MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

..................................290 AddAliasRun ................................................................................................ TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ........................7...25.............. Code to find number of free pages.............................................................................................................................................313 Listing 20.............................................................................................................................................. Data and constants for timer code.......14....................................................................................................16..................303 QueryMemPages................................................. Code to produce a beep.....................298 AliasMem ..........289 Listing 19................................307 Listing 20...........................................................................................................312 Listing 20.... External functions for timer code .............................................309 Listing 20.................................................................. Adding a run of linear memory............... Adding an aliased run of linear memory.............................................1.............................2..................................316 Listing 20....................................................................309 Listing 20............................................................................................................................................................................................305 Listing 19................................................................ Code to read the CMOS time......................... Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ............................................301 DeAllocPage ...............................................................................297 AllocOSPage..................................................................................................314 Listing 20.............................................315 GetTimerTick()............0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ...............................................................................................................................................................................9......................................21.................................................................................................................................................................................24..............308 Listing 20............315 Listing 20...................................................................................................................... Adding an operating system page table ...................................307 TIMER DATA .........................294 Listing 19...........................313 GetCMOSTime() ................................309 The Timer Interrupt ............................................................................................. Public for linear to physical conversion................................................................................................................................................................................ Code for the Alarm function ........................................311 Listing 20.......................313 MicroDelay() ...316 Listing 20..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................305 CHAPTER 20..... Code to find a free run of linear memory........... Code for the Sleep function .6..............................................................301 Listing 19........................................................... Adding a page table for user memory.................................................................................................... The timer interrupt service routine .................5...............................................................................................................11................................ Code to remove alias PTEs........................299 Listing 19.................................................................................................................................................................................296 Listing 19...................................... Deallocating linear memory................................................ Allocating a page of linear memory............................................................................................................................... Code to read the CMOS date ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................309 Sleep() ...........................................................................................................................................................293 AddOSPT ................................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ....................................................................................... Code to produce a tone .....................................................291 AddUserPT ...............................................................18................................................13........................................................................................................................................................................298 Listing 19............................................................... Code to return the timer tick ..........................19..............................................................................FindRun ................................................317 MMURTL V1.........................4..............................................................................................................297 Listing 19...........................................................................................................8......................................................................288 AddRun .317 Tone()......................................................................................................................................................314 GetCMOSDate() .....................................................296 AddGDTCallGate .....307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ........................316 Beep_Work() .....................................................14....................................................................................23..............................................................311 Alarm()..............20..........................................................................................................................................293 Listing 19..................................................296 AddIDTGate...............................................................................................................................304 Listing 19.................................................................................................................................... Loop in timer ISR ...................................................................................................................................291 Listing 19..........307 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................22................................. Code for the KillAlarm function.....17...............................................303 Listing 19........................................................316 Beep().............................................................................317 Listing 20................................................................308 TIMER CODE ...............................................13.....317 Listing 20............................................................................... Code to alias memory ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................299 DeAliasMem............................................................................................ Adding a call gate to the GDT ..................312 KillAlarm()..........................12... Code for the MicrDelay function ..........................................15..................................................................................................................................312 Listing 20............10..................................................................................................................288 Listing 19............................................ Adding entries to the IDT ..304 GetPhyAdd ................3.........

......................................................................................................................... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ...................11.................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ............................1.................................................................... 337 INTRODUCTION ......................................................... Continuation of OS initialization........................................................ Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger............................13.................... 410 Listing 24...................................3............................................... 337 Listing 22................ 398 Listing 24........................9..............................................................................................10......................................................................... 424 CHAPTER 25................................................................................................................................................. Read Keyboard Buffer Code ................................................5...................................................... 366 CHAPTER 24......4..................3........................................................................................ INITIALIZATION CODE ...... Keyboard Data and Tables .......c source code............................................ 365 Listing 23............................................................................................ 409 Listing 24......................................................................................................................................14......................................... SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE...............................................................................................................3............ Initialize call gates amd the IDT....................4........................... Keyboard Translation Code........................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ..................................................................................................................................................... 389 Listing 24............................................ Main Operating System Data ............................................................................................................................................................. 413 Listing 24................................... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ....2..................2.................................................. 395 Listing 24.......................1....... Continuation of OS initialization............................................................................................................................ 328 Listing 21........................... 436 Keyboard Translation.......................................................................................................................................... 409 Listing 24.............................................................................. End of Initialization Code.................................... 429 KEYBOARD DATA............................................................................................................ 415 Listing 24............... RS-232.................................. 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ............................................................................................................................... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ............................................ 389 INTRODUCTION .. 325 Listing 21..................................................................... 438 Listing 25............................................................ 417 Listing 24....................... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER.. 321 Listing 21.............................................................................. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ............................ 331 CHAPTER 22............................................... DEBUGGER CODE ................................................................. KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE........................................................ 389 Listing 24......................... 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ...................................8..............................................1...7......0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ....................... 319 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... Debugger Data and Code......................................... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA ....................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ...................................................................................................................... Initialization Subroutines.. 429 INTRODUCTION ............................................................... Job Management Subroutines....... 321 Listing 21... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ................................. 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES .................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ..... 326 Listing 21.............6...................................5......................................................................................................... OS Initialization Code and Entry Point..............................1........................................................................................................................................12........................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ............................................................................................................................................... 414 Listing 24.......................................... Keyboard ISR Code......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 429 Listing 25............................... 390 Listing 24..1...................................................................................................................... JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ..........................2........................................ 415 Listing 24........................................................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)......... 393 Listing 24.......... 366 Listing 23................................................... Jobc..........................6........ 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ............................. 344 Listing 22............................................................. 344 CHAPTER 23........................................... 442 MMURTL V1....... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ...................... 436 Listing 25................................................. 327 Listing 21..................................CHAPTER 21......... 365 INTRODUCTION ........ IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ........................................................................................ 319 Listing 21.................................................................................................................................. 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ................................................................. 438 Reading the Final Buffer ..................................h Header File .....4.............................................................2.................................................................................. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) .......... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ..................... 436 Keyboard ISR.................................................................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ................................................................................................................7.......................... 442 Listing 25.........................2.............................................................................................................

............................... Code to Return Current Cursor Position ....................................................539 USING DASM.......................................................................459 Listing 26......... Code to Screen Video Attributes ................................................................................................452 Hardware Helpers ..................................................................10.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7...............................................................................................................................................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... A More Complicated Template File ..........................................453 CHAPTER 26..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................466 Listing 26............8.......................2............................................................................3.......470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ................................11................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen .....................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface .................................................................................................540 Application Template File........................................................................457 THE VIDEO CODE .............................................. A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER ............474 Listing 27.................16.472 CHAPTER 27.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................The Keyboard Service ....... Code to Set the Video Owner ........................................452 Listing 25.................1......................................................541 List File Option ...........................................................................................................................................461 Listing 26.... Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call ........................................542 MMURTL V1.... VIDEO CODE . Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ................................4.542 Dynamic Link Libraries ............................................................... Keyboard system service code...................................................................................................................460 Listing 26.......................................................................................453 Listing 25..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................7.464 Listing 26......................................................................................................473 Hidden Sectors............................................................. Code to Initialize Video ..................13.................15................................................................................................................................................................................6..................................................................................................... Code to set Normal Video Attribute ....................................................469 Listing 26.....................................................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector .............468 Listing 26....................................451 Listing 25.460 Listing 26............................ Code to Get the Current Video Owner.......................................................................448 Debugger Keyboard.................................................................... Code to Set Cursor Position.......................... Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen......................................................................... Code to Get a Character and Attribute.........................................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ..........539 INTRODUCTION ...................................5.................................................. Video constants and data .............539 DASM CONCEPTS ......................................................................................................................................................................................... MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ....................473 Logical Block Address (LBA).461 Listing 26.........................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ...................... Keyboard Service Initialization ........462 Listing 26.................................................................................................464 Listing 26................................ Debugger Read Keyboard Code .......................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ...........................................468 Listing 26.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers................457 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................542 Device Drivers ..........................................................................................................5.....................................................................................................541 Errors Only Option ................465 Listing 26.......................... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ....................................................................................................14..........................................................12..................................................................443 Listing 25........................................................................473 INTRODUCTION ...................1..........................................458 Listing 26....1............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Code to Edit a Line on the Screen..............................................................................................................................................................................................450 Listing 25.........................................................................9....457 Listing 26............... DASM...474 File System Initialization .....................................................................................448 Listing 25................................................................................................................................................. FILE SYSTEM CODE...............................2. Low-level Keyboard Control Code...........541 Command Line Options ........................................ Simple Application Template File ..................................................9..................................................................................8..............451 Keyboard Service Initialization ........ Code to get the Normal Video Attribute.............................540 Listing 28..................458 Listing 26....................................................................................................................................10........ Code to Clear the Screen ....................................................................6................................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position...........................................................................................................................0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ..540 Listing 28....................................................................474 CHAPTER 28................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up....................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................ 547 DB (Define Byte)............................................................................................... 556 Tag Descriptions.................................................................................................................................................................................. 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ...............................................................................DASM Source Files ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Standard file I/O for MMURTL ............................................. 569 Library Code Examples .............. 545 Table 28.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... CM32............................................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 548 Labels and Address..................................................................................................... 542 Memory Model............................................................................................................................. 558 Your Own Assembler? .................................................................................................................................... 575 APPENDIX A -................................................................................................................................................................................................CD-ROM CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ......................................................................................................... 552 Table 28................. 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ........................................ 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ................... 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 568 USING CM32........................................................... 545 Storage Declarations............................................................................................................. 570 Listing 29............... 563 Library Header File Access.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 .......................... 581 MMURTL V1...................................................... 555 Table 28.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ...................................... 547 DW (Define Word) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ...............................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT .......................... A 32-BIT C COMPILER ....................................... 565 Far External Functions . 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 568 Command Line Options .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Tag Usage ........................................................ 568 Library Functions ............................................................................................................................................. Standard String Functions for MMURTL ............................................................................................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ............................................................................................................................................................ 562 FAR Calls ....................................................................................................................................... 559 CHAPTER 29................................................... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers...Supported Instructions .... 543 DOT Commands ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 548 PUBLIC Declarations......... 545 DASM Addressing Modes ........... 547 DF (Define Far Word) .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 566 Initialization of Static Variables .................................1 ........2........................................ 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ............................................................. 579 INDEX ............................................................................................................................................................... 562 Interrupt Functions.............................................................. Alternating data and code in a template file .......................................................................................................... 543 Listing 28........... 548 EXTRN Declarations...............1........3.....................................................Specifying Memory Operands........... 542 DASM Program Structure ............................................................................. 570 Listing 29.............................................................................................................. 565 Structure Limitations .................................... 561 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ............................................ 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ............................................................................................ 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information..................................................................................................................... Supported Library Functions ............................ 569 Listing 29............................................................................................................................................................................................ 562 Variable Length Argument Lists ........................................................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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it's unlikely they'll use it. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. not his IQ. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. it's a complete system. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. memory model. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. As coding began. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. In the case of my own operating system. MMURTL V1. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. It's up to you. however. Unfortunately. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. I set the ground rules. When I started out. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either)." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. They use them. I would just make a list. do some research on each of the desirables. You don't need to design your own. But I wanted a small API. NOT SO FAST THERE. You. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. I determined the specifications for the final product. portability issues size and speed. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. When OS/2 was first developed. The most obvious of these. If you're an experienced programmer. are the tasking model. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. but very light on specifics. as viewed by the outside programmer. and the programming interface. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. and begin coding. If you write something that no one can use. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. code. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. I decided what stayed and what went. Realizing this. I have documented what it takes to really write one. they work with them. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. In the early days. That was part of my wish list. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on.Chapter 1. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. IBM. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. or Sun. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs.

and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). change it to suit your needs. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. Throughout this book. Serial and Parallel Ports. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. would help me write better application software for it. modify. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. You can use pieces of it. For instance. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. message based.to 32-bit jump. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. It clouds far too many real issues these days. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. which I felt. and some serious "turbo" modifications. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. your goals may be different. In my opinion. or write your own. so I've removed the mystique. Hardware Timers. In fact.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . they are effectively super-386 processors. the memory model. The source code. a few more instructions. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. But that's not what this book is about. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. programming interfaces. hardware interface. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. or all of it if you wish to write your own. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. This was completely intentional. 80486 (486). and then finally discuss my code in great detail. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. but it was a "must" for me. I'm sure it won't. For this reason. real-time. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. ideas from it. MMURTL V1. Once again. redesign it to meet your requirements. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. Even though they have added speed. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. size and speed. multitasking. You may or may not want to do this for your system. portability issues. along with all the tools necessary to build. This was the 16. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation.

The ability to react to outside events in real time. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. and most of them are grossly under used. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel.” and chapter 8. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. If you don't have this requirement.Not just task switching between programs. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . is with a procedural interface. the right mix of capability and simplicity. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. and for a very good reason. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software.. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. You may start with my list and modify it. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. MMURTL V1. “The Hardware Interface. I use the stack. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. YOURMOTHERSMEM. but not all the options. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. or maybe a little less? Of course. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. If you're going to write your own. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. Chapter 5 covers memory management. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network).The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. HIMEM.Keep the system as simple as possible. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. Extended. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). I discuss this in chapter 6.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. Message agents could be added to any platform.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. and what my end result was. Client/Server design . If it is another processor. such as C or Pascal.” Protection from other programs . are outside events. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. We want the system to react to us. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . and 4 (Interprocess Communications). many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. I didn't want to do this.. I also wanted to maintain a small. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there).Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. LIM. UMBs. Easy programming .” Simplicity . We. LOMEM. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. if we knew how. and also what I decided on. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. but I don't recommend it. “Programming Interfaces.Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. yet powerful enough to get the job done. General Discussion and Background. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). “The Hardware Interface. but real multi-threading . calling conventions. I'll discuss some of your options. hardware paging. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. you may have a different platform in mind. “Programming Interfaces. Power without BLOAT. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). or start one from scratch.But not the programmer. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. Real-time operation . I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. the humans.My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced.

0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. or for general reference. Multitasking. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. If you intend to run MMURTL. Real-Time. kerneL. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. Then again. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. be of value in your other programming projects as well. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. nor is it intended to directly replace them. but only a distant cousin. expand it to your heart's desire. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). If you don't want to start from scratch. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. MMURTL V1. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. the code. Yes. or use any of the tools I included. If you're not worried about memory consumption. Dedicated. the tools. Message based. x86/Pentium processors. I'm sure. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. and 64K of data). even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. Sections of the source code will. and the initialization entry point jumped to. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. make up your own! But. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). And of course. In the educational field. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). no doubt. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). If you don't like my acronym. Real-Time. I put together my own operating system. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading.

One Megabyte of RAM is required. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. EISA (Ed. Pentium. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. but only out of convenience. but a few are not). eases the development burden. If you want to run DOS. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. IBM and other clone processors. not at all the same. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. If yours isn't. The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). 8250. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). The processor must be an Intel 80386. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. you can ignore this section. (or even MS-DOS). If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. Hence.x (IBM). It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. MMURTL V1. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. Both 5. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. 80486.25" and 3. Note: PCI bus designs work well. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. AMD. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. but still. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. and more importantly. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. IDE is preferred. This includes Cyrix. you can change the code as needed. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. that is.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. also – 2000).5" are supported. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).

.

I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. Borrow from mine. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. take away. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. I might add). simplified memory management. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. In fact. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. Far too often. however. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment.Chapter 2. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. That was 1989. a. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. Five years later. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. That worked out just about right. “Overview. merged). my reading of various publications and periodicals. here it is. etc. Things change a lot in the industry in five years.” I covered what my final design goals were. as well what may influence your design. I would not let this happen. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels.000. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. improve.). Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. has had an effect. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. add. for no apparent reason). client server designs. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. write your own operating system. and just make it better if you have the desire. Every little thing you've run across will. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . Burroughs and Sperry. MMURTL V1.k. As you can see. It does. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. no doubt.a. my schooling. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. It was a 32-bit system. you might not want to). real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. In Chapter 1. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. make a lot of sense. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. affect its design. It whet my whistle. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). and borrowed with great respect. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker).

The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. It is just now becoming popular. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. Memory access was limited. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. however. In fact. As you may be aware. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. or ported to a system.including assembler. maybe. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. but the tools worked. like a bad virus. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. I thought about other processors. but as you well know. It was limited to the small memory model. Once again. Again. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. at times it was quite difficult.all but ancient history now. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. The next major decision was the software development environment.After I got involved with the IBM PC. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development.1. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). but it worked nonetheless. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. but the tools just worked better. I really had no choice. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. a lure that could not be suppressed. however. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. and utilities . people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. and a few others. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed.. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. was a must. Of course. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. Operating system developers. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. there was no such thing. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors.x assembler and 2.. MS-DOS was everywhere. Then those were the 2. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. Message-based. There was no turning back.0) and later moved to 5. popular platform. compiler. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. or even OS/2.x linker. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. It's the place to start. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. I'm not a Borland salesman. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. in the process of using these other tools.

even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. IBM published theirs. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. DC. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. you will need to read chapter 28. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. I do so because its bus. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. in itself.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. Many different books. etc. which is fed to the assembler. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. as well as the software control of these devices. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. want or need. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. or may not. In fact.. I think many people started there. That set me back four months. It's simply not needed. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. or even port MMURTL to it. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. such as Chips & Technologies. articles. To fully understand this.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. Developing this assembler was. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. which is 32 bits for the most part. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. and the called function cleans the stack. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". and a few other minor utilities. no linker. but another port is in the works. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. The C compiler produces assembly language. Computer chip manufacturers. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. It is tied to the internal bus. There is no linker.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler.some tools from the major software vendors. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire.).. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. DMA. Needless to say. Communications controllers. a major task. a disassembler.” Assembly language has its place in the world. documents. SX MMURTL V1. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. etc. These documents are usually free. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. but I pretty much built from scratch. Parameters are passed left to right. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. at least. Besides. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. interface design. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. I plead the "Fifth" on this. as you may understand. That's right. TTL. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. in which case. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack.

This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. anyway (e. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. If you use Intel-based platforms. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. I discuss several options you have. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details.x. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. In a paged system. you'll be ahead of the game. all implementations of UNIX). It was a "kinder. This was timeconsuming. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. aliasing is also required. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. There was no loader. as you will see. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running.two segments per program and two for the OS. as well as the stack storage. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. from a 16-bit code segment. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. timers. etc. MMURTL V1. but it's not at as complicated. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. gentler" environment I was after. OS/2 version 2. During this time. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait).). If you write your own system. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. "Thunking" was out of the question. but it presented several serious complications. The thought was rather sickening. etc. but instead a lean. but this is transparent to the programmer. All of the early test programs were in assembler. of course.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). When the 386/486 loads a segment register.g. but not a fully segmented model . One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. It has turned out very nicely. The segmented memory idea was canned. this is a year you won’t have to go through. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack.x. all based on their own selectors. no way to get test programs into the system. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test.. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). powerful. [Thunking is when you interface 32.). This simple model could allocate and manage memory. This easily consumed the first six months. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. But as you may be aware.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. Memory Management. Windows version 3.and 16-bit code and data. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. In chapter 5. even the operating system writer. EISA. I had to meet my design goals. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU).0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. anyway. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently.

I'll tell you the easiest. I have provided such an operating system with this book. of course. It will be worth the time spent. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. There are so many platforms out there. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. you'll NEVER really be done with it. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. "You start here. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. and overall program management – as you see fit. it may be CISC. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. This may sound a little humorous. I say this from experience. I was really interested in communications. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. get to know it very well. hints are about all I CAN give you.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . or how much time you really have to invest. Get to know your assemblers. but there wasn’t.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. the discoveries . and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. but whatever you decide on. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. Memory management is next. and there will also be background noise. memory model and basic programming interface. you know that certain items in a project must work.anything that you think you'll need to remember. how much knowledge you have." It is difficult for me to do this also. compilers and utilities. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. but they just didn't say. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. Or at least when you get it working. If this has never happened to you. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. It may be RISC. garbage collection. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. Know your desired application. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. The level of complexity. Decide on your basic models. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). But. you will no doubt find bugs. the rest is real work. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. This is called the critical path. Select your hardware platform. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. You can then “port” the prototype. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. But I'll try. do it. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. MMURTL V1. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. I envy you. Go for the kernel. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. but I'm very serious. Investigate your tools. For example. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. Document the problems. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. The Critical Path Along your journey. This includes the tasking model. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. the actual application may not be so important. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. Of course. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. will depend on the memory model you choose. you know that it can be a very daunting task. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book.

These tools include documentation for the hardware. and then I write the code. It will be blood. Document as you go. I had my wish list well in advance. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable.” Once satisfied.Working Attitude Set your goals. sweat and maybe some tears. Work with small. I write the documentation. Sounds backwards? It is. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. easily digestible chunks. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. it's worth the time. But don't set them too high.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . dependable pickup truck. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). all the way. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. I lay out my notes for what I want. But really. As I mentioned above. it won't be luck. I moved on from there. compilers. MMURTL V1. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. Good luck.

You may not agree with the definitions.g.” while others call it a “thread.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. Hence. but it is. at least temporarily. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). however.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. it’s PREEMPTIVE. and more specifically. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks.” In most instances I call it a TASK. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running." which means communications between tasks. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. be specific about it. MMURTL V1. CPU utilization. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). but I hope you will accept them. I admit some guilt here too). The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. save its state. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. TASK . In other words. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. but doesn't expect the interrupt. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. Some operating systems call a task a “process. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. It shouldn't be. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. Generally. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. In its executable form. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. After all. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. MS-DOS TSRs . It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using.Chapter 3. KERNEL . If you write your own. coffee and soda spilled on them. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. then start another task running. But this is not cast in stone either. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. and most people refer to. Some documentation. or at least coming to agreement on them. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. Tell the programmers what you mean. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. This makes it a very small kernel. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing.. When a task is suspended from execution. and I'm not talking about programming languages. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine).This term is not disputed very much. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives.

Some are communications programs (FAX software. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. It may have memory assigned to it. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. On the other hand. Interrupt Controller Units. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). One of my friends suggested the motto. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. disk. comms programs). then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). Task Management Tasks begin.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. keyboard. You may MMURTL V1. when the mission was accomplished. "Everything should be as simple as possible." but needless to say. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. Single vs. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. memory management. In each case. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. etc.). some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). "simple software for simple minds. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). Input/Output (I/O) devices. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. and why. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). Tasks crash. Multitasking. Single User. Tasks end. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. I deal with one user at a time. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. or even network connections for logons. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. including video. When I wrote these programs. or the user was done. good old Albert). In other words. This is its only real purpose in life. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. it didn't sit too well with me. Nor did I want it to be.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . How tasks are handled. Managing these resources in a simple. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. execute programs as the new users desire. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. but it may not be so easy for you. Quite obviously. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. But in almost all of these systems. These are the real resources. DMA. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. and hardware (Timers. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. and some are user-oriented software. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission.In other words. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself.

they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. but effective. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. I had my very own processor. Yet. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. This is where the hardware-state is saved.want to deal with many. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. Microcomputers spoiled me. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. My first programs were written with that attitude. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. The CPU takes care of it for you. When you change tasks. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. it would seem to return at its leisure. MMURTL V1. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. If you must do it yourself. We were each getting a piece of the pie. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. The software state can consist of almost nothing. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. In a multitasking operating system. it was a breeze. When you restore a task. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. this is usually a no-brainer. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. In the case of hardware interrupts. This will be the heart and brains of the system. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. It's actually easier than it sounds. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. "It's 11:00PM. but an important one. Then I asked. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. It was crude. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system.

he then monopolizes the CPU. and in some cases. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. For instance. interrupt servicing. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay().0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . you are cooperating with the operating system. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. Cooperative and Preemptive. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system." From there. however. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. or to pause when it has nothing to do. A task that has the processor gives it up. Meanwhile. management of CPU time is easy. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. In many single tasking systems. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. It may not always be obvious when it happens. And yes. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. or a combination of the two. In this case.I'm done with the CPU for now. MMURTL V1. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. This may be in milliseconds. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. They can. "Hey . This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. if necessary. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. the screen and everything else looks frozen. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. do an adequate job in many cases. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). and basic input/output. In fact. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. With these calls. In a single tasking operating system. a single threaded system may be the best solution. however. which I cover in this chapter. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. This can be for a number of reasons. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. you basically have a hardware manager.

or the operating system from an external device (e. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. When. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. Generally. On most platforms. or it may be for something extremely critical.. the task that's running. and maybe memory context. Most of the time. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). it doesn't expect it. and how long does that task get to run? Who. These parties include the programmer. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor.). outside events. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. When do we switch tasks. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. communications device. In fully cooperative systems. MMURTL V1. disk drive. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. there is going to be a desire. or after a set period of time. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). However. this adds the requirement of timing. after the interrupt is finished.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . a program. is a preemptive system. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. we must now decide which task runs next. In a preemptive system. or monitoring. As you can see. hardware timer. or even a requirement. Also. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). connected to the outside world . etc. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. controlling. They are also.communicating. quite often.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. the scheduler. The currently running task is preempted. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. the scheduler simply determines who's next. The next section is the tricky part. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). or a few other hardware-related things. As I also mentioned earlier.g. For the preemptive system. to which task do we switch. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. when a task is preempted. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. It does nothing to prepare for it. The timer can help determine when to preempt. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. To expand on that definition. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events.

Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. For example. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. it can serve admirably. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. Not quite that simple. The others may see a slow down. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. In some systems. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). and if a user interface is involved. only the very highest would ever get to run. each task will get a fixed amount of time . This is usually not very effective. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks.all tasks will get the same slice . "a slice of time.and they will be executed in the order they were created. When a task's time is up. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. In a time sliced preemptive system. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. and the next task in line is restored and executed. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. This also implies that some may not be ready at all.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. the one with the highest priority will be executed. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. otherwise.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. But it has some major drawbacks. In a cooperative system. (the others will be flipping 8. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. each task gets 25 milliseconds. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). or how much time there is MMURTL V1. its complete hardware and software state is saved. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. Who determines which task gets more time. Time slicing is an old technique. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. In the simplest time sliced systems. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment.000 burgers. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. but it won't be on their terminals. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. For example. A simple queuing system suffices. This gives the scheduler something to work with.

The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. computers are everywhere. but it makes the point. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. and we want our machines responsive to us. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. Therefore. clean communications. The buffer will overflow. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected.g. come do something with this data before I lose it"). For instance. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). We want good. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. Now. dependable. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. These are communications and user interface issues. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. In a message based system. but it's not dramatic enough. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time.to go around on the system. This IS real-time stuff. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. or the user. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. things are never as simple as they seem. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. But I opted to "get real" instead. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example.. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. Thus. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. but one channel is handling five times the data. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch.

That's the only way you'll really know for sure. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). A task may. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. See what works for your applications. Fully Time Sliced. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). I can't picture a system without it. Some Cooperation In this type of model. But even when the task has nothing to do. Time Sliced. it would still be scheduled to execute. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. A very simple. To be honest. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. In addition. however. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. based on the number of tasks scheduled. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. and even help define the tasking model. MMURTL V1. Users on a larger. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. In this type of system. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. No doubt. even though these methods are very important. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. all tasks will get to run. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. you have a few ideas of your own. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. Primarily Cooperative. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). although such systems exist. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system.

PERIOD. if you have 256 priorities. The task based ISR is slower. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. "Experience is a wonderful thing. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. goes into a "waiting" state. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. It's faster – actually. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. I wanted a priority based. This is a speed issue. real-time operating system. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. preemptive. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. monitors the current task priority. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. To me. In such a system. file access. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. The timer-interrupt routine. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. or whatever. To briefly explain my tasking model. Limited Time Slicing category. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. Go for the fastest option . Keep them short. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. multitasking.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . prioritization of tasks is VERY important. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. timer services. Other processors may offer similar options. and limit the functionality if at all possible. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs.Primarily Cooperative. The less time the better. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. and the next task with the highest priority executes. I never wanted to miss outside events. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. and no. much faster. After all. For instance. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. and in reality. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. This could have presented some protection problems." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant.

or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. who's to say when Mr. or Ms. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model.only the user knows. For instance. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. or even possibly the users. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. In a cooperative environment. MMURTL V1. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). After a period of time has elapsed. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. On systems that are primarily time sliced.management headaches. you switch tasks. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. the problems didn't surface. and they are surely out of your control most of the time.

Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view.Chapter 4. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. nor should they have to. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. As I described in earlier chapters. As the name implies. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. where it waits. it could cause some serious problems. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications." MMURTL V1. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. In operating systems that use semaphores. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. if it's being allocated). This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. only one task can execute at a time. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. Of course. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. what operation you want to perform. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). or is suspended when it can't run. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. On a single CPU. As you will see in this chapter. portions of the code will not be reentrant. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). perform operations on the semaphore structures. However. In other words.

If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. on most real-time operating systems. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). I refer to a program as a “job. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. I have added a second. tasks are not wholly independent. OpenPipe(). When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. you should study how they are used on other systems. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. In fact. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. OS/2. If you intend to implement semaphores. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. and WritePipe(). ReadPipe(). or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. more powerful. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. As you can see.In most cases. In my system. or schedule tasks for execution. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. He or she will make a system call for some resource. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). In my humble opinion. such as MMURTL. but I used a second form of messaging instead. such as those procedures that create new tasks. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them.). In a message-based system. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. or similar ones. You will see these commands.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . which will consist of one or more tasks. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). But once again. I didn't. ClosePipe(). I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. OS/2 is one such system. In fact. etc. public pipes are very handy. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. a program is made up of one or more tasks. This is much more efficient. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. destroy tasks. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities.

Not too large to move around. only one task is actually executing instructions. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. MMURTL V1. Zork to forget it. It does just what it says . AllocExch is an important auxiliary function." This is an example of a one way message. or just about any other name you like. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. char *pMsgRet). one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. his offer is the pits. "Tell Mr. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. it's a little more complicated than that. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). give it the message and away it goes. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. char *pMsgRet). Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. the message is received right away. Yes. a bin. You point to a piece of code. and VIOLA. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). an exchange point. You also need a way to send the message. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages.not in detail yet. long dMsgPart1. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. It returns 0 if all goes well. the answering machine is the exchange. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. In MMURTL's case. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. SpawnTask(). MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. SendMsg(). The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). provide some other pieces of information. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. for which you expect no response. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting.functions. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. Consider the phone again. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. long dMsgPart2). Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. Now I have some very important terms and functions . CheckMsg(). and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). Now. WaitMsg(). You tell it what exchange. but enough that we can talk about them. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. or whatever you call it. The task is the human. dExch is the destination exchange. a task is born. request() and respond(). In an operating system's case.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. I called it an Exchange. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. You can send one way messages to a person. If you're lucky. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. but large enough for a couple of pointers. such as. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept.it sends a message.

None found. In this example. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. time is passing. You start with a single task executing. Task2 is still running.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. Just kidding. Kernel attaches message to Exch1.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. it's not called the kernel zone. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system.).. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue.. Table 4. It's still task 2. As we move down the table in our example. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. None are waiting. Kernel makes Task1 run. very small. Task1 is ready to run. What it's doing isn't important. Table 4.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS .1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. Task2 allocates Exch2. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Task2 is higher. I'll try to liven it up some later on.

10 or even 15 system services. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). With MMURTL.. The name must be unique on the machine.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. If there is a task at the exchange. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. FAX services. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. each service installed is given a name. In some systems. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. They are ideal for things like file systems. This way. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke.. e-mail services. From the simple example in table 4. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. only the service name. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . The functions and what they do are defined by the service. it will be made to run. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. This can simplify the scheduler.. unsigned int wSvcCode. I didn't do this with MMURTL. . Actually it really does absolutely nothing. If there is one. It gives task2 the message. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). printing services. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. The processing is carried out by the service. queued file management.. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. This may not work on all types of processors. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. the receiving task is made to run. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. When the service is first installed. BBS systems. but the name will always be the same. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. In fact. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . they must be waiting for something. keyboard input. Each time an interrupt occurs. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. Each service can provide up to 65. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. They are dedicated types. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural.1. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. the list could go on and on. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. MMURTL V1. A fully loaded system may have 5.

and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill.long dRespExch. dData1.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. Second.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. There's still a little work to do. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. Using the Open File() example.This is the same as dcbData1. Second. all capitals. char *pData2SR. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). dcbData2 . At first glance. dData0. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. long dData1.Pointer to the service name you are requesting. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. long dcbData2SR. and spacepadded on the right. wSvcCode . For instance. Two questions arise: 1. If you remember. If it is 80000000h or above.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code).the status or error code returned to the requester.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . if the request was serviced (with no errors). and dData2 . The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). If you made more than one request. you'll need to know which one is responding.is the number (0. These are documented independently by each service. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). This doesn't mean the system service has it easy.Number of the specific function you are requesting. dRespExch . but network transport mechanisms do not. this would be the size (length) of the filename. This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. The service name is eight characters. *pData2 .the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). This will be explained later in memory management. long dData0. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). long *pdRqHndlRet. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. They are described below: dRqHndl . Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. If this is the response. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. *pData1 . long dStatRet). the second dword is the status code or error from the service. the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. dcbData1 . dStatRet . dnpSend would be 1. dnpSend . A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. or pData2 to send data to the service. it is NOT a response.Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). Where is the response data and status code? First.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. long dData2 ). *pdRqHndlRet . Zero (0) usually indicates no error. The service already knows this. In many functions you will not even use pData1. pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). in the file system OpenFile() function. but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. But.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. These can never be pointers to data. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . long dcbData1SR.

MMURTL V1. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. So. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. Semaphores are used on many systems. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. it is preempted. But when it reaches PointX.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . An exchange is a small structure in memory. As you know. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. So the code goes in. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem().to read or write data. task1 gets to run again. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. pointers are off the ends of arrays. Each task that enters the code. right? But let me guess . checks the semaphore. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. Now. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. When each task is done with the allocation routine. or pauses in the middle of them. To really understand this issue. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. As you can see. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. only one task can really be running at a time. and WHAMO . the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. Also. even in a multitasking system. It's really quite simple. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. For the sake of understanding this. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange.it's crash time. it's a mess. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. The buffer is gone. Now. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. but this would slow things down a bit. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. Not as difficult as you expect. but still very important. there was only one buffer left. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. and show you what can happen. Not very big. lets look at an example.

If the instruction sequence is short enough. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. let's look at a real-world example. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. Don't blame Windows though. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. This is 1/38.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS .” MMURTL V1.200 baud in Windows 3. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. “Memory Management. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. You will lose data. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. WHOA THERE . If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based.task switches. The next sections discuss this. I started with one and abandoned it early on. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. In theory. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. and maybe even not often enough. In the kernel code. it will simplify IPC greatly . Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. Also. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods.000 * 3). I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time.000. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. but my testing shows I did OK. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself.x? You will lose data. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. and also "the biggie" . It will be the only way.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). You didn't disable interrupts. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval.

These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. MMURTL V1. This greatly affects the next three items. For instance. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). I do make some assumptions about your processor. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. Either way. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. The memory model you choose. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. There are some major differences though. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. or another complicated applications. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. so does an operating system. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. Basic Terms Once again. Instead. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. it's all basically the same.Chapter 5. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. Some do it with internal paging hardware. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . With the Intel processors. Whether or not you use paging hardware. Address 0 is the first. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. if available.

Figure 5. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. chunks of physical memory called pages.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. and possible partitioning for each program. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. etc. different memory allocation schemes (top down.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. Figure 5.1. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. As programs are loaded. This can be good. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. MMURTL V1.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . at least for the operating system. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. As programs are loaded. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement.). You may be restricted from using some of these options. No address translations take place in hardware. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. bottom up. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. With this scheme. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. In this type of system. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. and bad.

3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. more than likely a hard disk drive. With this scheme.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. MMURTL V1. With paged memory. For instance. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. With demand-paged memory.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. For example. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory. direct access storage device.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. Figure 5.Figure 5. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory. Figure 5. Figure 5.2 .The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. or even 64 MB). your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes.

With paging hardware. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. Look at Figure 5. and the hardware allows it. The minute you apply this term to memory management. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system. it means that you're lying to your programs.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . as in virtual reality. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. all the programs still use the same linear space. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique.3 . Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. and indeed you are. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). but it sure looks like it is. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. MMURTL V1.Figure 5.

A way around this to use a shared memory area. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. Note the advantages here. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. parallel linear spaces.4 . Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. Unlike Paged Flat Memory.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. the memory management hardware must support it. and implement some of your own. The options here are almost mind boggling. Once again. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone.Figure 5. there are many possible variations. which is the idea. you will think of.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. memory is NOT flat. MMURTL V1. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. different data or code)." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. In order to allow multiple. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. yet. No doubt. Note also the disadvantages. In Figure 5. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces.

It's just what it sounds like. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. MMURTL V1. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. it is usually termed as "dirty. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines.. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. 80186. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. They are not limited to 64K. When you use a selector. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. To make this work. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. The LRU schemes have many variations. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. and you need to understand the implications. All of the Intel products are very well documented. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. so I won't go into further detail. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. The most common. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). They used something called a segment register.g. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. OS/2 or Windows).Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. they needed to identify and manage those segments. What they came up with is called Segmentation. When a page has been written to. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. 8088. and generally the most efficient. one for code and several for data access. or even an 8-bit one.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. When the 80286 came on the scene. This was actually several registers. This is a very handy feature. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. we had some pretty limited address spaces. and the popular Zilog Z80). that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. This means you can save the time rewriting it. 20 to be exact. In fact. They allowed multiple sequential. When this was a 16-bit world. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. Likewise. and 80286).” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. However. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created.

when one application crashes. You'll have to make a decision. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. when one application crashes. which will be defined by the paging hardware. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. With this scheme. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. the type of applications you cater to. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. Other factors include how much memory you have. Tracking client linear memory allocations. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. one person). MMURTL V1. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew.” Before you decide which method to use. How you store the links in this list can vary. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. Allocating memory to load applications and services. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. I learned this the hard way. I will give you a good idea what it's like. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. and Handling protection violations. If you do. You make the rules. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. you ARE the operating system. and it will be based on many factors. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. They are “linked lists” and “tables. This way. But in many systems. This can be a real hassle. if your hardware supports it. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . you should decide on your basic allocation unit. but not in the order I listed them. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate.With a 32-bit system. it usually takes the whole system down. each block holds its own link. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. Allocating memory for applications. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. I'll discuss each of these things. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. Remember. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management.

you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic. In the process of memory management initialization. } When a client asks for memory. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. }. I haven't disassembled their code. you must remember that pLink. pLink->pNext = 0. struct MemLinkType *pLink.size = 0. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. pFree.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. char *pPrev.size = 0.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. long owner.size is large enough. No next link yet. Of course. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap.16. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. /* " " */ long Client = 0. struct MemLinkType pFree.owner = 0. pFree and pMemInUse.pPrev = 0.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. pMemInUse. pMemInUse. or you reach a link where pNext is null.pNext = 0. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). pLink->pPrev = &pFree. pFree. MMURTL V1. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . you would set up the two base link structures. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. These are the first links in your list. but I'll touch on it some. which means you can't honor the request. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. pFree.pPrev = 0. For my description. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. pMemInUse. This is another topic entirely. pLink->owner = 0. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated).owner = 0. pMemInUse. You now have an idea where they went. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext.pNext = 0x100000. This is done by following pLink. In the following simple linked list scheme. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space.pNext until pLink.

} /* Sorry . I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev.. pNewLink->owner = 0. Granted. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize.pNext. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. pLink->size = WantSize. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16).*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink.16. } } return(0). but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link.pNext = &pLink. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. The function returns the address of the new memory. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. Client is the owner of the new block. And believe me.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. it WILL get fragmented. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink.WantSize . pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. If you use this code. WantSize is the size the client has requested.. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage.

/* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. There are several thoughts on cleanup. if at all possible. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. But we can't add our size to pFree. But you can't depend on this.16. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. validate the link. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. This provides instant cleanup. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. In other words. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. This will be useful in the following routine. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. This is where the fragmentation comes it. change its owner. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. which returns memory to the free pool. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. You have the linear address.pNext. depending on the order of deallocation. This makes the most sense to me. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. /* scan till we find out where we go. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block.deallocate. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. but cleanup will be a snap. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. or you can do it all after the fact. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. then move it to the pFree list. and you insert it there. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. This will add time to deallocation routines. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev.

pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. If you don't use the paging hardware. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. pNewLink->owner = 0. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. we couldn't be combined with the previous. */ /* In this case. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). return(0). you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. } } /* If we got here. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . In the case of the paging hardware. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can expand on them if needed. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. The two must be synchronized. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. there are physical pages assigned to it. MMURTL V1. you will have two memory spaces to track. It should give you a great number of ideas. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. you can decide how you want them setup. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16.

It will be the page’s size. But it's up to you. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . Batteries fail. You will be allocated these up front. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. For instance. and you should take that into consideration. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. and turn on the paging hardware. you will have to move it all. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. Wherever you load it. You must consider where the operating system loads. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. If your processor gives you these types of options. You must set up tables.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. From there.” but once the operating system is loaded. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. trap. In some cases. it becomes allocated memory right away. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. add the translations you need and are already using. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. This can get complicated. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. “the Hardware Interface. “OS Initialization. it will generally be in a block of addresses. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read.When you work with paging hardware. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. MMURTL V1. you will have independent tables for each application. If you use paging.

I wanted only one program memory model. The common data segment is 10h. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. 32-bit offset). the initialized data segment. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. This greatly simplifies every program we write. you know that with MS-DOS. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. but nice to have. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. and one data segment for all programs and applications. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. For instance. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. The user code segment is 18h. but will have no effect on applications. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. If you are familiar with segmented programming. and even larger with demand page memory. Medium. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. the concept of program segments is an old one. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. and I even use the Intel segment registers. and one or more code segments. Compact. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. The operating system code segment is 08h. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. but in a very limited fashion. I use almost no segmentation. It can be very complicated to use on any system. and many others. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. If you have no desire to use them. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. This could change in future versions. Small. set them all to one value and forget them. the application code segment. Large. uninitialized data segment.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . This was too complicated for me.

The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. it has code and data and a task or two. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. No. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. the kernel . My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. Every Job gets its own PD. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. but it’s close. Sure. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. Each PDE is also four bytes long. This is done with something called a page directory (PD).1. because I haven't explained it yet. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes." huh?). For instance. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). Right? Wrong. but most of the operating system code – specifically. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. Each PTE is four bytes long. and each application the same thing. Each of the PDEs points to a PT. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. but you need it in pieces. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. its not magic. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing.294. is that you really do need most of this capability. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable.memory. The operating system itself is technically not a job. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT.967.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). What you don't see.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. If you want just a few bytes.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark.runs in the task of the job that called it. MMURTL V1. If you get our calculator out. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. Besides. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. Because of this. which can have 1024 entries. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM.

certainly less overhead than this explanation). Likewise. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. Of course. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. and it needs it fast. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. But it was for a good cause (No.1 . I could have built a separate table and managed it. Code. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. but it does this with very little overhead. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there.Table 5. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. Now that it knows where the PD is. MMURTL V1. When I started the application. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). each PDE has the physical address of each PT. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. Besides. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. Read on and see what I did. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. yes. but it wasn't needed. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. Well. Now it's got the PTE. the secret is out. possibly several for each application. but when you start talking 10. 20.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . Sounds like a lot of work. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). in a word. I wanted to keep the overhead down. This is fine for one address per job. In the scheme of things. If you remember. However. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. Sure. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block.

Table 5.. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address.. That would really be a waste.1. 768 769 . but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors.. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. it would be transparent to applications anyway. in Table 5. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time.. AllocOSPage(). Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized.. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. AllocPage(). The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write.2. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. As shown. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum). If I desired. 512 513 . It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. This is 0 to 1Gb.0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . What does this make the page directory look like? Below... MMURTL V1. in fact.. all the shadow entries are marked not present. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. 256 257 . but you get the idea. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. If I decided to do it. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA.

System Services. Device drivers. If so. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. from a previous AllocPage() call. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. and DLLs. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). the caller passes in a linear address. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. but the memory will not be available for later use. but only from this caller's memory space. It does not tell you whom they belong to. It is not important. nor should it try to find out. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. Device Drivers have code and data. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. which is also my sister's name. Now comes that easy part . This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. it will create a new PT. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. If it does. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047.Managing physical memory. along with the number of pages to deallocate. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). and whether or not it's currently in use. With a 1Gb address space. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. It's loaded into these initial pages. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. They are simply new jobs. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). nor do you even care. If the physical memory exists. only that number will be deallocated. initial stack. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). but no stack. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). MMURTL V1. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). or will return an error if it's not available.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each application (job) gets it own PD. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. you allocate physical memory from the top down. If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. The caller will never know. and data. there will be no error.

no data. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. This will make more sense if you do.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . If it tries to deallocate them. They are there to be used as shared code only. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. Instantly. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. Of course.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. an error will occur. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. but that's trivial (a few instructions). Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. But this gets away from memory management. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). They have only code. and no stack. you should do it before you read this section. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. When an application requests a service. They share physical memory. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. There is no new allocation of physical memory. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. how could they be swapped?). the second job has access to other job's data. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. With a page based system such as MMURTL. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data.

OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. For MMURTL. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). When it's done its work. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. One or more PTs for the OS. MMURTL V1. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. it responds. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. How they see the interface is very important. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). use it. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job.

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and speed. or for specific timing requirements. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. It executes your instructions. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. Therefore. You provide a common. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . is the interrupt or trap. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. The two that are obvious are code size. although I never thought so. in theory. MMURTL V1. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it.Chapter 6. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. The most common. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. however. jumps where you tell it. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. As good as it sounds. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. there are drawbacks to this idea. but that doesn't mean that you won't. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. and the most significant at the lowest. to interoperability with other systems. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian.how it is accessed in memory. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. But there's always more than meets the eye. aside from the instructions you give it. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. and it simply runs. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid.

The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. The first set is the data bus. and most useful. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. They are actually very forgiving devices. Finally. or CPU bus. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. and some that are available now. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. but in some of the processor documentation. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. address. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. This is handy. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. The second is the address bus. and especially the interface bus. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. such as those dealing with interrupts. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. just to name a few. no matter which device you must code. This is called the main bus. MMURTL V1. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. Quite honestly. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. EISA. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals.some proposed.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . PCI. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. I read many books about my target processor. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). For instance. ISA. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. but I found the most valuable. On the PC-ISA platforms. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. in that case. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. There are many extensions to this bus . The most common is the relatively low-speed. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. or ISA Bus. I've tried both methods. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. internal bus. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). Multibus. On smaller systems. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. I refer to this bus as the interface bus.

The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. except for the hardware clock timing. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address.g.. Therefore.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. MMURTL V1. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. to name a few. Another way is programmed I/O. Quite often. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. the infamous Centronics interface). They have no way. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. or even memory to memory. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. SDLC. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. and tape drives. or network card). Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. network frame handlers. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. In fact. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. Parallel buses can move data faster.25 (an international link and network layer standard). even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). or HDLC. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. Unlike UART devices. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. but still very important.Less commonly found. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. in many cases. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. but is really a device connected to the bus. and on some systems. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. They work with frames or packets of data.

. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. This is known as planar pixel access. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. This requires an interrupt service routine. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. is worth more than I can indicate to you. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters.On many systems. In character-based systems. and MMURTL V1. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. However. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. If you want 16 colors for each bit. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). or Unicode. Each bit array is on its own plane. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays.500 bytes of memory space.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished.g. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. This could consume a vast amount of memory. On the PC-ISA platform. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). Video Like the keyboard. this only consumes 4000 bytes. This consumes the least amount of your address space. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. Quite often. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. this video memory will contain character codes (e. In most cases. In fact. If this is the case. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. On an 80-column-by-25-line display. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. but you must realize the importance of this device. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. All the output would be via a serial port.

this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. Your requirements will more than likely be different. and GetDMACount(). DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. except maybe an embedded system board. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. For a 256-color system. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. and your tasking model. you'll have no problems. have to research hardware cursor control. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. This is known as packed pixel access. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter.allow you to switch between them. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. MMURTL V1. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. and timing when you write to the video display area.g.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . In many cases. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. This includes cursor positioning. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes.. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. I took this into consideration also.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. interprocess communications. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. and to query the status of the move. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. multiple. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). this would be 16 planes at 37. In some cases. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements.000 bytes. non-overlapping video users. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. “Video Code. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. I did.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. “Memory Management. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. The code for these two calls is shown below. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). however. Chapter 26. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). That equates to 600. I was interested in character-based. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with.

Ch 0 Word Count . . With word.Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Ch 1 Word Count . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .Ch 0 Address . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 2 Address .Read Status/Write Command . Optimize it as you please. but the standard include file MOSEDF.DATA .Read/Write DMA Rq Register .Ch 2 Word Count .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah .Read Command/Write Single bit mask . DMA moves (channels 5-7).Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS .) MMURTL V1.Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h . while 23-17 are put in the page register.Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h . There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .INC .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits . This is called a cascaded device.CODE With 8-bit DMA.Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware. There really is no data segment for DMA.DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h .Ch 1 Address .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed. address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Read/Write Mode register . Bit 16 is ignored by the page register. etc.DMA DACK0 Page register .========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh . the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.Ch 3 Word Count .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h . .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch .Ch 3 Address . etc.Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h . DACK1 (etc.INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller.INCLUDE MOSEDF.

AL XOR AL. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. dChannel.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. . or 128K boundaries for a word move.6 and 7. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. AL MOV AL. . . The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. dType. sdMem.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. I do this for the caller. AL XOR AL.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . Out. 04 . . AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL OUT DMA2Mode. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. AL OUT DMA1Clear. 40h DMA1Mode.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. . the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. as you might assume).CH 0 DMA 2 . .CH 0 DMA 1 .Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. AL RETN .Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. we do math) MMURTL V1.All commands set to default (0) . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. AL . AL OUT DMA2Clear. AL XOR AL.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . 0C0h DMA2Mode. AL AL. which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. 42h OUT DMA1Mode. AL MOV AL. even on word moves. AL OUT DMA2Mode.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. . Verify). 43h OUT DMA1Mode. . . . the segment is wrapped around. so they always specify byte count for the setup call. If they do. 41h OUT DMA1Mode.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . For channels 5. AL OUT DMA2Mode. .

7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX.5. dMode CMP EAX.3. 3 Cascade . 6 . Yes CMP EAX. 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. get dType AND BL. In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . MOV EAX. Lo byte address . 0 . MMURTL V1. 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . dType . . MOV EBP. AL EAX. dChannel (0. OR with MODE . 04 . AL .0 = Verify. BL DMA1Mode. AL . 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. AL EAX.0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. [EBP+20] CMP EAX. Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 00001000b . ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL.ESP . Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. [EBP+16] . AL DMA1FF. dMode . (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . 00000100b . 00000000b AL. 1 Single Cycle. 0C0h . 2 Block. 1 .0 Demand Mode.7) . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. dPhyMem .Jump table for channel selection . [EBP+28] DMA10Add.6. 1 = In (Write Mem). PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. 2 = Out (Read memory) . Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX.1. CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . Put it in BL MOV EAX. . AL AL. [EBP+12] . channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ .. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX.2. 8 DMA10Add. Hi Byte .

00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. BL DMA1Mode. AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL AL. Lo byte address . AL EAX. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. Lo byte address . 8 DMA10Cnt. Highest byte (to page register) . sdMem . 8 DMA12Cnt. AL AL. 8 DMA12Add. channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 8 DMAPage2. AL EAX. dPhyMem . OR with MODE/TYPE . AL AL. Highest byte (to page register) . AL DMA1FF. EAX DMAEnd . 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. EAX DMAEnd . CH2 . AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. CH1 . AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. Hi Byte . OR with MODE . 00000010b AL. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . dPhyMem . 8 DMA11Add. sdMem .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . 8 DMAPage1. 8 DMAPage0. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. [EBP+28] DMA11Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Hi Byte . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. 00000001b AL. AL AL. BL DMA1Mode. Highest byte (to page register) .SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. 8 DMA11Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. AL EAX. AL .

0 AL. EAX DMAEnd . 8 DMA21Cnt. 00000011b AL. CH3 . AL DMA2FF. Hi Byte . 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . . Hi Byte . AL EAX. AL EAX. EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. AL EAX. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . . 15 DMAPage5. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . OR with MODE . dPhyMem . AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA21Add. BL DMA1Mode. AL AL. EAX EAX. MMURTL V1. Highest byte (to page register) . AL DMA1FF. AL EAX. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS .XOR EAX. 0FFFFh EAX. OR with MODE . We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . Lo byte address . 1 DMA21Add. . 8 DMA13Cnt. AL EAX. AL EAX. . [EBP+24] EAX. BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. AL AL. . . 8 DMAPage3. 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . AL EAX. AL EAX. . EAX DMAEnd . [EBP+28] EBX. . AL EAX. EBX EAX. CH1 on DMA 2 . [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. [EBP+28] DMA13Add. AL AL. 00000001b AL. AL AL. .NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . sdMem . 8 DMA13Add.

0FFFFh EAX. Rid of all but lower 16 . EBX EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . Rid of all but lower 16 . CH2 on DMA 2 . 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. AL EAX. Hi Byte . AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 15 DMAPage6. AL AL. 1 DMA23Add. EAX EAX. 15 DMAPage6.EBP MMURTL V1. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL AL. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . [EBP+24] EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ .0 AL. 00000011b AL. EAX . AL AL. Highest byte (to page register) . dPhyMem . EAX DMAEnd . channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. sdMem . CH3 on DMA 2 . DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. EAX EAX. Lo byte address . AL AL. 00000010b AL. 0FFFFh EAX. AL DMA2FF. 8 DMA23Add. Hi Byte . AL EAX. 1 DMA22Add. EBX EAX. 8 DMA23Cnt. AL DMA2FF. sdMem . [EBP+28] EBX. BL DMA2Mode. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. OR with MODE . AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA22Cnt. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. 8 DMA22Add. OR with MODE . AL EAX. BL DMA2Mode.DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . [EBP+24] EAX. Lo byte address . 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. dPhyMem .

20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made.535: . To move 64K. . you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. this will be the number of words. dChannel (0. . DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. .Return address for count . the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done.. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX.7) . you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX.0 . for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3.5. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. 7 MMURTL V1. . . The count is number of WORDS-1 .6. DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX.2. DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. this is bytes. . You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. the count will be returned. For channels 0 through 3. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where .3. In this case. . . This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX.ESP MOV EAX. On some devices. no error from the floppy controller). .1. EBP+ 16 12 . .g. GetDMACount(dChannel. . 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX.Channel . GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. you actually set the channel byte count 65. For channels 5 through 7. DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. . pwCountRet) .POP EBP RETF 20 . [EBP+16] MOV ESI. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX.

Therefore. program. 20 bytes of junk to dump . the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. Usually. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . This is not very complicated. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. but it is critical that it's done correctly. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. many devices interrupt the processor.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . be responsible to program these dedicated timers. .AL IN AL. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. . and read as required. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. Quite often. these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time.DX MOV CL. In the process of an interrupt. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. or at set intervals. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly.DX MOV CH. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. however. or even hours in some cases. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. CX XOR EAX. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. . A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS .JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. Your job is to know how to program the PICU. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. which determines the interrupt interval. As you can imagine (or will have realized).AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. . No Error . . . . If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. MMURTL V1.No such channel! . some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. . ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. Internally. EAX MOV ESP. The PICU takes care of this for you. . The operating system may. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system.

0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will need the hardware manual for code examples. MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

(whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. then go through each section of the basic initialization. This device will. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. tasks. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. The question is." that's exactly what I mean. the boot sector code may load another. This is known as a multistage boot. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. In this chapter. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. If you're using another platform. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. To be honest. In other words. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. you'll have to do some research. it executes from a reset state. For this reason. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system.Chapter 7. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. and important structures. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. and it's not exactly easy. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . be organized with a file system. I've done all your homework. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. no doubt. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. where boot ROMs usually reside. then execute it.at least not as a file from the file system. In the PC world. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. This can be done in more than one step if required.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. memory. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. more complicated. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. we start with loading the operating system. then jumping to the first address of the sector. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. When I say "just enough code. MMURTL V1. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. including hardware. If this is true.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed.

Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. In my case. 8. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1.g. the hardware commands. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. 8. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. 5. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). 5. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. 3. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. First. then executed the next instruction at the new address. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. and where you stored it. 4. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. But it gets more complicated. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). 7. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. which they store in a small work area in RAM. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. Second. then life is easy. because they provide the BIOS. 1. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. This lead to two relocation efforts. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. 7. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. 2. Where your operating system will reside in memory. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. so you can begin execution. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump.. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. 2. 3. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. such as a fixed track or cylinder. 4. 6. In an ISA system. This was a double problem. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. 6. This was the case with my system. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. then Drive C. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. MMURTL V1. such as a whole track). or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory).If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk.

11 bytes for volume name . The OS must . DS:CSEG.nFATs .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1. Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.nBytes/Sector .disks. IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h .0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .nHeads .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk. The boot sector code also . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it. Examine the following code: .LIMIT 768 slots . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG . (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .nSectors/track .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .Sect/Cluster . There's no operating system here now.The . This contains additional information about the file system . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing. I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single .instructions.nSect in FAT .nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) . Why not? I do own it.386P . .Drive boot sector came from .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors.Padding to make it 3 bytes .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .media desc.386P directive is required because I use protected .BASE (Linear) . . (worthless) .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible .This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .nTotalSectors if > 32Mb . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.Resvd sectors .Root Dir entries max .on this disk that the operating needs to know.nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .

AX MOV DS. 0Fh . table so it can read the disk for us. It works.Clear interrupts . 0078h . 09000h ES.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS . 512 MOVSB . nSectPerTrack . DI AX.This is done by finding out where it is and writing . 7C0h DS. AX DI. Push the . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. at the beginning of this code CLI . some of the parameters to it from the boot sector.Source segment . SI CX. AX SP. vector location.Get this while DS is correct XOR AX.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX.Destination segment . MOV AX. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF . that I calculated after assembling it once. .9000h SS. MOV CX. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI.The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt .This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump .Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. 8000h . then "return" to it. AX MOV BX. Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS .Segment for new location .This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: .Make DS correct again . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. . return address.Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . Its pseudo jump .. AX SI.

Must set interrupts for BIOS to work .Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) . (3rd cluster is really the first allocated .Save in CX . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) . bBootDrive XOR AX.Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. POP DS . FATS (1 or more) . WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX. OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. . CX . Hidden Sectors (optional) .Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . cluster because the first 2 are unused).The controller is reset. nRsvdSect MOV CX.so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be.0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS .waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI. but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist .What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster .stage one of the a two stage loader should be).Required for Disk System Reset . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX.to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. WORD PTR nHidden .on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in ..CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root . now let's read some stuff!! .The layout of the Disk is: .logical sector order.Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot .AX is at sector for cluster 0. nOSSectors . MOV CX. nBytesPerSect BX AX.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file .STI MOV DL. AX MOV AL. ADC DX. OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .Reset failed.really IS the OS.Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . We need the space for other code. nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX.. MOV SI.0020h . AX . AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot .

Number of sectors AH.Wait for keystroke .AX 16h 19h . DH . 0Eh MOV BX. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL. CH .AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH. ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI. BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX.XOR INT INT AX. 20h ES. nSectPerTrack SI .Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI.Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL. Cyl in AX DH. 1 . BX .This is segment where we load the OS. 6 . DL .Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . Read a .OR with Sector number AL. bBootDrive DL. before we move it down to 0000h .512 bytes for segment .Cyl into CX CL. It's slow.Read 13h .Leaves Head in DL.Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH. . 2 .Head to DH. .I increment ES and leave BX 0 . Hi 2 bits to CL CL.0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX.This is a single sector read loop . Drive to DL CX. AX has . BYTE PTR ResvdByte .0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . 06000h MOV ES. ES BX. AX .BX will be zeroed at top of loop . MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC .Next Sector MMURTL V1. OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX. DX . BX AX . but works well.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte.Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads .Sector to read DX.

A20 line should be ON Now .from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear. turn on the A20 line.AX DI.CX IBEmm2: IN AL. 07000h DS. . 8000h .02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 . move .CX IBEmm0: IN AL.1000h ES.0 .Now we disable interrupts. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.LOOP NextSector . DX XOR SI.So move the OS MOV DX.CX IBEmm1: IN AL. DX MOVSW .AL XOR CX.64h TEST AL.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL. Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.64h TEST AL. SI AX.0D1h OUT 64h. 06000h DS.WORD move . set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.WORD move .AX DI.the OS down to address 0. SI MMURTL V1. BX SI. BX SI.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .AL XOR CX.64h TEST AL. DX MOVSW .DI CX. SI AX. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL. AX ES.0DFh OUT 60h.DI CX.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS .

0Ah.DI CX.EXE header.BYTE move MOV BX.map). The first 512 bytes is the . 9000h MOV DS.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .Set protected mode bit .Load Processor GDT Pointer .BX SS.BX .BX GS. 00h 0Dh. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector. The segment and code size escape . The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format. DX MOVSB . you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump . 00h '. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually .Clear prefetch queue with JMP .1 MOV CR0. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok. As you change and experiment with the boot sector. BX XOR EDX. 'Loading MMURTL'.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS . DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh.Set up segment registers . EDX MOV DL. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END . 10h DS. 'Bad Boot Disk!'. such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).Load Processor ITD Pointer . I left it in.lst).Control Register .BX ES.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok.'. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX.EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length. It's worthless.2000h ES. and a map file from the link (Bootblok.CR0 OR AL.MS-DOS used this.AX DI.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .BX FS. 0Ah.asm <Enter> This will make a .call JMP FAR 08h:10000h.EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX.

After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. To read the boot sector from a disk.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. It's quite easy to do with the Load. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. This will show you a segmented address. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. Then copy the operating system image to the disk.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. After you have assembled your boot sector.bin in the root directory of drive C. Register. then write it to the disk. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. The results can be disastrous. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. They may do this as they format the disk. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. or after the fact.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. C:\>Debug BootBlok. you should not do this to your active development drive. you can use Debug to load it as a . you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . logical sector number.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. and number of sectors following it. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. and Name commands. Write. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. To find where Debug loaded it. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. you can use the Dump command to display it. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. Keep in mind. From the MS-DOS prompt. This is easy to do.

0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS .such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. It does everything that the boot sector code does. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. up to the point we jump the monitor program. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. They must simply be initialized to their default states.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). but it's not necessary. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. It should help give you a picture of what's required. I'm happy. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary.” MMURTL V1. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. understands. It is all contained in the source file Main. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. Chapter 21. This includes setting up the OS stack. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. With MMURTL. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. “Initialization Code. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed.c) to properly build it.C:\> Copy OS. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. This single source file program (MMLoader. Good luck.asm on CD-ROM. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. I couldn't. and basic timers . some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. If it is in an executable format from a linker. Hopefully. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles.00 loader. At this point. It is called MMLoader. All of the hardware that is resident in the system .IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. Additionally. If so. “The Hardware Interface. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. the Direct Memory Access hardware.

because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. on the Intel processors. you can address above 1Mb. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. as well as one to switch to. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. If you desire. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. While in real mode. This depends on the platform. setting up for multitasking. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. It's not that big. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. Chapter 3. the A20 address line serves no purpose. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. is not trivial. you've got your job cut out for you. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. MMURTL V1. you just learn to live with it. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. Being a little conservative. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. “the Tasking Model. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. This leaves you with a few options . A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). and also some basic variables. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. If you use one more bit. For instance. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. The option is usually up to you. Either way. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. In all of the cases that were discussed. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. If you want to eliminate it. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. I just left it alone.

memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. If your machine doesn't support this method. some which didn't work on all machines. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. I tried several methods. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). The point is. and you can't manage or allocate it. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. or any number of things. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. Meanwhile. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. back to the initialization (already in progress). This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts).My goal was not to discover why it existed. Chapter 19. This piece of code may have a lot to do. The following list is not all-inclusive. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. MMURTL V1. but one I'm glad I didn't face. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. If you chose not to do this. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). although some people may still have problems with it. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. “Memory Management Code. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. This seems to work on most machines. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. where the address match will occur. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. or is at least loaded.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. otherwise. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. It's not that much of a headache. You don't know how much you have. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. At this stage of the initialization. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system.

“API Specification. public distribution. No kidding! With UNIX. The call is made. If this happens to me. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. may be similar to another documented call on the system. or your own consumption and enjoyment.” shows you how I documented my calls. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. Quite often though. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. What could be easier? I can't imagine. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. I found. In the following sections. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. the function does its job and returns. they do. In any and all of these cases. life was easy in this respect. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. what order are they in? If the stack is used. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. I'm still not entirely happy with it. This may sound like a no-brainer. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. an embedded system. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful.Chapter 8. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). because the call they add. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . UNIX was written with C. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. that on occasion. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. and leave undocumented. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. If the parameters are on the stack. Chapter 15. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application.

There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. and it required a fixed number of parameters. some use both. especially when it comes to speed. the interrupt vector table). However. OS/2. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). but the stack is not used for parameters. Some use registers. Many systems use an intermediate library.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. code size. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. Second. There are two reasons this library may be required. or at least every time it's rebuilt. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . Your opinion may vary on this. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it.. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. I'm sure you know of several. some use the stack. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. has three or four calling conventions. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. this is MMURTL V1. no doubt. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. support several conventions. for example. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates).(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system.g. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. In other words. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. It's up to you. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. faster. First. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. Execution speed. Pascal . Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call.junkies). will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. as if you couldn't guess). This device is extremely hardware dependent. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages.

Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. and the call gates are really not a problem. However. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system." Yeah. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. If portability is near the top of your wish list. then execute the interrupt instruction. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). For application source code portability. For the operating system source. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. the hardware will be obsolete. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. the procedural interface is the key. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. right. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. When you need to return data from the call. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. This may be a personal issue for me. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. The intermediate library would fill in this value. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. I really hope not. However. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). MMURTL V1.

or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. timers. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. that it's almost impossible to separate them. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . For instance. You more than likely will. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. I set out to design the simplest. They work with the hardware. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. Do you see what I mean? Internally. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. and certain memory-management functions. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. and this wasn't my original plan. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. If this is the case. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. You need to consider these requirements in your design. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. Suddenly. and Statusing the driver. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers.

Set up local vars . and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). . The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. nDevices. EAX MOV EAX. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. EBP+20 nDevices. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. pInitData. so I won't go over it here. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). ndBlocks. The first call listed in this section. When you look at the code.0 . In a multitasking system. For example. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. nDevices MMURTL V1. pStatRet. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX.ESP SUB ESP. . sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice.InitDevDr(dDevNum. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. . InitDevDr(dDevNum. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. pDCBs. dOpNum. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. . EBP+24 .Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. . This will give you a good place to start in your design. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). 16 MOV EAX. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. EAX MOV EAX. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. InitDevDr().ASM. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. dLBA. This is a common requirement on many systems.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . “Systems Programming. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. You'll see certain validity checks. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. when one user is doing serial communications. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here.

pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. 0 .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX. dDevX SHL EAX. 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12]. 0 JNZ InitDev06 . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.Next caller DCB . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX. dExchTmp .dDevNum .All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: .All went OK so far. and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.device IS reentrant! LEA EAX. prgDevs .Decrement nDevices .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX. rgpDCBs MOV EAX. [EBP+24] EAX.Set nDev to number of devices again . 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 . 2 ADD EBX.No .Now check to see if device is already installed .Next devnum .pDCBx = 0 if not used yet .Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs . [EBP+16] nDevs.If we got here. [EBP+20] . OK to use .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX. we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX.0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .nDevices .Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs.12 .Empty. ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].NONE left .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].OK to replace existing driver? . EAX EBX.Yes .Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: . . rgpDCBs EAX.Point EBX to rgpDCB . 2 . 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: .error exit . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX].dDevNum MMURTL V1.

[EAX] . ECX [EBX]. DeviceInit(dDevNum. A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device.we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . [EBP+20] MOV ECX. PUSH EBP . . SHL EBX.DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it. The other two calls.ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: .device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX .EBX now points to correct pointer .ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . MOV EBX. nDevices . 2 . EAX MOV EAX. dExchTmp . are almost identical to DeviceInit().Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. pInitData.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. EAX and ECX are set up.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX.Now that EBX. CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch].If the device driver was NOT reentrant . [EBP+20] . loop through each . [EBP+20] .next p in rgp of DCBs . rgpDCBs MOV EBX. -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .Any more DCBs?? . or reset it after a failure. EBX . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB. ADD EAX. ErcBadDevNum .for all devices that one driver controls. and are not presented here.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Set up for no error . MOV EBP.ESP . . . MOV EBX. 4 EAX.Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX.EAX points to first DCB .Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . sdInitData).next DCB .0 . .the first customer to use. This is the same exchange .also place Exchange into DCB. . and . 0 . EAX .ADD EBX. EAX EBX. 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX. DeviceOp() and DeviceStat().

but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.save ptr to DCB . .so we check to see if driver is reentrant. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] .Ptr to message area .Ignore kernel error . adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. If not we . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType]..JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.Get device error back .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .Device IS reentrant .Yes .Bogus Message . Send semaphore message to Exch . .Get DCB ptr back .Get ptr to DCB back into EBX . 0 DevInit02 EAX. 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX .Push exchange number . ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd ..YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP. [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS . .call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Push all params for call to DD . 0 .Get semaphore ticket . The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.Save ptr to DCB . MMURTL V1.dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.All looks good with device number . This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design. CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].No.Is there a physical device? DevInit02: .NO driver! .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 . It you use assembly language and provide code examples.

usually passed on the stack.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word . several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. Argument . though. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . Before writing your first MMURTL program.A Function in C or Pascal.g. Terminology Throughout this section. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0.1 .a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). “Interprocess Communications.Chapter 9. I think you will find it useful.1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. and DWORD.” and Chapter 5. but alas. or a Procedure in Pascal. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. and a dword is also accessed at the same address. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. If I were a perfectionist. Call .Same as Procedure. or a Procedure in Assembler.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls.A value passed to a function or procedure. “Memory Management. It may even be entertaining. Byte . WORD. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. Look at the table 9. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL..a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. MS-DOS). Function .

or dError.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . This will be done by the compiler. All parameters are pushed from left to right. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. or simply convey information that may.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. and are expanded to 32-bit values. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. even the assembler or processor itself. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. In some C compilers. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. Some do not. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. and assembly language. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. It may indicate an error. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. Pascal. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. “API Specification.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. and in some cases. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. not the real address of the SetXY function. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. But the address is really a call gate. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). erc. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. MMURTL V1. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate).

She may pick up your dirty socks.. If you need a 2Mb array.” and Chapter 4. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use.. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like.. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language.2 . MMURTL is a Paged memory system.” describe this in great detail.. There are no far data pointers.. The operating system resides at address 0.2: Table 9. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh .0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. When you are done with it. you allocate it.. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. .. you simply allocate it. In fact. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0).g. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory. “Interprocess Communications. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor.. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. malloc() in C). while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. but she would much rather that you did it. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. MMURTL V1. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space.. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated).Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). . “The Tasking Model. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. Chapter 3. you should deallocate it.

You allocate 5 pages. pData2. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. Now you allocate 4 pages. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. The operating system Code. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. so long as you know it can't be addressed. dMsg1. protect programmers from themselves. cbData1. pRqHndlRet. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). This means that in a multitasking environment. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. however. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. Data. cbData2. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. dData1. npSend. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). Address 40100000h is returned to you. This is not a problem. pData1. SendMsg (dExch. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . Of course. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. However. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. dData0. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. wSvcCode. MMURTL does NOT. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. dRespExch. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls.

In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. If you do. char sbJobName[14]. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. printing. only your program will be trashed. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). This eats all of your link blocks. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. you need to know your job number. such as data communications. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). and user interaction.LString */ MMURTL V1. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor.Normally. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. Other than that. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. MMURTL is not a mind reader. Messaging is very powerful. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. For instance. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. /* User Name . but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . The pointer is read-only. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. but you don't want that either. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack.

char fCursType. long ExitError. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. unsigned char ScrlCnt. long VidMode. Chapter 13. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. pPathRet. char fVidPause. char *pVidMem. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. editing. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. with unused portions padded. long CrntX. char *pVirtVid. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. The keyboard interface is a system service.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. “Keyboard Service. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet.char sbPath[70].LString */ std output . For most applications. }. long NormVid. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. char JcbExitRF[80]. long nLines. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. long NextJCB. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. char JcbSysIn[50]. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. long CrntY. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). char JcbCmdLine[80]. long nCols.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. MMURTL V1. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. and special keys. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. To change data in the JCB. char fCursOn.LString */ std input . char JcbSysOut[50].

Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . The colors for TTYOut(). MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). and low nibble is the foreground.3. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes).Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. Foreground colors. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. Background. character placement.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS .Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. The high bit of each. Background colors describe the attributes. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs. Table 9. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking.4096 bytes).4 .3 . and Blink if desired to form a single value. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. only the least significant byte is used. the high nibble is the background. is the intensity bit. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. In this byte. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. and cursor positioning. logically OR the Foreground. and 9. PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. Tables 9.4.

You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. or system calls. "This is a test. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field.". MMURTL V1. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . exchanges. Remember. 0. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. This includes any memory. BGBLUE|WHITE). You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. This is done by calling the Chain() function. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). If no file is specified. MMURTL has to hunt for them. 17. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. and other things allocated while you were running. Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application.

MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). use messaging. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. the service does the processing and Responds. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . Additional exchanges. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. Service names are casesensitive. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. Client programs make a Request. or provide services to application programs. such as: Additional memory. Additional tasks if required. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. if required.Chapter 10. Pascal. and Assembly language programmers. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. MMURTL V1. and memory management operations. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. service them. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. as well as for other services. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. It's not very useful. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. then Respond. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. Wait for messages. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. if needed. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10.

MainExch. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. long dData0. long RespExch. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. MainExch). /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. long RQBRsvd2. Message[2]. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. long RqOwnerJob. ErrorToUser. Message). int ServiceCode. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. char *pData1. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). else if (pRqBlk. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. long dData2. long RQBRsvd1. char *pData2. long cbData2. long RQBRsvd3. long dData1.Listing 10. char npSend.1. }.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. long ServiceRoute. long cbData1.pData1 = NextNumber++. NextNumber = 0. char *pRqHndlRet. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". char npRecv. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS .

The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. and what service you provide. This is the number 1 (one). Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. As a system service writer. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. or any data movement back to the caller. For larger data movement to the service. when you receive a Request. because the operating system does not alias them as such. In fact. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. The complexity of your service. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. you define the data items you need. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space.The Request Block As you can see. one number represents OpenFile. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. For example. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . and how much information a program must pass to you. These items are dData0. the service only defines one service code that it handles. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. dData1. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. The memory address of the Request Block. For all other values of the service code. In the simple example above. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. in the File System. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. and another RenameFile. another CloseFile. This is called the service code. They are 32-bit values. As a system service. The operating MMURTL V1. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. cbData1 and cbData2. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. and dData2. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer).

before responding to any other requests you are holding. and moves it to another exchange. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. but carries it one step farther. which is a valuable system resource. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. The first is the request block handle. cbData1 and pData2. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. you must respond to it immediately. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service.system is “aware” of this. MMURTL is built in layers. This is the easiest way to handle requests. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. receive a request. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. MMURTL uses this concept. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. RAM disks. However. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. communications ports (serial and parallel). The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. Synchronous services wait. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. If so. In the keyboard service. In each of these cases. cbData2. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. until you respond. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. the file may not exist. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. Disk drives. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. tape drives. If so. then respond before waiting for the next request. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . When you write system services. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. If this happens. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode.

The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. keyboard. Block Size. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. the file system is at user level (3). multi-threaded environment. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. Sequential devices are things like communications ports. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. or is included in the OS code at build time.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. RAM DISK). The interface is non-specific. hard disk. network link layer devices). Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader.and sequential-oriented. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. keyboard.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS .g. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. or any OS structures. For example. as well as where the data is on the device. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. or a processor protection violation will occur. Things like Device name. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). This means message. If a device driver controls more than one device. the PICUs.g.e. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. multitasking. or network frame handlers (i. C and Pascal). The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. powerful. With InitDevDr().which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. interrupt vectors. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. It does not directly access hardware. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it.. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. basic video. SCSI ports. to handling complex devices such as hard drives.. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. timer hardware. I have made it rather painless to build fast. MMURTL V1. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths.

or in Pascal. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. and is programmed. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. if needed. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. just like any other program. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. Check or set up the device’s. You can name them anything you want in your program. Allocate exchanges. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. if needed. The device driver looks. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. In C this would be main(). if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . The main entry point will never be called again. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. Do anything else you need before being called. The generic steps are described below. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. like any application in MMURTL. it's the main program block.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. InitDevDr() never returns to you. This layer of code performs several functions for you. if required. At this point. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. Call InitDevDr(). unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). Set up interrupt service routines. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program.

Two calls provide these functions. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. mode. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. device drivers are very close to the hardware. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. and size of a DMA move. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. especially if the driver controls two devices. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. direction. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. In other operating systems. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. specifically DOS. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. This is often called an interrupt vector.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. MMURTL uses paged memory. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. Timer Facilities Quite often. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). or how much was transferred.”API Specification. although it’s not a requirement. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. If you use MMURTL V1.

0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. a structure in C.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task.) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. and how to implement them in your code. so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. and KillAlarm() functions.Alarm(). left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. you can use SendMsg(). The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. but easy to figure out. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. Alarm(). Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. Table 10. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). or assembler to construct the DCB. Table 10. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. each of the three PUBLIC device calls.1-. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. If you use SendMsg(). How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different.

0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. znBPB . sbDevName . DevType . The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. the SendMsg(). dLastDevErc . defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. Each device name must be unique.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512.this indicates whether the device is addressable. RETN is the proper instruction. fDevReent . Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. ndDevBlocks . if you are on track zero. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. then this should contain a 2. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). usually an unexpected one. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() .OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. For instance. MMURTL V1. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. and handle device conflicts internally. head zero. and you read one sector past the end of that track.When a driver encounters an error. If it is another device. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). increases throughput. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. This reduces disk arm movement which. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. not the next track. If the device is sequential. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. In assembler. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. pDevInit. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. we then move to the next head. The Hard disk driver operates the same way. where several devices are controlled though one access point.number of bytes per block. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. Each sector is considered a block.This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. Disk drives are divided into sectors. For devices that are not re-entrant. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. sector zero. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. In other words. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. For example. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver.Each driver names the device it serves. but this is not much of a limitation. and WaitMsg() primitives. this is device dependent. pDevOp. but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks).

The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. ndBlocks. If this is zero.3. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.If the fSingleUser is true. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. OSUseONLY1.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on.6 . dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. dLBA. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice.dnBlocks. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved.5.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time.dOpNum.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. dOpNum. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver.pData). all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. pInitData. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. verify. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. Your function implementations must do the same. pStatRet. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls.dLBA. this flag should be true (non-zero). and format. no job is currently assigned the device. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. write.2. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice.fSingleUser . The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32). wJob .4. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller. They equate to standard device operations such as read.

In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status.pStatRet.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate.pInitData. For sequential devices.pdStatusRet).5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. parity. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. this will simply be the number of bytes.dStatusMax. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. and so on. Not all devices will return status on demand.dInitData). you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus.

After the Device driver has been loaded. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. pDCBs. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. MMURTL V1. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. such as a disk or SCSI controller. This is because one controller. If more than one device is controlled. this is the first number of the devices. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. the second at pDCBs + 128. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. This means the devices are number consecutively. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. nDevices. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. and one DMA channel if applicable. If this is not the case. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. and so on. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. fReplace If true. If the driver controls more than one device.

then use it. MMURTL V1. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . The file name must contain the FULL .JOB . In future versions of MMURTL.g. The format is very simple.after each entry. the job he is currently viewing. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. tabs or comments after .Maximum line length is 80 characters total. The name must start in the first column of a line. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication. is assigned to the new job or is terminated.Chapter 11. No spaces.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 11. When the user presses these global keys. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. Drive:\DIR\NAME. or terminate.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. .Comment lines begin with a semi-colon . If you intend to write an operating system.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up.INITIAL. Sample Initial. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen. the keyboard.1 shows a sample INITIAL.the run file name are ignored.run C:\MMSYS\CLI. . One run file name per line. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing..JOB file. No parameters are passed . Listing 11. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name. The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. C:\MSamples\Service\Service.This is the initial jobs file.Job file .RUN) . (e. .RUN <---. Even when a Job is not being displayed. as well as the video display.system boot in this file. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs.to the run file. a buffer in memory.JOB.file name including path.1. If it's displaying video data. Any spaces.

Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. Table 11. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second.This is the total count of task switches since boot up. priority task. any errors returned are displayed. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. They are displayed as typed. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk.RUN. Once the initialization is complete.1.. and the parallel port (LPT) driver.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. RS-232 serial communications. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. Table 11. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. job display. Task switches total . The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services.1 describes the function of each assigned key. MMURTL V1. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. During this process.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized.1. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). and access to the built-in debugger. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system.

Tasks Ready to Run .h" "MKbd. Response is made by the service. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel. but the count is fixed at OS build time. even in the same job.2.h" "MVid. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks. but have a fixed count at OS build time. Free Job Control Blocks .2.CPU idle ticks (no work) .h" "MFiles. Each job uses one.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . This number may seem a little high. I include no C library code in the operating system itself.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run. MMURTL V1. Each new task uses one of these. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. that don't get picked up right away. Free Link Blocks . the request block is returned for re-use. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. the C library code can be used.h" "MTimer. Listing 11.This is the number of free job control blocks left.h" "MMemory. See listing 11.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do. including requests. There were no tasks ready to run. Free Task State Segments . In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated. If this number is greater than zero. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time.These are task-management structures.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".A small structure used by all messages sent and received.h" "MData. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.h" "MJob. Free Exchanges .h" "MDevDrv.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated.

static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". static long time. U32 BlocksMax. LastStatByte1. LastStatByte0. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. KillError. date. MUltitasking. tick. All Rights Reserved". MngrHndl. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. static unsigned long GPHndl. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". MMURTL V1. gcode. unsigned long KillExch. 1990-1995. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. LastSeekErc0. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. LastErcByte0. LastErcByte1. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. static unsigned long GP1Exch. U8 fNewMedia. KillJobNum. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. LastRecalErc1.A. Burgess. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . fKilled. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. Real-Time kerneL". /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . MngrMsg[2]. LastSeekErc1. fIntOnReset. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. U32 blocks_done. MngrExch. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. U8 type_now.Message based. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot".static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc.

char *ppJCBRet). nRQBLeft. nHalts.c */ Parallel. nSlices. InitFS(void). extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. BootDrive.c */ RS232. char *pJCBRet). /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard.c */ HardIDE. /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void).c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. fdisk_setup(void). nReady.c */ Fsys. lpt_setup(void). /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. xsprintf. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. static unsigned long nMemPages. hdisk_setup(void). nSwitches. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS .U8 ResetStatByte. coms_setup(void). static long StatStack[256]. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. nJCBLeft. #asm MMURTL V1.asm */ Floppy. nLBLeft. nTSSLeft. U32 resvd1[2].h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. nEXCHLeft. /* out to 64 bytes */ }.

JLE isdigit1 . 30h . The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0).[EBP+8] CMP AL.[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . EAX MOV ESI. minus. unsigned long width.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. #asm XOR EAX. chr. long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1.EAX . total = 0. *ptr. value. zero = ' '. chr = *fmt++.0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS .No CMP AL. total. zero. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr.0 JL isdigit0 . } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. justify. *ptr = justify = minus = 0. ptr = &numstk[32]. width = value = i = 0. i. char *fmt. 39h .0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer.MOV EAX.

++minus. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. break. } while(value /= i). break. ++argptr. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. case 'b' : i = 2. } value = *--argptr. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. break.'0'). break. break. chr = *fmt++.width = (width * 10) + (chr . case 'c' : *--ptr = value. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. case 's' : ptr = value. ++total. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. default: *--ptr = chr. *--ptr = chr. } case 'u' : i = 10. if(width) --width. case 'o' : i = 8.

long total. ++total. fmt). } /* move in data */ i = 0. ++total. ap). } /************************************ MMURTL V1. fmt. value = width . just move into string *outptr++ = chr. return total.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). } } *outptr = 0. } } } else { /* not format char... ++total. . ++i. TTYOut(buffer. va_start(ap. fmt). va_end(ap. return total. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. ++total. strlen(buffer).1. Color). } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. i < width. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. ++i.) { va_list ap. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. char buffer[S_SIZE].0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. rgStatLine.0. return. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. When it gets one. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. i. 80. &iLine). Msg[2]. WHITE|BGBLUE). tick). *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc.. it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen.22). return total. fmt).1)..) { va_list ap. va_end(ap. fmt. 26. "%d".23. rgMonMenu1. PutVidChars(0. PutVidChars(0.1). rgMonMenu3. BLUE|BGWHITE). SetXY(0. iLine. 25. ap). 26.80. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetXY(&iCol. BLUE|BGWHITE). 24. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). . Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor.1. fmt). SetXY(0. PutVidChars(54. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. Exch. PutVidChars(27. 24. rgMonMenu2. BLUE|BGWHITE). long total. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. MMURTL V1. va_start(ap. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. char *fmt. 24. total = _ffmt(s.

WHITE|BGBLUE). Sleep(50). /* month */ 0x0f). /* sleep 0. Sleep(50). GetTimerTick(&tick). 80. rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. KillJobNum. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate..5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob).. KillError). tick). (time & 0x0f).5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). /* year */ 0x0f).) { GetCMOSTime(&time). KillMsg). rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). rgStatLine.0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. /* Day */ 0x0f). "%d". &pJCB). 80. "%d". rgStatLine. PutVidChars(0.0. *pVid. xprintf("Job number %d terminated.U8 *pPD. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. CheckScreen(). TSSExch in it. /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. 0x0f). /* sleep 0.. PutVidChars(0.50). The message has Error. 0x0f). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). tick). Tone(440.*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. WHITE|BGBLUE).0. Error: %d\r\n". for(.

/* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. Exch. 0. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). 0. 0. 1).) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. 0. j. 0. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. 2). i..GetVidOwner(&i). 0). we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. &MngrHndl. Msg). fKilled = 1. /* We're done (and so is he.. DeAllocPage(pVid.. 2. fDone. 0.. 1. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4. /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". Also. &gcode. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. 0. MngrExch. if the debugger has the video. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". */ DeAllocPage(pPD. We don't actually switch jobs. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). DeAllocJCB(pJCB). /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). MMURTL V1. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. &i. char *pJCB.

MngrExch. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). i = j.4. 0. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". MngrMsg).. erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. &MngrHndl. MngrExch. 0. 0. while (!fDone) { i++. 0. 0. 4. 0. 0. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. 2. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). 0. 0). 4.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. MngrMsg). 0. &gcode. #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. erc = GetpJCB(i. 0). 0. if (i==2) i = 3. 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD".0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = KillJob(j). 0). 0. &MngrHndl. else if (i>34) i = 1. 0. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). 0. i. fDone = 0. &pJCB). for(. 0.

We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. char fdone.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . sdisk += 0x41.0FEh OUT 64h. 0.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . #asm CLI MOV ECX. fh.return. unsigned char sdisk. 1. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. sdisk &= 0x7F. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. &fh). j.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). i. &ajobfile[1]. 20).first we clear interrupts . This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc.AL STI #endasm return.JOB\0". char ajobfile[50]. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk).check port up to 64K times . do MMURTL V1. fcli = 0. 2=C etc.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. /* 0=A.Read Status Byte into AL . char arunfile[80]. cbrunfile. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . } . 1=B.64h TEST AL.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. sjobfile. sjobfile. job.run and the last job loaded. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. while (!fdone) { i = 0. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. job = 0. fcli.

erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". 4. CheckScreen()..\r\n". erc = 0. assign the keyboard and video to it. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. &j). "cli. CheckScreen().') continue. 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. erc). GP1Exch. 1. cbrunfile. arunfile).{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. &GP1Hndl.0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. } CloseFile(fh). } } } else fdone = 1. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). &arunfile[i++]. xprintf("Loading: %s.. CheckScreen(). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. else fcli = 0. &job). job). 0. Sleep(50).run". job = 0. Sleep(50). MMURTL V1. if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '.

i. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. GP1Msg). *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. k. job.. 0. iLine. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. 1=B. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). acli). CheckScreen(). 0. ccode1. unsigned char sdisk. sdisk += 0x41. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. 16). Sleep(50). 0. */ acli[0] = sdisk. 2=C etc. job). 0. GP1Exch. xprintf("Loading: %s. 4. SetVidOwner(job). 0. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". erc = LoadNewJob(acli.. 0. 0).".\r\n").0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . strlen(acli). erc = Request("KEYBOARD".RUN\0". &GP1Hndl. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. 0). 0. unsigned char c. } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. } return erc. job. MMURTL V1. unsigned long ccode. &acli[1]. &job). 0. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. job. char text[70]. /* 0=A. 0. GP1Msg). acli[40].0. InitScreen(). j. iCol.JOB file not found in system directory. CheckScreen(). sdisk &= 0x7F. 0.

A. erc = InitKBDService(). erc).Burgess. xprintf("%d\r\n". 24. xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". c). &StatStack[255]. /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. Tone(1000. erc).0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . Real-Time kerneL\r\n").33). erc = coms_setup(). xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . erc).Tone(250. erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages).. /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1.. erc = fdisk_setup(). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. erc). xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. Error: "). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". erc = lpt_setup().15). erc). /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). erc = hdisk_setup(). c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). i). 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). 0. erc). Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. 1 ). xprintf("Copyright (c) R. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). MUltitasking. if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n".Message based.. erc). erc). i). xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. xprintf("Init floppy device driver. erc).. xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". Error: "). xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". erc).

1. erc). pJCB->JobNum).xprintf("Initializing file system. 0. */ LoadJobFile().\r\n"). /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. erc = InitFS(). Tell it to wait for a key.j). &pJCB). 1. 13). 0. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1].. &MngrStack[255]. 0. SetXY(k+10. &GPHndl. erc). if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n".. /* Line */ k = 0.) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. 4. erc = GetpJCB(i. MMURTL V1.j). j++. for (. /* Col offset */ for (i=1. erc). if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". 10. erc). text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. 1 ). xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Name: %s\r\n". j = 2.. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40. break.. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD".0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. c = ccode & 0xff. 0). xprintf("File System. GPExch. 0. text. i<nMaxJCBs. /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. text). case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen(). if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". 0. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI().. &ccode. GPMsg).

SetXY(0. GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(9). "/". 1. break.. nEXCHLeft). PutVidChars(29. nRQBLeft).12). xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". Sleep(12). "/".1). PutVidChars(29. "\\". nHalts). Sleep(9). nSlices). /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. 1). Sleep(9).Cancelled\r\n").1). case 0x12: /* F4 . 1. 1. xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". 1. 1. xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". nSwitches).loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK). "-". 1. "|". \r\n"). Sleep(9). PutVidChars(29. while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. 1. break.} } break. 1... PutVidChars(29. 1. 1. "-". PutVidChars(29. 1. PutVidChars(29.0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . 1. if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). nJCBLeft). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. GREEN|BGBLACK). nReady). xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". Sleep(9). xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). nTSSLeft).. GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(9). xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". 1. 1. "\\". xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". xprintf(". PutVidChars(29. case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. nLBLeft). break. erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. nMemPages). 1.future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". 1. "|". any other key to cancel"). " ". default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). } SetXY(0. GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(12). GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf ("\r\n"). 1.

23.80. WHITE|BGBLACK).1). } } GetXY(&iCol.22). SetXY(0. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1. &iLine). 2. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.TTYOut (CRLF. 1. WHITE|BGBLACK). else TTYOut (&c.1.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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the debugger is an assembly language. the debugger is entered. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. It is not a separate run file. When this occurs. such as dumping data. non-symbolic debugger. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. Certain debugger display functions. and why. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. and a red banner is displayed. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. MMURTL V1. will clear the screen for display. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . along with the exception number that caused it. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage.Chapter 12. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. function keys are across the bottom. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. If the debugger was entered on a fault. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code.

This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. RdyQ .This is the address of the array of currently registered services. This clears the single breakpoint. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. the address of the TSS. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. F3 ClrBP . F4 CS:EIP . next.Change Current Address. You may move down through the instructions. JCBs .Dump Dwords. F2 SetBP .Ready Queue. This returns to the application and executes one instruction. F8 CrntAdd . The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. and then dumps the bytes located at that address. The address is displayed on the left.Job Control Blocks. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. .Interrupt Descriptor Table. F10 . the address of the task's JCB. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. a linear address. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. These values are hard coded at system build. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup.Clear Breakpoint.Dump Bytes. The address is displayed on the left. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. This requests a linear address. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed.Display Tasks. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array.Link Blocks. These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. The task number. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. as most of them are.Services Array. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. LBs . and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. The abbreviations are given in the following list. TSS1 . The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. TSSs are numbered sequentially. GDT .Single Step. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. TSS3 .Address Information.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dynamic TSSs. Each TSS is 512 bytes. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. the associated Job number. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. F6 Tasks .Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . that will be somewhere in this array.Request Block Array. with the down arrow key. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer.Goto CS:EIP.Set Breakpoint. This displays all active tasks on the system. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. RQBs . This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization.Display Exchanges. F12 AddInfo .First TSS. This is an array of 512-byte structures. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. IDT . This becomes the active address. MMURTL V1. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. next. The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. without executing them. This requests a linear address. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. F9 DumpB . The GDT contains many items. “Application Programming.Global Descriptor Table. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. This is the address of the Monitor TSS. F5 Exch . low order).” SVCs .

The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. actually a trap. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. In MMURTL. but for right now. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. When it occurs. locking up. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. ESP . or for . This is the address of the array of timer blocks. such as [EBP+12].Timer Blocks. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. it is the index of that exchange in the array. without having to fill in special registers. There are four debug address registers in the processor. and also how local variables are accessed. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. For applications. In some cases. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. like the older processors. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. MMURTL V1.Exchanges.START in an assembly language program.ASM files. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. With near calls like you would make inside your program.Exch . A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. aTmr . listed in your ATF file. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints.and displayed as an unsigned number. entering the debugger. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function).0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . Lots of code here MOV ESP. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. Each exchange is 16 bytes. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . or whatever). the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. or at the beginning of any instruction. its down and dirty troubleshooting.

while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. a pointer to the currently running TSS. or faults. that can occur. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. the current pRunTSS.. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. It almost. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. just like applications do. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done.Processor exceptions. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. Table 12. If you are going to debug a task. The debugger cannot debug itself. usually a blank screen and nothing else. Instead. including allocated memory. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch.. The debugger becomes the active job. a page fault is fatal to a task. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS).MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. but not quite. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. is saved by the debugger. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS .) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). you must be able to access all of its memory.1. No other task operates at a priority that high. called exceptions. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. MMURTL V1. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. you will see that there are many interrupts. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. When the debug interrupt activates. When writing an operating system.1. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. Traps.

we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. which is exactly what you want. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. This makes the debugger transparent. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. These contain the address of the exception handler. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. When the debugger is entered. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. you should kill the offending job and restart. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. MMURTL V1. While you are in the debugger.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. To do this.

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0. 0. &KeyCode 4. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . Available Services Table 13. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time.Chapter 13. It's easier to use.Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD".Not used (0) */ dData2 . this is true multitasking). Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. 1. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . 0). &MyRqhandle.fWait for Key */ dData1 .1 shows the services provided by the service code. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. As described in chapter 10. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access.0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). MyExch. “system programming. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. 0 0. but not as powerful.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. 1.

Table 13.Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed.Return with error if no key waiting 1 . you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys.Count of bytes in the code 0 . This allows for "hot-key" operation. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications.Not used. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). In this case. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. described in detail later.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. even if a key is not available. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1.Not used 0 .Not used = 0 . The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 . The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 .1. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. If you have an outstanding Notify request. Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service.Wait for Key = 0 . This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. the error should be 0. Unlike regular keystrokes.

The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. etc. The low-order byte is the actual key code. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes.). The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. and Scroll). To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. Num. Alt & Ctrl. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS.4. If you have an outstanding Notify request.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service.2.3. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. this cancels it. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. Locks. as shown in table 13. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. shown in table 13. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. as shown in table 13. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C).

Table 13. Table 13. shows how the bits are defined. Num or Scroll). CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code.3 shows how the bits are defined. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned.3 .If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 13.2 .Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. This bit (Bit 0.. Alt or Shift). This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. Table 13. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control.2.

the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. For example. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1.1h to 7Fh). A description is given only if required.main keyboard.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS . Alt.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard.4 . Table 13. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. Ctrl. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . or Locks).Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. Key Codes Table 13.. If a shift code is not shown.

Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality.5 shows the key code value returned.5 . Table 13. / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS . . Table 13. ' . comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.

Caps lock does not affect these keys.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS .6 . 13. Table 13.7. (Period) Cursor. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13.7.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active. Edit.

0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS . The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. or you may want more. if you desire. Chapter 25. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. the programmer will read the documentation.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. such as international key translations. MMURTL V1.”Keyboard Code. when all else fails. Pieces of it may be useful for your system. Remember. as I have tried to do in this chapter.

and optionally.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. For example. This ties its hands so to speak. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. the default name NETWORK is used. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. When a network file is opened. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. MMURTL V1. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. A filename that is prefixed with a node name.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network.and finally the filename itself.Chapter 14. will be routed to the service with the same name. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. just how we access it. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. the network service receives the request from the file system. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. The third part is the filename as described above. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character .0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . but none as wide spread. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. then up to three more characters. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. a network name. a period. and a node name is specified. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. there isn't anything new about the format. filename.

This number is how you refer to that file until closed. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). in any mode or type. 4096 byte buffer. When a file is opened in Read mode. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. Make no assumptions about this number. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. a number called a file handle is returned to you. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. This is a one page.File Handles When a file is opened. or just reading alone. MMURTL V1. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened.

The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA).Block Type Access */ dData2 -. Table 14.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. 0). When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. 1. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service. You can make a request. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. 0. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking).1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -.Size of a handle */ dData0 -. &"AnyFile.ModeRead */ dData1 -. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. MyExch. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware. For Stream files. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. Listing 14. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA.ptr to name */ cbData1 -.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -. This is called a file pointer in some systems. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. The file system actually runs as a separate task. &MyRqhandle.doc". 1. It meets all the requirements. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ".1 .returned handle */ cbData2 -. 1. Table 14. &FileHandle 4. All message-based services use the same request-based interface.size of name */ pData2 -. 11. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. Listing 14. no matter what Mode the file was opened in. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. or file pointer.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA).Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -.1.1 shows the service codes the file system supports. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from.

VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function.2 . It is easier to use because it has less parameters. KBD and VID devices only. Table 14. The request is transparent to the caller.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. MMURTL V1.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 14. The Request interface will not allow device access. but only through the procedural interfaces. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access.

it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users. pdHandleRet . dOpenMode. If stream access type was specified. dcbname. dcbName .0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName.pointer to the filename or full file specification. Procedural parameters: pName . dAccessType.READ = 0.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode .File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available.pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. Procedural parameters: dHandle . pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations.Block = 0.a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. Stream = 1. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. If a file is open in ModeRead. all buffers are flushed and deallocated.

The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs. dLFA .pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. nBytes .Logical File Address to write to. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512). pData.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. nBytes.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read.Pointer to the data to write nBytes .wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. This must always be a multiple of 512. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. This must be a multiple of the block size. pDataRet . dLFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. dLFA . Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. pdnBlkRet . pDataRet.Logical File Address to read from.DWord with number of bytes to write. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file. MMURTL V1. This will always return a multiple of 512. dLFA. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. One Block = 512 bytes. nBytes. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. pData .0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS .DWord with number of bytes to read. Procedural parameters: dHandle . pdnBytesRet . See the SetFilesize() section. Procedural parameters: dhandle .

Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. nBytes. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. pData. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. pDataRet. The bytes are read from the current LFA. nBytes.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . pDataRet . pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. nBytes .Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).Dword with number of bytes to read. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. Parameters: dhandle . Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file. pdnBytesRet .pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned.

pdnBytesRet .a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned.Dword with number of bytes to write.Pointer to the data to write. pData . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. Procedural parameters: dHandle . as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: dhandle . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet . nBytes . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF).Dword with a valid file handle. The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C). Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle.Procedural parameters: dHandle .pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files.Dword with a valid file handle.0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS .

as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. as returned from OpenFile() dSize .dLFA .0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS .a Dword with the LFA you want to set. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files. Procedural parameters: dhandle .Dword with a valid file handle. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. The file length.a Dword with the new size of the file. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically.a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned.Dword with a valid file handle. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. Procedural parameters: dHandle . Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. and allocated space on the disk.

Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1. dcbNewName . System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. empty file in the path specified.pointer to the current filename or full file specification. and ready to be opened and accessed. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode.pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. dcbname. dcbName .pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName. dcbName . dcbName.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dword with length of the filename dAttributes .pointer to the new filename or full file specification. The file is closed after creation. Procedural parameters: pName . pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file.Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden. Procedural parameters: pName .

dcbPath): dError This creates a new. the directory is created in your current path. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). If only the new directory name is specified.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. and the filename is available for re-use. specified in the Job Control Block.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dword that was returned from OpenFile.pointer to the path (directory name) to create. Procedural parameters: pPath . No further access is possible. Procedural parameters: dHandle . The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. empty directory for the path specified. as opposed to a full path. dcbPath .Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1.

This call returns one sector from a directory. If no path is specified. If only the existing directory name is specified. dcbPath. or directory name. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). Procedural parameters: pPath .If set to non-zero. dcbPath .Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . all subdirectories. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. the path in your JCB will be used. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. dcbPath.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1.pointer to the path. pSectRet. The directory must exist in the path specified. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. as opposed to a full path. Procedural parameters: pPath . The path must contain the directory name as the last element. Each sector contain 16 directory entries. all files in this directory. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. to read tj sector from dcbPath .pointer to the path. the name is appended to the path from your job control block. or directory name to delete.

it's not allocating files. MMURTL V1. Because it is a pointer. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. buffer pointers. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. The FUBs contain the file pointer. while others are part of the operating system data segment. Quite a few of them use this same name. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file.pSectRet .0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each opened file is allocated an FCB.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. Each FCB is 128 bytes. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. FCB. the open mode. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. If the file is opened in Stream mode. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. When it reaches 0. Some structures are dynamically allocated.

they use what is called a FAT16. the fifth points to the sixth. return an error ErcFileInUse. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. That's 128Kb. Usually. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk.The disk is allocated in clusters. and the sixth is marked as the last. you can usually do it quite rapidly. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. L = Last entry in your file. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. the user will strike next. If opened in Block mode. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. and raster image files. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually).0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. which is cluster size. The file is open. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. Run files being executed. This is in itself is time-consuming. Large database files are the major random users. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. source files for compilers. inside of a 400 Mb file. MMURTL V1. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. The list could go on and on. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. In this example. The fourth entry points to the fifth. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. X = not your file. allocate an FUB and attach it. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. because of the design of the FAT file system. If so. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. Load FAT buffer if required. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. That's a lot of FAT (or file). you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). Directories are stored as files. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. or three entries. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. On most hard disks. If it's open in ModeWrite. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. vector. However. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. From this.

attach them to the chain. then write the data. If the file is being extended. It sounds simple. If opened in block mode. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . but much overhead is involved. Both copies must be updated. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. MMURTL V1. Close This is the easy part. and depends on how the file was opened. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. you must find unallocated clusters.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB.

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g. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names.1 . The offset should be 0.1 lists the prefixes. then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use.Chapter 15. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. They are listed by functional group first.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. Table 15. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. An improperly. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes .0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 lists these additional prefix characters. Chapter 14. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. The call address consists of a selector and an offset. Table 15.. Table 15. I might add.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. Table 15. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address.2 . “File System Service”). These are known as compound descriptions. If you are going to write your own operating system.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present.

Ret means Returned. if a value is returned by the function. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. It is processor (hardware) enforced. and finally. Bytes and words (8. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. If a parameter is a byte. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. or Assembler. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch. Table1 5. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. a colon with the returned value. dMsg1. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers.3 . The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS .Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. Max means Maximum. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. be returned.3. The dError. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. The function name is followed by the parameters.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. grouped by type. pdDataRet . or should be.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. dMsg1. dcbFileName . the most common returned value shown. and Min means Minimum. Each compound set of prefixes .and optionally suffixes .Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. Pascal. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. dcbDataRetMax .a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned.

pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. pStack.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbAliasBytes. dcbFileName. fDebug. dData0. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. dStatusMax. dBytes) MMURTL V1. dOpNum. pDestination. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. ppMemRet. dRespExch. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. dESP. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. wSvcCode. pS2. pDCBs. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. pS2. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. pRqHndlRet. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. cBytes. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. pData1. pInitData. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. dExch. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. dData1. dJobNum. dLBA. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. nDevices. pData2. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. cbData2. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. npSend. pDestination. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dPriority. cbData1. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl.Request( pSvcName. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. dnBlocks. LinAdd. wCodeSeg. dcbFileName. dcbMem. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. dPriority. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dfDebug. pPathRet. pStatRet. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource.

dCrntLen. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. Speaker.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . pbCharRet. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. dTextOut. nChars. ddLine. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. fdRead. nLines. pdLenRet. dPort) OutWords(dPort. dPort) OutWord(Word. nCols. pDataOut.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dLine. pDataIn. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dLine.dPort) OutDWord(DWord.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. dULline. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. nChars. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. pbChars. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dMaxLen. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. pbExitChar. dChannel. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. sdMem.

Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. but can be used by experienced systems programmers.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. Parameters: AX . the parameters are not stack based.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI .Returns an error. and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. EAX Returns Error. This must be zero (0) for task gates. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . and interrupts. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use.0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . or 0 if all went well.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . the parameters are not stack-based. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). They are passed in registers. Unlike most other operating system calls. exceptions. Parameters: AX . dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. They are passed in registers. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. exception gates and interrupt gates.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . Unlike most other operating system calls.

and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. dcbMem. the more precise the timing. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. If you do. This would be for the time-out function described above. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use.Job number from the other application. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. ppRet . Parameters: dnTicks . then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. dJobNum . Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. except it can be used asynchronously. The message that is sent is two dwords.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use).). Each application has its own linear address space. MMURTL V1.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications.Dword (4 BYTES). This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. Parameters: nPages .A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. This means you can set an alarm. dJobNum.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. even though it's very close. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. ppMemRet. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. and don't get placed in a waiting condition. The overhead included in entry. dcbMem . except you provide the exchange. In fact. WaitMsg. etc.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. The larger dnTicks is. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. Parameters: pMem . It will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. ppAliasRet . Alarm() can be used for a number of things. do some other processing.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. pdPhyMemRet .

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. Parameters: dn15us . and you call this often enough. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. dcbFileName . Parameters: dIRQnum . Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values.Parameters: dAlarmExch .pointer to the filename to run. stack. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.length of the run filename. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. Interrupts are not disabled. Virtual Video. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. so the time could be much longer. although longer periods will work. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. and the memory required to run code. initial Task State Segment. and data pages. Page Descriptor. pdJobNumRet . MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. dcbFileName. MMURTL V1.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. precise. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. Parameters: pFilename . The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds.

handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch . DPort . ESP . Parameters: dRqBlkHndl .exchange where the Request is to be sent. DPort . dPriority. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. OutWord OutWord(Word. No error is returned. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address.The address of the port. The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. dExch. dfDebug. dCodeSeg.Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . it is made to run.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. Exch . Parameters: Byte .The dword value to write to the port. dESP.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS).0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS . then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution.Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. OS=8 or User=18 Priority . dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function.Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. Paramters: Dword .The address of the port. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . Parameters: JobNum . Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function.Which code segment. Parameters: MMURTL V1.The byte value to write to the port.Exchange for TSS.

This is the number of Words * 2.The word value to write to the port.line (0-24) pbChars . pbChars. or virtual screen. Parameters: DPort .number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values.The address of the port. “Application Programming. dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. if not displayed. dLine. nChars.color/attribute to use during display.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen.column to start on (0-79) dLine . OutWords OutWords(dPort. dnChars. dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort.” describes all of the attribute values. dAttr . pDataOut.Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to.pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . MMURTL V1. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS . It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.Word .The count of bytes to write to the port address.line (0-24) dnChars . DBytes . You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2). Parameters: dCol . Each page of memory is 4096 byte. PdataOut .a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned. DPort . Parameters: pdnPagesRet .The address of the port. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol.column to start on (0-79) dLine . QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. Parameters: dCol . dLine. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.number of characters pbChars is pointing to.

The string must be left justified. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. dData1. If no key was available.a pointer to an 8-byte string. Request Request( pSvcName.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. If fWait is false (0). Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. pData1. if forwarded across a network. cbData1. dRespExch. dData0. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. pData2.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . fWait . and padded with spaces (20h). See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. npSend. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. pRqHndlRet. If fWait is true (non-zero). or on what machine the request is being serviced. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. Parameters: pSvcName .ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. This call blocks your task until completion. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. wSvcCode. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName.the exchange to be associated with the service name. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . cbData2. Parameters: BAddress .If true (non-zero).A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. Service names are case sensitive.

the size of the data being sent to the service.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. dData2 . then npSend would be 2. is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). 1 and 2. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. dMsgLo. of the message sent back to the requester of the service. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. Parameters: pSvcName . the value returned from the Request() call itself.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you.dData0. Parameters: dRqHndl . This may be data sent to the service. wSvcCode . It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. MMURTL V1. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. are sending data to the service. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. With all kernel primitives. npSend .same as pData1. or received from the service.This is the operating system Request primitive. dData1. cbData2 . Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. dData0. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. dError. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. The use of dData0. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. cbData1 .a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. Zero will be returned if all was well.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. Function Codes 0. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. service name. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. pRqHndlRet .The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. See Respond(). This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. This error is not the error returned by the service. Always assume it will be network-routed. With all kernel primitives. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. For example. dRespExch . Respond Respond(dRqHndl.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. 65534 (0FFFEh). dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it.a number (0. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. dStatRet . pData2 . Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. dError. space padded. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. pData1 . The service must be registered with the operating system. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally.

SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. msg[1]. dMsgLo . and it is moved to the Ready queue.The length of the command line string to store. the message is associated. If it were a Response from a service. it will be into an array of dwords.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. Parameters: dExch . and is not enforced by the operating system.dULline.The count of lines to be scrolled.a polite term for crashed. DfUp .0.Points to an array of bytes. The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi.80. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line.The number of columns to be scrolled. and the bottom line would be blanked.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. dcbCmdLine .dnLines. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. the new command line string.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. MMURTL V1. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . Parameters: pCmdLine . dMsgHi . If there was a task waiting at that exchange. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address.dnCols. msg[0]. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. and while Chaining to another application. This call stores the command line in the JCB.1).The upper dword of the message. Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. dMsgHi. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. DnLines .The lower dword of the message. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. linked with that task. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . Parameters: DULCol . In this case the top line is lost.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs. which is the first dword pushed. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter.25. This is an agreed-upon convention. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system.

If installed.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. MMURTL V1. Built-in device drivers assume these values. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs).The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. pVector .0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. After the interrupt vector is set. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. When a job exits.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . dcbExitJob . pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. and its ExitJob is zero length. which will happen most often. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. Table 15. Parameters: pExitJob . This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. This is typically used by a command line interpreter.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. Initially. The filename must not longer than 79 characters. Table 15. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. Parameters: dIRQnum .4 .A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur.

SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. Typically. and background colors may be changed by an application.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter.This is the new priority (0-31). Parameters: pPath . The maximum length is 13 bytes. MMURTL V1.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . If no job name is set by the application. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. will clear the job name from the JCB. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. SetPath SetPath(pPath. then call ClrScr(). Parameters: bPriority . Longer values will be truncated. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. A zero length. Parameters: pJobName . and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This is a maximum of 13 characters. the color of the characters themselves. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. dcbJobName .This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. Refer to the file System documentation). If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. dcbPath . dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . a text string. The path is 79 characters maximum. The default foreground color.

if none is set. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application.is the length of the string to store. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. The default name. dcbFileName .SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName.The job number for new owner of the active screen. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut().points to a text string. Only ASCII data is returned from this call. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes(). dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. Parameters: pUsername . The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. If the SysOut name is VID. is VID. if none is set by the application. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. and Chaining to another application. WriteBytes(). dcbFileName . dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. which is the user's name. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. If the SysIn name is set to KDB. The default name. is KBD.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. dcbUsername .0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is the one to be displayed. Parameters: pFileName . dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. Parameters: pFileName . Parameters: DJobNum . this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name.

otherwise. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. This applies to the virtual screen.The new horizontal cursor position column. Parameters: pEntry . and may cause applications to appear sluggish.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. DNewY . lower numbers. Parameters: dnTicks . 1 is accepted. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. The timer interrupt sends the message. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. dPriority. Application programs should use priority 25. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms.The new vertical cursor position row. fDebug. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. dPriority . This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry.This is a number from 0 to 31. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. Parameters: DNewX . Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. it is made to run. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. fOSCode . Tone Tone(dHz. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. and clears the block when it reaches zero. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . Certain system services are higher priority. or make it sleep. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. such as the file system and keyboard. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. If your task is a high enough priority. or the real video screen if currently assigned.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. should use priorities above 25. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. but testing will be required to ensure harmony.This is a pointer to the function. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. pStack. fDebug .

If this line is below the bottom of the screen.The cursor will be moved one column to the left. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return .A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. no characters are changed. If already at column 0. Service names are case sensitive. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . A value of 100 is one second. The backspace is non-destructive. dTicks10ms . The string must left justified.The number of characters of text. The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. if the cursor is in the last column of a line. They will receive an error. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. Parameters: PTextOut . UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. Parameters: dHz .A near Pointer to the text.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. 08 backspace . Parameters: pSvcName . DAttrib .The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line.The attribute or color you want.A pointer to an 8-byte string. Backspace will have no effect. For character placement.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. next active character placement. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line. will be moved down one line. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. DTextOut . from 30 to 10000. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). Examples: "KEYBOARD" . Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. Parameters: dIRQnum . and padded with spaces (20h).The cursor. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . dTextOut. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone.

If no message is available.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer. You've got to send mail to get mail.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. you would have had to make the request in the first place. an array of two dwords. the task will be placed on the exchange specified.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . so this would be obvious to you. At that time. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. Of course. MMURTL V1. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. dExch . less than 8000000h.A pointer to where the message will be returned.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. Parameters: DError .

One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter.Directory listing Debug . use.Chapter 16. and your current path. “What's On the CD-ROM. However.Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its.Set file access path (New path e. is described in the following sections. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. It provides information such as date.Clear Screen Copy . This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line.Display list of internal commands Monitor . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. The top line is the status line.Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help . most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. it does work and it's useful in its own right.RUN files).Make Directory Path .Enter Debugger Del .0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. To see what has been included on the CDROM. see Appendix A.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . but it's a good start. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL.Remove directory Rename . The internal commands are: Cls . MMURTL V1. time. job number for this CLI. It has been expanded. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute .Delete a file Dump .Rename a file (Current name New name) Run . D:\DIR\) RD .” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt.Hex dump of a file Exit . MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter.Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD . Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me).g. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL.Copy a file Dir . CLI version.

>Copy THISFILE. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. If the character is not ASCII text. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. or the same name in a different directory. MMURTL V1.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. If a file exists with the same name.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. “The Debugger. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. a period is displayed instead. Both names must be specified. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it.TXT THATFILE.

The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. listing. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. In other words.). Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. the tree will only be extend one level. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. and .. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. This CLI will still be executing. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen.) MMURTL V1. etc. The path must end with the Backslash. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. Unlike a single tasking operating system.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. renaming. or external command that is executed for this CLI. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). In MMURTL. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. With any file-system operation (opening. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS .

The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number). The contents of the file COMMANDS. The File COMMANDS.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.End of Command.CLI File The file COMMANDS.CLI follows: . There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).RUN). Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file. The first item on the line is the command name.run New.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit.run .Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. MMURTL V1.TXT Run (Execute a .CLI Commands.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. pausing after each page. The file must not be open by any other job. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below. An example of COMMANDS. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix .0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk. It is a simple text file with one command per line.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.

h> #include <string.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. CLI Source Code Listing .Ver. CTRL-ALT-DELETE . You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSOURCE\MData.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. Listing 16.CLI file.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.CLI. but other application might.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.Terminates the currently displayed job. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .1.h> #include <ctype. 1.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.0 of the Command Line Interpreter. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. In this case.

0 { 0 external */ 1 . hlppath[60]. char fUpdatePath. /* "Del". /* "Path". /* MMURTL V1. /* "xxxxx". char text[70].not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* "RD". /* "MD". clipath[60]. /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. /* "Debug". /* "Dump". unsigned long GPHndl. char ExitChar. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. /* "Copy". unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* "Exit". char char char char sdisk. date. cmdpath[60]. /* "Monitor". syspath[50]. char aCmd[80]. long cbPath.#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time.0 Job Path: ". iLine. long cbCmd = 0. unsigned long GPExch. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* "Cls". /* "Help". /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. /* "Ren". /* "Dir". unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. long JobNum.

U16 Time. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . It updates the status line which has the time and path.) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. U16 Date.. }. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. U32 FileSize. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. } dirent[16]. long acbParam[13]. U8 Ext[3]. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. U16 StartClstr. "Type"."Run". U8 Rsvd[10]. char *apParam[13]. U8 Attr.

(time & 0x0f). break. 0). break. case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". 0x0f). case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". PutVidChars(0. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). } GetCMOSDate(&date). break. switch (erc) { case 0: return. case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". break. case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". FillData(st. break. case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". case 4: pSt = "User cancelled".0. MMURTL V1. case 201: pSt = "No such drive". STATVID). aStatLine. /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. break. 40. break. ' '). break. fUpdatePath = 0. break. Sleep(100). /* Day */ 0x0f). break. break. char st[40]. + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). break. cbPath). /* year */ 0x0f). 0x0f). ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). break. break. break. case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". FillData(&aStatLine[47]. case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". break.cbPath = 30. 30. 80. case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". case 1: pSt = "End of file". /* month */ 0x0f). case 208: pSt = "File in use". case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). &aStatLine[47]. break. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist".0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . CopyData(aPath.

if (fNew) { iCol = 0. } SetXY(iCol. GetXY(&iCol. pSt). unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. aStatLine. iLine). pSt = st.default: sprintf(st. &iLine). erc). ClrScr(). If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. long cb. erc = 0. } printf("%s\r\n". #asm INT 03 #endasm return. unsigned char buff[17]. iLine = 2. STATVID). return. addr). KeyCode. while (cb) { printf("%08x ". 80. j. i.0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. &iLine). } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger).0. PutVidChars(0. } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. "Error %05d on last command". fNew is used to determine is we do or not. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). GetXY(&iCol. break.

k. } buff[i+1] = 0. MMURTL V1. buff[i] = *pb++. } InitScreen(TRUE). SetXY(0. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. 1. if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E.23.if (cb > 15) j=16.1). else j = cb.. printf("ESC to cancel. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. } return erc. erc = ReadBytes (fh. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. 1). acbParam[1]. if (!erc) { j=0. 512. i<j. addr+=j. erc.23).23). for (i=0. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. printf("%s\r\n". *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. &dret).. &fh)."). &buff[0]). iLine =1. any other key to continue. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. ModeRead. This expects to find the filename in param[1].*pb).0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . 512. 0). SetXY(0.1.80. i++) { printf("%02x ". else cb=0. &k). /* ReadKbd.1). } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. erc = 0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. fh. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. dret. Buffer. ++iLine. l.

dret. erc = 0.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . 78. dret = 1. } SetXY(0. iLine. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. SetXY(0.23). j). dret. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. i.80. j. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. lfa+i). } for (j=0. NORMVID). fh. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. else l=k-j. erc. } CloseFile (fh). MMURTL V1. cbName.23. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. j+=512. &dret).iLine). lfa. Buffer. 0. return erc. 512. i = 1.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. } erc = OpenFile(pName.1.1). j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. KeyCode. &fh). j<=i. SetFileLFA(fh. long cbName) { long i. Buffer. 0). 1. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). erc = ReadBytes (fh. iLine++. &lfa).

bytesGot. da = date & 0x001F. iLine =1. if (yr > 99) yr -=100. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n". CopyData(st. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4)..mo. bytesLeft.hr.mi. This is used by the directory listing. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time. } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.mo. char *pTimeRet.da. char *pTo. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11..0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . printf("ESC to cancel. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. /* ReadKbd. Use block mode for speed. bytesWant. 1).1900. SetXY(0. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. "%02d:%02d:%02d". erc. CopyData(st. MMURTL V1.yr). pDateRet. pTimeRet. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . sprintf(st. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. erc). U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. InitScreen(TRUE). } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). "%02d-%02d-%02d".if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. any other key to continue. U32 cbFrom. 8).se. sprintf(st."). char st[15]. This uses a conservative 4K buffer.hr.se). CloseFile (fh). fhFrom. return erc. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. U16 date.23). mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. 8).1). } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.mi.da.

size). if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. &fhTo). 1). } return(erc). if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut.bytesOut. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. dLFA = 0. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. KeyCode. bytesWant. 0). /* ReadKbd. &bytesOut). cbFrom. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. } MMURTL V1. ModeModify. dLFA. cbTo. if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. bigBuf. 0.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. dLFA. &size). size. ModeRead. bytesLeft = size. else bytesWant = bytesLeft. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). &fhFrom). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. dLFA. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. cbTo. bigBuf. bytesGot. erc = OpenFile(pFrom. bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. &bytesGot). } dLFA += bytesGot. } CloseFile(fhTo).

. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. KeyCode.Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st. char st[78]. SectNum = 0. SetXY(0.23).Ext./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. any other key to continue.23.Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]. 512. SectNum).23). dirent[i]. iLine =1. &st[24]).1). i<16. dirent[i]. iLine++. erc. i++) { if (!dirent[i].Date. } InitScreen(TRUE). acbParam[1]. &dirent[0]. } } } MMURTL V1.Name. &st[33]. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. fDone = TRUE.StartClstr). } fDone = 0.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS .1). dirent[i]. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. SetXY(0. if (!erc) { for (i=0.. dirent[i]. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. } if ((dirent[i]. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". printf("%s".1. /* ReadKbd. printf("ESC to cancel. 1). while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1].80. U32 SectNum. st)."). i.Attr. fDone = 1.FileSize. dirent[i].Name[0]) { erc = 1. dirent[i].Time.

k. iPrm. iCmd++. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. SectNum++. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. /* ptr to param */ i = 1.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . *f. } return(erc). /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. for (iPrm=0.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. cmdline[90]. j. rawline[90].CLI is: name fullspec param param param. If it finds it. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user..} else fDone = TRUE. iPrm<nParamsMax. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0.. i. fdone. MMURTL V1. The format for a line entry in Commands. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++].

cmdline[0] = 0. cmdline[j] = 0. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1.\r\n"). cmdline). f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. f = fopen(cmdpath.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). /* Index into rawline */ j = 0.CLI not found. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. rawline. 89. /* now move arguments if any. /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. return(1). return(0). "r"). if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline.') /* a comment line */ continue. if (f) { fdone = 0. acbParam[0]). } } else printf("Commands. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. runfile[k] = 0. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++].

we first look for a . SetCmdLine(aCmd. ModeRead.RUN file in the current path. &fh). erc = OpenFile(runfile. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). strcat(runfile.CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there.When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. we then go to COMMANDS. 1. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). cbCmd). 0). 1. acbParam[0]). } MMURTL V1. SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(runfile). ModeRead. strlen(clipath)).0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . strlen(clipath)). &fh). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. SetCmdLine(aCmd. SetExitJob(clipath. SetCmdLine(aCmd. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). syspath). CopyData(apParam[0]. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. erc = Chain(runfile. erc = Chain(runfile. we go to the system directory. &fh). fh. runfile. erc = OpenFile(runfile. long i. acbParam[0]). cbCmd). strlen(clipath)).RUN"). ModeRead. runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. SetExitJob(clipath. cbCmd).RUN"). ". strlen(runfile). erc. erc = Chain(runfile. &runfile[i]. /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. 0). If so. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. If we don't find one. 1. strlen(runfile). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). if it's not there. strlen(runfile). ". i = strlen(runfile). } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. 0).

CLI"). &cbPath). &StatStack[255]. syspath[1] = ':'. "%02d". */ cbPath = 0."HELP. Note: No params to CLI. strcat(clipath. strcpy(cmdpath. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. } else { strcpy (aPath. and help file./********************************************** Main function entry point.0". 8). /* 0=A. SetJobName("CLI V1. command file.CLI"). 0). SetXY(0. fh. strcat(syspath. if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol."COMMANDS. MMURTL V1. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli.RUN"). sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. 2=C etc.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . 24. GetPath(JobNum. sdisk += 0x41. "\\MMSYS\\"). strcat(cmdpath. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). syspath)."CLI. strcpy(clipath. &iLine). strcpy(hlppath. JobNum). InitScreen(FALSE). i. erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). syspath). iLine). 1=B. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). syspath). SpawnTask(&StatTask. j. strcat(hlppath. 0. syspath[2] = 0. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. GetJobNum(&JobNum). aPath. sdisk &= 0x7F. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. syspath).

if (!erc) MMURTL V1. } fUpdatePath = 1. 79. 1. SetXY(0. break. aCmd[79] = 0. cbCmd = 0. SetExitJob(clipath. if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. EDVID). break. if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). iLine). break. InitScreen(TRUE). acbParam[1]. paCmds[i]. 2.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . apParam[0] = 0. ' '). CmdNum = 0. &cbCmd. &fh). NORMVID). cbCmd. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). TTYOut (">". switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. break. } erc = 0. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. acbParam[0] = 0. case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE).cbPath = strlen(syspath). } i++. &iLine). strlen(clipath)). strlen(syspath)). GetXY(&iCol. 0. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. NORMVID). 1. apParam[2]. &ExitChar. TTYOut ("\r\n". else erc = ErcBadParams. acbParam[2]). EditLine(aCmd. acbParam[1]. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. SetPath(syspath. 79.

MMURTL V1. break. break. break. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. ExitJob(0). acbParam[1]). break.\r\n"). case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). if (!erc) printf("Done. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. cbCmd-i). acbParam[1]). if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. break. break. break. SetVidOwner(1). case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. } break. case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. 0). acbParam[2]). 0. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. 0. 0.erc = DeleteFile(fh). &GPHndl. apParam[2]. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). 0). aPath. 0). 0. else erc = ErcBadParams. acbParam[1]). break. strlen(hlppath)).0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. acbParam[1]. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. 4. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. break. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. 0. GPMsg). fUpdatePath = 1. default: break. break. strlen(clipath)). acbParam[1]). &cbPath). SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. GPExch. acbParam[1]. break. 1. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". SetExitJob(clipath. break.

File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. The last line is used for data entry. SetXY(0. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. The next 23 lines are the text editing area. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. Table 16.} CheckErc(erc). current filename.23.1. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM.23). The top line provides continuous status information.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . } GetXY(&iCol. What's On the CD-ROM. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line). } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor.1).80. status and error display. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections. &iLine). See Appendix A. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands.1.2. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb.

Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service. Listing 16.h> #include <ctype.4 .2.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.h> #include <string.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.2 is the editor source code.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" MMURTL V1. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16. Editor Source Code /* Edit.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio. Listing 16.

U8 fVisible. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. char fModified.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. 0. struct EditRecType *pEdit. char aStat1[80]. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. }. char *apParam[13]. U32 iTabNorm. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. /* cursor. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. char *pBuf1. b1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. U8 *pBufWork. char fOvertype..0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . char aStat[80].h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. U32 iAttrMark. U32 sLine. U8 bSpace. 0. U32 iAttrNorm. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13].sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. unsigned char filler[100]. U32 oBufBound. /* sBuf .. *pBuf2. fh.1 */ U32 iColMin.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. U32 iRowMax. long cbFilename. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. void clearbuf(void). U32 iColMax. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. long erc. struct EditRecType EdRec. char aCmd[80]. unsigned char b. /* cursor. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin.

case 5: sprintf(st. if (erc) { FillData(st. 24. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. long i. 80. "Error break. st. %05d occured on ReadKbd". If fClose.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . i<40. "Error break. PutVidChars (40. this will prompt you to save. %05d occured on SetFileSize". FillData(st. erc). long erc) { char st[40]. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. case 2: sprintf(st. case 7: sprintf(st. If fPrompt is true. i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. erc). erc). %05d occured on WriteBytes". "Error break.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. erc). erc). *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. "Error break. erc). 0). case 6: sprintf(st. } for (i=0. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". st. } return (erc). Beep(). %05d occured on ReadBytes". default: sprintf(st. "Error break. STATVID). erc). 0). "Error break. "Error break. %05d occured on OpenFile". 40. 24. case 3: sprintf(st. case 4: sprintf(st. "Error break. PutVidChars (0. %05d occured on last command". 39. NORMVID). } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. 80. %05d occured on CreateFile". erc).

10. SetFileSize(fh. fModified = 0. STATVID). if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. int fClose) { U32 i. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. cbFilename = 0. unsigned char *pBuff. } fYes = 1. i <=pEdit->iBufMax.. ". fh = 0. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. pBuf1. BLACK|BGCYAN). keycode. "DONE. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. TTYOut("This file has been modified.0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . 24). SetXY(0. 43. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh).and the buffer will be closed. 1). pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->oBufLast)). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. Sleep(150). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. ClearStatus(). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. 0)). clearbuf(). **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. SetFileLFA(fh. &i)). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". ClearStatus(). PutVidChars (0. fYes. WriteBytes (fh.. 24. ReadKbd(&keycode. } } MMURTL V1. ClearStatus().

If not. ReadKbd(&keycode. ReadKbd(&keycode. 24). if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. 10. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. 29. TTYOut("File is too large to edit. Beep(). OpenFile(Filename. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. EditLine(Filename. filesize. SetXY(50. strncpy(Filename.24). BLACK|BGCYAN).24). /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). SetXY(0. TTYOut("Doesn't exist. it will prompts to create. 60.24.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbFilename = strlen(Filename). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. MMURTL V1. pBuf1. } else { b1=0x0d. name. if (!name) { SetXY(0.0). &cbFilename. 1). 24). 1. PutVidChars (0. else erc = 0. &fh)). keycode. erc).". fh = 0. CreateFile(Filename. &dret). BLACK|BGWHITE). ModeModify. ModeModify. &fh). BLACK|BGCYAN). **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. cbFilename = 0. "Filename: ". 0. cbFilename. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). SetXY(50. &filesize). &b1. SetXY(10. 13)./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. 26. pEdit->oBufLast = dret. BLACK|BGCYAN). dret. erc = 0. 1). Create?? (Y/N)". cbFilename. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 0)). cbFilename. 1.

iEolMax. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. nEols = 0. } } else { cbFilename = 0. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i.if (erc) { fh = 0. even though we word wrap always. ClearStatus(). cbFilename = 0. *pBuff. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. } } else CheckErc(1. i = 0. erc). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char *pBuff. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. return(nEols).

i = 0.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. char *pBuff. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . /* now find first non-space .1. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. iEol = iBuf. j.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. */ iEol = iEolMax.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line.. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i. } } return(iEol). if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR.

if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.pEdit->Line[iLn].iColStart +1. return(j). /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. iBoundLoc. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound.pEdit->Line[iLn]. iMarkLoc. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . i = (findEol (j)) + 1. iLn.iColFinish.1. iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. iColFinish. pEdit->iAttrMark).pEdit->Line[iLn] . pEdit->iColMax . pEdit->iAttrNorm). pEdit->iAttrNorm). } while (i < oBufStart). iLn. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin.0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . iColFinish . iLn. PutVidAttrs (iColStart. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. MMURTL V1.i--. if (i) i++.

pEdit->iAttrNorm). pEdit->pBufWork. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. } } } else { fOK = 0. pEdit->oBufInsert++. fModified = 1. pEdit->sLine. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. pEdit->oBufInsert++. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. char fOvertype. Beep(). } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . char fOK. pEdit->oBufLast++.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS .pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. erc = 40400. *pBuff. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. cb). if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. } return (fOK). CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].iLn. cb).

i<=iMk .0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS .pEdit->oBufInsert .iBd + iMk . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. *pBuffWork.1. for (i=0. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. char *pBuff. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. } } } else Beep(). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. iBd. for (i=0. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i].1. i<=iBd-iMk. i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i].1. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. iMk. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk. MMURTL V1. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert.iMk. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. iBd. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. i <=iBd-iMk. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.iBd .void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufInsert . i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i].

if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk.iMk. pEdit->oBufLast+1). if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. pEdit->sLine. } } } else Beep(). pEdit->oBufMark = iMk.char *pBuff. *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i. pBuffWork. } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block.iMk + 1. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->iAttrNorm). MMURTL V1. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. (hides it). pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . *pBuffWork. iBd-iMk+1). i <= pEdit->iRowMax. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . pEdit->oBufLast .pEdit->oBufInsert+1). pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.iMk + 1. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert].

} } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling).if it is. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block.1. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS .might be off screen . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.iBd + iMk . &pBuff[iMk]. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. } nullMarkBound (). CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). i = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. iBd. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk.iBd + iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. char *pBuff. else fProb = FALSE.normAttr (). *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . char fProb. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. j. *pBuffWork. iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert .

if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. i = pEdit->iLine. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. j = pEdit->iLine. } i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf.i++. i. pEdit->iLine = i .is. /* if bogus line. /* get to potential insert .1. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . if prev char <> CR.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. j = pEdit->iLine. } } MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1.pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol .

pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. k. iLn. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. oBuf. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. k = pEdit->iRowMax. else for (j=i+1. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. j. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. cb. MMURTL V1. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). */ for (i = k. j<NLINESMAX. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. i<=k.

pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. FillData(filler.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. doMark (iLn). 80. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. cb. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. Called before use and after closure.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . i = pEdit->iRowMin. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. /* oBufInsert on screen . oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. cb = i . pFiller. /* Make size. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.oBuf + 1. iLn. iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. MMURTL V1. i<NLINESMAX. pBuff+oBuf. makeOnScreen (). if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. 0x20).1. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . for (i=0. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. iLn. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE.char *pBuff. pEdit->sLine-cb. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. char *pBuff.

pEdit->oBufLast). /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. key. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace.0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char b. long exch. erc = AllocExch(&exch). pEdit->iLine). i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. 80. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. pEdit->iCol. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. char *pBuff. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. nullMarkBound(). *pBuffWork.fModified = 0. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. normAttr (). normAttr (). fScreen = TRUE. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. 0x20). fDone = FALSE. k. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). sprintf(aStat. for (i=0. char fSpecInsert. pEdit->oBufLast = 0. j. fScreen = FALSE. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. fOvertype = FALSE. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. FillData(aStat. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d".

/* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7.CopyData(Filename. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. b = key & 0xff. 80. 3). fScreen = TRUE. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. STATVID).Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE. break. 1)). break. break.CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow .Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. PutVidChars (0. cbFilename). break. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . coordCursor_oBuf (). TRUE). case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . fSpecInsert = FALSE. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. &aStat[77].Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. &aStat[77]. 0. break.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. 3). &aStat[40].End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. aStat. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". fScreen = TRUE. coordCursor_oBuf (). ReadKbd (&key. else CopyData("INS". break. i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.

case 0x51: /* ALT Q . fDone = TRUE. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). pEdit->bSpace = 0x20.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. break. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. case 0x53: /* ALT S . TRUE). i <= pEdit->oBufLast. } fScreen = TRUE. FALSE). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. fScreen = TRUE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. break. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . fScreen = TRUE. } break. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). pEdit->bSpace = 0x07.pEdit->Line[i]. break. } break. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. break. i = pEdit->iLine+1. i<=pEdit->oBufLast.SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. OpenAFile(0).pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. default: break. } else { for (i=0.

else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. break. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert).} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. findCursor (). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. fScreen = TRUE. default: break. fOvertype. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. if (!(putInBuf (b. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . break.1.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. MMURTL V1.1. fSpecInsert))) Beep(). pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. pEdit->oBufLast+1). if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A.0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuffWork.

if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast .UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). i = pEdit->iLine. FALSE. } break. if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. for (i=1.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. break. } break.1. MMURTL V1. fModified = TRUE. } break. moveData (). j = pEdit->iTabNorm . fScreen = TRUE.1.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x12: /* F4 -. i <=j. break. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast . case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf ().Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark.1. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. case 0x17: /* F9 . if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. } break.(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm).MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. case 0x06: /* Home . } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0).0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. case 0x11: /* F3 -. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . case 0x10: /* F2 -. fScreen = TRUE. FALSE).

pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. fScreen = TRUE.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. break. break. k--. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. j--. coordCursor_oBuf (). /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. } break. } } break. k = pEdit->iLine. case 0x18: /* F10 .COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--.pEdit->iRowMin.break. CopyIt (). case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). i = pEdit->oBufLine0. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). i = pEdit->iRowMax. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. j = pEdit->iRowMax . } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). fScreen = TRUE.

} break. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). pEdit->iLine = j.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . } fScreen = TRUE. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. } break. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. fScreen = TRUE. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0.pEdit->iLine++. fModified = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLast--. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->iCol = i. } break. } } break. coordCursor_oBuf (). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufLast+1). pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). break. j = pEdit->iLine. else fOvertype = TRUE. i = pEdit->iCol. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. default: MMURTL V1. pBuffWork.

1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbFilename = 0. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). fModified = 0. FALSE. 0)). i. pEdit = &EdRec. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. } CloseFile(fh). pBuf2. &i)). 131071. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. &pBuf2). 0x20. 23. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. pEdit->sLine+1. 80. fh = 0. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. erc = AllocPage(32. erc = AllocPage(32. SetJobName("Editor". WriteBytes (fh. ClrScr(). 6). U8 *argv[]) { long i.pEdit->oBufLast)). 0. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor.break. SetFileLFA(fh. &pBuf1). pEdit->oBufLast.0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. pBuf1. return. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. /*sBuf . 1. 0). and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. 79. i <=pEdit->iRowMax. } *pbExitRet = b. SetFileSize(fh. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6.

4.. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key. EDVID.sLine-1 */ cursor. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver. 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. 0. ExitJob(0).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob. i = pEdit->iRowMin.. } Editor(&b).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. 0. fOvertype = FALSE. 0.h> #include <string.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID).3. EMPTY. 0x20). struct statRecC com. i<NLINESMAX. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. for (i=0. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]). fModified = 0. 0. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. 80. 0. EMPTY.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv. i. MMURTL V1. Listing 16.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler.h> #include <ctype.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS .

printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". %d\r\n". } /* If device init went OK. com. &i). 64). 64. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. %d\r\n". %d\r\n". erc). dOpNum. %d\r\n". if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). NO_PAR. com. we open the comms port */ /* device. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n").unsigned char b. com.parity = com. ExitJob(erc). &i). lastb.RBufSize). /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. %d\r\n". &com. but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. ExitJob(erc). com. 0.0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". = 8. char fOK. dLBA.Baudrate com.IRQNum). = 1.XTimeOut). com. The structure is defined in commdrv. CmdOpenC. */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". if (erc) { MMURTL V1. erc). dnBlocks. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. &com.stopbits = 9600.IOBase).h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. com.RTimeOut). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0. ClrScr(). SetNormVid(NORMVID). ClrScr().XBufSize). } /* set the params in the block */ com. /* View other params which we could set.databits com. ClrScr().

dnBlocks. lastb = b. 1. } } else { /* device... SetNormVid(CLIVID). 0. &b). NORMVID). 1.SetNormVid(CLIVID). default: break. &i). ExitJob(erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". } } } } /* device. CmdWriteB. CmdReadB. ClrScr(). dnBlocks.\r\n"). dnBlocks. dLBA. erc). 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. /* This is it. erc = DeviceOp(6. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". 0. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. break. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. &b).0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . dOpNum. else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. dOpNum. dOpNum.. 0. CmdWriteB. 0. NORMVID). } printf("Communications Port Initialized. */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. erc). 0. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. &b). 0. dLBA.. ClrScr(). dLBA. fOK = 1. ExitJob(erc). } } } MMURTL V1. 0. 0. CmdCloseC.

h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv. struct statRecL lpt.4 or 8) \D . The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device.4. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. char name[80]. fDisplay = 0.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key.h> <stdlib. fBinary = 0. long long long long long tabstops = 4. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1.2. NoFF = 0.h" "\OSSource\Parallel. In listing 16.4. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device. That's the intention of the design. FILE *f. (Compare DumbTerm and this program).Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver.h" "\OSSource\MKbd.h" "\OSSource\MTimer.h> <stdio.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B . Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.h" "\OSSource\MJob. col = 0.h> <ctype. Send with no translations. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n .h" "\OSSource\MVid.h> <string. Listing 16.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS .Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1.Display the file while printing \F . The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.Binary print.

printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). name[0] = 0. 79). printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. exit(1).0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS .Tab stop translation value\r\n"). erck. argv[i]. no FF\r\n\n"). case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1.0\r\n"). printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). default: printf("Invalid switch"). i. case 'B' : /* BINARY . unsigned char b. case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. cl. ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). Version 1. for(i=1. break. printf("/B Binary print. break. break. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). 8).0x30. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr .No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. NO translation. break. } MMURTL V1. } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. i < argc. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. lastb.void main(long argc. char fdone. exit(1). *ptr. break. SetJobName("Printing".

-236- RICHARD A BURGESS .0 1. 0../* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. dLBA. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". 0. b = (cl & 0xff). dnBlocks. if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". &i). if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". &lpt. */ erc = DeviceStat(3. we open the printer port */ /* device. cl = fgetc(f). b = 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3.. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3.. name). name). } /* If device status went OK. "r"). dOpNum. &i). ExitJob(erc). 0. ExitJob(erc).. } else { MMURTL V1. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. } printf("Printing %s . 0. fdone = 0.h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. } col = 0. */ f = fopen(name. dLBA. CmdCloseLU. lastb = b.\r\n". dOpNum. &lastb). /* This is it. CmdWriteB. dnBlocks. &i). The structure is defined in parallel. i = 0. erc). 64. CmdOpenL. 0. if (!f) { /* device. ExitJob(erc).

0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. } erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. &i). } while (col % tabstops). break. 0. CmdWriteB. 1. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. CmdWriteB. erc = DeviceOp(3. 1. CmdWriteB. 0. b). &b). 0. 1. } fclose(f). erc = DeviceOp(3. erc = 4.0 1. break. dOpNum. if (erc) MMURTL V1. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". &b). if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. %d\r\n". if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. 1. "\f"). col++. } } &b). 1. /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. lastb). default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". if (fDisplay) printf(" "). " "). erc). CmdCloseL. case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. col++. col = 0. 0. dLBA. /* reset */ break. 0. dnBlocks. /* device. &lastb).switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. 0). 0.

The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. Error: %d\r\n".h> "\OSSource\MKernel. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2].RUN program to exercise the service. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. Service.h" "\OSSource\MVid. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). ExitJob(erc). and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. While this program is running. keycode. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. long *pDataRet.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. MMURTL V1. Listing 16.h" "\OSSource\MJob. “Systems Programming. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. erc).5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. run the TestSvc.” It has been expanded some. ErrorToUser. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. printf("Done\r\n").printf("Can't close LPT.

SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. 0. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD".\r\n"). /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ErcNoSuchSvc). 1. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). Message). /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". Respond(pRqBlk. 1. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. ErrorToUser). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. } pRqBlk = Message[0]. *pDataRet = NextNumber++. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel).0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. NextNumber-1). /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS ").\r\n"). 4. ClrScr(). OSError). 0. &rqHndl. printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service.if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch.\r\n". &keycode. } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode.. MainExch. 0. 0). 0. while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. } DeAllocExch(MainExch). MainExch)..

You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. 0. 0. Exch. Error = AllocExch(&Exch). Message). 0. Listing 16. Number).h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel.\r\n".6 exercises the sample system service listed previously. unsigned long Message[2]. 0. Error).} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg.\r\n". } } DeAllocExch(Exch). if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. Message[1]).\r\n".C Listing The program in listing 16. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. 4. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. Error).\r\n". Also try it when the service is not running.\r\n".h" unsigned long Number. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service. 1. TestSvc. unsigned long Exch.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS . &rqhndl. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running. rqhndl. Error). else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.0).C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. Error = Request("NUMBERS ". /* No Send ptrs */ &Number.6.0. void main(void) { unsigned long Error. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange.

and used by the processor. This file should be left in the order I have it in. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT).ASM .ASM . MPublics. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system.ASM .. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment.This is the first assembler file that contains code. MOSPDR. I just expend the time up front instead of later. In fact. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. common variables. There are also header files for the C source. The ordering for MMURTL V1. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. as you look through the code. and structures together. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM.This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. I hope I’ve met this goal. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. but it is not used by the processor. You may find some of the source files rather large.ASM . This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. This is the first file in the source. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. MAIN. All source files are located in one directory. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right.). however. Also some data is defined here. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. which means its data will be at the lowest address. MOSIDT. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth.ASM . MOSGDT. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. It helps me think. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function.This is also a table. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls.Chapter 17. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. the human becomes a compiler of sorts. use the stack just as a compiler would. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). Quite a few of them.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). In fact.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor.. By including the comments. The GDT is 6K in size. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register.

The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled. Keyboard. and the mode. RQBCode. NumCnvrt. how much to move.Request block management code is in this file.ASM .ASM . IntCode. but can be modified for four. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC. DevDrvr. Debugging a debugger is even less fun. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. TmrCode. Video. but you never know where to put.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers. It supports the 16550.are in this file. On the other hand. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. undoubtedly. even in the earliest stages of a project. but I don't have any more to test it. MemCode.C . so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file.ASM .C . Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. they must handle it themselves. It think it still works with MFM drives.ASM .ASM . This is one complicated driver.C .The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file.C . Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. FSys. JobC.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . JobCode.ASM . You have to see what you're doing.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with.C are contained in this file. HardIDE.C .ASM . It's not very pretty.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver. If you have MFM drives. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system. RS232. when a device driver writers need DMA.ASM . if needed. Device driver writers will appreciate this. Debugger. Parallel. MiscCode. This file has routines that handle DMA for you.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. but it's effective and accurate. I was surprised.This file is the debugger disassembler. UASM. It provides stream access as well as block access to files. DMACode. you're on your own. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps).The simple parallel port driver is contained here.ASM .along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() .ASM .Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here. MMURTL V1.ASM . Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work. SVCCode.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. It drives two channels.In many systems.This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. Keyboard.the remainder of the modules is not as important. someday).C .C . It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. as well as port I/O support.The code memory allocation.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .ASM was one of the first files written. You only need to know the channel. and it works rather well.ASM . is in this file. Floppy.

INCLUDE MOSIDT. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1.The monitor program is contained in this file. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces). 6K) . Indirect calling address table .INCLUDE Video.ASM .BAT) will build the entire operating system.INCLUDE MOSPDR.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions.INCLUDE Keyboard. Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table .ASM .5 minutes on a 486/33. Except. and the DASM assembler (also included).ASM .Kernel.ASM . InitCode.All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. /L on the command line after the name. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM. Main OS code and some data & START address .C . This takes about 1. Monitor. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. but it really isn't part of the operating system.Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file.5 Pages.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! .INCLUDE MAIN. DASM produces the operating system RUN file. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.ATF It's truly that simple. CM32 (no switches needed).ASM .C After all the C source files are compiled. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor.” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL.INCLUDE MOSGDT. . An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as .ASM .ASM . It provides a lot of the OS functionality. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. specify /E on the command line after the name. You could replace quite easily.0 .ASM .1.INCLUDE MPublics.ASM . This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.ASM . .0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS . Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. If you want an error file. Video code and data MMURTL V1. Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files. Listing 17. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) .Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1. Keyboard ISR and Service . a C source file and must be compiled first with . .DATA . Assembler Template File . One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).

CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding. This is because DASM doesn't support structures. The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files. .* .ASM RS232.ASM HardIDE. .INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . . you can take the file system code (FSYS.ASM DMACode.ASM NumCnvrt.INCLUDE . You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures. .ASM UASM.ASM IntCode. MMURTL V1.ASM DevDrvr.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . it is placed into the code segment in that order.* .INCLUDE . .ASM JobCode. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier).INCLUDE . . For instance.ASM InitCode. CM32 packs all structure fields completely.ASM FSys.ASM MemCode.C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort.ASM RQBCode.ASM Floppy.array.INCLUDE . .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments . If your C compiler allows it.* :* . . . no doubt. The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.code and data. The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location. Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files.ASM JOBC.ASM SVCCode.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM Monitor.ASM Parallel. use another compiler for your project. . code (string.INCLUDE . Otherwise. and they will work fine. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM. You will. As each piece of code is assembled.I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one.* .ASM TmrCode.ASM .* ..INCLUDE . .END Debugger. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies. . This is one thing you should watch.INCLUDE .* . .ASM Kernel.ASM MiscCode.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular. I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way. you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack.INCLUDE .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.INCLUDE . The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language. In fact.ASM Except.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .

INCLUDE . Listing 18.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them.INC JOB. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables.1.INC DD 0 .INC TSS.1.INCLUDE . These all change with respect to the task that is running.ASM. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small.Chapter 18. internal public functions. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. the scheduler. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. a single underscore will be prepended to the name. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations. See listing 18. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). and memory management tables. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). The actual message handling functions. two underscores will be prepended to the name.INCLUDE . These are things such as the task state segments. Being an old "structured" programmer. job control blocks. Kernel data segment source . The bulk of them are in the file Main.DATA . and kernel publics functions. I think it will make more sense to you. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. so I could get to them with the monitor program.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS .INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. local helper functions. and offsets into structures and tables. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code.INC RQB.

Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). and exchanges.2. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. INPUT : ESI..FLAGS . For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. OUTPUT : NONE .0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. pointed to by the ESI register. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. . The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. and therefore. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. It's not that the routines are called so often. Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. and if a task is waiting there. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). REGISTERS : EAX. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. In MMURTL. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. 0 .EAX . pExch => EAX.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange.ESI. This is important. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. if . See listing 18. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: .EDX. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order.EAX . This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.2. . .EAX . This is strictly a speed issue. which means interrupts must be cleared.Next <= NIL. pLBin^. Listing 18. 0 . JZ eqMsgDone .Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. is coded in-line. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. link blocks. MODIFIES : EDX . Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. When a message is sent to an exchange. XCHG ESI. OR EAX. for example.

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]..JNE eqMNotNIL . .MsgTail <= pLBin. deMsgDone: RETN .[ESI+fEMsg] .msg.MsgTail <= pLBin. De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: .EBX . MOV EBX. JZ deMsgDone .NextLB <= pLBin. Get Msg Flag OR EAX.ESI . but not both. MOV [ESI+EHead].[EAX+NextLB] .. MMURTL V1. 1 . .head and EBX ... Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . Listing 18.ESI . INPUT : ESI . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. As stated before.[ESI+EHead] . No! (return 0) MOV EAX. . This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .ESI .3. See listing 18. 1 . then MOV [EAX+EHead]. MOV EAX.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS .MsgTail^. . MOV [EAX+ETail]. deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there.MsgHead <= pLBin. pLBout <= .ESI. . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. See listing 18.3. if pLBout = NIL then Return. If not. OR EAX.4. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN . MOV [EDX+NextLB]. OUTPUT : EAX .Next. EAX . it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.[EAX+ETail] .MsgHead^.EBX. MOV [EAX+ETail]. you return NIL (0). exchanges can hold messages or tasks. EAX . deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there. You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there.FLAGS . If not. MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. If not.ESI . . REGISTERS : EAX.MsgHead. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX.MsgHead <= . Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone .ESI . If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it... . .ESI . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]..

Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. 3 .[ESI+EHead] . Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX.EBX.EBX. .5. This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue.FLAGS . 0 . . JZ eqRdyDone . .EDX. Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: . This .EDX .EBX .EBX. You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list.. OUTPUT : NONE .EAX . enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. See listing 18.ESI.[ESI+fEMsg] . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. OUTPUT : EAX . EAX . EBX JNZ deTSSDone . register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX.Next <= NIL. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1. JZ deTSSDone . MOV EBX. in EBX XCHG EAX. if pTSSout = NIL then Return.. get the priority MOV BL. .[EAX+Priority] .EBX . This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI].Next. MODIFIES : EAX. De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . deTSSDone: RETN . INPUT : ESI .EAX .EBX . pTSSout <= . . It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX. pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. REGISTERS : EAX. .[EAX+NextTSS] .4.TSSHead. Listing 18. INPUT : EAX .EBX . one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL. pTSSin^. Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI . . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers. OR EAX. MODIFIES : EAX. . Priority => EAX. XOR EBX. OR EAX. REGISTERS : EAX.FLAGS . 0 . head & tail per QUEUE).Listing 18.EDX .TSSHead^. if pTSS = NIL then return. XOR EAX. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI . The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists.TSSHead <= . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS].0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . .RdyQ .. MOV [ESI+EHead]. INC _nReady . algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority.5.

and 31 is the lowest. OUTPUT : EAX .ECX. Listing 18. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. .nPRI . IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ. .JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head]. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX.FLAGS . . INPUT : NONE .6. queued on the RdyQ.Tail <= pTSSin.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX]. . De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . . If none is found.0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . . This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task .sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list.Head <= pTSSin. . If there was no task queued. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. .Tail^. else .[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS]. . that 0 is the highest priority.[EBX] OR EAX. RETURN Otherwise. REGISTERS : EAX. . Keep in mind.. Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .NextTSS <= pTSSin. .6. this returns NIL (0). The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list..ECX deRdyDone: RETN .. . MODIFIES : RdyQ . . EAX is returned as NIL.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. . then . deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . See listing 18. MMURTL V1. . MOV ECX. EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX. .EBX eqRdyDone: RETN .RdyQ .Tail <= pTSSin. ..EBX. . .

DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. INPUT : NONE . check the next priority.8. without actually removing it from the queue.FLAGS . "It's a nasty job.RdyQ . This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . EAX is returned as NIL. This why it's specified as PUBLIC.[EBX] OR EAX. This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode.EBX. . Point to the next Priority Queue . . They are located in Kernel. See listing 18. Listing 18.sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation. REGISTERS : EAX. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation.ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . . If there was no task queued. MODIFIES : RdyQ . Listing 18. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates.nPRI . This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures.ECX. Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. but someone's got to it. When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up.0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . is queued to run. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. Get pTSSout in EAX .8. . OUTPUT : EAX . . MOV ECX. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: .ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. . . . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX.7. .7. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ." See Listing 18.

EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. POP EBX MOV EAX.nPRI .Next <= pFreeTSS. . Fix link in Queue list . EDI ADD EBX. INC _nTSSLeft . MOV ECX. MOV [EAX+NextTSS].ESP . PUSH EBP .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. Procedureal Interface : . EDI PUSH EBX . MODIFIES : RdyQ . RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . 0 .pFreeTSS . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. pTSSin^. Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . Make EAX point to new head TSS . EAX OR EAX. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .. REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed .EAX .RdyQ .EBX . Yes. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. EDI OR EAX. OUTPUT : NONE . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Point to the next Priority Queue . No MOV EDI. All done (clean stack) . . No error . Is it Zero? . . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX.0 . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX.Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. . MOV EBP. . . . deQueue the TSS . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . a job. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . . [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .

. INC _nTSSLeft .Jump the removed link . ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . . Finding the owner of an exchange .Yes. This is not so if it's for a new job. . OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. Listing 18. EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . . Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. 0 . back to check next at head of list .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.JMP RemRdy0 . SetExchOwner(). ESI PUSH EBX .0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. . . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX. MOV [EAX+NextTSS].9. . . . This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. No. .9. . Next Queue please . Next TSS .Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI.EAX points to crnt TSS . This function is used with the next one. ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates).This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS].EAX .Next <= pFreeTSS.Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . See listing 18. Yes. .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .EBX . [EAX+NextTSS] . Trash it. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. . pTSSin^.pFreeTSS . GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI. POP . deQueue the TSS . .Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) .EDI points to prev TSS .

. pJCBRet the exchange number. . . EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. Valid Exch (Allocated) . . No. [EBP+12] CMP EAX. Listing 18. . . . Exch . . not allocated . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . .ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . mentioned previously. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. . MMURTL V1. .nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . . SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. . . . Exch is . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . continue Yes. .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX.0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . pJCBRet . ..EAX MOV EAX. Changing the owner of an exchange . EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.10.ESP MOV EAX.prgExch ADD EDX. EAX XOR EAX. . . See listing 18. . [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS).10.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . . No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch.

EDX MOV EBX. EBX XOR EAX. . other services.0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. . . . pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . . Get the address of rgSVC . See listing 18. . . If a program sent a request. . . SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. . We ignore the kernel errors. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). telling them that a particular job has died.11. Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX..ESP MOV ESI. . The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. . Listing 18. . Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. . . . . or the operating system itself. then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. [EBP+12] MOV EDX. . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] .11. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. . pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . The error it returns is of no consequence. . Notifying services of a job’s demise . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing).ESP MOV EAX.nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . . .prgExch ADD EAX. . . If a service is holding a request from the job that died. .

CMP DWORD PTR [ESI].pData1 PUSH 0 . A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. except this function requires several more parameters.Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI.12.dData0 PUSH 0 .npSend PUSH 0 . [EBP+12] .cbData1 MOV EAX. These are functions such as GetPriority().Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . The procedural interface to Request looks like this: . and code for it is in the file SVCCode. The function that searches the array is GetExchange(). They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. Request kernel primitive code . [EBP+8] .pHandleRet PUSH 0 . EAX MOV ESP. wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1. Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates.asm. next service PUSH ESI . NO. sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX.cbData0 PUSH 0 . Listing 18.JobNum PUSH EAX . . A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it.dData1 PUSH 0 . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.Abort Service Code MOV EAX.0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS . .pName PUSH 0 .pData0 PUSH 0 . Valid name? . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model.12.Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX .Next Service name . See listing 18.Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI . 0 JE SAB05 . Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive. These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate.dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block.

. .pServiceName CALL GetExchange . .No.Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.Validate exchange MOV EDX.Get .Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 .. EAX .Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX.nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX.0 . Req04: . [EBP+48] CMP EDX. continue Yes. . . dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESP .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2]. .Put . . Error in EAX register .EDX still has the response exchange . ErcNoMoreRqBlks .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0]. .Get .put . Save the Previous FramePtr . JMP ReqEnd . ESI MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. EAX MMURTL V1. [EBP+56] . . EAX MOV EAX. . return error Req02: . .Get . [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]..Put . AX MOV [EBX+RespExch]. .put .No JMP ReqEnd ..Get . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1].Put . .Get .Yes.Get .put . EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch].EAX . Set up New FramePtr .Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB .Yes.ESI still has the exchange for the service .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX. [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. EAX MOV EAX.put .EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.EBX . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX. Sorry. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. EAX MOV EAX. .

EAX MOV EAX.EDX . MOV [EAX+DataLo].Next <= NIL.Put npRecv in RqBlk .Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) . AL CL. EBX . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX. . .MOV EAX.At this point the RqBlk is all filled in. . .Must be 2 or less . pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^. . . Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk .Get cbData2 . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch .ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.EDX ESI. . .Get cbData1 . . EAX MOV EAX.put in RqBlk .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . ..Data PUSH EAX .Get pData2 .put in RqBlk .ESI EDX. [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2]. Save pLB on the stack . 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend]. EBX MOV EDX.The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it. DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS .Number of Send PbCbs .put in RqBlk .EBX DEC _nLBLeft .. No interruptions from here on . .ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. pLB^. . EAX MOV EAX. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. .ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .Ptr to return handle to .EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX. 0 .0 . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1].EAX . CL . EAX <= pFreeLB.Leave in CL . Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB].Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.REQLB .pFreeLB OR EAX. RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB. sEXCH EDX EDX. 0 . [EBP+44] MOV [EDI]. AL [EBX+npRecv]. . . . 2 CL.it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI.Give it to them .Next . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2]. [EBP+40] CMP EAX.prgExch EAX.

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. 0 . If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . MOV EDX.REQLB MMURTL V1. If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 . See listing 18. CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].nExch .sEXCH . .ercOutOfRange .EBP .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX.ercNoMsg MOV ESP. Procedureal Interface : . .ChkExchange .We can be interrupted again .pdqMsg):ercType . Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. Chk01: MOV EAX. A result code is returned in the EAX register. PUSH EBP .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . CheckMsg kernel primitive code .EAX . the return to caller with error MOV EAX. . . Listing 18. CheckMsg(exch.ESI . message should be sent. .EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. MOV ESP. MOV ESI. RETF 8 . return to the caller with error MOV EAX. . . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . POP EBP . . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return .18. . As with WaitMsg(). . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. . in the EAX register.EDX .0 -270- . . . in the EAX register. . . Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner].ESP .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . return with erc no msg . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . . . MOV ESI.prgExch .18. address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories. pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. MOV EBP.

pMem . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX._AliasMem(pMem.Yes . continue . Get pRqBlk into EBX .Linear Address of PData1 .[EAX+DataLo] .Yes . pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. .is cbData2 0? .dJobNum .Set up params for AliasMem .is pData1 NULL? .No. . .[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX.pLB. dJobNum. . .. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS .is cbData1 0? . Save ptr to Link Block .cbMem .Linear Address of pData1 .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .Offset to pData2 in RqBlk . .Error?? . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX.Make stack right . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP.is pData2 NULL? . EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.cbMem .Return Error.Set up params for AliasMem . dcbMem.Error?? .DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX.Yes . .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.. Get pRqBlk into EBX . .Offset to pData1 in RqBlk .Second Pointer (pData2) . continue . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX. pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. Treat it as a data link block .Return Error. EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.pMem .Yes .No. No.Save again . (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .Make stack right .Restore ptr to Link Block . MMURTL V1.dJobNum ..JNE Chk04 .Now we set up to alias the memory for the service . [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX. ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX. ..

Listing 18.Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] .x. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. . 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] . EIP): dErcRet .EAX MOV ESP.Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] . ESP. .Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] . In future versions.Data in specified memory space (EDX) . or page fault. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in. . For MMURTL version 1.pFreeLB . NewTask kernel primitive code . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] .EAX .Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS .TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . . Priority. stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code.pCkMessage [EDX].Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. STI . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. See listing 18.ErcOK! (0) . . . The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.8 for OS. .Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. INC _nLBLeft . fDebug. . Procedural interface: .Next <= pFreeLB. pFreeLB <= pLBin.19. Get pLB^.[EAX+DataLo] ECX.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter. nPRI-1 MMURTL V1. .EBX [EDX+4].EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .ESP MOV EDX. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection.Restore Ptr to Link Block . NewTask(JobNum. MOV pFreeLB.ECX .[EAX+DataHi] EDX. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation. Exch. CodeSeg. . pLBin^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs.19. . . .EBX .0 . XOR EAX.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX.

EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].DL .EAX now has pJCB . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg. NTS_EIP . ..Restore pNewTSS to EAX .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX. ECX.ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX.ECX MOV EBX.Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch]. 0 MMURTL V1.pFreeTSS OR EAX.mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].CX . [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.Next .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP]. nExch NT0001 EAX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.Save pNewTSS again .EBX .Set up to call LinToPhy .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS].Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.No. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return..EBX EBX.Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .Save pNewTSS .Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can .Set up to call GetpJCB . ECX.we can't be interrupted . . NTS_CS .get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.Put pJCB into TSS . ECX .pNewTSS into EAX .Exch in range? PUSH EAX .0202h . . NTS_Exch ECX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX. NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^. .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI . . NTS_ESP .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].ercOutOfRange NTEnd .0 . . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.ECX now has pJCB .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX.

Get priority of new task CLI . .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.20.EAX MOV BX.New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy . See listing 18.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . Listing 18.pRunTSS . .ErcOk MMURTL V1.Yes . SpawnTask kernel primitive code . New TSS -> EDX . SpawnTask(pEntry. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .New TSS -> EAX .JE NT0004 .EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP.CrntTSS -> EAX. NTS_Pri .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. . . . As with NewTask(). pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] . the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it.Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority]. fOSCode).ercOk JMP NTEnd . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs. 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. . . .Save time of this switch for scheduler .We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX. fDebug. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.BL .Move new TSS into pRunTSS .EAX .Save New TSS .0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .Jump to new TSS . Procedural Interface: . pStack.20. . dPriority. .

Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 . pRunTSS MOV EDX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].EDX . .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].EBX MOV EBX.Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST.Allocate exchange .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.pEntryST . . 1 .two local DWORD vars . .pFreeTSS OR EAX. nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.No.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.Save new TSS EBX.Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3]. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . NewExchST . bad news .Priority OK? . EAX . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. 0 ..mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS . NewTSSST..Next . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return. 8 CMP dPriST. pStackST . .ESP SUB ESP.mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. [EBX+TSS_CR3] .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.Yup. EAX JNZ STEnd .ercNoMoreTSSs . . OSCodeSel .EDX MOV EDX.ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX. .we can't be interrupted . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX.0202h . .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].see if we got an error . JobCodeSel . JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.EBX MOV EBX.EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].

just put new guy on Q.put in TSS . New TSS -> EDX . . Procedural Interface : . .ESP XOR ESI.Old guy does.nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority].ESI MOV EBX.mov priority into BL .0 .prgExch MOV ECX.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. See listing 18.If crnt >. .ErcOk . 0 MMURTL V1.BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.21.21. Get number of exchanges in ECX . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages.ercOk .we can't be interrupted . .Return to caller .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .MOV EBX.EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. . AllocExch(pExchRet):dError .Get who's running .CrntTSS -> EAX. . . Zero the Exch Index .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Allocate exchange code . New guy does (lowest num) . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.New TSS -> EAX .Place crnt TSS on Q .EAX MOV BX. returned.BL CLI MOV EDX. The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES).pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority]. . Listing 18.Move new TSS into pRunTSS .EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() . EBX <= ADR rgExch . It is property of a Job (not a task). pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .New TSS -> Stack .Who got the highest Pri? . . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. . .Save time of this switch for scheduler . .Jump to new TSS .

JE AE001 ADD EBX. JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX. . If we found a Free Exch.[EAX+Owner] EBX. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. . .ESI EDX. POP EBP .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] . .sEXCH EDX EDX.pRunTSS EBX. Stats XOR EAX.prgExch EAX. Listing 18. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges.EDX . PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. TSSs.ercOK (0) MOV ESP. DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. This function has a lot more to do. Those link blocks may also contain requests. .sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). .pRunTSS . .ESI . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector.EBP . See listing 18. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX.0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . it may have left over link blocks hanging on it.EAX . . . .[EBP+0CH] EAX. .[EBP+0CH] . . Procedural Interface : . Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange. RETF 4 . . and request blocks are freed up as necessary.EDX ECX.0 . Deallocate exchange code . MMURTL V1.0 . Messages are deQueued. . Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail].22. Make the Exch owner the Job STI .EAX . Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner].EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . . . . . .22. DEC _nEXCHLeft . . Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released.ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP.EAX EDX. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. however. . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. .ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. . . and link blocks.

. 0 . . MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. yes . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. MOV pFreeLB.instructions or a service crashes! . 0 . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . JMP DE001 .EAX . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers.Next <= pFreeTSS.pFreeTSS . ECX . Reset msg Flag. JMP DE000 .EAX . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.Next <= pFreeLB.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. ECX .EBX . Go And Check for more.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . pFreeLB <= pLBin. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. XOR EAX. RETF 4 .0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . INC _nEXCHLeft . OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. Get the TSS off of the Exchange . Go And Check for more. MMURTL V1.EBX . pLBin^. Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX.Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX.23. if not owner. EAX JZ DE002 . Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. NIL = Empty.with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . INC _nTSSLeft . These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface.0 . JUMP MOV ESI. Free up the exchange. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond .ercNotOwner MOV ESP. . POP EBP . is this the OS??? . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB].ercOK (0) MOV ESP. See listing 18. 0 . . pTSSin^. CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. CLI . INC _nLBLeft . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 . Nothing there.pFreeLB . Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 .EBP . No. Stats STI . Yes.EAX . 0 . yes .only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow . Go free the Exch.JE DE000 CMP EBX. .

23. .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. PUBLIC __SetPriority .This sets the priority of the task that called it . MOV EBP. 01Fh . bPriority is a byte with the new priority. ErcOK POP EBP . This doesn't really affect the kernel. returned. .24. RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. . Set priority code . Procedural Interface : .pRunTSS . GetTSS exchange code . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . Procedural Interface : . EAX . If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. .Listing 18. POP EBP . the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority.[EBP+0CH] . . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. ErcOK .Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. PUSH EBP .[EBP+0CH] . [EAX+TSS_Exch] . . BL . GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . . PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . SetPriority(bPriority):dError . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). .EBX .ESP . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. to the priority specified in the single parameter. . MOV EBP. . EAX . MMURTL V1.pRunTSS . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX.24 Listing 18. . See listing 18. RETF 4 .No error. PUSH EBP . MOV EAX. Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. MOV EAX.ESP . SetPriority .

DL . Procedural Interface : . RETF 4 . PUBLIC __GetPriority . GetPriority . . Get priority code . and passes it to bPriorityRet. Get the MOV DL.[EBP+0CH] . PUSH EBP . ErcOK POP EBP . .pRunTSS . See listing 18. . MOV EBP.25. .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS .This gets the priority of .25. XOR EAX. priority returned. . Listing 18. BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error. SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . MOV EAX. EAX . Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over.ESP . MMURTL V1. Get the MOV EBX. bPriorityret is a pointer to a .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task.

Listing 19. The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language.INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h . It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.DATA .INC . MMURTL V1. Memory management constants and data .Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt . Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).1.System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections.INCLUDE JOB.Chapter 19. Listing 19.2048 bytes = 64Mb .0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS . 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .INCLUDE TSS.INCLUDE MOSEDF.ASM. The task state segments are also used extensively. the code section must start with the .User Writable .1 bit/4Kbytes .We alloc the "next" page table .User Readable (Code) .Max is 2048 (64Mb) .User Writable (Data) .Number of free physical pages left .CODE command. page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs). I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code.1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code. I call these internal support code. The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.Deafult is 32 (1Mb) . Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode.Default to 1 MB .Page Allocation Map . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT . The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.INC . As with all assembler files for DASM.

EAX CALL MarkPage . Memory management initialization code .1 Mb of pages = 256 .NO! .Yes! .OUT: . 0001h .Supervisor.Another megs worth of pages . It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax. neither of which you consider free. PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED. The code in listing 19. Now you must fill in bits used by OS. Its the law! Listing 19.0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. 0FFFFF000h . EAX .'mrtl' test string value for memory .EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data. .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .Read test string into EBX . EAX . 4 . Listing 19.EBX MOV ECX.See if we got it back OK .3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX. See listing 19.2. which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh).IN: . 256 MOV EAX. you have. in megabytes.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree.Next table entry MMURTL V1.ECX MOV EBX. 32 CMP EAX.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.Yes. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.USED: .Are we above 64 megs .1FFFFCh XOR EBX. by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree.EAX SUB EAX. . Present MOV EBX. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.100000h ADD _nPagesFree.Set oMemMax . We assume 1MB to start.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed. . 256 ADD sPAM.Next Meg .3 MOV _oMemMax.2.InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. oMemMax must be last byte . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . and makes PTEs. which was just loaded.3. OFFSET pTbl1 . Continuation of memory management init.3 ADD EAX.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX.Make it the last DWord again .top of 2 megs (for DWORD) .Move in test string .Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.Increase PAM by another meg .Set it to zero intially . MOV EDX.

then reading CR0. This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. go back for more . Now we can go into paged memory mode.Set paging bit ON CR0. See listing 19. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . EAX . ANDing it with 8000000h. 80000000h . 0FFFFF000h . and then writing it again. The routine in listing 19. .Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 .No. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX . The initial page directory and the page table are static.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX.Next PTE entry ADD EAX. SHL 2) .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. See listing 19.6.Physical address of OS page directory CR3.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . 4 .Reserve 192K for OS (for now) .1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . EBX.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. EDX. OFFSET PDir1 . After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses.Store in Control Reg 3 EAX.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].Get Control Reg 0 EAX. Listing 19.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area .Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. 4096 .Next page please CMP EAX. EAX .ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used. Several chip sets on the market.5. Turning on paged memory management EAX.5.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 19. 4096 EAX. 100000h . EAX.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots. but I can't be sure everyone can do it.Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage . 0101b .Make it index (SHR 12. C0000h –FFFFFh. EAX . IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX]. CR0 . This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh.4.EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . EBX. nor can I provide instructions to everyone. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM. such as the 82C30 C&T. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. EAX . EDX. Continuation of memory management init. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte.

Listing 19.7.7. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated. or 0 if error EBX.8. See listing 19. Find highest physical page code .6. Of course. I'm afraid.EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. Listing 19. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. OFFSET pNextPT . Listing 19. 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. .USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .. this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it.IN : . MemExch . LEA EAX. Allocation of memory management exchange . Get 'em! RETN .Where we are in PAM . This reduces nPagesFree by one. 0 . MMURTL V1. FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. Finishing memory management init..Done initializing memory managment . OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX.0FFh . sPAM DEC EAX .Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn . It also marks the page as used.8. assuming that you will allocate it. See listing 19.no memory left.All 8 pages used? FHP2 .Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch .No EAX.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD.Page Allocation Map . PUSH 1 .OUT : .

no memory left. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 .At the bottom of the Byte? . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX. EAX SHL EBX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX.Another Byte lower . Find lowest physical page code . .FOUND ONE! (goto found) . sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .Back for next byte . OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX.Are we past at TOP of PAM? .0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. assuming that you will allocate it.Next bit . we must call UnMarkPage to release it. 3 ADD EBX.Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. EBX FHPf EBX.Add page number in byte . . EAX .Get the byte with a whole in it. or 0 if error EBX..OUT : .Start at first byte in PAM .USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.Test bits . See listing 19.Set the bit indexed by EBX .Error (BAD CPU???) .All 8 pages used? .One less available .IN : . 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX.9. This reduces nPagesFree by one. It also marks the page as used. 7 XOR EDX.Set page in use . Once again.0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX.Another Byte lower .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .9. EDX MOV DL.Page Allocation Map . .DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX.No .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . . if we call FindLoPage and don't use it. DL SHL EAX..\ Listing 19...Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].

Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . 3 ADD EBX. 8 FLPn FLP3 . OFFSET rgPAM ..XOR EBX.10. [EAX+ECX] .Get the byte into DL BTS EDX.Test bits . MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. DL .FOUND ONE! (goto found) .10. EBX .Page Allocation Map AND EBX.0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS .OUT : . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. Listing 19.Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX. This reduces nPagesFree by one.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX. 15 . Code to mark a physical page in use . . 12 . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX. This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function. See listing 19.BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX].Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree . . 0FFFFF000h ..Error (BAD CPU???) . EBX SHR ECX. EBX FLPf EBX EBX. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].IN : .One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.One less available .Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.Set the bit indexed by EBX . DL SHL EAX.Get the byte with a whole in it. 07h . EBX XOR EDX. .Set page in use . 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL.Add page number in byte . EAX SHL EBX.Next bit .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX.End of the Byte? . EDX MOV DL.

Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . See listing 19.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . This increases nPagesFree by one. 07h ADD EAX. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages. EBX.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse . INPUT: EAX -. OUTPUT: EAX -.Linear address . Listing 19. EBX MOV [EAX].Round down to page modulo . DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN . EBX -.12. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. . Listing 19. 15 SHR EBX. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. 12 AND EBX. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.Physical Address . USED: EAX. ESI. DMA operations.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1. This function supports the similarly named public routine.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. .Page Allocation Map .11.0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS .ECX is now byte offset into PAM .POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address. ESI -. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. See listing 19.BitReset instruction . . etc. This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. . ECX MOV DL.IN : .OUT : . . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. [EAX] BTR EDX. EFlags .12. EBX SHR ECX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM .

EBX MOV EDX. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. EBX . The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory. This is either at address base 0 for the operating system. Code to find a free run of linear memory .13.Physical base of page is in EAX .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . See listing 19.Save this address for caller . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS. in which case we return 0.13. Listing 19. 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. 2 ADD EBX.Save Linear .*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow . EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.Move to shadow addresses in PD . EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing.Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .Get original linear back in EBX . . 00000FFFh OR EAX. EBX MOV EAX. EBX RETN FindRun .EBX/EAX now points to shadow .Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX.Copy number of pages to ECX. 2048 SHR EBX.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . EAX MOV ESI.0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX.EAX now has Linear of Page Table . 12 SHL EBX. EBX .Get rid of upper 10 bits .get rid of lower 12 to make it an index .Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset .Get original linear . 2 ADD EBX. [EBX] AND EAX.Index into PD for PT we are working on . EAX MOV EAX. . The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist.Address of PD saved here . USED: EAX.ESI now has ptr to PD . . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1.mask off lower 12 .Leaves pJCB in EAX . 22 SHL EBX. or the 1Gb address mark for the user.Index into shadow addresses from EAX . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI. IN : EAX . Save in EBX . OUT: EAX . .EAX now has ptr to PD! . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables.Keeps count of how many free found so far . 003FFFFFh SHR EBX.Save it again . . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX.EBX now points to Page Table entry! .*4 makes it byte offset in PT .

empty (available) . See listing 19. Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. EDI .Next PT! . next PTE please ECX. EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4].PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . 22 SHL EAX.EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .EBX still has count of pages.The starting linear address is equal to number of the last . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 .In use . . .EDX was index into PD.go INC MOV JMP FROK: .No. EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. SHL EDX. . 12 SUB EAX. This is the way FindRun left them.Times size of page (* 4096) .Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI.Not done yet. EAX. if the run spans two or more tables. keep testing .If . FR1: XOR EAX.From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX . go for it XOR EAX.Are we past last PTE of this PT? .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system.One less page (0 offset) .Yes. 12 OR EAX.Not empty. The linear address of the run should be in EAX.EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.This is the linear address we ended at . and the count of pages should be in EBX. .we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. . .Zero means it's . while EAX was index into PT. .Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 . The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add.14.One more empty one! .MOV EDI. EAX . Next PTE Please. . or tables. EBX .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 . [ESI+EDX*4] .EAX is next 10 bits of LA . .Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . .We found enough entries goto OK .

AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX. THEN store it in PT.EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) .LinAdd to EDX . . Adding a run of linear memory . EDI is pointing the next PT.Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.Next PTE please. 4096 .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . EDX.Set PTE to present. .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .and OR in the appropriate control bits.No.LinAdd into EDX again . . ARDone: MMURTL V1. OUT: .0 . 003FF000h SHR EDX.ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) . next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.ESI now has ptr to PD! . .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX. 4 . EDX. go do next PTE ADD ESI. EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .EDX . User ReadOnly .(save for caller) .Make it index to DWORDS . . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX.then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .At this point. AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. 4 .14. [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI.Get index into PD for first PT . .See if it's a user page . 10 AR0: MOV EDI. EDX. EAX AND EDX. EDX MOV EDX.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).Yes.Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS .Listing 19. USED: . .SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. 2048 ADD ESI. .EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . EBX EAX 22 2 . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. .Restore linear address .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX.Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 . [ESI] . EBX . CMP EDX. MEMSYS CMP EAX. IN : .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . .Offset to shadow address of PD .

Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. . EFlags . [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . . . . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . See listing 19. EBX Number of Pages to alias . EDX. .ESP SUB ESP.0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). this is the way FindRun left them. The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number.This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . . 8 MOV AliasLin. EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI .15. . EDX. ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing .(save for caller) . if the run spans two or more tables . ESI MOV AliasJob.adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. OUT: Nothing . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. and the count of pages should be in EBX. IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . Listing 19. EBX EAX 22 2 . . (from find run) . The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. . USED: EAX. Once again.Get index into PD for first PT . .LinAdd to EDX . AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.or tables.15.Make it index to DWORDS . . . EDX.we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX.POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun .

ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX.Set up for next loop (post increment) . .Yes. AliasLin ADD AliasLin.Job we are aliasing . . .ESI now points to first PT of interest .No.Are we done?? . .LinAdd into EDX again .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . . EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.Next PTE please. 0FFFFF000h OR EAX. AND EAX.EAX now has physical address for this page .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1.Restore linear address . 4 XOR EDX. .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI .EDX is index to exact entry .Are we past last PTE of this PT? . . .POP EAX ADD ESI. MOV ESP.Address we are aliasing .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . to get a physical address into EAX. next PDE (to get next PT) .This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE. [ESI] .EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . .Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX. 2048 ADD ESI.Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum . .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) .Offset to shadow addresses in PD . EDX MOV EDX. 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI.cut off system bits of PTE . 4 CMP EDX. EAX AND EDX. go do next PTE .Start at the entry 0 of next PT .Set system bits as ALIAS .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. .At this point. 003FF000h SHR EDX. 10 ALR0: MOV EDI. AliasJob MOV EBX. .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) . .mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT. MEMALIAS POP ESI .

PUSH EDX . and sticks it in the user's page directory. 4 MOV EBX. ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. EAX MOV ESI. 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 .16. _nPagesFree OR EAX.Move to shadow . PUSH ESI . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .Physical address in lower half . 2048 EBX.AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. . No! (Try again) . See listing 19. as shown in the following. MEMUSERD [ESI]. MOV EAX. Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code.EAX will have Physical address .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1.Sorry. This will be in user address space above 1GB. [ESI] OR EBX.0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. out of physical mem . . .16. USED: EAX. Adding a page table for user memory . EAX ESI. AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . Is it empty? . Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow). This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write.See if have enuf physical memory . 2048 MOV ECX. [EDI] ADD ESI. Listing 19. JcbPD ADD EDI. Next possible empty entry . This is easier than AddOSPT.Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) .Linear add back into EBX .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD . EBX .ESI now points to PD . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX.pJCB in EAX . IN : Nothing .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .EDI points to UserPD Address .Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. initializes it. pNextPT [ESI]. .Offset to PcbPD in JCB . . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. . PUSH EDI .no free phy pages!) .Set user bits (Read/Write) .(save for caller) PUSH ECX . EFlags .

1 XOR EAX. EFlags . OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX. out of physical mem .See if have enuf physical memory . PUSH EDX . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.save pNextPT (the linear address) .Sorry. USED: EAX. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . Adding an operating system page table .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . . See listing 19.AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. MOV EAX. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories.size of request . . . . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. . AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH ESI . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. _nPagesFree OR EAX. 511 MMURTL V1. ESI points to OS Pdir . IN : Nothing .17. Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often.was there an error (0 means no mem) .(save for caller) PUSH ECX . PUSH EDI . 1 MOV EBX. . .next time.Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for .. in many cases.EAX will have Physical address . Find first empty slot MOV ESI.0 .17. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow).Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .OS Job Number (Monitor) . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running. EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX.no free phy pages!) . . Listing 19. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .

Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 .Get values from stack ADD EBX.Save values on stack MOV EDX. Next possible empty entry .Physical address in lower half . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.AOPT02: ADD ESI.0 . 2048 . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all. . Get back JCB number . . pNextPT MOV [ESI].Linear add back into EBX .Next JCB .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) .No. 2048 .Save nJCB we are on . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1.Source of Copy .Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX.Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX. . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX. [ESI] OR EBX. . JcbPD MOV EBX.Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .Move to shadow . .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB .Destination 1024 . Not a valid JCB (unused) . . 4 MOV EBX. The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. ESI EAX Get and .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX . EAX ADD ESI. 2048 MOV EBX. Is it empty? . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI]. EBX .Source EAX . . # of dynamic JCBs .Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD .Set present bit .

EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. ESI. 1 XOR EAX. See listing 19. Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate. EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX.AddRun .Set ErcOK (0) . IN: AX .0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: .save pNextPT (the linear address) . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. . OUT: EAX Returns Errors. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) .18.18. USES: EAX. EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. . DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . . . DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . . Adding a call gate to the GDT . . Listing 19. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range.At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . ECX. allowing access to OS procedures. else 0 if all's well .next time.. . EFLAGS MMURTL V1. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) .was there an error (0 means no mem) . The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition.size of request . EBX.

CX SUB EBX. EDX.Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) . See listing 19.not too low.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. ESI. . .make index vice selector CMP EBX. The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap. interrupt. AX SHR EAX.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. for a task gate. .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS .EDX now points to gate . ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX.call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].Put Offset 15:00 into gate . EAX . 40 .Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. MOV EAX. BX MMURTL V1. RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. GDTBase .Extend INT Num into EDX . nCallGates . AX . USES: AX .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.19. .see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . . IN: . . 8 . EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX. CX .Yes.Put Gate ID into gate . SI .No.19. Listing 19.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . . OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4]. 3 ADD EDX. ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX]. 3 . the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. MOV EAX. ercBadGateNum . or task gate. AX MOV EAX. CX SHL EDX. 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6].0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. .Put Offset 31:16 into gate .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. Adding entries to the IDT . 16 . AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. . .0 . .Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. ECX. 40h . SI .Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . . EBX.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].

The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree. A result code is returned in the EAX register. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] .size of request . Allocate each physical page. . .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries.RETF . we're maxed out EAX.size of request . pRunTSS ADD EAX. . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX.Yes . placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request.Yes .See if have enuf physical memory . ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit .EAX ALOSP00 EAX.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit . PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.More than 0? . .n4KPages EAX. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage.Kernel Error?? .n4KPages XOR EAX. .Can't be zero! .(0 = No Runs big enuf) . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. but not close enough to easily combine their code.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Sorry boss.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS .No Error! EAX. .ppMemRet): dError . AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .Yes! Serious problem.20. Listing 19. This allows runs to span table entries.20. Procedureal Interface : . . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. See listing 19. Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate. Allocating a page of linear memory .0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX. The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory.

Exit. MMURTL V1.JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . however . ppAliasRet): dError .ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] . dJobNum. you need two pages. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . ppMemRet . .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to.0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory.EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX.EAX now has linear address . AliasMem(pMem. Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. PUSH EAX . .See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) . .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. RETF 8 .ERROR!! . EAX .pMem EQU [EBP+24] . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified.EBP .21. .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Does not return error . . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .Only an entry in a table. . .Save last error PUSH MemExch . pMem is the address to alias. ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. dcbMem. dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. Listing 19. EAX . . POP EAX . No alias is needed. See if they are available.No error ALOSPExit: . Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed.CALL AddOSPT OR EAX.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun .dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] . . . Even if the address is only two bytes.Add a new page table (we need it!) . POP EBP . If so. if it crosses page boundaries. .Go back & try again . This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around.Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. . Code to alias memory . This wastes no physical memory. Procedureal Interface : . The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD.

.EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. .Are they the same Page Directory?? .Yes! Serious problem. EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX. EAX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .pMem into EAX 0FFFh .Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.EAX is nPages-1 . [EBP+24] .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] .Exit. we're done ALSPBegin: . .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.dcbMem EBX .Yes .No. . pRunTSS ADD EAX. .Number of pages we need into EBX . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Yes . . ECX CALL FindRun . EAX.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.EAX is now nPages we need! EAX . User memory .PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .Get Job number for pMem .No.Puts Current Job Num in EAX .0h JNE ALSPDone . We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX. EAX ECX. EAX.EAX has 0 or 256 . EAX.Set up for OS memory space . No Error .Yes.OS Job? . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.Kernel Error?? .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias .Add to dcbMem 12 . .Now wait our turn with memory management .EAX is 256 for user space.See if it is OS based service .EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.EBX still has count of pages OR EAX.Yes . EAX JMP ALSPDone .Was there enough PTEs? . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. EBX. PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.0 . .See if it is OS based service . .OS Job? .Save nPages in ECX .No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+16] CMP EAX. 0 for OS . alias it .

CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" . DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. EAX ESI.Get remaining bits .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . . Code to remove alias PTEs . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun .22. 0FFFh EDI. EDI EAX.Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing .Set .ERROR!! . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1.Save alias page address base . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP.Set to 0 (no error) . PUSH MemExch .EAX .0 = NO Error . . [EBP+24] EAX.Address to alias . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call.pAliasRet . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: .Now.ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. Listing 19.and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS . . .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .original pMem . See listing 19. . dcbAliasBytes.Job number . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines. [EBP+24] MOV EDX. Procedureal Interface : .EBX . . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . PUSH EAX . [EBP+12] [ESI]. take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address .22. EAX MOV ESI. JobNum):ercType . . EAX . .Save last error .Returned address to caller! . .We are done ALSPExit: .Go back & try again .

dcbMem EAX.Add the remainder of address EAX.ESP . EAX MOV [ESI].pAliasMem . . .. EBX . [EBP+20] .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX. .We dealiased what we could. . .Is page an ALIAS? . EDX MOV EAX.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX. XOR EAX.NO! (did we do any at all) . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP. [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy .Add to dcbMem EAX. ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 . if so just ZERO PTE.NO .EAX is nPages-1 EAX .Get PTE into EBX .EBP MMURTL V1. -302- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+16] . 12 .dcbAliasBytes .We did some. PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias .0 .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .ECX .Is page present (valid)??? . it's page is present . .so we zero out the page. . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.Linear Mem to DeAlias .None at all! .Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX. [EBP+20] .Yes.pMem into EAX EBX. EDI DALM011 EAX.Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX. .EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.Next linear page .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS). DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .Address of next page to deallocate . [ESI] TEST EBX.See if PTE is an alias.DO not zero it! .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.but less than you asked for! ECX.Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) . EAX . EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.ZERO PTE entry . 0FFFh .

See listing 19. its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX.Yes! .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .POP EBP RETF 12 .Yes.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. . pOrigMem AND EDX. . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy . . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be .See if PTE is an alias.Number of pages to deallocate . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. . Listing 19. DeAllocPage(pOrigMem.Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy . n4KPages):ercType . DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls. . pRunTSS ADD EAX.Linear Mem to deallocate . deallocate. providing it is valid.and pointer to PTE in ESI. . . .Get PTE into EBX . .Now we have Physical Address in EAX . The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. Even if you specify more pages than are valid. because we deallocate 4K pages.23. Procedureal Interface : .Error?? . [ESI] TEST EBX.0 .Address of next page to deallocate . .Is page present (valid)??? . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . It will always free linear memory. . Deallocating linear memory . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias.else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .23. if so just ZERO PTE.

. . Listing 19. so next guy can get in . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX. .24. Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left. . . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .Send a dummy message to pick up .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS .Kernel error has priority ..We deallocated what we could. . . EAX ADD EDX. .Next linear page . Code to find number of free pages . Procedureal Interface : .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . See listing 19.Is page an ALIAS? . EAX MOV [ESI].None at all! MOV EAX. You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. AND EBX. ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX.Yes.ZERO PTE entry .CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX.save Memory error . . it's an Alias .so we must unmark (release) the physical page. over memory error .but less than you asked for! . 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP. 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX.We did some.24. .NO! (did we do any at all) .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.get Memory error back . 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.get rid of OS bits . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit .

. Listing 19. . pPhyRet . Job Number . MOV ESP. GetPhyAdd(JobNum.ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI.25. No Error . [EBP+16] MOV EAX. pMemLeft EAX. Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page.END OF CODE MMURTL V1.0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . _nPagesFree [ESI]. LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . EAX MOV ESP. EAX XOR EAX. left available returned . be returned . EAX . .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . Procedureal Interface : . This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. . See listing 19. . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. . LinAdd. . . pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.25. Linear Address . [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. . EAX EAX.LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI].No Error ..ESP MOV EBX. . pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . Public for linear to physical conversion . pPhyRet):ercType . .

.

I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. In a 10ms period we have 200. It's at the end of the timer ISR. my worries were unfounded. preemptive multitasking. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. Two of them will come in at 260us. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. with 100-MHz machines around. along with a piece of the kernel. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].2 percent of available bandwidth.1. I ended up with 10ms. which works out to about 1. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. as well as the fastest one possible. I experimented with several different intervals. divided by the total clocks for the same period. or 3000 clocks. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. MMURTL is no exception. however. memory wait-states. Even more important than total bandwidth. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt.1. etc. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. The average is was far less. But even with these calculations. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing. especially synchronous.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . It was 0. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. I was consuming less than 0. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. actually the scheduler. As you well know. A single communications channel running at 19.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. The average really depends on program loading. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. which is very conservative. a slow machine. Back when I started this project. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system.2 percent.6 percent for the worst case.Chapter 20.. was the effect on interrupt latency. Somewhere between these two was the average. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. See listing 20. Listing 20.

INC . plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. The odds of this are truly astronomical. 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet.ALIGN DWORD . That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. Data and constants for timer code . SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt.2.DATA . . A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386. sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long . hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time. or 20us.INCLUDE TSS. Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium.320 clocks. the exchange number of a task that is sleeping.0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt. Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. including the 10 percent overhead. The Timer Block is a structure that contains .Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup).DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 .Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1.2.2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. See listing 20. and finally with test programs. Listing 20. These are the offsets into the structure .INC .DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 . EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . This doesn't cause a problem at all.FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. This I could live with. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us.INCLUDE MOSEDF. But. or one that has requested an alarm. .DD 00000000h .

-1 .nTmrBlks CLD . you switch to it. which is the one you interrupted. The three external near calls.Yes! . or higher. 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX.Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.ASM.No . and they may be of an equal.ISend Message MOV EAX. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.3. You have now interrupted that task. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 .goto decrement it PUSH EAX .4.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.INTS are disabled automatically .Yes .Timer Tick.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown].EAX has addr of Timer Blocks .is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 .ASM. priority than the task that is now running.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR .ECX has count of Timer Blocks . See listing 20. allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. The timer interrupt service routine . . we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task. INT 20 . Listing 20. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches. If so.. They may have been placed there by other ISRs.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX . The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.0h . The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it.Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].No. At all times on the system. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. It is a small. If it is the same or higher. only one task is actually executing. yet very important part..4.FALSE . The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS .save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] . External functions for timer code . See listing 20. Listing 20.Yes . The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do.3.No . You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more. the first things defined in this code segment.

bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg ..sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . pRunTSS MOV DL.Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .keep going .DL is pri of current .FALSE .PUSH EAX . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.Is there one at all?? . CMP EAX.skip decrement . we will .unless were done .. Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX. MMURTL V1.get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].[EDI+Tid] . If the Queued Pri is LOWER .Compare current pri to highest queued ..We will now check to see if this guy has been running . If so. EAX JZ TaskCheckDone . and save in EDI . .or Equal. Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .If current is higher(lower num). [ESI+Priority] CMP DL. SUB EAX.empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.if we got a CARRY on the subtract. EAX MOV EAX.. MOV ESI. dfHalted OR EAX. PUSH 0 .YES.switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri .Change this to change the "time slice" .10ms more gone.get count back POP EAX .tell him his times up! POP ECX . That means .Is this from a HALTed state? .for more then 30ms (3 ticks). Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ .BX .next block please! . Put current one in EAX .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX. JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone .number was higher and we DON'T .EDI . Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches . MOV EBX. no need to check tasks .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS ..is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX. his . we want to Switch.No. Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick. ESI CALL enQueueRdy . TimerTick .bogus msg PUSH EAX .current pri.Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 . EAX .Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX. Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS.

Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .nTmrBlks .EBP .clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . Sleep() . IRETD .5.Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX.ESP .rgTmrBlks .TSS_Msg . MOV EBP.DelayCnt .sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. RETF 4 . 0 . The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].TRUE .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.ErcNoMoreTBs . Listing 20.pRunTSS . .Sorry. See listing 20. The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch]. PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .FALSE .unless were done MOV EAX.Count of timer blocks CLD . POP EBP . This requires an exchange.No .put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX . out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP. Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .ErcOk . TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD .5. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero.Must do this before we switch! .EBX . MOV EAX.FAR return from publics MMURTL V1.Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].goto next block MOV EBX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed . DelayCnt CMP EAX.Empty block? JNE Delay02 .0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .[ECX+TSS_Exch] .Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.EBX .

KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange.rgTmrBlks . See listing 20. The message is not repeatable.sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX.clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.ErcOk . MOV EAX.EBX . MOV EBP. AlarmCnt CMP EAX. Listing 20.FALSE .EBX .0 .Get delay count [EAX+CountDown]. AlarmCnt):dErc . MMURTL V1.nTmrBlks . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed. See listing 20.It's OK to interrupt now EAX. The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.6. -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .TRUE . Code for the Alarm function .No .Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed . PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP . AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].Empty block? Alarm02 .Sorry. Alarm(nAlarmExch.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Procedural Interface: .AlarmCnt . out of timer blocks .It's OK to interrupt now .goto next block EBX.unless were done . It must be set up each time. AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . . 0 .6.put it in timer block! . If the alarm is already queued through the kernel. DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. which means the message has already been sent.Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. nothing will stop it.Count of timer blocks CLD .all is well Alarm03 .7.ESP . .ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP. .Up the blocksInUse count EBX.

Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX. .It's OK to interrupt now . KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .0 . .Block in use? KAlarm02 .No . The count is in 15us increments. This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds).EBX . The task is actually not suspended at all. . The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled.Get exchange for killing alarms to .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch].FALSE . so we get out! . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers. See listing 20.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator. Listing 20. KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . which drives the processor clock.ErcOk .EAX MOV ESP.Count of timer blocks . . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed. PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Code for the MicrDelay function .No blocks in use .8.ALl done -.7.Listing 20.unless were done .TRUE . Procedural Interface: .EAX points to timer blocks . But it's still very much needed.KAlarmExch LEA EAX. Code for the KillAlarm function .sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX.clear direction flag .Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed .8. . The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port. . Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1. This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .

AL JE MDL00 MOV AH. .04h OUT 70h. EBX MOV EAX.71h MOV BL.Clear time return .9.Hours .ESP XOR EBX. 8 MOV EAX. 61h AND AL. EAX MOV ESP. 10h CMP AH.Get delay count . MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. the next byte is the Hours in BCD. 8 MOV EAX. Listing 20.02h OUT 70h. Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESP MOV ECX.AL SHL EBX. .71h MOV BL.00h OUT 70h.Get system status port . The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.MOV EBP.9. AL SHL EBX.get out if they came in with 0! .0 . See listing 20. . 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL. Code to read the CMOS time . .Check toggle of bit .AL IN AL. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI].No toggle yet . EBX MMURTL V1.check refrest bit . . and the high order byte is 0. the next byte is the minutes in BCD.AL IN AL. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).AL MOV ESI.Minutes .AL IN AL.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Toggle! Move to AH for next compare .71h MOV BL. AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.Seconds .

Give 'em the time .71h MOV BL. 0-6 0=Sunday). pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI]. Code to read the CMOS date . 8 MOV EAX.10. AL SHL EBX. 8 MOV EAX. EAX MOV ESP.10.AL MOV ESI. . No Error .XOR EAX.AL IN AL.AL IN AL. GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.08h OUT 70h. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD.06h OUT 70h.ESP .Year .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .71h MOV BL.09h OUT 70h.AL IN AL. .71h MOV BL. MMURTL V1.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . . No Error . . Procedural Interface: . See listing 20. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). EBX XOR EAX. MOV EBP. AL SHL EBX. pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP .AL IN AL.07h OUT 70h. 8 MOV EAX.AL SHL EBX. XOR EBX. . . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12).71h MOV BL. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99).0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror . EAX MOV ESP.Month .Clear date return MOV EAX. EBX .Day of week . .Day of month . Listing 20.

ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. AL XOR EDX. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down.12.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1. divide 1.193182Mhz .DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . this amounts to 262. .193182 Mhz . AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h.800. Code to return the timer tick .Timer 2. The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. . AL IN AL. LSB. TimerTick MOV [ESI].GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. Binary .0 .193182Mhz by Desired Freq. Listing 20. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() . . pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep(). is used to generate tones. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. See listing 20. Because it is a dword. EAX XOR EAX. . pTickRet MOV EAX.11. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h.000 ticks per month.To find the divisor of the clock. 61h MMURTL V1. .No Error . . which is connected to the system internal speaker. . The procedural interface: . This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months.ESP MOV ESI. Listing 20. With a 10ms interval.1. The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). 10110110b OUT 43h. AL MOV AL. EDX MOV EAX.This does all work for BEEP and TONE .12. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror .EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. MSB. .11. Hardware timer number 2. See listing 20.

00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h.350ms . I couldn't resist. See listing 20.Freq . AL PUSH ECX . 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() .14. 11111100b OUT 61h.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS .) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. (Sorry. Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq.13.ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. Code to produce a beep . . MMURTL V1. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. . 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL.ESP MOV EBX. . Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. if it had. . . Code to produce a tone . 800 MOV ECX.14. I would have called it Beep_Beep(). . Listing 20. . Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. . dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . Listing 20.OR AL. See listing 20. AL RETN Beep() .13. . This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. .

ESP MOV EBX. . MMURTL V1.PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 . ToneFreq MOV ECX. .

======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) . Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. Initial OS Page Directory (PD).======================================================= . Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main.0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS .INCLUDE JOB.ALIGN DWORD .DATA . The assembler does no alignment on its own.See MOSEDF. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files. It is the entry point in the operating system.1. Main Operating System Data .ASM. .INCLUDE MOSEDF. Periodically you will see the . The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.INC for structure details. For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. the first instruction executed after boot up. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL . The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical.INC .ASM.Chapter 21. The second file is InitCode.INC . Listing 21. a workhorse for Main. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . OS Global Data Listing 21. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 .INC .ALIGN command.ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. I generally try to align data that is accessed often. The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary. and Public Call Gate table. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . access to the data is faster if it is. “OS Initialization. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process.ASM which is presented later in this chapter. In chapter 7.ASM. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) . It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. Global Descriptor table (GDT).INCLUDE TSS. Initial OS Page Table (PT).1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. The first file is Main. Kernel Structures . and I don't worry about the rest of it. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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DPL 3. AX . Trap gate MOV EBX.This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. GDTBase .DPL 3. EBX. Second. 08F00h .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 .SUB EBX. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate .DPL 3. 255 . 16 . OSCodeSel .========================================================================= .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. 40 .DPL 3. MOV ESI. handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. 1 . OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. IN : Nothing . 4 . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .Overflow 08F00h . EAX. . Out : Nothing . .Single Step MOV EAX. 3 .Divide By Zero MOV EAX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. SI .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. ESI. 0 . 08F00h .make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. SI .call DPL & ndParams RETN . 3 . software and hardware interrupt handlers. 08F00h . First. OSCodeSel . .Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. MOV ESI. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector. InitIDT . 08E00h .Breakpoint MOV EAX. Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX. Used : ALL registers and flags .Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. 8 .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. CX . OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].

0Bh .Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h .Int Page Fault MOV EAX.Invalid TSS MOV EAX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.GP fault MOV EAX. 08E00h . 0Eh . MOV ESI.Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Seg Not Present MOV EAX. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . EBX. 08F00h . 0Ah . 6 .DPL 3. 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. EAX.DPL 3.Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. 21h . 08E00h .DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h . OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 0Ch .0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . IRQ0 IRQ1 22h .Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . MOV ESI.DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . MOV ESI.DPL 3. 0Dh .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. ESI. OSCodeSel . 08F00h . OSCodeSel .Int TIMER MOV EAX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 8 . MOV ESI. 08F00h . 08F00h . 08F00h .Double Exception MOV EAX. 20h .DPL 3. OSCodeSel .

OSCodeSel .. MOV EAX... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h . MOV ESI..DPL 3... OSCodeSel .Int COM1 MOV EAX. 08E00h ..DPL 3.Int . ESI. 23h .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08E00h .IntLPT1 MOV EAX.. OSCodeSel ...Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX...DPL 3..DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. ... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1. 08E00h .. OSCodeSel . 29h ..Int .. OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE .. MOV EAX. OSCodeSel .. MOV ESI.. OSCodeSel . 08E00h ... MOV EAX.Int COM2 MOV EAX.Int .Int LPT2 MOV EAX...DPL 3. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 28h ... OFFSET IntQ . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. 25h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.DPL 3.. 08E00h . EBX.. 2Ah .DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 27h .DPL 3... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 08E00h .. 24h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. EAX. 26h . OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int . MOV ESI.. MOV ESI.. MOV ESI. 08E00h . 2Bh . MOV EAX.0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS . 08E00h .Int .... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. OSCodeSel .... MOV ESI..

CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. DPL 3 MOV ECX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 2Eh . MOV ESI.WaitMsg -.DPL 3.. before initcallgates.. DPL 3 MOV ECX. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1. 2Dh .3 DWord params. 0EC03h . MOV EAX. 2Fh . 58h MOV DX. 0EC01h ..0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS .1Dword param. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. DPL 0 MOV ECX.. OSCodeSel .. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! . 0EC02h . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.========================================================================== .3 DWord Params... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..Int ..ISendMsg -... 50h MOV DX.. 08E00h ... 08C03h . 08E00h . OSCodeSel MOV ESI.. IN : Nothing ..Int ..Int . DPL 3 MOV ECX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI.. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. .. Out : Nothing .. 08E00h . OSCodeSel . InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates. This can't .SendMsg -. MOV ESI. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX... MOV ESI. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! .Set Priority . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.2 DWord Params.. but MUST be called before the first far call to any . 40h MOV DX. Used : ALL registers and flags . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 .DPL 3.. MOV EAX. MOV EAX.DPL 3. 48h MOV DX.

.The rest of the call gate set ups go here. RETN MMURTL V1.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Before I wrote this code.Chapter 22. the monitor. Pieces of related code in the kernel. can be a complicated scenario.INCLUDE TSS. and finally starting the new task. many of them public functions. Job Management Subroutines . request blocks. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation.CODE . INPUT : EAX -. are used by almost every module in the operating system. link blocks. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. this is the where you'll end up. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out. In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader.Begin Code ================== . Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . EBX -. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: . the JCB. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system.Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1. TSSs.================================================================ . exchanges.INC .Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in . It was every bit as difficult as I imagined.asm . See listing 22.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . The program loader is in this chapter. From Main.1. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD .jobs (Monitor & Debugger) . When things don't work right.INC .ASM provides many small helper functions for job management.INCLUDE MOSEDF.======= End data. Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . JCBs are in allocated memory . and finally the operating system memory.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs .DATA .INCLUDE JOB. The process of allocating all the resources. These calls. it is usually quite a mess.1 Listing 22.

EBX. OUTPUT : NONE . ECX . EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information. This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run.Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . ECX is count of JCBs. USED: EAX. EAX ADD EDI. .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX. .Make last one NIL RETN . [EAX+JobNum] RETN .EDX. ESI -. . while . EDX. EBX .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum].Now to JobName . .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX.size is filled in .============================================================================= .Video number is in JCB . INPUT : EAX . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs.EAX .ESI EFLAGS . . MMURTL V1.EBX MOV EDI. 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. MODIFIES: pFreeJCB.EDI points to JCB . EBX. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols]. CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid].pbJobName ECX -. . InitFreeJCB . EDX . EDX is size of each JCB. MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. We can't use its position .first byte of name . EAX points to the first JCB. in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. . 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI].Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX. The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. ESI. . 0 . . EDI. . .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. . pJCBs .EAX . . . ECX. .Put Ptr to PD into JCB . .EDX . . The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL).Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB].EAX .Move it in . . .Address of JCBs to be initialized . EAX .0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS .Size of JCBs . PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. .. 7 MOV EAX. 3 . . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated. .cbJobName EDX -. .1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI.ECX.Count of JCBs .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB].

. 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . OUTPUT : NONE . This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb.DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. JE NewJCBDone . . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . . REGISTERS : EAX. INPUT : EAX .0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb.IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. . nJCBs MOV EDX. If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return.0 .================================================================ . pJCBs STOSD . If none exists. .Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. . the free pool. NewJCBDone: RETN . MOV EBX. . EAX ECX.EBX .[EAX+NextJCB] . OUTPUT : EAX .FLAGS . CMP EAX. . . MOV EAX.. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. . 4096 EDI. then EAX will contain NIL (0). .============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. . . pJCBs MOV ECX. The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). 0 . Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures).EBX. This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in . . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX.pFreeJCB . . JE DispJCBDone .Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN .Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. . Get 'em! . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB .FLAGS . 0 . INPUT : NONE . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . This routine will also .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX. REGISTERS : EBX. . .

EBX has OS ptr to free list .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number .EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX.Pointer to JCB RETN . Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. . OUTPUT: EAX -. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. . .MOV EBX. PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. .============================================================ .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . All TSSs are .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . .pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB]. . USED: EAX. . . OUTPUT: EAX -. .============================================================ .Move it into newly freed JCB . USED: EAX. USED: EAX. Many OS functions deal with the Job number. This is based on which Task is executing. in EAX. assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. OUTPUT: EAX -. INPUT: EAX -. PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. All TSSs are assigned to a Job. A Job may have more than one Task. 2 MMURTL V1. EFlags . GetpJCB . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. . .Job Number of desired pJCB . EFlags . EFlags . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX. INPUT: Nothing . All TSSs are .============================================================ . .Linear Address of current JCB .EBX MOV pFreeJCB. This is based on which Task is executing. GetCrntJobNum . [EAX+JobNum] . . INPUT: Nothing . is a field in the JCB structure. GetpCrntJCB .Current Job Number . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . The Job number . .Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. assigned to a Job.Current JCB RETN . pRunTSS .

. GetJobNum . ppJCBRet):ercType . The Job number . . pJCBs POP EDX RETN .============================================================ . Get a new JCB . We got one! . .Within range of JCBs . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB. USED: EAX. sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. . . . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. .Now points to desired JCB . AllocJCB (NEAR) .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX.JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. . . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] .Add in two static JCBs . This is a NEAR . Procedureal Interface : . . Sorry. . . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. . .============================================================ . . EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX.Times size of JCB . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. . EFlags . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. is a field in the JCB structure. [EAX+JobNum] . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). 3 MOV EDX.0 . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. languages.Current JCB RETN . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble.Current Job Number . call to support the public job management calls in high level . OUTPUT: EAX -. . . .

[EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. .pJCBRet . .============================================================ . . . . . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . MMURTL V1.===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . GetpJCB . . pJCB .MOV ESP. .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated.ESP MOV EAX. [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . you specifiy. . Procedureal Interface : . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . languages in the OS code.============================================================ . . pJCBRet):ercType . EAX MOV ESP. . . . . . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. call to support the public job management calls in high level . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . . . . . EAX MOV ESI.Job Num . . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want.============================================================ . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . . . GetpJCB(dJobNum. EAX MOV ESP. Procedureal Interface : . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). EAX XOR EAX. Get a new JCB . . . . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. .No error . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. This is a NEAR . .

Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. RETF 8 .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. . POP EBP . .EBP . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. 0 . RETF 8 . the job that the task that called this belongs to. . . POP EBP .. nJCBs + 2. . GetJobNum . ErcBadJobNum . . EAX MOV ESP. MMURTL V1. dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . ErcInvalidJCB . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. This is . . .ESP .============================================================ .EBP . . . . . [EBP+12] . RETF 8 . This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job.pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. MOV EAX. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . .No Error . .pJobNumRet . [EBP+16] . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. or 0 will be returned with the data. EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . Procedureal Interface : .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI.JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. MOV ESP.0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . . POP EBP .Leave jobnum in EAX .0 is invalid CMP EAX.EBP . . . EAX XOR EAX. .Job Num OR EAX. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 .

Listing 22. This code is here for lack of a better place. It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. XOR EAX. pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where .get rid of high bits MOV ESI. GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType .============================================================ .asm. This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . . still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. Jobc.c. .================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. It's really not a filesystem function either. . disk that the system booted from.0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. . and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. Procedureal Interface : . [EBP+12] . variable _BootDrive defined in Main. And will .c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). EAX . This is from the public . pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk . AL . . MOV EBP. .No Error POP EBP . ending jobs. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . . Jobc. MOV EAX. PUSH EBP . Functions for starting new jobs. 7Fh . RETF 4 . . loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . .. .ESP . GetSystemDisk . _BootDrive AND EAX. contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. the number representing the system disk is returned.2.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI].

/* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. char *pJCBRet). extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb.ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet.h" #include "runfile.h" "MKbd. char *pNewJCB). SetExchOwner(long Exch.. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. GetExchOwner(long Exch.h" "MVid. SendAbort(long JobNum. . RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB).h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.h" "MJob. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. MMURTL V1. long Exch).)..h" "MFiles. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it. */ static long TmpStack[128].h" "MTimer.h" "MData.Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel.h" "MMemory. long cb).0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS . char *ppJCBRet).

j. 0. 0. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . filetype. *pPDE. offData = 0. char *pMem. iE. BogusMsg[2]. 0. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. static struct tagtype tag. job_fhE. static long offCode = 0. ercE. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. k. 0. extern unsigned long KillExch.static long JobNum. static unsigned long oCode. When all PTs have been cleaned. static long sCode. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. 0. oData. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. i++) { MMURTL V1. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. i<1024. static long cbFileE. unsigned long *pPT. *pData. we eliminate the user PDEs. erc. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. sData. static char aFileE[80]. 0. *pStack. for (i=768. ExchE. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. 0. sStack.

&dret). 5. long cbFileName. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. for (j=0. i.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. offData = 0. junk.id = 0. long *pfhRet) { long erc. oDDFIX = 0.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = ReadBytes (fh. 1. cbFileName. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. nCCFIX = 0. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. oDCFIX = 0. switch (tag. fh. reads and validates the run file. char fDone. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. &fh). 1. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. offCode = 0. nDCFIX = 0. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. k). Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. nCDFIX = 0. &tag. oCDFIX = 0. nDDFIX = 0. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. MMURTL V1. j<1024. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). 0. If all is well. while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. *pfhRet = 0. oCCFIX = 0. &filetype. dret. &dret).

len/4. &oDDFIX). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. break.break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. nCDFIX = tag. 4. oCCFIX+tag. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.len). &pStart. &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. break.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &oData). oCode+tag. /* skip it break. i+tag. /* skip it break. &offCode. &i). /* skip it break. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* skip it break. &offData. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret).len). &dret).len). &sData. 4.len/4. &sStack. /* skip it break. break.len). &dret). case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &oCCFIX). case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &sCode. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. nDDFIX = tag. /* skip it break. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. 4.len). oCDFIX+tag.len/4.len).0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . oDCFIX+tag. 4. oData+tag. oDDFIX+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4.len). break. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len/4. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. nDCFIX = tag. &oCode). break. nCCFIX = tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (tag. MMURTL V1. &oCDFIX). 4. &oDCFIX). case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret).

MMURTL V1. return(0). &pTmpJCB). pRunRet. } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. i). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". else { CopyData(pRunFile.0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetpJCB(JobNum. erc). GetJobNum(&JobNum). } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetpJCB(JobNum. i. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbPath) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile.break. *pdcbRunRet = i. dcbRunFile). long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. &pTmpJCB). } return(0). return (erc). else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum.

long dcbUser) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. pPathRet. pCmdRet. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. dcbPath). i. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). dcbCmd). GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. else { CopyData(pCmd. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser.else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. GetJobNum(&JobNum). pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. } return(0). return(0). } return(0). erc. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. else { CopyData(pPath. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. i). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. char *pPathRet. long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. GetpJCB(JobNum. *pdcbPathRet = i.0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . *pdcbCmdRet = i. i). } return(erc). MMURTL V1.

GetJobNum(&JobNum). return(0). pUserRet. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. &pTmpJCB). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. pFileRet. GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). *pdcbUserRet = i. GetpJCB(JobNum. else { CopyData(pUser. dcbName). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB).0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. return(0). dcbUser). i. long dcbName) { long JobNum. i. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB). long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. } return(0). pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. i). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. } return(0). *pdcbFileRet = i. i). GetpJCB(JobNum. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser.

fh. GetJobNum(&JobNum). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). i. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. dcbName). pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. *pdcbFileRet = i.0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. else { CopyData(pName.{ long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. return(0). &fh). &pTmpJCB). long *pFix. GetpJCB(JobNum. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. nPages. i. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. cbFileName. pFileRet. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. *pVid. long cbFileName. *pPT. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. *pOSPD. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. i). GetpJCB(JobNum. dret. } return(0). &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. U32 PhyAdd. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). long dcbName) { long JobNum. unsigned long *pPD. GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbName). return(0).

erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". pPD = 0. &pPD). &pData).0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . sStack = nPages * 4096. pOSPD[768] = pPT. &pTmpJCB). xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". &pNewJCB). if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. nPages = sData/4096. &pStack). nPages = sCode/4096. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. GetpJCB(1. pPD). &PhyAdd). &pCode). pVid = pPD + 8192. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". if (sData%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. pNewJCB = 0. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. pPT = 0. 0). PhyAdd). ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. 0). /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. /* Job's PD. 1). pPT). MMURTL V1. FillData(pVid. pPT. pPT = pPD + 4096. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. 4096. pVid = 0. 4096. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096.

pFix = pCode + i. &dret). We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.offCode + pCode. &dret). 4. oDDFIX). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pData. &dret). */ CopyData(pOSPD. 4. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offCode + pCode. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pData + i. sData. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. &i. 4096).offData + pData. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . sCode. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.offData + pData. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i. 4. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. oCode). the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCCFIX). } MMURTL V1. oCDFIX). pFix = pCode + i. pCode. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. pFix = pData + i. pPD. oDCFIX). 4./* Right now. &dret). &dret). oData).

pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". 0). pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. pNewJCB).} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. 0. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. 0). pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. pStart+pCode-offCode). we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). /* Size */ CopyData("VID".0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. 3). 0x18. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->nCols = 80. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. pStack+sStack-4. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. 1024. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. i. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. 1024. 3). /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. 25. pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0.

erc = AllocPage(nPages. oCDFIX). Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. &dret). dret. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. if (sData%4096) nPages++. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. sData. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . oData). /* All Job memory is now allocated. &dret). } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &pData). erc = AllocPage(nPages. nPages = sData/4096. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. &pStack). /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCode). pData. return(erc). i. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. sStack = nPages * 4096. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. pCode. long fh) { long erc. The PD. sCode. &pCode). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. nPages. pNewJCB = pJCB. nPages = sCode/4096. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. long *pFix. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB.

/* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret). This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. 4. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). pFix = pData + i. oDDFIX). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .PT and video. &i.offCode + pCode. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. &i. pFix = pCode + i.offData + pData. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oDCFIX). pFix = pData + i. 4. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. pFix = pCode + i. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.offCode + pCode. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). return(erc). its exchange. &dret). /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. This task. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4. &dret). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i. 4. MMURTL V1. oCCFIX). /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i.erc = ReadBytes (fh.offData + pData.

erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. Debugger or the current job. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). This is used to kill run-away jobs. BogusMsg). It results in a violent death for the job specified. ErcOpCancel). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. &pTmpJCB). SetPriority(31). /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. GetTSSExch(&ExchE). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. CleanUserPD(pPDE). if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). ISendMsg(KillExch. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc.0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS .GetpJCB(JobNumE. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. BogusMsg). This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). ercE = 0. WaitMsg(ExchE. ExchE. This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. if (erc) return(erc).

This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. } ercE = 0. Exch. ESP. &_KillTask). We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). fDebug. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. pTmpJCB). ExchE). ExchE. /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. &TmpStack[127]. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. 0x08. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). We send "Abort" messages to all services.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . CodeSeg. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. &pExchJCBE). iE++. GetpJCB(JobNumE. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. 3. return(erc). iE = 0. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). Priority. 0. &pCrntJCB). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service.ercE = 0. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB).

Send Abort messages to all services. &pExchJCBE). Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). */ GetExitJob(aFileE. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). ESP. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). EBP. iE = 0. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. If no exit run file. ercE = 0. ercE = 0. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ercE = 0. EAX. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. &cbFileE). we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . CleanUserPD(pPDE). } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE)./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. ExchE). iE++.

PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . MOV EBP. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. cbFileE. WaitMsg(ExchE. MOV ESP. ADD EAX. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. SUB EAX. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. MOV EBX. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. */ #asm MOV EAX. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. SetPriority(31). ercE). job_fhE). This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). &job_fhE). ExchE. BogusMsg).

} CloseFile(job_fhE). ercE = 0. In other words. iE = 0. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. long cbFileName. &pCrntJCB). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). &job_fhE). aFileE. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). GetpJCB(JobNumE. Send Abort messages to all services. long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE).error loading the Job. iE++. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. cbFileE = cbFileName. */ MMURTL V1.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. cbFileName. ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. &pExchJCBE). /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. cbFileName). The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks.

SendAbort(JobNumE. EAX. &job_fhE). job_fhE). if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. ESP. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. CleanUserPD(pPDE). Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. job_fhE). /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. The original user's job is destroyed. EBP. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). /* Try to load the Chain file. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. ercE = 0. ExchE). cbFileE. If no exit run file. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). &cbFileE). ercE = 0.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbFileE. */ MMURTL V1. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. &job_fhE).

#asm MOV EAX. SUB EAX. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. MOV ESP. ExchE. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. MOV EBP.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS .We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. WaitMsg(ExchE. BogusMsg). MOV EBX. ADD EAX. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). PUSH 18h MOV EAX. ercE).

Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger .Enter debugger . They are made to match those of the interrupted task. This makes the . small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. . . The debugger is a separate task. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. While writing the operating system. It has grown substantially. register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. Get EIP of offender for debugger .1. Listing 23.0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . task (without going through the kernel). I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. Get CS . and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. which are all debug exceptions.===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . First we copy the Page Dir . . debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. All of the debugger's . entry from the current job into the debuggers job. . code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task.Enter debugger . Get Flags . Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. If we get here. but is still very immature. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same.Chapter 23. See listing 23. Breakpoints. Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT.EnterDebug . on which exception is was.1. Get EIP of offender for debugger . are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). . Next. . then copy the CR3 . one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . . so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address.===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . I have left them as individual procedures.ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions.

INCLUDE .ALIGN DWORD .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS .INC RQB.Switch tasks to debugger .Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23.Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . You'll see much of it is display "grunt work. . Listing 23. [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.When the debugger exits. EBX EAX.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX . we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .DATA .External near Variables MMURTL V1. task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. EBX EAX.Put the stack back the way it was .2.CR3 -> DebuggerTSS .make his registers right! .INC JOB. EnterDebug: PUSH EAX . OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3].INC TSS. then jump to the debugger's selector.we MUST save PUSH EBX . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS. pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave.CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX .." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code.INCLUDE . Debugger Data and Code . [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. EAX This switches tasks.pCrntJCB -> EAX .INC . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.pDebuggerTSS -> EDX .current CR3 -> EBX . . and restore PUSH EDX . pRunTSS. pRunTSS EBX. with the exception of the disassembler. EAX EAX. caller's registers them before the into the debugger .Install Debugger's as current .Set up debugger selector .pRunTSS -> EAX .INCLUDE MOSEDF.Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX.INCLUDE . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD]. [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX. .Save the current pRunTSS .2 presents the debugger code in its entirety. BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .

0Ah DB 0 .flag 1 = Msg. dbgExchMsg .Active bytes in buf2 . . .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.'DumpD'.0B3h.' '.Boolean.Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .For ReadDbgKbd .' ' ' .0B3h.0B3h. 0 = Exch ..' '. dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.'Tasks'.'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.General purpose DDs (used all over) .'SetBP'.0B3h. .Has Dbg Video been initialized? .0B3h.0B3h.General use buffers DB '0000000000' ..Address we are setting as next .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.0B3h.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .'ClrBP'.Address of instructions we are displaying . .TO save the TSS we interrupted . ESC to quit. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .0B3h.To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .0B3h.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .CR LF for Dump etc.Address we are dumping .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .are we dumping DWORDS? .

'ESP: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1. OFFSET DbgVidSave .For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .' ES: 0B3h.'TSS: 0B3h.'EIP: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .' SS: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.'CR2: 0B3h.'EFL: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.'EBX: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.==================== End Data.'ESI: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h. Begin Code ========================== .sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.

.0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. . and number at 0 . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.the Instruction Pointer. .way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.[EAX+TSS_EFlags] . (we chanage the tasks) . the values of .NO . so we shouldn't have to reset it. .Dbgr is Job 2 .Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt . CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].0 .BX MOV EBX.We make them the same by putting the values we got from .When a fault or debug exception occurs. This only applies if . and flags are not the .EBX .dbgOldEIP . . MOV EBX.REF .Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX.EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX.NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor . The debugger . the handler is a procedure (NOT a task).dbgOldCS .0 . I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .procedure was entered.the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS.PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit.EBX .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 . Code Seg. when the handler is entered. But we do.0FFh .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. DbgpTSSSave . is always entered as a procedure.dbgOldEflgs .Display fault message and ..EBX . MOV EBX..

EAX MOV dbgX. EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.=========================================================== .00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags]. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX.0 .F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .Color White on black . 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX. MOV EAX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. 0FFh .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.Reset X & Y to 0. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .reset fault indicator .CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.ESCAPE (Exit) .This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP. EAX .Set TF in flags for single step .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .1 .dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid .DbgpTSSSave .Single Step (F1) . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.Get USER pUserTSS .Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.Fall through to keyboard loop . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .Display menu PUSH dbgX .Set BP (Current Address .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. 0FFh LEA EAX. .Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX. 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.

Display Exchanges (F5) .Sets NextEIP .Return to CS:EIP (F4) . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. . 11h dbg04 EAX. 00 MMURTL V1. EBX DR0.This puts the instruction on the line . .F3) . EAX dbg00 . .DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. 00000002h DR7. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. EAX DR7.This puts the instruction on the line .Full display .Task array display (F6) . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX. EAX dbgBPAdd. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd.Clear BP (Current Address . . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX.BP0 Set global .Clear BP saved address .Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 .See if we need to scroll up .MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX.Not used yet . EBX EAX. EAX dbg00 EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL.See if we need to scroll up .Save it so we know where BP is . 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL.Set Disassembly Address (F8) .Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX EAX.Back to where we were . . EAX DR6. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX. .0 .Address displayed . 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX.

BX . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. .This compares the current breakpoint the address .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX must be preserved MOV EBX.0 . 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL.============================================================== dbgShowBP: .Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) .Query XY . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.we are about to display.GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask .Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL. DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . If they are the same.This puts the instruction on the line .Return saved pRunTSS . . EAX BX. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) .we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint . .Back to begining . dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1. 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 . .MOV dbgfDumpD. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Info Address dump (F12) .See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX.

[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ESI Display .03 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX Display .04 MOV ESI.EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.BP Address .Save EAX across call .ECX Display .Number of this TSS .02 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .01 MOV ESI.EBX Display .EBP Display MMURTL V1.EDX Display .============================================================== .[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.06 MOV ESI.07 MOV ESI.3 params to TTYOut .OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.05 MOV ESI.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.MOV ECX.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED . ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EDI Display .00 MOV ESI. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.TSS Display .

dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.16 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.14 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.GS Display .[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.12 MOV ESI.SS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.FS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EIP Display .13 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.CR2 Display .EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ES Display .08 MOV ESI.19 MOV ESI.CS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.11 MOV ESI.15 MOV ESI.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.20 MOV ESI.DS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.MOV ECX.0 .EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.18 MOV ESI.CR3 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.EFlags Display .09 MOV ESI.10 MOV ESI.CR0 Display .[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.17 MOV ESI.ESP Display .

Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) . . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on .CALL DispRegs RETN . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .============================================== .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1. We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 . This is for Debugger Register display .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.========================================================================== .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN .

pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX. dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.ptr to string .=========================== .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.length of string .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN . PUSH EAX . . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.ptr to destination DD .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .Max size LEA EAX.Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgChar . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone . . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP..Convert String to DD .Ignore error if any MOV AL.Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .did they exit with CR? . dbgChar CMP AL.0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX. DbgBuf2 .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.=========================== . PUSH EAX .. cbBufLen2 .Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Goto Query Line .Go home. PUSH EAX .

dbgSpace MMURTL V1.Go home.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 . DbgBuf2 .0 .Goto Query Line .byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EAX . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. cbBufLen2 . 4 . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Crnt size PUSH 8 . PUSH EAX . dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.. dbgChar .Ignore error if any MOV AL.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. dbgChar CMP AL..did they exit with CR? .Max size LEA EAX.ptr to destination DD .ptr to string .PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. 24 .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . 0 JNE DumpDone .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd .length of string .convert address to text LEA EAX. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. 6 LEA EAX. .Convert String to DD . LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. PUSH EAX . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX.

Display 1 spaces .Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd .Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX .PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.ignore error . dbgBuf ADD EAX. 0 JE DumpB . [EBX] . dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS .display 2st byte . dbgBuf . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.ignore error .0 .Display First byte .make it a DD Text LEA EAX.point to second 2 bytes . display 1 space . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.go to display bytes LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.NO . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL.get dump address MOV EAX. dbgfDumpD .

16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Yes .ignore error .go back for next 4 bytes .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.display 4th byte . LEA EAX.ignore error LEA EAX.Display 2 spaces LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut . dbgBuf ADD EAX.ignore error .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.NO .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS .a space .NO . dbgCont .Query XY PUSH dbgX .Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX. DEC dbgGPdd1 . dbgCRLF . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .done with 4 quads?? .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .

DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.prgExch . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.MOV EAX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .Do CR/LF 0 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS .Col dbgGPdd1 .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX.Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . Exch number . . 0 RETN . sEXCH EDX EDX. 1 .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX. . 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . 1Bh .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .=========================== . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . dbgGPdd2 EDX.Convert Exch number for display .line we are one .Exch# we are on . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX.Col PUSH 0 . 0FFh . PUSH 54 .

.Flag to indicate we are doing messages . EAX MOV EAX.Could have left it on stack. . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX. [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX. . .0 .Save for loop . EAX OR EBX. [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Is is NIL (no msg or task)? .pMsg -> EBX .. [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Col dbgGPdd1 .pMsg -> EBX 20 . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX. . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Is is 1 (a message)? .Col dbgGPdd1 . but would be confusing later.Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.For next msg in chain (if it exists) .Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX. 0 ."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .ADD EAX. MOV EAX.EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. .Yes.. [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. .Save dMsg2 .pExch -> EAX . EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) .Get dMsg2 . Go to next Exch . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. EAX MOV EBX. Go check for tasks .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert dMsg1 .No. [EAX+EHead] .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5.Convert Job Number 10 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .MsgFlag -> EBX . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX.See if there is a first message MOV EAX.Get dMsg1 . . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.

Col 24 . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. MOV EAX. 23 .Col dbgGPdd1 .No . INC dbgGPdd1 . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Convert Task Number 1 . . nDynEXCH . [EBX+TSSNum] . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .Is is 0 (no TSS)? .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.Next line please .Col . 0FFh CMP EAX.pExch -> EAX .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Lop off key status bytes . MOV EAX. EAX EAX. EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. 1Bh JE dbgDEDone .Line . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 31 . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get Number of Task at exch .0 . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5.Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line OFFSET dbgCont .Clear pNextTask .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.pTSS -> EBX . EAX AX.Save ptr to next task if it exists . .

line.No . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX. Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) .for the next one dbgDT01: .Col PUSH 0 . 1 . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX. Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. MMURTL V1.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. .Col .Another pointer in the link? . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . .If so. EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .line we are one . 1 . we increment TSS number and go back .Displays Tasks that are active along with . . Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Line for labels .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . We are on line 1 again .Set up to loop for next msg/task . Task number .=========================== .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 .NonZero if we are doing tasks . dbgGPdd2 EAX.Length of message .Tasks .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) . EAX.Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0 RETN . PUSH 54 . OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX. OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. 1 dbgDT02 EBX. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. dbgGPdd6 OR EAX.Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . nDynEXCH . 2 dbgDT03 EBX.If not.0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS .

go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX. ECX .Col dbgGPdd1 .Col dbgGPdd1 . 8 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .back for next one dbgDT05: . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1.Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS . DDtoHex 10 . nTSS . EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX. ECX MOV EAX. [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX MOV EBX.NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6. EAX . EBX . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . 8 .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX.Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array . DDtoHex 20 . dbgGPdd2 .Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 . JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. dbgGPdd4 .Not used.EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX. MOV CL. dbgGPdd3 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5.Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .of TSSs . EAX . [EBX+Priority] .Save pJCB for display . 512 ECX EBX.TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .EAX has pJCB OR EAX. .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .

go for next Task number .Col 24 . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display . . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't . DDtoHex 30 .No.PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf . Call with: . continue prompt dbgDT01 .Yes.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . 1Bh . DDtoHex 40 . 23 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Save number to display MMURTL V1. 8 . go back for next 0 .Col dbgGPdd1 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . MOV EAX.23 lines yet? dbgDT06 .====================================================================== .Save it for the top MOV EAX.Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . 31 . .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. 8 .Line OFFSET dbgCont . dbgGPdd6 .Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. This is for Debugger Address Info display .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 0FFh .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) . 0 RETN . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Col dbgGPdd1 .

OFFSET DbgPA .OFFSET DbgM1 .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Length of line .OFFSET DbgM4 .RdyQ LEA EAX. prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.pTSS3 MOV EAX.SVCs LEA EAX.JCBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM8 .MonTSS MOV EAX.=============================================== .OFFSET DbgM6 . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.GDT LEA EAX.IDT LEA EAX. OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Vid Attribute .ptr to line .OFFSET DbgM5 .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM3 .OFFSET DbgM9 .OFFSET DbgM2 .OFFSET DbgM0 . rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Exchs MOV EAX.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .Do it .LBs LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM7 . IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.RQBs MOV EAX. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.DbgInfo . rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1.PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.

Timer Blocks LEA EAX. 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 . .MOV ESI.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY. The other . query line.Query XY (See what line and Col) . rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .Lines 0-23 1 . Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Clear the query line (Line 23. .Yes.If so.All of the debugger text is displayed in a window . go back for next key 0 . dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23.======================================================= .===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1. Line 0-24) 0 66 .Col 0.0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS . Scroll test area (Col 0-64.Got to Column 0.and the register display.areas are resrved for the menu. we scroll up the text area by one line. .between colums 0 and 66.Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? .======================================================= . Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .OFFSET DbgMB .fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .ignore error RETN . .Columns 0-65 24 .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.No. and line 0 to 24.

.

many device drivers are written in C.. The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. They were designed that way.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned.1. you're on your own. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry.1. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). See listing 24. U32 nDevices. There are no include files. S8 *pDCBs. in addition to those in the code itself. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. All of the hardware commands are well documented. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. Time was the deciding factor. In fact. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. extern far U32 MMURTL V1.g. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. U32 dfReplace). Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. but I try not to. If you have MFM drives. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. though I would rather have done them in assembler. Comments. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. This seems to be the best. this device driver should work with MFM drives. unsigned long int).Chapter 24. Listing 24. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). but I think you're OK.

U8 *pDestination. static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. It's called xprintf(). /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataIn. Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. U32 *pMsgRet).. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U8 *pDataOut. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum.. OutWords(U32 dPort. static U32 hd_wait (void). U32 dnBlocks. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 msg2). U32 dLBA.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Listing 24. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). static U32 check_busy(void). U8 *pDataRet). /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U16 wPort). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch.). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U32 *pMsgRet). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. void OutByte(U8 Byte. void OutWord(U16 Word. U8 *pDataIn). U32 dnBlocks. U32 dBytes). U32 dnBlocks). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. U32 HdSect. U32 count). You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. static void hd_reset(void). MMURTL V1. U32 dnBlocks. S8 *pIRQ). Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. See listing 24. U16 InWord(U16 wPort). I needed a method to get data to the screen. static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 dBytes). U16 wPort). . static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. While writing the operating system. U32 msg1. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). U32 msg2). InWords(U32 dPort. U32 dBytes). U32 nBlks).2.2. U8 *pDataOut). U32 dOpNum. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). U32 msg1. static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive).0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . static U32 send_command(U8 parm). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch).

U32 dStatusMax. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set... S8 * pStatRet. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum.0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 sdInitData). U32 *pdSatusRet). hddev_stat(U32 dDevice.U8 static U32 *pData). bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. S8 *pInitData.

low cyl (1F4h) 5 . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.16 bit) 1 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives.high cyl (1F5h) 6 . can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1. Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 . head and Sector number. then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag.command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver..sector count (1F2h) 3 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 . This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.write data (1F0h . and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . wait 50us.sector number (1F3h) 4 .read data (1F0h .error register (1F1h) 2 .Set. Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .sector number (1F3h) 4 .16 bit) 1 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.

cylinders. hd1_type. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. hd0_heads. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. hd0_cyls.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. Listing 24. statbyte. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd0_secpertrk. hd1_heads. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Current Physical Drive.which head */ hd_nsectors. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. fDataReq. See listing 24.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. hd1_secpertrk. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Current Command */ hd_drive.3. hd_control. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. */ /* Current number of heads. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type.3. /* Calculated from LBA . If I did one member.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector.

U8 fNewMedia. ResetStatByte. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. U32 blocks_done. U32 last_erc. S8 *pDevSt. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. LastErcByte0. MMURTL V1. LastStatByte1.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. U32 OS4. U8 type_now. 32 bytes out to here. S16 wJob. LastErcByte1. filler1.static U16 hd1_cyls. LastSeekErc1. U8 fDevReent. U8 fSingleUser. U32 nBlocks. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. }. U32 OS2. S8 type. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. U32 OS1. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. U32 OS5. S16 nBPB. S8 sbName. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. LastRecalErc1. fIntOnReset. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. U32 OS6. LastSeekErc0. /* Number of bytes per sect. S8 *pDevInit. }. U32 BlocksMax. S8 *pDevOp.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. LastStatByte0. U32 OS3.

'D'.Name[1] hdcb[1].Name[2] hdcb[1]. '0'./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch.4.sbName hdcb[0].pDevOp hdcb[0]. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19). See listing 24.Name[2] hdcb[0].Name[0] hdcb[1]. hd1_heads = 16. static U32 hd_msg.type hdcb[0]. 3.Name[0] hdcb[0]. &hddev_stat.type hdcb[1].4.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a loadable driver.pDevOp hdcb[1]. 1.pDevInit hdcb[1]. 'D'. this would be the main() section of the C source file. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver. '1'.nBPB hdcb[0]. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc.pDevSt hdcb[1]. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024. /* largest device handled . 524288. 3. 1. &hddev_init. MMURTL V1. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0]. 524288. &hddev_init.nBPB hdcb[1].Name[1] hdcb[0]. /* largest disk handled . /* Random */ 512. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read. hd1_secpertrk = 17.sbName hdcb[1]. 'H'.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.pDevInit hdcb[0]. /* Random */ 512.nBlocks hdcb[1]. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A). Listing 24.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. &hddev_stat. static long HDDInt. hd1_cyls = 1024.nBlocks hdcb[0]. static U32 hd_msg2. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17.

They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. It seems like a lot of work. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. but they don't. erc = hd_recal(0). */ hd_reset(). We have to do it once. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works.0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . &hdisk_isr). /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. SetIRQVector(14.erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). hd1_type = 0. */ /* Reset the HDC . If the second drive is not there. hd0_type = 0. UnMaskIRQ(14). They vary from BIOS to BIOS. */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). */ erc = hd_recal(0). } } /* if we got here. */ hd_reset(). drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah.last_erc = erc. /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. then try both physical drives.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). MMURTL V1. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0.last_erc = erc. We have to make this sucker work the hard way. /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0).

HD_REG_PORT). and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus.erc = hd_recal(0).0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . else hdstatus. MicroDelay(4). If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. EndOfIRQ(14).seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). 1)). Sleep(20). &hdcb. ISendMsg(hd_exch. 0xfffffff0.fIntOnReset = 1. This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. 0xfffffff0). gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit.ResetStatByte = statbyte. hdcb[0]. OutByte(4. This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. HDDInt = 1. It just waits for an interrupt. if (i) hdstatus.last_erc = erc. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. &hd_msg). HD_REG_PORT). } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. 2. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. UnMaskIRQ(14). /* 200ms .fIntOnReset = 0. The caller should call check_busy and check the error.

/* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. See listing 24. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count.5. nSectors. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. etc. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc.3 seconds. /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). check_busy(void) count = 0. return(erc).0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . hd_Cmd[3] = 0. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. Listing 24. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. Sleep(5). /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS).5. erc = hd_wait(). /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads.). Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. /* set max heads. sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. hd_Cmd[4] = 0.

/* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch.LastRecalErc1 = erc. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. &hd_msg). KillAlarm(hd_exch). if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt).LastRecalErc0 = erc. return(erc). /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. if (drive) hdstatus. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc).Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). Time-out and return if no interrupt. else hdstatus. return(ok). *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. 300). hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0.0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). KillAlarm(hd_exch). else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive.

if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+6). U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. HD_PORT+4). HD_PORT+1). Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. HD_PORT+7). j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). HD_REG_PORT). if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. MMURTL V1. U16 cyl. HD_PORT+2). For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. verify. msg[2]. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). OutByte(hd_control. &msg) == 0). if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. HD_PORT+3). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). seek). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. write. } erc = check_busy(). if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. format. head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. hd_nsectors = nBlks. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2].alarm or int messages before we send a command. setupseek(U32 dLBA.0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . HD_PORT+5). return(erc). *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j.

hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. /* hd_sector. } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. 1). ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. } = = = = = nBlks. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK)./* we now know what cylinder. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). hdstatus. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. /* cyl & 0xff. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk).0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . return(erc). calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk.. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok.LastSeekErc0 = erc. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0.

/* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault. */ erc = check_busy(). else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. else return(erc). break.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy.U8 statbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. else return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. default: break. } return(erc). /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).LastStatByte0 = statbyte. After all. } else { erc = check_busy().LastErcByte1 = errbyte. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break.LastErcByte0 = errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). he interrupted us with status.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . else hdstatus. errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. MMURTL V1. else hdstatus. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. if (hd_drive) hdstatus.

pDataRet. nleft. hd_sector. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. nBPS. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. nSoFar++. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. nBPS). pDataOut. erc = setupseek(dLBA. dnBlocks). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). nBPS). } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. hd_sector. --nleft. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. pDataRet+=nBPS. nSoFar. dnBlocks).nBPB. pDataOut+=nBPS. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. } } return(erc). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. U32 dnBlocks.else erc = ErcBadHDC. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA.nBPB. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE).0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . nBPS. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. erc = setupseek(dLBA. U32 dnBlocks. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). erc = check_busy(). This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head.

RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. pDataOut+=nBPS. cyl = Cylinder. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. hd_head. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. cyl. nBPS). U32 HdSect. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. SEC %d\r\n". Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. hd_sector). dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. return(erc). /* hd_sector. /* cyl & 0xff. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. pDataOut. dnBlocks). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). HD %d. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. nSoFar++. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. head and Sector number. U16 cyl. return(erc).erc = hd_wait(). *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. erc = hd_wait(). /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE).0 -404- .

12=0 and 13=1. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. return(erc). } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. erc = 0. 512). For Hard disk. else hd_drive = 1. “Programming Interfaces. &hd_msg).0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. MMURTL V1. Listing 24. U32 dOpNum. } Chapter 8. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice.6. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. pDataRet. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next.blocks_done = 0. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT.” discussed device driver interfaces. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. erc = hd_wait(). U8 *pData) { U32 erc. U32 dnBlocks.6.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). See listing 24. U32 dLBA.

erc = 0. } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. default: erc = ErcBadOp. break. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. pData). /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). U32 dStatusMax. break.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. break. dnBlocks. break. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. /* Null Command */ break.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. dnBlocks). Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. */ break. pData). case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). dnBlocks.last_erc = erc. dnBlocks.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. break. return(erc). case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. S8 * pStatRet. break. pData). case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. dnBlocks. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. pData).

nBPB.last_erc. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax. hdstatus. hdstatus.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. hdstatus. hdstatus. *pdStatusRet = i. S8 *pInitData. } /* Calculate size of status to return.nHead = hd0_heads.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk.{ U32 i. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters.). else i = sStatus. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status.last_erc.type_now = hd0_type. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus.nBPB. hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[0].type_now = hd1_type. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect.erc = hdcb[1]. CopyData(&hdstatus. hdstatus. } else { hdstatus. i). The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat). U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1. hdstatus. pStatRet.nCyl = hd1_cyls. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit. return ok.nCyl = hd0_cyls.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS . *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice.erc = hdcb[0]. hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[1]. hdstatus. The DCB values are updated if this is successful.nHead = hd1_heads. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. hdstatus.

nHead. hdcb[hd_drive]. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive). else i = sdInitData. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0. return(erc). /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.nSectors * HDStatTmp.nCyl * HDStatTmp.nBPS. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive). if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. else hd_drive = 1. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp. &HDStatTmp. erc = 0.nCyl.{ U32 erc. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp.nHead.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. } /* If no error. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nSectors. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.nHead. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive].nSectors. CopyData(pInitData.nCyl. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.last_erc = erc.nBPB = HDStatTmp. /* If no error.type_now. hdcb[hd_drive].last_erc = 0. i. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. i). } hdcb[hd_drive]. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp.type_now.

unsigned long Baudrate. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. unsigned long LastErc.. MMURTL V1. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . 16450. and this driver.. unsigned char stopbits. It needs more work. unsigned long IOBase. “MMURTL Sample Software. */ 150-38400 */ 0. 150 . it is a fully functional driver. */ It's already open.7.7. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. which is a block oriented random device. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS.. unsigned long XBufSize. but. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. unsigned char parity. other than that. unsigned long LastTotal. Listing 24. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. They are two different animals with the same basic interface.38400 */ Parity for this port.. as well as status. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. as well as by the driver itself.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. */ It's opened by someone else. unsigned long XTimeOut. 0=none. RS-232. unsigned long RTimeOut.. the driver. unsigned long RBufSize. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. unsigned char databits. See listing 24. unsigned char IRQNum. or 16550 UARTs.. unsigned long resvd[6]. 1=even.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. which is a sequential byte-oriented device.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port.

U8 **ppMemRet).}. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again.0 *pIRQ). U32 nPages). U32 nDevices.8. U32 dfReplace). See listing 24. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). All other command are specific to this driver. S8 *pDCBs.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. S8 MMURTL V1. Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Listing 24. extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum.8. you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2).

*/ #define CTS MMURTL V1. U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). U32 *pdStatusRet).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U32 dStatusMax. void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 count). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDestination. S8 *pMsgRet). S8 *pInitData. U32 sdInitData). U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. set and reset signal line condition and functions. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 msg2). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. /* local prototypes. U32 msg2). S8 *pStatRet. U32 dnBlocks. U32 dOpNum. S8 *pMsgRet). U8 *pData). */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . These will be called form the device driver interface. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 msg1. U32 dBytes). U32 msg1. U32 dLBA. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U16 wPort).

sSendBuf[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. DLAB_LO[2]. tail_recv[2]. IER[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. int_id[2]. stat_byte[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. fExpectInt[2]. LCR[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. IIR[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . cSendBuf[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. head_send[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. tail_send[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. FCR[2]. mstat_byte[2]. LSR[2]. head_recv[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. MCR[2]. MSR[2].

4 chars 11 . FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 .Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0.2 chars 10 . MMURTL V1.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char. \___________ = 0.TX data. \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 24. RX data. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0. 0. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. 1 = Multichar 0.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.Interrupt Enable.1 char 01 . Divisor Latch LSB IER -. I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -.9.

1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.H.Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.10. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232. See listing 24. Listing 24. MMURTL V1.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS .10. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2].Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter. static struct statRecC *pCS. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.

/* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void). static void interrupt comISR1(void). 8N1. Listing 24. S8 *pDevSt. U32 OS3. S8 type. Listing 24. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS . RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface.11.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. U32 OS5. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. See listing 24. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts. U32 last_erc. U32 OS1. U32 OS6. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600. S16 wJob. S8 fSingleUser. = 'O'. as is required by MMURTL.12. U32 nBlocks. }. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12].11. S8 *pDevOp. S16 nBPB. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. See listing 24.Name[1] comdcb[0]. S8 sbName. and they are contiguously defined. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver.Name[2] MMURTL V1. This means it's ready for business.12. S8 fDevReent. U32 OS2. One for each channel. U32 OS4. = 'M'.Name[0] comdcb[0].0 = 'C'. S8 *pDevInit. Note that there are two of DCB’s.

= 4096. = 0.RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. &comISR0). MaskIRQ(3). 2.Name[0] comdcb[1].pDevSt comdcb[1]. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op.Name[2] comdcb[1].0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS .XBufSize comstat[0].databits comstat[1]. /* Sequential */ 1. &comISR1).pDevOp comdcb[0].Baudrate comstat[0]. SetIRQVector(3.stopbits comstat[1]. SetIRQVector(4.Baudrate comstat[1].pDevOp comdcb[1].Name[1] comdcb[1].RTimeOut comstat[1].pDevInit comdcb[0]. &comdcb.nBlocks comdcb[0]. = 100. /* none */ = 8. 4.pDevInit comdcb[1]. 'M'.XBufSize comstat[1]. /* 1 byte per block */ 0.RBufSize sSendBuf[1] = 4096.IOBase = comstat[0]. 0x3F8. sRecvBuf[0] = 4096. /* COM1 */ /* COM2 */ = 9600. = 2.nBPB comdcb[1]. = 4096.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'. /* none */ = 8.type comdcb[0]. 'C'. = 4096.nBlocks comdcb[1]. 1)).nBPB comdcb[0]. 4. = 1. /* Set d