their code. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage.20.20.ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit .(0 = No Runs big enuf) . A result code is returned in the EAX register.size of request . . n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory. Allocating a page of linear memory .0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX. PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .More than 0? .Kernel Error?? .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Can't be zero! . The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.RETF . Listing 19. Procedureal Interface : .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .Yes! Serious problem. AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space.Sorry boss.Wait at the MemExch for Msg . . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate.

If so. POP EBP . Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around. . ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. Procedureal Interface : .See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . MMURTL V1. . See if they are available.ERROR!! . ppMemRet . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. ppAliasRet): dError . EAX .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] .EAX now has linear address . .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Save last error PUSH MemExch . POP EAX . Code to alias memory . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: . . Even if the address is only two bytes. . . . .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. RETF 8 . No alias is needed.Add a new page table (we need it!) .Go back & try again .Does not return error . you need two pages. The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. pMem is the address to alias. AliasMem(pMem. if it crosses page boundaries. dJobNum. EAX . dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access.0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS .CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. however .No error ALOSPExit: . The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed.ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] .EBP . Listing 19.21. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . PUSH EAX . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified.dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] . . .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX.Only an entry in a table. dcbMem.pMem EQU [EBP+24] .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. . This wastes no physical memory. Exit.

EAX has 0 or 256 .Yes . No Error .Yes .dcbMem EBX .Number of pages we need into EBX .OS Job? . EAX. pRunTSS ADD EAX. .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX . alias it .Exit.MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.Get Job number for pMem .Yes.Set up for OS memory space . .No.See if it is OS based service .Are they the same Page Directory?? .EAX is nPages-1 . EAX. 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .Add to dcbMem 12 .PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Was there enough PTEs? . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. .Kernel Error?? . We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX.EBX still has count of pages OR EAX. PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Save nPages in ECX . .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . .Puts Current Job Num in EAX .Yes . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.No. EAX. [EBP+24] .Now wait our turn with memory management .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.0 . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX. 0 for OS . . EBX. EAX. ECX CALL FindRun . EAX JMP ALSPDone . [EBP+16] CMP EAX. . .Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. we're done ALSPBegin: . EAX ECX.EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough . User memory .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .OS Job? .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.Yes! Serious problem. . .See if it is OS based service .0h JNE ALSPDone .pMem into EAX 0FFFh .EAX is 256 for user space. 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.

Set to 0 (no error) . dcbAliasBytes.ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. 0FFFh EDI.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDI EAX. DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. EAX . . Procedureal Interface : .pAliasRet .Returned address to caller! .22. .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) .Get remaining bits . .Go back & try again . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. . EAX ESI. . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun . PUSH MemExch . Code to remove alias PTEs . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. .22.Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing . JobNum):ercType .Job number . PUSH EAX . . See listing 19.and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. .Save alias page address base .EAX . [EBP+24] MOV EDX.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . .Address to alias .EBX .Now. pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP. EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call. Listing 19. This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines.0 = NO Error . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . [EBP+24] EAX. EAX MOV ESI.Save last error .original pMem . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .We are done ALSPExit: . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1.Set .ERROR!! . [EBP+12] [ESI].

.Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) .NO . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.ECX .We did some.pAliasMem .Add the remainder of address EAX.dcbMem EAX. it's page is present .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX.Linear Mem to DeAlias .Add to dcbMem EAX.Is page an ALIAS? .EAX is nPages-1 EAX .Yes. [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy .EBP MMURTL V1.Address of next page to deallocate .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .0 . 12 . XOR EAX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . EAX . 0FFFh . . [EBP+20] . EAX MOV [ESI].Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX. -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.but less than you asked for! ECX.We dealiased what we could.and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS). EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.Get PTE into EBX . .Next linear page .DO not zero it! . if so just ZERO PTE.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX. EBX . . [ESI] TEST EBX.DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.See if PTE is an alias.ESP . EDX MOV EAX. ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX.pMem into EAX EBX.AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] . . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP..dcbAliasBytes . PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .None at all! . [EBP+16] .so we zero out the page.EAX is now nPages we need! ECX. EDI DALM011 EAX. DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . [EBP+20] . .Is page present (valid)??? .If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .NO! (did we do any at all) . .ZERO PTE entry .

Get PTE into EBX .23.Error?? .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . .Linear Mem to deallocate . . pRunTSS ADD EAX. n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .Yes! . its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. DeAllocPage(pOrigMem.Number of pages to deallocate .23. .Yes.POP EBP RETF 12 . . DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls. The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored . Listing 19. .and pointer to PTE in ESI.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . Procedureal Interface : . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. providing it is valid.Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX.Now we have Physical Address in EAX . because we deallocate 4K pages. . See listing 19. if so just ZERO PTE. n4KPages):ercType . deallocate.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. .0 . Even if you specify more pages than are valid. [ESI] TEST EBX. PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. pOrigMem AND EDX.See if PTE is an alias. .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. It will always free linear memory. pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be .Is page present (valid)??? . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy .Address of next page to deallocate . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias. pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . Deallocating linear memory . . . . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1.

See listing 19.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated.24.but less than you asked for! .None at all! MOV EAX. .save Memory error .Kernel error has priority .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 19. .get rid of OS bits .24.CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. Code to find number of free pages . over memory error .We did some. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.Next linear page . it's an Alias . . so next guy can get in .Send a dummy message to pick up . 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . . . .so we must unmark (release) the physical page.Yes. . You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. .Is page an ALIAS? ..If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias .get Memory error back .ZERO PTE entry . . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit . EAX MOV [ESI]. AND EBX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .NO! (did we do any at all) . Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left.We deallocated what we could. . Procedureal Interface : . EAX ADD EDX. ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX. QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType . 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP. pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.

pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX XOR EAX. be returned . EAX EAX. . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. .LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . [EBP+16] MOV EAX. . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . MOV ESP. EAX .25.25.No Error . This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes.0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.END OF CODE MMURTL V1. _nPagesFree [ESI]. Public for linear to physical conversion . pMemLeft EAX. GetPhyAdd(JobNum. . LinAdd. Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page.JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. See listing 19. . .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .ESP MOV EBX. . . left available returned . . . .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] .ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. Job Number . EAX MOV ESP. . Procedureal Interface : . .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .. pPhyRet):ercType . Linear Address . pPhyRet . No Error . Listing 19. . [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI.

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Back when I started this project. my worries were unfounded. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us.2 percent of available bandwidth. Somewhere between these two was the average.2 percent. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. It was 0. In a 10ms period we have 200. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. divided by the total clocks for the same period. actually the scheduler. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. especially synchronous. The average really depends on program loading. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. etc. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. which works out to about 1. It's at the end of the timer ISR. MMURTL is no exception. I ended up with 10ms.1. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. See listing 20.1. preemptive multitasking. Two of them will come in at 260us. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing. Listing 20.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. however.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. The average is was far less. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].6 percent for the worst case. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. was the effect on interrupt latency. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. a slow machine. A single communications channel running at 19. as well as the fastest one possible. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly.Chapter 20. Even more important than total bandwidth.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. memory wait-states. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. But even with these calculations. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. I was consuming less than 0. with 100-MHz machines around. As you well know. or 3000 clocks. which is very conservative. along with a piece of the kernel. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1.. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. I experimented with several different intervals.

2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long . and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium. or one that has requested an alarm.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt.INC . and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet.Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). and finally with test programs. TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. . The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. Listing 20.0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16. A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386. the exchange number of a task that is sleeping. The Timer Block is a structure that contains .Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1.DD 00000000h .2. SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. .FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. This doesn't cause a problem at all.INC . Data and constants for timer code . hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time.ALIGN DWORD .320 clocks.INCLUDE MOSEDF.INCLUDE TSS. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. including the 10 percent overhead. plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop.DATA . PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 .DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 . or 20us. The odds of this are truly astronomical. See listing 20.2. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . But. These are the offsets into the structure . Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. This I could live with.

You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more.No . The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it. priority than the task that is now running. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.nTmrBlks CLD . It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. See listing 20. you switch to it. the first things defined in this code segment.Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode. and they may be of an equal.4. Listing 20.goto decrement it PUSH EAX .save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.4. The timer interrupt service routine .INTS are disabled automatically . -1 .0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS .FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. At all times on the system. External functions for timer code . You have now interrupted that task. The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement. allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . Listing 20.Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 .Yes . If so. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed.Yes . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. See listing 20.ASM.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. If it is the same or higher.No. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run. They may have been placed there by other ISRs. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches. INT 20 . or higher. yet very important part.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR .save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] . It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 ..3.ASM.ISend Message MOV EAX.Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. only one task is actually executing.Timer Tick. The three external near calls.No .EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . which is the one you interrupted. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.Yes! .ECX has count of Timer Blocks .0h .3.FALSE . Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do. It is a small. ..

BX .get count back POP EAX . Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick.PUSH EAX .number was higher and we DON'T . we want to Switch.current pri.. Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX.10ms more gone. [ESI+Priority] CMP DL. and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS.Is this from a HALTed state? . CMP EAX..switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri .Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from .if we got a CARRY on the subtract. ESI CALL enQueueRdy .FALSE .No. his .We will now check to see if this guy has been running . SUB EAX.Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.If current is higher(lower num). That means .Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 .keep going . JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone . Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches . TimerTick . no need to check tasks . EAX .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . PUSH 0 .Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ . If the Queued Pri is LOWER .Change this to change the "time slice" . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.skip decrement .[EDI+Tid] .bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg . EAX MOV EAX. we will .0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS . pRunTSS MOV DL..next block please! ..YES.unless were done . MOV ESI.get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV EBX.tell him his times up! POP ECX .DL is pri of current . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.or Equal. EAX JZ TaskCheckDone .is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX. MMURTL V1.Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed .for more then 30ms (3 ticks). Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ . . If so. EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX. dfHalted OR EAX.EDI .bogus msg PUSH EAX .Is there one at all?? . and save in EDI . Put current one in EAX .Compare current pri to highest queued ..

PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .ErcOk .Empty block? JNE Delay02 .Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.rgTmrBlks .put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .FAR return from publics MMURTL V1.5. out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP. MOV EAX.Sorry.[ECX+TSS_Exch] .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.EBX . See listing 20.Count of timer blocks CLD . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX. The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. This requires an exchange.TSS_Msg . POP EBP . The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.FALSE .0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .nTmrBlks .No .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed .5.goto next block MOV EBX.unless were done MOV EAX. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch]. IRETD .Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg . RETF 4 . MOV EBP. Listing 20.DelayCnt . .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.clear direction flag Delay01: CLI .EBP .pRunTSS .EBX .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD . DelayCnt CMP EAX.TRUE . 0 . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX. Sleep() .Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].ESP .Must do this before we switch! .ErcNoMoreTBs .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].

Code for the Alarm function . which means the message has already been sent. . If the alarm is already queued through the kernel.Empty block? Alarm02 . AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].It's OK to interrupt now EAX. MMURTL V1. Listing 20.Sorry. MOV EBP. 0 . Alarm(nAlarmExch.clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each. . DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].TRUE .No .ErcOk .It's OK to interrupt now . KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange.ESP .Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX. AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .unless were done . out of timer blocks .Count of timer blocks CLD .0 .Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero. Procedural Interface: .goto next block EBX.rgTmrBlks .ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP.AlarmCnt .FALSE .Get delay count [EAX+CountDown].EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . MOV EAX.6. PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP . .nTmrBlks . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.all is well Alarm03 .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. See listing 20.EBX . See listing 20. -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .6. It must be set up each time. The message is not repeatable. AlarmCnt):dErc . AlarmCnt CMP EAX. nothing will stop it.EBX .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Up the blocksInUse count EBX.7.put it in timer block! .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.

PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds).goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers. . Code for the MicrDelay function .EAX points to timer blocks . KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .clear direction flag .ErcOk .8. But it's still very much needed.sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX.0 . The count is in 15us increments.ALl done -. 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX. KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc . Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1.Count of timer blocks .Listing 20. This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator.unless were done . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS . Code for the KillAlarm function .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. . so we get out! . Procedural Interface: . which drives the processor clock. Listing 20.Get exchange for killing alarms to .Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX.KAlarmExch LEA EAX.No blocks in use . .ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.Block in use? KAlarm02 . See listing 20.8.Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled.nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC . The task is actually not suspended at all.7.No . .FALSE . .EAX MOV ESP. .TRUE .It's OK to interrupt now .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.EBX .

8 MOV EAX. the next byte is the Hours in BCD. MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally.71h MOV BL. EBX MOV EAX.Hours .0 . The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. Code to read the CMOS time . Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.AL IN AL. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH. . 61h AND AL.MOV EBP. AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.ESP MOV ECX.No toggle yet . .ESP XOR EBX. and the high order byte is 0. [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.71h MOV BL. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). 10h CMP AH.Minutes . See listing 20. the next byte is the minutes in BCD. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI]. .AL MOV ESI. EBX MMURTL V1. EAX MOV ESP.get out if they came in with 0! .AL IN AL. AL SHL EBX.04h OUT 70h.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS . 8 MOV EAX.AL SHL EBX.02h OUT 70h.Clear time return .AL IN AL.00h OUT 70h.Toggle! Move to AH for next compare .9.check refrest bit . . .Seconds .Check toggle of bit .9. Listing 20. .Get delay count . GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines.71h MOV BL.Get system status port .

MMURTL V1.ESP .Day of month . No Error . the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12). .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .71h MOV BL. .0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EBP. See listing 20. . AL SHL EBX.AL IN AL.AL IN AL.71h MOV BL.Give 'em the time .Day of week .06h OUT 70h. .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Clear date return MOV EAX. Listing 20.09h OUT 70h.AL SHL EBX.08h OUT 70h. 8 MOV EAX. .Month . AL SHL EBX. XOR EBX. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.10.71h MOV BL.AL IN AL. 8 MOV EAX. No Error . Procedural Interface: . 8 MOV EAX.10. pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP . EAX MOV ESP.Year .71h MOV BL. Code to read the CMOS date . EBX XOR EAX. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99). .AL MOV ESI.07h OUT 70h. EBX . EAX MOV ESP. pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. 0-6 0=Sunday). .AL IN AL.XOR EAX. GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .

AL XOR EDX.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The procedural interface: .DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h.Timer 2. . EDX MOV EAX. EAX XOR EAX. .1. . AL MOV AL. is used to generate tones. With a 10ms interval. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h.12. Because it is a dword. The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. .11. LSB. Hardware timer number 2. AL IN AL. divide 1. Listing 20.0 .193182 Mhz .To find the divisor of the clock. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down. .No Error .800.11. See listing 20. . which is connected to the system internal speaker. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. Binary . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep(). MSB.This does all work for BEEP and TONE .000 ticks per month.ESP MOV ESI.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. pTickRet MOV EAX. . GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror .The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1.193182Mhz by Desired Freq. See listing 20. The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord).12. . TimerTick MOV [ESI]. this amounts to 262. 61h MMURTL V1. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() . 10110110b OUT 43h. Code to return the timer tick . Listing 20.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ .193182Mhz .

See listing 20.13.14. . . 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. . This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. if it had. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . Code to produce a tone . It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. . . Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 20. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. I would have called it Beep_Beep(). Code to produce a beep . 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h.ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. AL PUSH ECX .13. . 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . 800 MOV ECX.350ms . . . Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Freq . This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. MMURTL V1. (Sorry.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. See listing 20. . AL RETN Beep() . I couldn't resist.14. .ESP MOV EBX. Listing 20. 11111100b OUT 61h.OR AL.

.PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. ToneFreq MOV ECX.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . . ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 .ESP MOV EBX. MMURTL V1.

Kernel Structures .INC for structure details. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.INC . “OS Initialization. Initial OS Page Directory (PD). Global Descriptor table (GDT).See MOSEDF. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). The first file is Main. a workhorse for Main. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary.ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler.INCLUDE TSS. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main. The second file is InitCode. It is the entry point in the operating system. For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. access to the data is faster if it is.0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 .ASM. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process.ALIGN command. The assembler does no alignment on its own. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 .ASM. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) .======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) .INCLUDE MOSEDF. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . Initial OS Page Table (PT). and Public Call Gate table. and I don't worry about the rest of it. the first instruction executed after boot up. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files. The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical. Listing 21. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL .INCLUDE JOB.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. Main Operating System Data . It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. Periodically you will see the .INC . OS Global Data Listing 21.Chapter 21. In chapter 7.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files.1.ASM.DATA . .ASM which is presented later in this chapter.======================================================= . I generally try to align data that is accessed often.INC .ALIGN DWORD .

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;InitMemMgmt allocates an exch so

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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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; Clear allocated memory for TSSs

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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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Trap gate MOV EBX. 0 . Second. Used : ALL registers and flags . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. EAX. 1 .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. adds each of the basic IDT entries for included .Breakpoint MOV EAX. EBX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. 16 .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. MOV ESI.SUB EBX. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . 08F00h . Out : Nothing . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. CX . .DPL 3. .Divide By Zero MOV EAX.DPL 3.0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .Overflow 08F00h .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. .========================================================================= .Single Step MOV EAX.Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX.make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. InitIDT . OSCodeSel . 08F00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 .Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. 3 . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. ESI. MOV ESI. 255 .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. 3 .call DPL & ndParams RETN .DPL 3. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX.DPL 3. IN : Nothing .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. OSCodeSel . SI . Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . GDTBase .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. 4 . SI . PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX. 40 . 08F00h . OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. First. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector. 08E00h . AX . 8 .DPL 3. handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. software and hardware interrupt handlers.

Int TIMER MOV EAX. 08F00h . 0Bh . OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Eh .Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Ah . OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. EBX. OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . 08F00h . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. ESI. 08F00h . MOV ESI. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. 0Dh . OSCodeSel . 08F00h . OSCodeSel .DPL 3. 20h .Int Page Fault MOV EAX.DPL 3.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. 8 . OSCodeSel .Invalid TSS MOV EAX.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0Ch . INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. 08E00h . 08E00h . OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. MOV ESI.DPL 3. 08F00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .Seg Not Present MOV EAX. 21h . OSCodeSel .Double Exception MOV EAX. 6 . EAX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.GP fault MOV EAX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. MOV ESI.

. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. 08E00h .Int LPT2 MOV EAX. 2Ah .. 26h .DPL 3. OSCodeSel . 08E00h . MOV EAX.. 27h ........ OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. MOV ESI.DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. EAX.. IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1. MOV ESI.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. 08E00h ... OSCodeSel . MOV EAX. .. MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX... MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ . OSCodeSel .Int COM1 MOV EAX. EBX..Int .Int .. 25h . MOV ESI.Int . 08E00h ..DPL 3.0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI..FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 28h ... 2Bh . 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ ..DPL 3.DPL 3.IntLPT1 MOV EAX.DPL 3. 23h .Int COM2 MOV EAX.. 08E00h . 24h .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 29h . ESI. 08E00h ....Int ... 08E00h . OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . 08E00h ...... OSCodeSel ....Int ... MOV ESI.

58h MOV DX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. Used : ALL registers and flags . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. MOV ESI. before initcallgates.. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. .. OSCodeSel ..Int .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS . DPL 3 MOV ECX. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates.1Dword param. DPL 3 MOV ECX. MOV EAX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 2Dh .3 DWord params..CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.Int ..WaitMsg -. MOV EAX... 08C03h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 08E00h . IN : Nothing .DPL 3. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.2 DWord Params. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 0EC03h . 50h MOV DX.. This can't . OSCodeSel . 40h MOV DX. 0EC02h .. 08E00h . 2Fh ... DPL 3 MOV ECX... PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX. DPL 0 MOV ECX. but MUST be called before the first far call to any .. 08E00h .....DPL 3.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 .. 48h MOV DX.Int .ISendMsg -. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 0EC01h . MOV ESI. 2Eh . OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! .========================================================================== . OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1.3 DWord Params. MOV ESI. Out : Nothing ..SendMsg -.. MOV EAX. OSCodeSel .Set Priority .

RETN MMURTL V1.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .The rest of the call gate set ups go here..

================================================================ . Job Management Helpers The file JobCode.DATA . it is usually quite a mess. TSSs. can be a complicated scenario. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . PUBLIC InitNewJCB: .InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . From Main.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). many of them public functions. link blocks. Pieces of related code in the kernel. When things don't work right. The program loader is in this chapter.1 Listing 22. Before I wrote this code.CODE . Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. and finally the operating system memory. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one. JCBs are in allocated memory .Chapter 22.INC . It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. exchanges.INCLUDE TSS. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD . are used by almost every module in the operating system. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources. The process of allocating all the resources. See listing 22.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs . Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system.INC . making sure that each was correctly set and filled out. These calls.======= End data. EBX -. and finally starting the new task.INCLUDE MOSEDF.Begin Code ================== . and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) . this is the where you'll end up. INPUT : EAX -. the monitor.INCLUDE JOB. the JCB. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. request blocks. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while.asm .Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1. Job Management Subroutines .Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in .1.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management.

Count of JCBs . . MOV [EAX+JcbPD].Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs.first byte of name .EDX. [EAX+JobNum] RETN . . . EBX .Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. 3 . . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs. EAX ADD EDI.Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. ECX. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs).pbJobName ECX -. . InitFreeJCB . EDX .EAX . 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). while . USED: EAX. . INPUT : EAX .EDI points to JCB . sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI]. EDX is size of each JCB.ESI EFLAGS . ESI. others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated.EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. ECX is count of JCBs. .Move it in . in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). EDX.EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB].0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information.Video number is in JCB . MODIFIES: pFreeJCB.Address of JCBs to be initialized . OUTPUT : NONE . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. EDI. . . ..Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX.============================================================================= .EBX. We can't use its position .EDX . CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid].EBX MOV EDI. EBX.ECX. ECX . . .EAX . MMURTL V1.EAX . . .size is filled in . pJCBs . . This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run. .Size of JCBs .Put Ptr to PD into JCB .Now to JobName . EAX . 0 . . .1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. ESI -. . 7 MOV EAX. . .cbJobName EDX -. .Make last one NIL RETN . EAX points to the first JCB.Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX. .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols].

Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX. MOV EBX. Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . Get 'em! . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB .. EAX ECX. The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). CMP EAX. pJCBs MOV ECX.Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. .FLAGS .Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . the free pool. 0 . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb.============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . NewJCBDone: RETN . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL.DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. JE NewJCBDone .[EAX+NextJCB] .0 . If none exists.pFreeJCB . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX.Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. . . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX. .EBX. nJCBs MOV EDX. MOV EAX. . INPUT : NONE . . . pJCBs STOSD . . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . . . . Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). . JE DispJCBDone .0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4096 EDI. . REGISTERS : EBX. OUTPUT : NONE .IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. then EAX will contain NIL (0). . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in . This routine will also .EBX . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. . OUTPUT : EAX . INPUT : EAX .================================================================ . REGISTERS : EAX.FLAGS . 0 . .

Move it into newly freed JCB . The Job number . . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX.Current Job Number . GetpJCB . This is based on which Task is executing. 2 MMURTL V1. PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. USED: EAX. Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . GetpCrntJCB . [EAX+JobNum] . in EAX. . . USED: EAX. Many OS functions deal with the Job number. . assigned to a Job.EBX MOV pFreeJCB.MOV EBX.Current JCB RETN . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . USED: EAX. .============================================================ . GetCrntJobNum . . OUTPUT: EAX -. is a field in the JCB structure.Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . INPUT: Nothing . All TSSs are . PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. INPUT: Nothing . EFlags .Pointer to JCB RETN .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS .Current Task State Segment MOV EAX.============================================================ . A Job may have more than one Task. All TSSs are . .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number .============================================================ . . This is based on which Task is executing. 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX.Linear Address of current JCB . . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX.EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . OUTPUT: EAX -. EFlags . . OUTPUT: EAX -. EFlags . pRunTSS .EBX has OS ptr to free list . . . . INPUT: EAX -. .Job Number of desired pJCB . All TSSs are assigned to a Job. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task.pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB].

. EFlags . Procedureal Interface : . OUTPUT: EAX -. pJCBs POP EDX RETN . . . out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB. . GetJobNum . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. .Now points to desired JCB .============================================================ . . . 3 MOV EDX.Times size of JCB . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. Sorry. ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. We got one! . [EAX+JobNum] .Add in two static JCBs . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. . .Within range of JCBs .============================================================ .Current Job Number . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. call to support the public job management calls in high level .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). USED: EAX. . . . INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . languages.0 . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. AllocJCB (NEAR) . . Get a new JCB . This is a NEAR . .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX.JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. . . ppJCBRet):ercType . EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. . The Job number . . . is a field in the JCB structure.Current JCB RETN .

[EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . . Procedureal Interface : . call to support the public job management calls in high level .MOV ESP. This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . . . .Job Num . GetpJCB(dJobNum.============================================================ . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. EAX MOV ESP. . .No error . . . . GetpJCB . . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . pJCB . . .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. EAX MOV ESI. . . . . .ESP MOV EAX. This is a NEAR . . .============================================================ .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . MMURTL V1. . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . EAX XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . languages in the OS code. Procedureal Interface : . .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== .pJCBRet . . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). pJCBRet):ercType . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. Get a new JCB .============================================================ . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . EAX MOV ESP. . . you specifiy. . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated.

.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. . EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB ..Job Num OR EAX. RETF 8 .============================================================ . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . .EBP . This is . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX.Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+16] . GetJobNum . Procedureal Interface : . .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. . . ErcInvalidJCB .ESP . MOV EAX. . EAX XOR EAX. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD].Leave jobnum in EAX .EBP . . RETF 8 . nJCBs + 2. MOV ESP. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP.puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. . or 0 will be returned with the data. ErcBadJobNum . the job that the task that called this belongs to.pJobNumRet . This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job. MMURTL V1. . .EBP . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . POP EBP .0 is invalid CMP EAX. 0 . . POP EBP . RETF 8 .No Error . EAX MOV ESP. . [EBP+12] . . . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 . .pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . POP EBP .

============================================================ . It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. GetSystemDisk .asm. _BootDrive AND EAX. This is from the public . . 7Fh . pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where . .. Functions for starting new jobs. variable _BootDrive defined in Main. Jobc. This code is here for lack of a better place. . . PUSH EBP . This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the .get rid of high bits MOV ESI. EAX . and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. AL . . Procedureal Interface : . It's really not a filesystem function either. disk that the system booted from.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. Jobc. loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS .0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. . still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed.ESP . MOV EAX. Listing 22.2. RETF 4 .c.c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). MOV EBP. . contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. XOR EAX. pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . ending jobs. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . And will . . . .No Error POP EBP .================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. the number representing the system disk is returned. [EBP+12] .

ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. SetExchOwner(long Exch. long Exch)... static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. */ static long TmpStack[128].h" "MVid. char *pJCBRet).h" "MJob. /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode. .). long cb).h" "MData.h" "MKbd. char *ppJCBRet).h" "MFiles. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it.h" "MMemory. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB.Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel. MMURTL V1. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. char *pNewJCB). GetExchOwner(long Exch.h" #include "runfile. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB). SendAbort(long JobNum.h" "MTimer.0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS .

filetype. job_fhE. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. char *pMem.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . for (i=768. j. extern unsigned long KillExch. static long cbFileE. 0.static long JobNum. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. static long sCode. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. 0. iE. 0. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. static long offCode = 0. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. erc. offData = 0. BogusMsg[2]. 0. *pPDE. ercE. sStack. When all PTs have been cleaned. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. i<1024. unsigned long *pPT. static char aFileE[80]. i++) { MMURTL V1. static unsigned long oCode. oData. 0. *pStack. sData. static struct tagtype tag. 0. *pData. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. k. 0. ExchE. we eliminate the user PDEs.

fh. oCCFIX = 0. &dret). reads and validates the run file. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. *pfhRet = 0. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. &tag. If all is well. nDDFIX = 0. nDCFIX = 0. char fDone. &dret). 1. offData = 0. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. 5. j<1024. switch (tag.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. dret. 1. i. nCDFIX = 0. &fh). while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. oCDFIX = 0. oDDFIX = 0. offCode = 0. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. MMURTL V1. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. long *pfhRet) { long erc. cbFileName.id = 0.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. k). junk. oDCFIX = 0. nCCFIX = 0. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &filetype. long cbFileName. for (j=0. 0.

len). break. &i). case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oData+tag. &dret). /* skip it break. oDCFIX+tag. &oCode). case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). &oData). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. nCDFIX = tag. i+tag. &oCCFIX).len/4. &pStart. 4.len).len). 4. oDDFIX+tag.len). /* skip it break.len/4. &oDDFIX). case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len).break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len). &sCode. /* skip it break. 4. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE.len/4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &oDCFIX). oCDFIX+tag. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &sStack. break. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len/4. oCCFIX+tag. &sData. /* skip it break. /* skip it break. &dret). break. /* skip it break. nCCFIX = tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. MMURTL V1. 4. &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &oCDFIX).len). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. 4. &dret). &offData. nDDFIX = tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). oCode+tag. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. break. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. nDCFIX = tag. &offCode. if (tag. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.

i). return (erc). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. MMURTL V1. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB). dcbRunFile). } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. erc). if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. GetpJCB(JobNum. *pdcbRunRet = i. else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. else { CopyData(pRunFile. long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. GetJobNum(&JobNum).break. return(0). &pTmpJCB).0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . } return(0). long dcbPath) { long JobNum. pRunRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetpJCB(JobNum. } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). GetJobNum(&JobNum).

i). else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0.else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. dcbPath). return(0). &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. *pdcbPathRet = i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). else { CopyData(pCmd. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. char *pPathRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. &pTmpJCB). dcbCmd). /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. } return(0). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. pPathRet. } return(0). pCmdRet. *pdcbCmdRet = i. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. i). pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. else { CopyData(pPath. erc. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. long dcbUser) { long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. &pTmpJCB).0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. } return(erc).

pUserRet. i. pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. *pdcbUserRet = i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. i). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbName) MMURTL V1. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. } return(0). else { CopyData(pName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. i. GetpJCB(JobNum. dcbName). i). GetpJCB(JobNum. return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. else { CopyData(pUser.GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB). } return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. pFileRet. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. return(0). *pdcbFileRet = i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. long dcbName) { long JobNum. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). dcbUser).0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum).

0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . return(0). &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. dcbName). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. &fh). GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. *pVid. &pTmpJCB). U32 PhyAdd. i). pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. else { CopyData(pName. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pOSPD. &pTmpJCB). return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. long *pFix. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1.{ long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. *pPT. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. nPages. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. long cbFileName. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. dret. unsigned long *pPD. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. pFileRet. i. cbFileName. dcbName). *pdcbFileRet = i. i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). long dcbName) { long JobNum. fh. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum).

/* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". pPD). pVid = pPD + 8192. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. 0). erc = AllocPage(nPages. pPT. &PhyAdd). GetpJCB(1. pOSPD[768] = pPT.0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pData). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. 1). &pStack). &pNewJCB). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). 4096. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. &pCode). MMURTL V1. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. PhyAdd). 0). pVid = 0./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. &pTmpJCB). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. nPages = sCode/4096. pPT). pPT = pPD + 4096. if (sData%4096) nPages++. sStack = nPages * 4096. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. pNewJCB = 0. /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. /* Job's PD. 4096. nPages = sData/4096. pPT = 0. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. &pPD). xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". FillData(pVid. pPD = 0.

&dret). 4.offCode + pCode. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCode).0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pPD. &dret). pFix = pData + i. oDDFIX). the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oDCFIX). pFix = pCode + i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oCDFIX). pCode. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oCCFIX). */ CopyData(pOSPD. oData). &dret). &dret). /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } MMURTL V1. 4. &i. sData. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.offData + pData. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix ./* Right now. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. pFix = pCode + i. pData. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pData + i. &dret). &i.offData + pData. &i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.offCode + pCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). sCode. 4096).

pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. /* Size */ CopyData("VID". pNewJCB->nCols = 80. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. 3). /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768].} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. i. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. 1024. 0). pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". 25. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. pNewJCB). pNewJCB->nLines = 25. 0. 1024. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. 0x18. /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. pStack+sStack-4. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pStart+pCode-offCode). pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. 3). pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. 0). pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid.

pCode. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. pData. oCDFIX). return(erc). nPages = sCode/4096. dret. Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. if (sData%4096) nPages++. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. erc = AllocPage(nPages. i. &pStack). pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. sData. nPages. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. sStack = nPages * 4096. sCode. oCode). pNewJCB = pJCB. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. /* All Job memory is now allocated. &dret). erc = AllocPage(nPages. long fh) { long erc. long *pFix. &pCode). (CleanPD left the first PT for us). oData). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. The PD. nPages = sData/4096. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. &pData). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.

/* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.offCode + pCode. &dret). /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. oDCFIX). MMURTL V1. pFix = pData + i. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData.offData + pData.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . oDDFIX). } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pCode + i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i. 4. &dret). &dret). pFix = pData + i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret).offCode + pCode. &i. &i.erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pFix = pCode + i. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). 4. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE).offData + pData. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. oCCFIX). This task. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. &i.PT and video. return(erc). its exchange. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD.

This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. SetPriority(31). or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. ExchE. CleanUserPD(pPDE). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. ErcOpCancel). */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc.GetpJCB(JobNumE. &pTmpJCB). while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE).0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . BogusMsg). A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). ISendMsg(KillExch. /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. &pTmpJCB). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. WaitMsg(ExchE. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. GetTSSExch(&ExchE). This is used to kill run-away jobs. It results in a violent death for the job specified. Debugger or the current job. ercE = 0. BogusMsg). if (erc) return(erc).

/* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. &pExchJCBE). We send "Abort" messages to all services. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. &_KillTask). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ESP. 3. pTmpJCB). CodeSeg. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. 0x08. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. &pCrntJCB). */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. iE++. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. &TmpStack[127]. GetpJCB(JobNumE. /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. return(erc).ercE = 0. Exch. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. } ercE = 0. ExchE). ExchE. 0. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). Priority. EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). iE = 0. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). fDebug. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE).

*/ GetExitJob(aFileE. ercE = 0. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. EBP. &pExchJCBE). */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. If no exit run file. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). Send Abort messages to all services. iE++. EAX. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. CleanUserPD(pPDE). ercE = 0.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). ESP. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. ExchE). &cbFileE). if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. ercE = 0. iE = 0./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service.

ExchE. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. WaitMsg(ExchE. SUB EAX. Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. BogusMsg). MOV EBP. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. MOV EBX.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. SetPriority(31). This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. ercE). ADD EAX. cbFileE. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. MOV ESP.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. job_fhE). */ #asm MOV EAX. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. &job_fhE).

cbFileE = cbFileName. /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. aFileE. &pExchJCBE). GetpJCB(JobNumE. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services.error loading the Job. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). ercE = 0. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). &job_fhE). } CloseFile(job_fhE). In other words. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. iE = 0. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. cbFileName. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. */ MMURTL V1. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). iE++. long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. long cbFileName. ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. Send Abort messages to all services. cbFileName).0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pCrntJCB).

job_fhE). if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. ExchE).0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. The original user's job is destroyed. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. &job_fhE). */ GetExitJob(aFileE. ercE = 0. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. cbFileE.SendAbort(JobNumE. &job_fhE). job_fhE). we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. If no exit run file. CleanUserPD(pPDE). if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. EBP. /* Try to load the Chain file. ESP. EAX. &cbFileE). OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. ercE = 0. cbFileE. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). */ MMURTL V1.

#asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). BogusMsg). MOV EBP. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. MOV ESP. ADD EAX. SUB EAX. WaitMsg(ExchE. ercE). Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . PUSH 18h MOV EAX.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error.#asm MOV EAX. MOV EBX. ExchE.

then copy the CR3 . All of the debugger's .1. Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. Get EIP of offender for debugger . code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). See listing 23. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . It has grown substantially. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger .0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 23. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. . Get EIP of offender for debugger .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. but is still very immature. While writing the operating system. . Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. entry from the current job into the debuggers job. The debugger is a separate task. are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. Get Flags . . Breakpoints. If we get here. Next. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task.Enter debugger . which are all debug exceptions.EnterDebug .Enter debugger . . You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. . .1.===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . task (without going through the kernel). First we copy the Page Dir . so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. on which exception is was.Chapter 23. They are made to match those of the interrupted task. This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. I have left them as individual procedures. . Get CS . This makes the . I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually.

. .External near Variables MMURTL V1. You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX.pRunTSS -> EAX . [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX.INCLUDE MOSEDF.2. with the exception of the disassembler..pCrntJCB -> EAX . [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. EBX EAX. EnterDebug: PUSH EAX . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . EBX EAX.Install Debugger's as current .Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23.CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX . EAX This switches tasks. and restore PUSH EDX ." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code.CR3 -> DebuggerTSS . BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].INCLUDE . pRunTSS.make his registers right! . pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave.When the debugger exits.INC TSS.Set up debugger selector . then jump to the debugger's selector. [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX .we MUST save PUSH EBX .2 presents the debugger code in its entirety.DATA .current CR3 -> EBX . OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3].Put the stack back the way it was . we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS . caller's registers them before the into the debugger .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX .Switch tasks to debugger . task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.INC .Save the current pRunTSS . Debugger Data and Code .ALIGN DWORD . Listing 23.Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . EAX EAX.INC JOB. . pRunTSS EBX. OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.INC RQB.

'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.'DumpD'.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .Address we are setting as next .0B3h.General use buffers DB '0000000000' .0B3h. .'ClrBP'.0B3h. .'SetBP'.0B3h.0B3h.For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .' '. ESC to quit..To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .'Tasks'.' '.' ' ' .Active bytes in buf2 .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .0B3h.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'. 0Ah DB 0 .are we dumping DWORDS? .'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB . .Boolean.TO save the TSS we interrupted .ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.General purpose DDs (used all over) . .0B3h. dbgExchMsg .CR LF for Dump etc. 0 = Exch .Address of instructions we are displaying .0B3h..flag 1 = Msg.Has Dbg Video been initialized? .0B3h.For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.For ReadDbgKbd .Address we are dumping .

For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .'CR0: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.'EBX: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h.'ESI: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .'ECX: 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h. OFFSET DbgVidSave .'EBP: 0B3h.'EFL: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.'TSS: 0B3h.'EIP: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'CR2: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.==================== End Data. Begin Code ========================== .sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .' SS: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.' ES: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.

CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. The debugger . (we chanage the tasks) .the Instruction Pointer. DbgpTSSSave .Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. .dbgOldEIP .dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.REF . This only applies if . Code Seg.NO .When a fault or debug exception occurs.BX MOV EBX.We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt . MOV EBX.Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX. But we do.dbgOldEflgs ... 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.Display fault message and . . when the handler is entered.Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the . I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS. the values of .EBX .See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX. and number at 0 . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.dbgOldCS .Dbgr is Job 2 .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. .EBX .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. is always entered as a procedure.[EAX+TSS_EFlags] .NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! . and flags are not the .procedure was entered.0FFh . . . 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS].EBX .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .We make them the same by putting the values we got from . the handler is a procedure (NOT a task). MOV EBX.Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 . so we shouldn't have to reset it.PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit.0 .0 .EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX.

Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX. 0FFh LEA EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Display menu PUSH dbgX .=========================================================== . 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.0 . EAX MOV dbgX.DbgpTSSSave .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.Set BP (Current Address . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble . MOV EAX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .reset fault indicator .Reset X & Y to 0. EAX .CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid .Get USER pUserTSS .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.Set TF in flags for single step .Color White on black .dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP. 0FFh . 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .Single Step (F1) . EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.1 .ESCAPE (Exit) .[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX.Fall through to keyboard loop .Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX.ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX. . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .

MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX.DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. EBX DR0.Full display . EAX DR7. .BP0 Set global . EAX DR6.Clear BP (Current Address . EAX dbg00 EAX. 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX.Set Disassembly Address (F8) .See if we need to scroll up .Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . EAX dbg00 .This puts the instruction on the line .This puts the instruction on the line . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX. 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL.See if we need to scroll up . . 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd.Sets NextEIP . . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Back to where we were . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL. . 00 MMURTL V1. EAX EAX. .Not used yet . 00000002h DR7. . 11h dbg04 EAX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS .Display Exchanges (F5) .Task array display (F6) . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. EBX EAX.0 . EAX dbgBPAdd.F3) .Address displayed .Save it so we know where BP is . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Clear BP saved address .Return to CS:EIP (F4) .

Return saved pRunTSS .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . .This puts the instruction on the line .we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint . .Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD.See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX.Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) . DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. EAX BX. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL. .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Info Address dump (F12) .Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1.This compares the current breakpoint the address . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.MOV dbgfDumpD.EAX must be preserved MOV EBX.GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner .Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) . BX .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.we are about to display. 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL.0 .Query XY . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. If they are the same. 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .Back to begining .============================================================== dbgShowBP: .

[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.02 MOV ESI.00 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.06 MOV ESI.3 params to TTYOut .[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.03 MOV ESI.EBX Display .0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.EBP Display MMURTL V1. ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .TSS Display .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EDX Display .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.04 MOV ESI.EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Save EAX across call .[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.MOV ECX.ESI Display .[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Number of this TSS .Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.01 MOV ESI. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.EDI Display .EAX Display .information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.05 MOV ESI.============================================================== .BP Address .ECX Display .07 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.

CR2 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.DS Display .MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.20 MOV ESI.SS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.08 MOV ESI.13 MOV ESI.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.EAX MOV AX.EIP Display .ES Display .15 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.14 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.FS Display .EAX MOV AX.19 MOV ESI.18 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.CS Display .17 MOV ESI.ESP Display .11 MOV ESI.16 MOV ESI.CR0 Display .[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.EFlags Display .09 MOV ESI.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR3 Display .[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.GS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.0 .OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.10 MOV ESI.12 MOV ESI.

dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.============================================== .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN .CALL DispRegs RETN . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on . This is for Debugger Register display . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1.Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.========================================================================== . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 . . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS .

dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .did they exit with CR? .Goto Query Line . dbgChar .Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. PUSH EAX . EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone . DbgBuf2 . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . PUSH EAX .=========================== .. . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 . cbBufLen2 .Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX. dbgChar CMP AL. PUSH EAX .length of string . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX.PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Max size LEA EAX.0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .Convert String to DD .ptr to destination DD .ptr to string ..=========================== .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Go home.Ignore error if any MOV AL. 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX.Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.

PUSH EAX . cbBufLen2 . 0 JNE DumpDone .Max size LEA EAX.Goto Query Line .line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. 6 LEA EAX. LEA EAX. DbgBuf2 . dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Go home.Ignore error if any MOV AL.convert address to text LEA EAX..Crnt size PUSH 8 .Convert String to DD . dbgChar CMP AL..did they exit with CR? . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd . 4 .byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. PUSH EAX .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! . dbgChar . PUSH EAX .0 . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .ptr to size returned LEA EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.length of string .ptr to destination DD .PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. dbgSpace MMURTL V1. dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. .ptr to string . 24 .

dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.NO .make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. 0 JE DumpB .point to second 2 bytes . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Display 1 spaces .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS . display 1 space . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.0 . dbgDumpAdd . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.Display First byte . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.get dump address MOV EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX. dbgfDumpD .go to display bytes LEA EAX.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX . dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgBuf .ignore error . dbgBuf ADD EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL. [EBX] .display 2st byte .ignore error .

CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Query XY PUSH dbgX . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .NO . 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.ignore error LEA EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. dbgCont .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut ."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.NO .ignore error . dbgCRLF .Yes .Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.go back for next 4 bytes .display 4th byte .ignore error .23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.done with 4 quads?? . LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX. DEC dbgGPdd1 . dbgBuf ADD EAX.a space .

messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Col PUSH 0 .prgExch .Col dbgGPdd1 . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 1 . 0FFh . 0 RETN . 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. .line we are one . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 . 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Convert Exch number for display .MOV EAX.First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX. .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. 1Bh . dbgGPdd2 EDX.Exch# we are on .Do CR/LF 0 . sEXCH EDX EDX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with . Exch number .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .=========================== . PUSH 54 .

Could have left it on stack. Go check for tasks . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX.Convert Job Number 10 .Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .No. .For next msg in chain (if it exists) .Convert dMsg1 .Is is NIL (no msg or task)? .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.0 . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.ADD EAX.Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.Col dbgGPdd1 . Go to next Exch .Save dMsg2 .pExch -> EAX .EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Flag to indicate we are doing messages .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) .pMsg -> EBX 20 . EAX MOV EAX. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX.Get dMsg2 . . .Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS .. EAX MOV EBX.Save for loop .MsgFlag -> EBX .Yes. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.See if there is a first message MOV EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 . MOV EAX. [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.pMsg -> EBX . ..Line OFFSET dbgBuf . . . . [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX.Is is 1 (a message)? . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . but would be confusing later. . 0 .Get dMsg1 . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX. [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . EAX OR EBX. [EAX+EHead] .

dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . 31 .Next line please .0 . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.pExch -> EAX .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Get Number of Task at exch .Is is 0 (no TSS)? . INC dbgGPdd1 . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. EAX AX.pTSS -> EBX . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. nDynEXCH .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 .Col 24 .Lop off key status bytes . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 .No . EAX EAX. .Col .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . MOV EAX. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5. 23 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. [EBX+TSSNum] . . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 .Convert Task Number 1 .Line OFFSET dbgCont . 0FFh CMP EAX. MOV EAX.Clear pNextTask .Line .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. -382- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save ptr to next task if it exists .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .

Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . we increment TSS number and go back .Set up to loop for next msg/task . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .If so. 0 RETN . dbgGPdd2 EAX.PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Col PUSH 0 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. 1 dbgDT02 EBX. Task number .Another pointer in the link? .line we are one . Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Tasks .0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS . . MMURTL V1. We are on line 1 again .Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg .Line for labels .No . 2 dbgDT03 EBX. Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . nDynEXCH .Displays Tasks that are active along with . EAX. we get all the data BEFORE we display it .Length of message . PUSH 54 . .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 1 . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX. dbgGPdd6 OR EAX. Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) .pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX. 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX.Col . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid .for the next one dbgDT01: . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .=========================== . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX. .NonZero if we are doing tasks .If not. 1 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.line. OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .

nTSS .EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd3 . MOV CL. DDtoHex 20 .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .Col dbgGPdd1 .of TSSs .back for next one dbgDT05: . .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.Save pJCB for display . 8 .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EAX .Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 . EAX .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .Col dbgGPdd1 .EAX has pJCB OR EAX. 8 . go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf . ECX . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX. dbgGPdd2 .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf . EAX MOV EBX. EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array . ECX MOV EAX. EBX . 512 ECX EBX.Col dbgGPdd1 . [EBX+Priority] . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX.Not used. DDtoHex 10 . JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. dbgGPdd4 .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5.

nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Line OFFSET dbgCont . EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 . Call with: .Save number to display MMURTL V1. 31 .Col 24 . MOV EAX.No.Col dbgGPdd1 .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . 8 .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf . 23 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 1Bh . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't .go for next Task number .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . dbgGPdd6 . DDtoHex 40 . DDtoHex 30 . This is for Debugger Address Info display . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .====================================================================== . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. .Col dbgGPdd1 . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display . EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) . 0FFh .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . 0 RETN .Save it for the top MOV EAX.0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .Yes. . 8 . go back for next 0 . continue prompt dbgDT01 .

GDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM1 .RdyQ LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM4 .OFFSET DbgM3 .OFFSET DbgM7 .Vid Attribute . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.MonTSS MOV EAX.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .pTSS3 MOV EAX. IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM5 .PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.DbgInfo .Length of line .OFFSET DbgM9 . OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI. RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgPA .OFFSET DbgM8 . GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.=============================================== . rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.SVCs LEA EAX.LBs LEA EAX.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .Exchs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM0 .ptr to line .RQBs MOV EAX.PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.Do it . rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM2 . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM6 .IDT LEA EAX.JCBs MOV EAX.

Line 0-24) 0 66 .No. 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 . .Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? .between colums 0 and 66.OFFSET DbgMB .======================================================= .ignore error RETN .and the register display.======================================================= .0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .If so.fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.Col 0.Yes.MOV ESI.This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. The other . . .===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1.Got to Column 0.Columns 0-65 24 . dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.areas are resrved for the menu. Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . and line 0 to 24.Clear the query line (Line 23. we scroll up the text area by one line. rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN . Scroll test area (Col 0-64. go back for next key 0 .Lines 0-23 1 .Query XY (See what line and Col) . Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. .All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .Timer Blocks LEA EAX. query line.

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you're on your own. Time was the deciding factor. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet).0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers.Chapter 24. Listing 24. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. unsigned long int). You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. U32 nDevices. but I think you're OK. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. If you have MFM drives. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me.1.g. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. In fact.1. many device drivers are written in C. though I would rather have done them in assembler. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). S8 *pDCBs. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. There are no include files. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. All of the hardware commands are well documented. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. but I try not to. in addition to those in the code itself. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. This seems to be the best. They were designed that way. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dfReplace).. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. See listing 24. Comments. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. this device driver should work with MFM drives. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code.

U32 *pMsgRet). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. While writing the operating system. U32 msg2). U8 *pDataIn). U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). static U32 hd_wait (void). U32 dnBlocks. static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. OutWords(U32 dPort. U32 dnBlocks. U32 dnBlocks). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. S8 *pIRQ). U32 count). I needed a method to get data to the screen. static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U32 HdSect. See listing 24. U16 wPort). static U32 send_command(U8 parm). U32 dBytes). static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). . U32 msg1. U16 wPort). U32 dnBlocks. U32 dBytes). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. void CopyData(U8 *pSource.0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . It's called xprintf(). void OutByte(U8 Byte. static void hd_reset(void). U16 InWord(U16 wPort). static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). U8 *pDestination.).. U32 msg1.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. InWords(U32 dPort. U8 *pDataIn. Listing 24. MMURTL V1. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). U32 nBlks). static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. U32 dBytes). void OutWord(U16 Word. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 dLBA. U8 *pDataRet). static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 *pMsgRet). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataOut).2. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). static U32 check_busy(void).. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U32 msg2). static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U8 *pDataOut. U32 dOpNum.2. U8 InByte(U16 wPort).

S8 *pInitData..0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS .U8 static U32 *pData). static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. U32 dStatusMax. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. U32 *pdSatusRet). hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1.. S8 * pStatRet. U32 sdInitData).

*/ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 ..16 bit) 1 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit . This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.high cyl (1F5h) 6 .error register (1F1h) 2 .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag.high cyl (1F5h) 6 .read data (1F0h .sector number (1F3h) 4 . and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.low cyl (1F4h) 5 . wait 50us.sector count (1F2h) 3 .sector number (1F3h) 4 .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .16 bit) 1 .Set. can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1. either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.write data (1F0h . head and Sector number.status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives. Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.

static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. 0 or 1 */ hd_head.which head */ hd_nsectors. */ /* Current number of heads. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. If I did one member.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. hd1_heads.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. hd0_cyls. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. hd0_heads. statbyte. /* Calculated from LBA . fDataReq. Listing 24. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8].0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd1_secpertrk. /* Calculated from LBA .3. /* Calculated from LBA .3. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command. hd1_type. cylinders. /* Current Physical Drive. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. hd_control. See listing 24. hd0_secpertrk.

/* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. MMURTL V1. U8 fDevReent. S16 nBPB. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. }. fIntOnReset. 32 bytes out to here. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. U32 BlocksMax. /* Number of bytes per sect. ResetStatByte. U32 nBlocks. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. S8 sbName. LastRecalErc1. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. S16 wJob. U32 OS2. U32 OS3. LastErcByte1. LastSeekErc0. LastStatByte0. S8 type. U8 fNewMedia.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . U8 type_now. filler1. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. LastErcByte0. U32 last_erc. U32 OS5. LastSeekErc1. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. U32 OS4. U32 OS6.static U16 hd1_cyls. U32 OS1. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. S8 *pDevSt. S8 *pDevOp. U8 fSingleUser. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. U32 blocks_done. }. S8 *pDevInit. LastStatByte1. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS.

/* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0].pDevOp hdcb[0]. static U32 hd_msg. /* Random */ 512. hd1_secpertrk = 17.nBPB hdcb[0]. 3. MMURTL V1. hd1_heads = 16.sbName hdcb[0].0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . '1'. /* largest disk handled . 524288. hd1_cyls = 1024.sbName hdcb[1].4.pDevInit hdcb[0]. 'D'.pDevInit hdcb[1]. 3. 'D'.Name[0] hdcb[0]. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A). '0'. &hddev_stat. 524288. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read.Name[2] hdcb[0].pDevSt hdcb[1]./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch.nBPB hdcb[1]. &hddev_stat.Name[0] hdcb[1]. static U32 hd_msg2. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024. &hddev_init. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.pDevOp hdcb[1]. 1.Name[1] hdcb[0]. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver.type hdcb[0]. &hddev_init. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc.nBlocks hdcb[1]. 1.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. static long HDDInt.Name[1] hdcb[1]. /* largest device handled .type hdcb[1]. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19). this would be the main() section of the C source file.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.Name[2] hdcb[1]. 'H'. See listing 24. /* Random */ 512. In a loadable driver.4.nBlocks hdcb[0]. Listing 24.

*/ /* Reset the HDC . The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. MMURTL V1. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. then try both physical drives. some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). If the second drive is not there. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. } } /* if we got here. It seems like a lot of work. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. hd1_type = 0. &hdisk_isr). /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there.last_erc = erc. but they don't.last_erc = erc.0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning.erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. We have to do it once. */ hd_reset(). /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). They vary from BIOS to BIOS. UnMaskIRQ(14). /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. */ erc = hd_recal(0). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1].hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). hd0_type = 0. We have to make this sucker work the hard way. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. */ hd_reset(). */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. SetIRQVector(14. erc = hd_recal(0).

&hd_msg). This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. else hdstatus.fIntOnReset = 1. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. HDDInt = 1. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. 0xfffffff0. It just waits for an interrupt. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. MicroDelay(4). This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). HD_REG_PORT). } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers.last_erc = erc. hdcb[0]. HD_REG_PORT).seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. OutByte(4.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f.fIntOnReset = 0. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. 2. This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them.ResetStatByte = statbyte. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. if (i) hdstatus. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. 1)).erc = hd_recal(0). &hdcb. 0xfffffff0). ISendMsg(hd_exch. /* 200ms . The caller should call check_busy and check the error. UnMaskIRQ(14). EndOfIRQ(14). /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. Sleep(20).

} The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. See listing 24. /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). erc = hd_wait(). /* set max heads.0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. Sleep(5). /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. hd_Cmd[3] = 0. Listing 24.5. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).).3 seconds. hd_Cmd[4] = 0. check_busy(void) count = 0. etc. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. return(erc). ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0.5. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). nSectors. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0.

0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . Time-out and return if no interrupt. if (drive) hdstatus. 300). erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). return(ok). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL).LastRecalErc1 = erc. if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). &hd_msg). KillAlarm(hd_exch). /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. else hdstatus.LastRecalErc0 = erc. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. return(erc). else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). KillAlarm(hd_exch). /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch.

if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. hd_nsectors = nBlks. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+7). verify. head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. U16 cyl. For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. msg[2].0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. return(erc). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. &msg) == 0). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. } erc = check_busy(). if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. setupseek(U32 dLBA. HD_PORT+4). HD_PORT+6). Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. HD_PORT+1). HD_PORT+5). HD_REG_PORT). if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). seek). U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks.alarm or int messages before we send a command. OutByte(hd_control. HD_PORT+3). format. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. HD_PORT+2). MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. write. /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). if (!erc) erc = check_busy().

hdstatus. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1../* we now know what cylinder. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok.LastSeekErc0 = erc. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* cyl & 0xff. } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore. } = = = = = nBlks. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1). return(erc). This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0.. if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. /* hd_sector. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.

LastErcByte0 = errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . else return(erc). /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). break. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. errbyte.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. MMURTL V1. else return(erc). he interrupted us with status. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. else hdstatus. } else { erc = check_busy(). else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark.LastStatByte1 = statbyte.U8 statbyte. After all. } return(erc). default: break. */ erc = check_busy(). if (hd_drive) hdstatus. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. else hdstatus. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek.

U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. hd_sector. } } return(erc). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. hd_sector. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). nSoFar++.else erc = ErcBadHDC. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. nBPS). /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. erc = setupseek(dLBA. nBPS. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. --nleft. pDataOut+=nBPS. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ).nBPB. pDataRet. dnBlocks). pDataRet+=nBPS. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive].0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dnBlocks. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA.nBPB. U32 dnBlocks. erc = setupseek(dLBA. } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. nBPS. nSoFar. dnBlocks). /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). pDataOut. nleft. nBPS). erc = check_busy(). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks.

0 -404- . } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. nBPS). dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. U32 HdSect. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. cyl.erc = hd_wait(). U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. hd_sector). erc = hd_wait(). /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). nSoFar++. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. return(erc). hd_head. HD %d. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. return(erc). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. pDataOut+=nBPS. /* cyl & 0xff. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. dnBlocks). cyl = Cylinder. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). pDataOut. U16 cyl. erc = setupseek(dLBA. Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* hd_sector. SEC %d\r\n". /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. head and Sector number.

6. return(erc). For Hard disk. 512). The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. MMURTL V1.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. U32 dnBlocks. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. U32 dOpNum. &hd_msg). 12=0 and 13=1.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. erc = hd_wait().” discussed device driver interfaces. U32 dLBA.6. “Programming Interfaces. erc = 0.blocks_done = 0. pDataRet. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. } Chapter 8. Listing 24. else hd_drive = 1. See listing 24. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command.

case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. U32 dStatusMax. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. S8 * pStatRet. dnBlocks. dnBlocks). case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. return(erc). /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. pData). /* Null Command */ break.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. break. break. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ break. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). break. erc = 0. break. break. pData). } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. pData). dnBlocks. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. default: erc = ErcBadOp. break. break. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. dnBlocks. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). pData).last_erc = erc. dnBlocks.

Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax.nCyl = hd1_cyls.type_now = hd1_type. *pdStatusRet = i. else i = sStatus. hdstatus. hdstatus. hdstatus. } /* Calculate size of status to return. hdstatus. S8 *pInitData. hdstatus. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat).nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus.nHead = hd1_heads.last_erc. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[0].erc = hdcb[0].nCyl = hd0_cyls. } else { hdstatus.nBPB.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS .nBPB.{ U32 i. hdstatus. hdstatus. hdstatus. CopyData(&hdstatus. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect. hdstatus. pStatRet. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. The DCB values are updated if this is successful. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.). This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.type_now = hd0_type. return ok. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters.nHead = hd0_heads. i). This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded.erc = hdcb[1].nBPS = hdcb[1].last_erc.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk.

i).type_now. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus. i.nSectors.nSectors.nBPS.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = 0. else hd_drive = 1. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive]. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.last_erc = erc.nCyl. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.nSectors * HDStatTmp. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp.nHead. /* If no error. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp.{ U32 erc.last_erc = 0. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nCyl. return(erc). if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive). } hdcb[hd_drive]. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0.nHead. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.nCyl * HDStatTmp. &HDStatTmp.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive). else i = sdInitData. CopyData(pInitData.type_now.nHead.nBPB = HDStatTmp. } /* If no error. hdcb[hd_drive]. hdcb[hd_drive].

5-8 */ stop bits for this port. it is a fully functional driver. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . the driver. unsigned long RBufSize.7. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. It needs more work.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. Listing 24. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. */ It's already open. and this driver. See listing 24.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file. */ It's opened by someone else. 16450. unsigned long XTimeOut. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. as well as by the driver itself. unsigned long LastErc... which is a block oriented random device.38400 */ Parity for this port. which is a sequential byte-oriented device. unsigned char IRQNum. unsigned char parity. unsigned long RTimeOut. unsigned long resvd[6]. unsigned char databits. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. Unlike the IDE disk device driver.. unsigned long Baudrate. unsigned long LastTotal.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. other than that..The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. as well as status. MMURTL V1.. 150 . unsigned char stopbits. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. RS-232. 1=even. “MMURTL Sample Software. 0=none..7. */ 150-38400 */ 0. or 16550 UARTs. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. but. unsigned long IOBase. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. unsigned long XBufSize.

Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet).}.8. S8 MMURTL V1. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). U32 nDevices. Listing 24. U32 dfReplace). extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). All other command are specific to this driver. U32 nPages). See listing 24. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations.0 *pIRQ). U8 **ppMemRet). extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum.8. S8 *pDCBs.

U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 sdInitData). S8 *pInitData. U8 *pDestination.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . U32 dOpNum. U32 msg2). U16 wPort). U32 msg1. U8 *pData). void OutByte(U8 Byte. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. set and reset signal line condition and functions. S8 *pMsgRet). These will be called form the device driver interface. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dLBA. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. U32 count). U32 msg2).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 dStatusMax. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 msg1. U32 dBytes). U32 dnBlocks. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). S8 *pMsgRet). U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). /* local prototypes. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. U32 *pdStatusRet). S8 *pStatRet. #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch).

H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. MSR[2]. FCR[2]. LCR[2]. head_send[2]. stat_byte[2]. int_id[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. MCR[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV.0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . tail_recv[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. sSendBuf[2]. IER[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. tail_send[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. mstat_byte[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. LSR[2]. fExpectInt[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. IIR[2]. head_recv[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. cSendBuf[2].

0. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code. \___________ = 0. 1 = Multichar 0. FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 . Divisor Latch LSB IER -.9.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS . RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -.TX data. \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -.Interrupt Enable. MMURTL V1.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char.4 chars 11 . RX data.1 char 01 . I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.2 chars 10 . Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0. Listing 24.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0.

) Loop = Always 0 LSR -. MMURTL V1. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter.Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.10. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2]. See listing 24.H. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.10.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints. Listing 24. static struct statRecC *pCS.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS .

11. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. S8 fDevReent. See listing 24. = 'M'. One for each channel. S8 *pDevInit. S8 *pDevOp. U32 nBlocks. S8 sbName. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. and they are contiguously defined. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. U32 OS3. }. S8 fSingleUser. /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void). Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. Listing 24. as is required by MMURTL.0 = 'C'. U32 OS5. U32 OS1. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600. S8 *pDevSt. S16 wJob.11. U32 last_erc. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 OS6.Name[0] comdcb[0]. static void interrupt comISR1(void). U32 OS2.Name[2] MMURTL V1. 8N1. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0].12. S8 type. This means it's ready for business. U32 OS4.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. = 'O'. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts. Listing 24. S16 nBPB. See listing 24. Note that there are two of DCB’s.Name[1] comdcb[0].12.

pDevSt comdcb[1]. = 100. 1)). 0x3F8.Name[2] comdcb[1].comdcb[0].type comdcb[0].parity comstat[0]. 2. /* Sequential */ 1.stopbits comstat[0]. sRecvBuf[1] = 4096.Baudrate comstat[1]. 'M'.databits comstat[0]. /* none */ = 8.XBufSize comstat[1].pDevInit comdcb[0]. /* COM1 */ /* COM2 */ = 9600.IRQNum = comstat[1].IRQNum = comstat[0].pDevInit comdcb[1]. sRecvBuf[0] = 4096.stopbits comstat[1]. = 4096.sbName comdcb[0].Baudrate comstat[0].nBPB comdcb[0].RBufSize sSendBuf[1] = 4096.Name[1] comdcb[1]. = 4096. &comISR0).Name[2] comdcb[1]. } MMURTL V1. &comISR1).sbName comdcb[1]. 4.XTimeOut comstat[0]. /* 1 byte per block */ 0.RTimeOut comstat[0].type comdcb[1]. &comdcb.RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. &comdev_stat. 4. /* Set default comms params in stat records */ comstat[0]. 'C'. /* Sequential */ 1. = 1. = 9600. = 100. 4. return(erc = InitDevDr(5.Name[0] comdcb[1].Name[2] comdcb[0]. 0x2F8. &comdev_init.XBufSize comstat[0]. = 2. 3.nBPB comdcb[1]. comstat[1]. 2. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. MaskIRQ(4).IOBase = comstat[0]. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op.0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS . = 2. &comdev_init. 2. = 0. &comdev_stat. SetIRQVector(3.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'.RTimeOut comstat[1].XTimeOut comstat[1]. = 4096.