MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.....................................314 GetCMOSDate() ...............................................................................................317 Tone().........................................................................................................................................................................................................................298 AliasMem .... Public for linear to physical conversion.....................................................................................................................................301 Listing 19.................................................................................................................297 Listing 19...........................308 TIMER CODE ...............................................................................................................14................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Adding a call gate to the GDT ........................................ Code to alias memory .................................5...............................................................................................................19..........................296 Listing 19.............................................. TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE .............................................. Code to produce a tone .......307 Listing 20.............................309 Sleep() .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................316 Listing 20.......................................................................... Adding a page table for user memory.....................................................................................................................303 QueryMemPages........................FindRun ........................................................................................................................................................ The timer interrupt service routine ....................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ................296 AddIDTGate......................................316 Beep().................................................................................................................25.......294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ..........................................................312 KillAlarm()................................................................291 Listing 19.................................................................................................................................................................................298 Listing 19.................................................... Adding a run of linear memory..........312 Listing 20..................................................290 AddAliasRun ............................. Code to find a free run of linear memory....................14.................................................................................................................................................308 Listing 20....................................................................................................................................................................................................................13.......................................................................................11..............................................................................................................................................................2............................................................................................... Code for the Alarm function ................................315 GetTimerTick()..................................................................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS .........................................................................313 Listing 20..................................................................................288 Listing 19.................................... Code to read the CMOS date ............ Code for the KillAlarm function.........313 MicroDelay() .............................24..........297 AllocOSPage........................................ Data and constants for timer code...........................................311 Listing 20............................................................................................................................... Code for the Sleep function ...................................................................................................................................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory...........................................314 Listing 20.......................296 AddGDTCallGate ....316 Listing 20......................................................4........................................................................................................309 The Timer Interrupt .............................................................................23.....315 Listing 20................................................... Code to read the CMOS time...........................312 Listing 20..........................................................................................305 Listing 19......................................................................309 Listing 20.. Adding entries to the IDT ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18.................................... Code for the MicrDelay function .............................................................. Code to produce a beep.................................................................309 Listing 20...................................................................................................................317 Listing 20.......................317 Listing 20............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................317 MMURTL V1.......................288 AddRun ...........................................................................316 Beep_Work() ...................................17..................................294 Listing 19............................................................................................... Code to find number of free pages....................311 Alarm().......................................................................293 AddOSPT .......................................................................307 INTRODUCTION ...............................................307 TIMER DATA .........................................................22...... Code to return the timer tick .............................3................9.................................................................................................................................................... Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ..................................13..................305 CHAPTER 20.304 Listing 19.........12.........................................8.......289 Listing 19...................................................21............299 Listing 19..............293 Listing 19.....................20......................................................................................................................................................................303 Listing 19..................10......... External functions for timer code .......299 DeAliasMem...............16............6............................................ Allocating a page of linear memory........................................1...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7.............301 DeAllocPage ................................................. Code to remove alias PTEs.................................................... Deallocating linear memory....................................................313 GetCMOSTime() ............ Adding an operating system page table ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Loop in timer ISR .........................................................................................................................291 AddUserPT .304 GetPhyAdd ...................................................15..............

.......... 390 Listing 24...........................................................................................................................9..... Keyboard Translation Code............................ 429 KEYBOARD CODE .............. 442 Listing 25.....6..................................................... 344 Listing 22............ End of Initialization Code........................................................ Keyboard Data and Tables ...... Debugger Data and Code.. 366 Listing 23........... Initialization Subroutines.....8.......................... Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger...........................13........................................................................c source code................................................................. 417 Listing 24................................ 436 Keyboard ISR.......................................................12............................. 409 Listing 24..................................................................................................1................ 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS .......... RS-232................................4....3.............................................................................. 325 Listing 21.............................. Job Management Subroutines.. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ..............................................2...............2... 389 Listing 24................................................ 321 Listing 21.................................................. 337 INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER..................... 366 CHAPTER 24............................................................... 398 Listing 24....................7........................................................ 319 Listing 21.... Continuation of OS initialization.............................................................. 414 Listing 24......................................14........................................................... 393 Listing 24................ Continuation of OS initialization.......1.........................1................................... 410 Listing 24... 429 KEYBOARD DATA................................. Keyboard ISR Code.......................................................................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ...........0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ............................................................................................................................................................. 438 Reading the Final Buffer . 424 CHAPTER 25....2.................................................................................. 442 MMURTL V1......................................................................................................11.... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA .................. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ..................................................................................................................... INITIALIZATION CODE .... 436 Keyboard Translation........................ 321 Listing 21........ OS Initialization Code and Entry Point..................10........................................................6....................................................................... Read Keyboard Buffer Code ........................ Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ...............................................................................................................................................................................................CHAPTER 21................................................... 413 Listing 24................................................................................... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ..............................................1......................................................................................................................................................................5................................................................................................................ 331 CHAPTER 22................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) .......................................................4....................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init).....1................................................................................................................................................................................ JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ... 319 INTRODUCTION ................................................ 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Jobc................................................................................................................................................. 389 INTRODUCTION .............................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS .................................................................... 438 Listing 25.............. 365 Listing 23....................................................................... 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ..........................................2.............................................................. SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE................ 344 CHAPTER 23................................................................................................ 326 Listing 21............................................... 328 Listing 21............................................ Main Operating System Data ...........................................2.................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ...............3........ 415 Listing 24...................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ...................................................... 327 Listing 21..............................................................................7........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 429 INTRODUCTION ...............................................h Header File .......................................................................3.............................................. KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE...........................................................................................................5...................... Initialize call gates amd the IDT..................................................... 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ...................................................................................... 395 Listing 24....................................................................................................................... 365 INTRODUCTION .............. 337 Listing 22................................................................................................................................................................................. 415 Listing 24................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ............................................... 389 Listing 24......................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) ......................................... 436 Listing 25. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) .... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER .................................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ................................................................................................................. 409 Listing 24............................... 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING .4........................ DEBUGGER CODE .............................................................. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ................................... 429 Listing 25..................

....................................................................................................................................................................... Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to Return Current Cursor Position ............................................................................................................................................460 Listing 26......................................................................8...................................................................... MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ................................................................................................461 Listing 26......462 Listing 26...443 Keyboard Procedural Interface .................................................................................................................................................................................. Keyboard Service Initialization .........................................539 DASM CONCEPTS ............ Code to Screen Video Attributes .................10.........................................................7................................................................ Code to get the Normal Video Attribute...........1................................................... Video constants and data .............................................................................................................2................................................................................................................. Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen.452 Hardware Helpers ......473 MS-DOS Boot Sector ........................................ Keyboard system service code.......... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ...................................................................................................................... Code to Set Cursor Position............................................................................................................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ....................................................................................................................................473 Logical Block Address (LBA)....................................................................464 Listing 26..................................................................................................................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ....................542 Dynamic Link Libraries ...........................................................................................................................................................................................464 Listing 26...........................8......................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position..................................5...................................... Code to Set the Video Owner ............458 Listing 26............................................................................ DASM................................................................................12.......................................................................................................474 File System Initialization ...............................10.............................................................................11.........................................................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ...........................................................................................................................................................1.....................................2...474 Listing 27. Simple Application Template File .....................................................................................................................................................................................3.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Low-level Keyboard Control Code........................16...........539 INTRODUCTION .........0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ...............................................15...............................457 Listing 26..............................541 Errors Only Option ...................................................................................................... FILE SYSTEM CODE.........................................................................................451 Listing 25........................................................448 Debugger Keyboard...............5...................................... Code to Initialize Video .......................................................................................................................................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up..............................................................1....................540 Application Template File...................................................................473 Hidden Sectors...................................................................................................................................................................................................................469 Listing 26..................................... Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ........457 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................542 Device Drivers ......The Keyboard Service ...................................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code ..............458 Listing 26... A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER ...............................9..........................................................................................................................................................14.............................. Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call .............473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers.......................................................6....................................................................................................................................9..................................................465 Listing 26............ Code to Edit a Line on the Screen...............451 Keyboard Service Initialization .........................................443 Listing 25............457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ................ Code to Clear the Screen .....................................................................................................................................................................453 Listing 25............................................................457 THE VIDEO CODE ......................13.......541 Command Line Options .......... Code to set Normal Video Attribute ..................................................................540 Listing 28...................466 Listing 26......461 Listing 26...............468 Listing 26...............................................474 CHAPTER 28............................................................................................................ A More Complicated Template File ..473 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................542 MMURTL V1.......................................................459 Listing 26.........................................................452 Listing 25....................... Code to Get the Current Video Owner............................................540 Listing 28.............. VIDEO CODE .468 Listing 26..................................................................................................................................4.................6.......................................................453 CHAPTER 26.........................................................................................................................................................................460 Listing 26................. Code to Get a Character and Attribute..............................448 Listing 25............473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ...............................................................................................................................................................450 Listing 25................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................541 List File Option ...........................................................472 CHAPTER 27........................7...........................................539 USING DASM............................................................................

.......................................................................1 ............................................................. 568 USING CM32....... 565 Far External Functions ........ 547 DW (Define Word) .....................................................................................................................................................DASM Source Files ............................... 565 Structure Limitations .................... 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes .... Supported Library Functions .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 566 Initialization of Static Variables ................... 562 FAR Calls ................................................................................................................. 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers .................................................................................................................................................................... 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 556 Tag Descriptions................................................................................................. 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 558 Your Own Assembler? ................................................................................. CM32....Tag Usage .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS .............................................................................................. Standard String Functions for MMURTL ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2........................................................................................................................ 545 DASM Addressing Modes ........................................................................................................ 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations ..................................................................................3 ...................................... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) .......................................... 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information.................................................................................................................................................... Alternating data and code in a template file ....................................................... 570 Listing 29.............................................................................................................................................. 570 Listing 29................... 569 Listing 29................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 542 DASM Program Structure ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING .......... 568 Library Functions ..............0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ................................................................ Standard file I/O for MMURTL ............................................................................ 559 CHAPTER 29............................................................................................................................................................................................................CD-ROM CONTENTS .................................... 562 Variable Length Argument Lists ............................................................................................................................ 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ............................ 563 Library Header File Access................................................................................ 561 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 543 Listing 28.................... 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses .................................................................................................... 543 DOT Commands ........................................................................................................................................... 555 Table 28............................................................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ......................... 545 Table 28.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.............................................................................................................................................. 547 DB (Define Byte)............................Supported Instructions ................................................................................................................ 548 PUBLIC Declarations.................................................................................................................... 581 MMURTL V1........................................ 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 579 INDEX ........................................................................ 548 Labels and Address........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 568 Command Line Options ..................... 562 Interrupt Functions.......................... 552 Table 28................................................. 565 Type Conversion and Pointers...........1......................................................................................... 575 APPENDIX A -.....................................3.......................Specifying Memory Operands..........2 ......... 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ..................................................................................................................................... 542 Memory Model.. A 32-BIT C COMPILER ..................................................... 545 Storage Declarations..................... 569 Library Code Examples ............ 547 DF (Define Far Word) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 548 EXTRN Declarations............................

0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .MMURTL V1.

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IBM. That was part of my wish list. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). are the tasking model. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. In the early days. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. They use them.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. as viewed by the outside programmer. and the programming interface. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. The most obvious of these. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. NOT SO FAST THERE. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. memory model. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. portability issues size and speed. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. but very light on specifics. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. not his IQ. and begin coding. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. When OS/2 was first developed. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. MMURTL V1. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. As coding began. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. In the case of my own operating system. I have documented what it takes to really write one. code. When I started out. You. they work with them. I decided what stayed and what went. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. I determined the specifications for the final product. however. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. it's a complete system. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. You don't need to design your own. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. If you write something that no one can use. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. I set the ground rules." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. or Sun. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. But I wanted a small API. I would just make a list. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. It's up to you. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. it's unlikely they'll use it. do some research on each of the desirables. If you're an experienced programmer. Realizing this.Chapter 1. Unfortunately.

Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. modify. redesign it to meet your requirements. message based.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. For this reason. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. MMURTL V1. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. so I've removed the mystique. I'm sure it won't. Even though they have added speed.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . This was the 16. or all of it if you wish to write your own. In fact. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. change it to suit your needs.to 32-bit jump. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. You may or may not want to do this for your system. but it was a "must" for me. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. portability issues. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. the memory model. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. real-time. which I felt. Throughout this book. along with all the tools necessary to build. would help me write better application software for it. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). But that's not what this book is about. or write your own. Once again. your goals may be different. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. programming interfaces. This was completely intentional. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. hardware interface. It clouds far too many real issues these days. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. and some serious "turbo" modifications. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. For instance. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). multitasking. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. a few more instructions. ideas from it. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). Hardware Timers. You can use pieces of it. In my opinion. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. The source code. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. 80486 (486). they are effectively super-386 processors. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. size and speed. Serial and Parallel Ports. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented.

” Protection from other programs . LOMEM. “The Hardware Interface. are outside events. Extended.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). Here was my wish list: True Multitasking .” and chapter 8. If you don't have this requirement. Chapter 5 covers memory management. hardware paging. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware.My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. Client/Server design . but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. “Programming Interfaces. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap.” Simplicity . and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. You may start with my list and modify it. and what my end result was. I use the stack. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . Easy programming . MMURTL V1. the right mix of capability and simplicity. We want the system to react to us. HIMEM. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). Power without BLOAT. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). or start one from scratch. UMBs. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. or maybe a little less? Of course.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. Message agents could be added to any platform. General Discussion and Background. but not all the options. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. I'll discuss some of your options. LIM. YOURMOTHERSMEM. “Programming Interfaces. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. and also what I decided on. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. If it is another processor. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements.Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. such as C or Pascal. and most of them are grossly under used.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. if we knew how. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). I discuss this in chapter 6.The ability to react to outside events in real time. but real multi-threading . If you're going to write your own. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . I didn't want to do this. Real-time operation . many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply.. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. but I don't recommend it. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. and for a very good reason. the humans. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. yet powerful enough to get the job done. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. is with a procedural interface. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). “The Hardware Interface. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there).Not just task switching between programs. We. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry.Keep the system as simple as possible.But not the programmer.. I also wanted to maintain a small. you may have a different platform in mind.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . calling conventions. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language.

I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. x86/Pentium processors. In the educational field. Sections of the source code will. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). And of course. Dedicated. but only a distant cousin. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). Then again. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). no doubt. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. MMURTL V1. be of value in your other programming projects as well. and 64K of data). see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. I put together my own operating system. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. If you intend to run MMURTL. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. nor is it intended to directly replace them. kerneL. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. Real-Time. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. or for general reference. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. make up your own! But. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). Real-Time. or use any of the tools I included. If you're not worried about memory consumption. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. If you don't like my acronym. I'm sure. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. the tools. expand it to your heart's desire. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. and the initialization entry point jumped to. Multitasking. Yes. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. Message based. the code. If you don't want to start from scratch. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). also – 2000). via the keyboard serial controller (most are. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. 80486. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required.x (IBM). some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. not at all the same. EISA (Ed. Both 5. The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. Pentium. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). IDE is preferred. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . but a few are not). BIOS types and versions don’t matter. The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. If you want to run DOS. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. that is. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. If yours isn't. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. but still. (or even MS-DOS). Note: PCI bus designs work well. MMURTL V1. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it).25" and 3. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. This includes Cyrix. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. 8250. The processor must be an Intel 80386. Hence. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture).5" are supported. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. you can change the code as needed. eases the development burden. but only out of convenience. IBM and other clone processors. you can ignore this section. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. One Megabyte of RAM is required. and more importantly. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). No reformatting or partitioning your disks. AMD.

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I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. Five years later. Far too often. It was a 32-bit system. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. In Chapter 1. “Overview. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. write your own operating system. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. a. Every little thing you've run across will. affect its design. It whet my whistle. That was 1989. add. Borrow from mine. As you can see. I would not let this happen. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). Burroughs and Sperry. etc. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. merged). This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. my schooling.k.Chapter 2. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. for no apparent reason). I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. here it is. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. client server designs. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. no doubt. and borrowed with great respect.a. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system.” I covered what my final design goals were. That worked out just about right. I might add). my reading of various publications and periodicals. take away.000.). and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). has had an effect. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). as well what may influence your design. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. simplified memory management. MMURTL V1. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. It does. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). make a lot of sense. and just make it better if you have the desire. you might not want to). however. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. improve. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. In fact. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking.

I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage.After I got involved with the IBM PC.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series.. Once again. but the tools just worked better. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner.all but ancient history now. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors.including assembler. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. I thought about other processors. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. The next major decision was the software development environment. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. in the process of using these other tools. however. or ported to a system. compiler. and a few others. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. Again. but as you well know. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. It's the place to start. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. or even OS/2. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. MS-DOS was everywhere. I'm not a Borland salesman. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's. there was no such thing. As you may be aware. but it worked nonetheless. It is just now becoming popular.1. It was limited to the small memory model. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. maybe. I really had no choice. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . Then those were the 2. Message-based. like a bad virus. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . however. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. Memory access was limited. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment.0) and later moved to 5. a lure that could not be suppressed. In fact. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors.x linker. at times it was quite difficult. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. popular platform. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. but the tools worked. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive.. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. There was no turning back. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. Operating system developers.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . was a must. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy).x assembler and 2. Of course. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. and utilities . Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use.

some tools from the major software vendors. including most of the digital logic families (ECL.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. no linker. These documents are usually free. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. I think many people started there. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. in itself. which is fed to the assembler. That's right. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. or even port MMURTL to it. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. DC. The C compiler produces assembly language.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. DMA. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. Parameters are passed left to right. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS .. but another port is in the works. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code.). I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days).) in the machine was actually a little exciting. you will need to read chapter 28. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. want or need. and the called function cleans the stack. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. TTL. which is 32 bits for the most part. IBM published theirs. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. etc. documents. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. In fact. at least. in which case. but I pretty much built from scratch. I plead the "Fifth" on this. a disassembler. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. I do so because its bus. To fully understand this. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. etc. It is tied to the internal bus. It's simply not needed. such as Chips & Technologies. Communications controllers. Many different books. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. That set me back four months. as well as the software control of these devices. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. interface design. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. articles. as you may understand. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. Computer chip manufacturers.” Assembly language has its place in the world. There is no linker. SX MMURTL V1. a major task. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion.. or may not. and a few other minor utilities. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. Needless to say. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. Besides. Developing this assembler was. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily.

x. timers.. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. I had to meet my design goals. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. The thought was rather sickening. but not a fully segmented model . [Thunking is when you interface 32. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. even the operating system writer. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. Windows version 3. but instead a lean. no way to get test programs into the system. you'll be ahead of the game. I discuss several options you have. This easily consumed the first six months. as well as the stack storage. this is a year you won’t have to go through. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution.and 16-bit code and data. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). aliasing is also required. If you use Intel-based platforms. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. In chapter 5. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. It has turned out very nicely. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. but this is transparent to the programmer. anyway. but it's not at as complicated. anyway (e. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. powerful. all implementations of UNIX). I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. EISA. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. from a 16-bit code segment. It was a "kinder. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. MMURTL V1.).two segments per program and two for the OS. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. If you write your own system. All of the early test programs were in assembler. gentler" environment I was after. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). I touched on what I wanted in the overview. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. but it presented several serious complications. etc. During this time. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches.g. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. There was no loader.x. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?).). as you will see. OS/2 version 2. The segmented memory idea was canned. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. all based on their own selectors. This simple model could allocate and manage memory. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. But as you may be aware. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. In a paged system. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. Memory Management. This was timeconsuming.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. "Thunking" was out of the question.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . of course. etc.

will depend on the memory model you choose. This is called the critical path. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. Know your desired application. but there wasn’t.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. the rest is real work. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. compilers and utilities. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. you'll NEVER really be done with it. you will no doubt find bugs. but whatever you decide on. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). Of course. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. of course. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. I was really interested in communications. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. and overall program management – as you see fit. Memory management is next. It may be RISC. "You start here. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. I envy you. Or at least when you get it working. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. The Critical Path Along your journey. how much knowledge you have. hints are about all I CAN give you. Document the problems. It will be worth the time spent. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. Investigate your tools. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. But I'll try. MMURTL V1." It is difficult for me to do this also. and there will also be background noise. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. For example. The level of complexity. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. If this has never happened to you. I have provided such an operating system with this book. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. Decide on your basic models. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. get to know it very well. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. I say this from experience. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. Get to know your assemblers. This may sound a little humorous. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. memory model and basic programming interface. but I'm very serious. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. There are so many platforms out there.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. Select your hardware platform. you know that it can be a very daunting task. But. do it. Go for the kernel. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. or how much time you really have to invest. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. garbage collection. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control.anything that you think you'll need to remember. You can then “port” the prototype. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. the discoveries . I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. you know that certain items in a project must work. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. but they just didn't say. the actual application may not be so important. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. it may be CISC. I'll tell you the easiest. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. This includes the tasking model.

Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them.Working Attitude Set your goals. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. These tools include documentation for the hardware. it's worth the time. easily digestible chunks. I write the documentation. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. sweat and maybe some tears. and then I write the code. Sounds backwards? It is. dependable pickup truck. compilers. Good luck. I lay out my notes for what I want. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. MMURTL V1. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. As I mentioned above. Document as you go. all the way. Work with small.” Once satisfied. I had my wish list well in advance. it won't be luck. It will be blood. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain).0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. But don't set them too high. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. I moved on from there. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. But really.

How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). CPU utilization. In other words. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. however. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. When a task is suspended from execution. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. MS-DOS TSRs . and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. KERNEL . I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task.” In most instances I call it a TASK. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book.” while others call it a “thread. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . One computer term may mean six different things to six different people.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. Generally. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. In its executable form. You may not agree with the definitions.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. at least temporarily. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). TASK . but I hope you will accept them. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. Some documentation. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. be specific about it. but doesn't expect the interrupt.g. or at least coming to agreement on them. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. An operating system that you use may be preemptive.This term is not disputed very much. I admit some guilt here too). But this is not cast in stone either. then start another task running. Hence. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. and I'm not talking about programming languages. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. but it is.Chapter 3. and most people refer to. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. Some operating systems call a task a “process. Tell the programmers what you mean. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS .. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). coffee and soda spilled on them. save its state. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. If you write your own. MMURTL V1. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. It shouldn't be. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. it’s PREEMPTIVE. After all. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. This makes it a very small kernel. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications." which means communications between tasks. and more specifically.

each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. or the user was done. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. How tasks are handled. Nor did I want it to be. In other words.In other words. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. These are the real resources.). On the other hand. or even network connections for logons. and hardware (Timers. it didn't sit too well with me. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. Task Management Tasks begin. DMA. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!).” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. You may MMURTL V1. when the mission was accomplished. Tasks crash. This is its only real purpose in life. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. disk. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. I deal with one user at a time. and why. Managing these resources in a simple. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). good old Albert). some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. It may have memory assigned to it. When I wrote these programs. "Everything should be as simple as possible. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. and some are user-oriented software.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS ." but needless to say. including video. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). But in almost all of these systems. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. etc. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. Tasks end. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. comms programs). keyboard. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. One of my friends suggested the motto. Single User. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. In each case. Interrupt Controller Units. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. "simple software for simple minds. Quite obviously. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. but it may not be so easy for you. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. Multitasking. Single vs. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. memory management. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. Some are communications programs (FAX software. execute programs as the new users desire. Input/Output (I/O) devices. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code).

When you change tasks. MMURTL V1. The CPU takes care of it for you. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. It's actually easier than it sounds. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. it was a breeze. This will be the heart and brains of the system. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. When you restore a task. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. Microcomputers spoiled me. The software state can consist of almost nothing. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. but effective. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. If you must do it yourself. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. I had my very own processor. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. In a multitasking operating system. but an important one. Then I asked. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. We were each getting a piece of the pie. "It's 11:00PM. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. This is where the hardware-state is saved. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. My first programs were written with that attitude. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. it would seem to return at its leisure. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. It was crude. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. Yet.want to deal with many. In the case of hardware interrupts.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . this is usually a no-brainer. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running.

Meanwhile. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. In this case. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. This can be for a number of reasons. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). And yes. management of CPU time is easy. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. MMURTL V1. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. They can. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. In a single tasking operating system. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time.I'm done with the CPU for now. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. a single threaded system may be the best solution. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). if necessary. the screen and everything else looks frozen. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. you basically have a hardware manager. he then monopolizes the CPU. which I cover in this chapter. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). or a combination of the two. "Hey . there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). An important point here is that in a cooperative system. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. For instance. With these calls. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. It may not always be obvious when it happens. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. A task that has the processor gives it up. and in some cases. however. This may be in milliseconds. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. do an adequate job in many cases. Cooperative and Preemptive." From there. and basic input/output. In fact.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . the ability to cut a task off at the knees. interrupt servicing. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. however. In many single tasking systems. or to pause when it has nothing to do. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. you are cooperating with the operating system. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep.

The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. communications device. controlling. or the operating system from an external device (e. As you can see. outside events. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. When. the scheduler. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. there is going to be a desire. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). or even a requirement. the task that's running. and how long does that task get to run? Who. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. or monitoring. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. In a preemptive system. To expand on that definition. this adds the requirement of timing. The next section is the tricky part. it doesn't expect it. They are also.communicating. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). For the preemptive system. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. after the interrupt is finished. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. The currently running task is preempted. Generally. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. Also.g. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. the scheduler simply determines who's next. In fully cooperative systems. connected to the outside world . MMURTL V1. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. On most platforms. or it may be for something extremely critical. or after a set period of time. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM).. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. is a preemptive system. However. etc. When do we switch tasks.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. These parties include the programmer. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. disk drive. we must now decide which task runs next. As I also mentioned earlier. It does nothing to prepare for it. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). hardware timer. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). a program.). The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. when a task is preempted. and maybe memory context. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. to which task do we switch. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. Most of the time. quite often. The timer can help determine when to preempt. or a few other hardware-related things.

but it won't be on their terminals. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). otherwise. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. In a cooperative system. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. Time slicing is an old technique. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. This gives the scheduler something to work with. In the simplest time sliced systems. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. the one with the highest priority will be executed. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. Who determines which task gets more time. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. In a time sliced preemptive system. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important.000 burgers. The others may see a slow down.all tasks will get the same slice .We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. each task gets 25 milliseconds. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. its complete hardware and software state is saved.and they will be executed in the order they were created. For example. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). each task will get a fixed amount of time . and the next task in line is restored and executed. For example. only the very highest would ever get to run. In some systems. it can serve admirably. (the others will be flipping 8. This is usually not very effective. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. But it has some major drawbacks. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. "a slice of time. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. and if a user interface is involved. When a task's time is up. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. Not quite that simple. A simple queuing system suffices. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so.

or the user. The buffer will overflow. and we want our machines responsive to us. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. These are communications and user interface issues. In a message based system. Because it is still based on a preset period of time.g. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. This IS real-time stuff. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. But I opted to "get real" instead. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. We want good. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. things are never as simple as they seem. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. but it makes the point. computers are everywhere. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. come do something with this data before I lose it"). Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. Thus.. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. Now. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. clean communications. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model.to go around on the system. Therefore. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. but one channel is handling five times the data. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. but it's not dramatic enough. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. dependable. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. For instance.

A task may. however. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. it would still be scheduled to execute. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. In addition. you have a few ideas of your own.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. Time Sliced. and even help define the tasking model. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. MMURTL V1. even though these methods are very important. all tasks will get to run. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. But even when the task has nothing to do. although such systems exist. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). In this type of system. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. To be honest. based on the number of tasks scheduled. Fully Time Sliced. Users on a larger. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. Some Cooperation In this type of model. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. A very simple. I can't picture a system without it. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. Primarily Cooperative. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. See what works for your applications. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. No doubt. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). That's the only way you'll really know for sure. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. all tasks will be scheduled for execution.

The less time the better. and in reality. This could have presented some protection problems. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. It's faster – actually. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. Limited Time Slicing category. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. This is a speed issue. To briefly explain my tasking model. multitasking. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. timer services. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task.PERIOD.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . In such a system. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. or whatever. "Experience is a wonderful thing. After all. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. Keep them short. if you have 256 priorities. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. real-time operating system. I wanted a priority based. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. file access. goes into a "waiting" state. For instance. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. To me. The timer-interrupt routine. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice.Primarily Cooperative. The task based ISR is slower. monitors the current task priority. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. much faster. and no. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. I never wanted to miss outside events. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. and limit the functionality if at all possible. Go for the fastest option . as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. Other processors may offer similar options. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. and the next task with the highest priority executes. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. preemptive. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted.

0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). who's to say when Mr.only the user knows. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. After a period of time has elapsed. and they are surely out of your control most of the time.management headaches. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. or even possibly the users. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. For instance. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. MMURTL V1. you switch tasks. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. the problems didn't surface. On systems that are primarily time sliced. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. or Ms. In a cooperative environment. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control.

A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. In other words. nor should they have to. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. if it's being allocated). their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). this task could be suspended and another task could be started. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system.Chapter 4. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. only one task can execute at a time. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. or is suspended when it can't run. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. As you will see in this chapter. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. Of course. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. As I described in earlier chapters. On a single CPU." MMURTL V1. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . However. portions of the code will not be reentrant. where it waits. what operation you want to perform. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. As the name implies. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. perform operations on the semaphore structures. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. In operating systems that use semaphores. it could cause some serious problems. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time.

The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. He or she will make a system call for some resource. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). In fact. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. but I used a second form of messaging instead. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. on most real-time operating systems. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). With the send() and wait() types of messaging. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. etc. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. public pipes are very handy. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). In fact.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. I didn't. If you intend to implement semaphores. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. I have added a second. I refer to a program as a “job. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. which will consist of one or more tasks. destroy tasks. In my system. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. you should study how they are used on other systems. OpenPipe(). But once again. such as those procedures that create new tasks. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). tasks are not wholly independent. You will see these commands. such as MMURTL. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). or similar ones. ClosePipe(). Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. OS/2 is one such system. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. and WritePipe(). or schedule tasks for execution. As you can see. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). This is much more efficient.In most cases.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. In a message-based system. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory.). more powerful. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. OS/2. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. a program is made up of one or more tasks. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. In my humble opinion. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). ReadPipe().

In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. char *pMsgRet). and VIOLA. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. long dMsgPart2). You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. Yes. You can send one way messages to a person. give it the message and away it goes. the answering machine is the exchange. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. CheckMsg(). but enough that we can talk about them. dExch is the destination exchange. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. request() and respond().not in detail yet. MMURTL V1. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch.it sends a message. char *pMsgRet). SpawnTask(). The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. You point to a piece of code. You also need a way to send the message. If you're lucky. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. his offer is the pits. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). WaitMsg(). a bin. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. but large enough for a couple of pointers. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. or just about any other name you like. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). "Tell Mr. such as. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. Now. the message is received right away. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. You tell it what exchange. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives.functions. only one task is actually executing instructions. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. for which you expect no response. It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . provide some other pieces of information. an exchange point. Zork to forget it. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). It returns 0 if all goes well." This is an example of a one way message. The task is the human. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. Not too large to move around. long dMsgPart1. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. In an operating system's case. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. In MMURTL's case. it's a little more complicated than that. or whatever you call it. SendMsg(). Consider the phone again. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). a task is born. Now I have some very important terms and functions . I called it an Exchange. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. It does just what it says . In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges).

Task2 is higher. It's still task 2. Table 4. In this example. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. You start with a single task executing. Task1 is ready to run.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. As we move down the table in our example. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. Just kidding. very small.).. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. Task2 allocates Exch2.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. None found. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. Kernel makes Task1 run.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. Task2 is still running. time is passing. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . None are waiting. What it's doing isn't important. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. Table 4. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. it's not called the kernel zone. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2..

and also need to be shared with multiple applications. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). only the service name. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. This way. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. The name must be unique on the machine. each service installed is given a name. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . keyboard input. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. MMURTL V1.. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. . e-mail services. the receiving task is made to run.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . you will more than likely not use these types in your system. In fact. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). 10 or even 15 system services. unsigned int wSvcCode. Each time an interrupt occurs.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. They are dedicated types. FAX services. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. queued file management. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. When the service is first installed.. They are ideal for things like file systems. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. I didn't do this with MMURTL. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. they must be waiting for something. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. Each service can provide up to 65. This may not work on all types of processors. In some systems. it will be made to run. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. With MMURTL. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message.. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. The processing is carried out by the service. A fully loaded system may have 5. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. the list could go on and on. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it .1.. This can simplify the scheduler. If there is one. but the name will always be the same. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. printing services. BBS systems. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. If there is a task at the exchange. From the simple example in table 4. It gives task2 the message. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName.

is the number (0.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. *pData1 . if the request was serviced (with no errors).These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. If this is the response. This will be explained later in memory management. long dcbData2SR. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. or pData2 to send data to the service. but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). These can never be pointers to data. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). Where is the response data and status code? First. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. you'll need to know which one is responding. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. long *pdRqHndlRet. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill. Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. this would be the size (length) of the filename. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. dData1.This is the same as dcbData1. dData0. although its exact meaning is left up to the service.Number of the specific function you are requesting. all capitals. pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). Zero (0) usually indicates no error. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. long dData2 ). *pData2 . The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). Second.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code).the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. dnpSend . long dStatRet). it is NOT a response. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. If you made more than one request. char *pData2SR. There's still a little work to do. Using the Open File() example. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. At first glance. long dnpSend char *pData1SR.Pointer to the service name you are requesting. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?).How many bytes the pDataSend points to. Second. dRespExch . In many functions you will not even use pData1.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. These are documented independently by each service. The service already knows this. They are described below: dRqHndl . and spacepadded on the right. If you remember. wSvcCode . dnpSend would be 1. For instance. but network transport mechanisms do not. in the file system OpenFile() function.the status or error code returned to the requester. dcbData1 . Two questions arise: 1. long dData0. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. long dData1. dcbData2 .long dRespExch. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. *pdRqHndlRet . The service name is eight characters. But. If it is 80000000h or above. and dData2 . long dcbData1SR.Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. dStatRet .

(You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. So. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. but this would slow things down a bit.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. but still very important. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. An exchange is a small structure in memory. To really understand this issue. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. only one task can really be running at a time. When each task is done with the allocation routine. even in a multitasking system. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. Each task that enters the code.it's crash time. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. As you know. For the sake of understanding this.to read or write data. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. it's a mess. pointers are off the ends of arrays. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. and show you what can happen. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. Not as difficult as you expect. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). Now. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. As you can see. right? But let me guess . it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. task1 gets to run again. there was only one buffer left. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. So the code goes in. or pauses in the middle of them. Not very big.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. It's really quite simple. and WHAMO . Also. it is preempted. The buffer is gone. checks the semaphore. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). Now. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. But when it reaches PointX. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. lets look at an example. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). MMURTL V1. Semaphores are used on many systems.

x? You will lose data. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. let's look at a real-world example.200 baud in Windows 3. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. It will be the only way. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often.If the instruction sequence is short enough. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. Don't blame Windows though. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). and maybe even not often enough. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. Also. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. You will lose data. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits).task switches.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. I started with one and abandoned it early on. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. WHOA THERE . but my testing shows I did OK. You didn't disable interrupts.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. In theory. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. The next sections discuss this. “Memory Management. it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. it will simplify IPC greatly . In the kernel code. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods.” MMURTL V1. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. and also "the biggie" . this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough.000 * 3). Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25.000. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. This is 1/38. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere.

If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. There are some major differences though.Chapter 5. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. Basic Terms Once again. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. Either way. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. Whether or not you use paging hardware. MMURTL V1. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. This greatly affects the next three items. The memory model you choose. or another complicated applications. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. so does an operating system. if available. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. For instance. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. Some do it with internal paging hardware. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . Instead. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. With the Intel processors. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). Address 0 is the first. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. I do make some assumptions about your processor. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. it's all basically the same. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term.

they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. etc. MMURTL V1. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. different memory allocation schemes (top down. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. and bad. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. No address translations take place in hardware. Figure 5. In this type of system.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . As programs are loaded. chunks of physical memory called pages. As programs are loaded.1. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. at least for the operating system. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. With this scheme. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory.). bottom up. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. This can be good. and possible partitioning for each program. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement. You may be restricted from using some of these options. Figure 5. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap.

and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory.Figure 5. or even 64 MB). if you have 16 MB of physical memory.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. With demand-paged memory. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. For instance.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . With this scheme. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. Figure 5. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. MMURTL V1. more than likely a hard disk drive. direct access storage device. For example.2 . your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. With paged memory. Figure 5. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory. Figure 5.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup.

Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system. With paging hardware. as in virtual reality. MMURTL V1. Look at Figure 5." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. and indeed you are.Figure 5. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. and the hardware allows it.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL. but it sure looks like it is.3 . So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. it means that you're lying to your programs.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique. all the programs still use the same linear space. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. The minute you apply this term to memory management. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces.

In order to allow multiple. Once again. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. yet. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. which is the idea. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. The options here are almost mind boggling. the memory management hardware must support it. you will think of. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space.4 . The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. Note also the disadvantages.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. parallel linear spaces. A way around this to use a shared memory area. No doubt.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS .4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. In Figure 5.Figure 5. memory is NOT flat. and implement some of your own. MMURTL V1. different data or code). demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. Note the advantages here. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. there are many possible variations.

What they came up with is called Segmentation. When the 80286 came on the scene. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. MMURTL V1. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. This was actually several registers. it is usually termed as "dirty. we had some pretty limited address spaces. However. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. To make this work. It's just what it sounds like. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation.. When this was a 16-bit world. The LRU schemes have many variations. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. and generally the most efficient. They used something called a segment register. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. All of the Intel products are very well documented. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. The most common. and 80286). Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. 20 to be exact. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. 8088. They allowed multiple sequential. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. When a page has been written to. and the popular Zilog Z80). but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. This is a very handy feature. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. When you use a selector. They are not limited to 64K. so I won't go into further detail. they needed to identify and manage those segments. In fact. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT).0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. one for code and several for data access. and you need to understand the implications. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. or even an 8-bit one. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. Likewise. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. 80186. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. This means you can save the time rewriting it. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created.g. OS/2 or Windows).” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with.

especially if you have a very small programming team (say. you ARE the operating system. Allocating memory to load applications and services. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. which will be defined by the paging hardware. If you do. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management.With a 32-bit system. one person). the type of applications you cater to. I'll discuss each of these things. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. I will give you a good idea what it's like. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. if your hardware supports it. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. You make the rules. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. Allocating memory for applications. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system.” Before you decide which method to use. But in many systems. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. but not in the order I listed them. I learned this the hard way. They are “linked lists” and “tables. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . With this scheme. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. when one application crashes. each block holds its own link. MMURTL V1. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. This way. Remember. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. when one application crashes. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. Tracking client linear memory allocations. How you store the links in this list can vary. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. and it will be based on many factors. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. and Handling protection violations. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. Other factors include how much memory you have. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. it usually takes the whole system down. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. This can be a real hassle. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. You'll have to make a decision.

size is large enough. No next link yet. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. In the following simple linked list scheme. } When a client asks for memory.size = 0.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic.owner = 0. pFree and pMemInUse. you must remember that pLink. This is another topic entirely. }. struct MemLinkType pFree. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. pMemInUse. You now have an idea where they went. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers.pNext until pLink. char *pPrev.16. /* " " */ long Client = 0. struct MemLinkType *pLink. but I'll touch on it some. pLink->owner = 0. In the process of memory management initialization. pMemInUse.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. pFree. MMURTL V1.pNext = 0. I haven't disassembled their code. pLink->pNext = 0. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. you would set up the two base link structures. Of course.owner = 0. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). or you reach a link where pNext is null. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. pMemInUse. which means you can't honor the request. pFree. long owner. This is done by following pLink. For my description. These are the first links in your list.pPrev = 0. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. pFree.size = 0.pNext = 0x100000. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). pLink->size = 0xf00000 . MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. pMemInUse. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size.pPrev = 0.

This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches.16. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize.pNext. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS .no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. it WILL get fragmented. The function returns the address of the new memory. } } return(0). The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. pLink->size = WantSize. } /* Sorry .pNext = &pLink. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. Client is the owner of the new block. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language.. WantSize is the size the client has requested. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16).The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. pNewLink->owner = 0. Granted. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse.WantSize . /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. If you use this code.. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16). And believe me. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink.

There are several thoughts on cleanup. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null.pNext. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block.deallocate. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. which returns memory to the free pool. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. This makes the most sense to me.16. or you can do it all after the fact. if at all possible. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. /* scan till we find out where we go. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. You have the linear address. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. In other words. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. But you can't depend on this. This will be useful in the following routine. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. This will add time to deallocation routines.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . but cleanup will be a snap. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. and you insert it there. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. change its owner. then move it to the pFree list. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. This provides instant cleanup. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. validate the link. But we can't add our size to pFree. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. depending on the order of deallocation. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. This is where the fragmentation comes it.

} } /* If we got here. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. there are physical pages assigned to it. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you don't use the paging hardware. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. you will have two memory spaces to track. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. MMURTL V1. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. The two must be synchronized. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. we couldn't be combined with the previous. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . In the case of the paging hardware. */ /* In this case. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. It should give you a great number of ideas.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). You can expand on them if needed. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. pNewLink->owner = 0. you can decide how you want them setup. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. return(0). and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems.

For instance. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. You must consider where the operating system loads. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. From there. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. But it's up to you. Wherever you load it.” but once the operating system is loaded. it becomes allocated memory right away. This can get complicated. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. trap. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. it will generally be in a block of addresses. It will be the page’s size. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. In some cases. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. “OS Initialization. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. “the Hardware Interface. If your processor gives you these types of options. you will have independent tables for each application. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. and you should take that into consideration. You must set up tables. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. Batteries fail. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O.When you work with paging hardware. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. you will have to move it all. and turn on the paging hardware. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. MMURTL V1. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. add the translations you need and are already using. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. You will be allocated these up front. If you use paging. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt.

the application code segment. For instance. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. I use almost no segmentation. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. The operating system code segment is 08h. It can be very complicated to use on any system. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. and many others.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . you know that with MS-DOS. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. set them all to one value and forget them. but will have no effect on applications. Compact. and one or more code segments. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. and I even use the Intel segment registers. the initialized data segment. This greatly simplifies every program we write. This could change in future versions. Large. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. This was too complicated for me. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. and one data segment for all programs and applications. Medium. The common data segment is 10h. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. I wanted only one program memory model. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. The user code segment is 18h. and even larger with demand page memory. the concept of program segments is an old one. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. uninitialized data segment. If you are familiar with segmented programming. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. Small. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. If you have no desire to use them. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. 32-bit offset). but nice to have. but in a very limited fashion. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. I do use a very small amount of segmentation.

which can have 1024 entries. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. Because of this. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory.1. is that you really do need most of this capability. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. If you want just a few bytes." huh?). the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. Each PDE is also four bytes long. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. because I haven't explained it yet. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. the kernel . The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD.967. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. What you don't see. No. Sure.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs).294. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. Every Job gets its own PD. Besides. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). its not magic. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. but it’s close. Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. Each of the PDEs points to a PT.runs in the task of the job that called it. The operating system itself is technically not a job. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. it has code and data and a task or two. and each application the same thing. but you need it in pieces. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. For instance. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark.memory. Right? Wrong. but most of the operating system code – specifically. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. Each PTE is four bytes long. If you get our calculator out. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT.

This is fine for one address per job. When I started the application. Besides. MMURTL V1. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. Well. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. If you remember. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT).0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. Sure. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. Now that it knows where the PD is. Code.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. In the scheme of things. Sounds like a lot of work. However.Table 5. the secret is out. yes. but it does this with very little overhead. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. I wanted to keep the overhead down. certainly less overhead than this explanation). possibly several for each application. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. and it needs it fast. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. Read on and see what I did. but it wasn't needed.1 . The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. Of course. in a word. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. I could have built a separate table and managed it. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. But it was for a good cause (No. 20. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. but when you start talking 10. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). Now it's got the PTE. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. Likewise. I didn't give it to the Red Cross).

all the shadow entries are marked not present.1. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. 768 769 . 256 257 . As shown.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized... They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. AllocPage(). 512 513 . I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. but you get the idea... but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. This is 0 to 1Gb. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes).. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors. AllocOSPage(). AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. it would be transparent to applications anyway. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5.. That would really be a waste. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB.0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. in fact. in Table 5. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. Table 5. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. If I desired. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write.2. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present.. If I decided to do it. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. and how I use the processor's paging hardware.. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum). Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range.

This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). it will create a new PT. you allocate physical memory from the top down. It does not tell you whom they belong to. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. Device Drivers have code and data. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. initial stack. and whether or not it's currently in use. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. It is not important. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. Now comes that easy part . It's loaded into these initial pages. If the physical memory exists.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. only that number will be deallocated. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. along with the number of pages to deallocate. System Services. the caller passes in a linear address. or will return an error if it's not available. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. and data. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). Device drivers. If so. nor should it try to find out. They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. from a previous AllocPage() call. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. which is also my sister's name. but no stack. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint.Managing physical memory. They are simply new jobs. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. With a 1Gb address space. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. Each application (job) gets it own PD. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). but only from this caller's memory space. but the memory will not be available for later use. The caller will never know. Loading Things Into Memory Applications.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. nor do you even care. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). If it does. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). there will be no error. and DLLs.

Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. They are there to be used as shared code only. With a page based system such as MMURTL. but that's trivial (a few instructions). Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. Instantly. They share physical memory. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. When an application requests a service. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. They have only code. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). Of course. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. If it tries to deallocate them. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. This will make more sense if you do. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. There is no new allocation of physical memory. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. and no stack. But this gets away from memory management. an error will occur. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. how could they be swapped?). This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. the second job has access to other job's data. no data. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. you should do it before you read this section. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE.

Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. When it's done its work. it responds. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. use it. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. For MMURTL. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. MMURTL V1. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. How they see the interface is very important. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page).Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. One or more PTs for the OS. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. The programmer tracks his own memory usage.

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and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view.Chapter 6. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. MMURTL V1. and it simply runs. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. there are drawbacks to this idea. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. It executes your instructions.how it is accessed in memory. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. or for specific timing requirements. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. You provide a common. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. The two that are obvious are code size. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. to interoperability with other systems. although I never thought so. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. jumps where you tell it. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. however. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. But there's always more than meets the eye. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. in theory. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. aside from the instructions you give it. and the most significant at the lowest. but that doesn't mean that you won't. is the interrupt or trap. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. As good as it sounds. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. and speed. The most common. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. Therefore. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware).

which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. Finally. This is called the main bus. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. There are many extensions to this bus . The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. Multibus. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. but in some of the processor documentation. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. or CPU bus. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. or ISA Bus. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. in that case. such as those dealing with interrupts. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. and some that are available now. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. and most useful. internal bus. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. This is handy.some proposed. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. On the PC-ISA platforms. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). The most common is the relatively low-speed. and especially the interface bus. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. I read many books about my target processor. Quite honestly. ISA. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. MMURTL V1. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. but I found the most valuable. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. I've tried both methods. just to name a few. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. no matter which device you must code. On smaller systems. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. For instance. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. The second is the address bus. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. They are actually very forgiving devices. EISA. PCI. The first set is the data bus. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. address.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS .

but still very important. MMURTL V1. and tape drives. and on some systems. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. but is really a device connected to the bus. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth).25 (an international link and network layer standard). network frame handlers. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. or HDLC. In fact. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. except for the hardware clock timing. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. They work with frames or packets of data. or network card). Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. Unlike UART devices.g. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space.Less commonly found. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. Parallel buses can move data faster. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. Therefore. Quite often. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. or even memory to memory. SDLC. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. They have no way. Another way is programmed I/O. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). in many cases. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. to name a few. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead.. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. the infamous Centronics interface). they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options.

Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. this video memory will contain character codes (e. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. On an 80-column-by-25-line display. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. This is known as planar pixel access. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. If you want 16 colors for each bit. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics.g. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. Quite often. However. This could consume a vast amount of memory.500 bytes of memory space.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . All the output would be via a serial port. In fact. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. but you must realize the importance of this device. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. or Unicode. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. On the PC-ISA platform. is worth more than I can indicate to you. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. In most cases. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. Each bit array is on its own plane.On many systems. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024.. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. Video Like the keyboard. this only consumes 4000 bytes. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays. In character-based systems. and MMURTL V1. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. This requires an interrupt service routine. If this is the case. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. This consumes the least amount of your address space. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required.

however. Your requirements will more than likely be different. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System).” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. non-overlapping video users. interprocess communications.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). multiple. I did. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. MMURTL V1. This is known as packed pixel access. In many cases. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. In some cases. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. and your tasking model. this would be 16 planes at 37. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. I was interested in character-based. have to research hardware cursor control.. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. “Video Code. That equates to 600.g. “Memory Management. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. This includes cursor positioning. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. you'll have no problems. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. I took this into consideration also.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. and to query the status of the move. and timing when you write to the video display area. and GetDMACount(). The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. The code for these two calls is shown below.000 bytes. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). Chapter 26. except maybe an embedded system board. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users.allow you to switch between them. For a 256-color system.

DATA .0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS . etc.Ch 1 Word Count . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware. With word.Read/Write DMA Rq Register .Ch 0 Word Count .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.Ch 2 Address .INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller.) MMURTL V1.Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah .Ch 3 Word Count .Read/Write Mode register . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device. There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers. DACK1 (etc.Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h .CODE With 8-bit DMA. while 23-17 are put in the page register. but the standard include file MOSEDF. DMA moves (channels 5-7). etc.DMA DACK0 Page register .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed. DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .INC .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh . . This is called a cascaded device.Ch 0 Address .INCLUDE MOSEDF.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Ch 3 Address . Bit 16 is ignored by the page register. DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h .Ch 1 Address . Optimize it as you please.Ch 2 Word Count .Read Command/Write Single bit mask .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h . There really is no data segment for DMA.DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h . .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Read Status/Write Command .

as you might assume). AL RETN . AL XOR AL. AL MOV AL.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. . AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. the segment is wrapped around.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. AL OUT DMA2Mode. we do math) MMURTL V1. 04 . This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. .CH 0 DMA 2 . . AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. AL OUT DMA2Mode. sdMem. so they always specify byte count for the setup call.Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. AL OUT DMA1Clear. .6 and 7. 43h OUT DMA1Mode.MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . dChannel. AL . which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. AL AL. . (Cascade Mode) MOV AL.All commands set to default (0) . . and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . dType. . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. AL MOV AL. 41h OUT DMA1Mode.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . 40h DMA1Mode. or 128K boundaries for a word move. . AL OUT DMA2Mode.Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL XOR AL. AL OUT DMA2Clear. If they do. . AL XOR AL.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . . . DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. 42h OUT DMA1Mode. Verify). 0C0h DMA2Mode. For channels 5. Out. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . DmaSetUp(dPhyMem.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . I do this for the caller. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. even on word moves. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In.CH 0 DMA 1 .

00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. 00001000b . dMode . [EBP+16] . AL EAX. OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. 6 .1. 0C0h . 3 Cascade . 1 . . 2 = Out (Read memory) . dMode CMP EAX. get dType AND BL. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. AL AL. . [EBP+20] CMP EAX.ESP .0 = Verify.. (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . [EBP+28] DMA10Add. dPhyMem . 0 . 8 DMA10Add. AL . CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . dChannel (0.6. Hi Byte . OR with MODE . 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. dType . MOV EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. 1 Single Cycle.7) . AL DMA1FF.0 Demand Mode. Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. MMURTL V1. Put it in BL MOV EAX.2. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX.0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. [EBP+12] . 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. AL EAX. BL DMA1Mode.Jump table for channel selection . 00000000b AL. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. MOV EBP. Yes CMP EAX. In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . AL . 04 . Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . 2 Block.5. 1 = In (Write Mem). Lo byte address . PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL.3. 00000100b .

AL AL.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. AL AL. 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL EAX. 8 DMA12Cnt. 8 DMA12Add. AL EAX. channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . Highest byte (to page register) . 8 DMA10Cnt. BL DMA1Mode. 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. dPhyMem . AL EAX. AL . EAX DMAEnd . Highest byte (to page register) . BL DMA1Mode. 00000010b AL. sdMem . AL AL. CH2 . 00000001b AL. AL AL. OR with MODE . 8 DMAPage2. AL AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. OR with MODE/TYPE . 8 DMAPage0. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. [EBP+28] DMA11Add. Lo byte address . AL EAX. Hi Byte . 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMAPage1. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. Highest byte (to page register) . CH1 . 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. EAX DMAEnd .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . Hi Byte . sdMem . 8 DMA11Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. AL DMA1FF. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. dPhyMem . AL EAX. AL EAX. Lo byte address . 8 DMA11Cnt.

00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL EAX. OR with MODE . . sdMem . EAX DMAEnd . CH3 . . We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . Hi Byte . AL EAX. . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . AL AL. AL AL. 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. 00000001b AL. .0 AL. Hi Byte . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . EBX EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. BL DMA1Mode. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA21Cnt. . EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. 1 DMA21Add. AL DMA2FF. . AL EAX. . 8 DMA21Add.XOR EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA13Add. [EBP+28] DMA13Add. MMURTL V1. EAX EAX. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. AL EAX. . 8 DMAPage3. . AL AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. 8 DMA13Cnt. 00000011b AL. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. 0FFFFh EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. dPhyMem . BL DMA2Mode. 15 DMAPage5. AL EAX.NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. Lo byte address . AL EAX. OR with MODE . AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . AL AL. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . CH1 on DMA 2 .

0FFFFh EAX. 15 DMAPage6. [EBP+24] EAX. 15 DMAPage6. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL EAX. 8 DMA23Cnt. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ .0 AL. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. Lo byte address . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. AL AL. sdMem . EAX EAX. 00000010b AL. AL EAX. AL DMA2FF. [EBP+28] EBX. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . 8 DMA22Cnt. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. OR with MODE . AL AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . BL DMA2Mode. [EBP+24] EAX. 8 DMA22Add. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . CH2 on DMA 2 . OR with MODE . AL EAX. Rid of all but lower 16 . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ .DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm.EBP MMURTL V1. 1 DMA23Add. 1 DMA22Add. EBX EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. CH3 on DMA 2 . EAX . AL EAX. EBX EAX. AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Lo byte address . sdMem . Rid of all but lower 16 . 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL EAX. AL DMA2FF. Highest byte (to page register) . Hi Byte . [EBP+28] EBX. 8 DMA23Add. BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. Hi Byte . EAX DMAEnd . dPhyMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . EAX EAX. dPhyMem . AL AL. Highest byte (to page register) . 00000011b AL. AL EAX. AL AL. 0FFFFh EAX.

. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. dChannel (0. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. GetDMACount(dChannel. For channels 5 through 7. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. . . For channels 0 through 3. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. . DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. the count will be returned. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX.POP EBP RETF 20 . This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. no error from the floppy controller). DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX.535: .Return address for count . .0 . . GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. On some devices. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX. you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. . 7 MMURTL V1. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. To move 64K. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. . you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. . .6. In this case. 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX.7) . . DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX.ESP MOV EAX. PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. you actually set the channel byte count 65. .5.Channel .g. pwCountRet) . DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. . [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. EBP+ 16 12 .1.2. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. [EBP+16] MOV ESI. this will be the number of words. this is bytes.3. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where . The count is number of WORDS-1 .

. . .No such channel! . One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly. . EAX MOV ESP.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . Usually. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. however. The operating system may. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. program.JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. but it is critical that it's done correctly. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. In the process of an interrupt.AL IN AL. or at set intervals. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. and read as required. . some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. Your job is to know how to program the PICU. A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. . .AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. or even hours in some cases. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. many devices interrupt the processor.DX MOV CL. Internally. . The PICU takes care of this for you. MMURTL V1. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. No Error . ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. Quite often. CX XOR EAX. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. Therefore.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . which determines the interrupt interval. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. . the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. be responsible to program these dedicated timers.DX MOV CH. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. 20 bytes of junk to dump . There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. As you can imagine (or will have realized). This is not very complicated.

You will need the hardware manual for code examples.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

then go through each section of the basic initialization. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. where boot ROMs usually reside. and important structures. In the PC world. When I say "just enough code. If this is true. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. If you're using another platform. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. For this reason. This will give you a very good head start on your studies.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . This device will. no doubt. including hardware. The question is. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. This is known as a multistage boot. To be honest. and it's not exactly easy. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions." that's exactly what I mean. it executes from a reset state. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. the boot sector code may load another. memory. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. This can be done in more than one step if required. you'll have to do some research. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. MMURTL V1. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. then jumping to the first address of the sector. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. tasks. we start with loading the operating system.at least not as a file from the file system. In other words. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. be organized with a file system. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. more complicated. I've done all your homework. In this chapter. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter.Chapter 7. then execute it.

then executed the next instruction at the new address. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. First. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. 8. In my case. 2. This was a double problem. 6. 2. Second. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. 6. the hardware commands. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. 3. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. then life is easy. 7. so you can begin execution. 5. This lead to two relocation efforts. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. But it gets more complicated. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). 7. because they provide the BIOS. 4. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). 3. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. MMURTL V1. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. such as a fixed track or cylinder. such as a whole track). Where your operating system will reside in memory.. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. 1. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. which they store in a small work area in RAM. then Drive C. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. and where you stored it. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). 8. In an ISA system. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. 4. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). This was the case with my system. 5. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction.g. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS .

.The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.media desc. It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.Drive boot sector came from .This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . The OS must .Resvd sectors . .nTotalSectors if > 32Mb . This contains additional information about the file system . (worthless) .BASE (Linear) .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk.The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG .Padding to make it 3 bytes . The boot sector code also . There's no operating system here now.BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.disks. Examine the following code: .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) . Why not? I do own it.nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) . DS:CSEG.The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors.11 bytes for volume name .The .LIMIT 768 slots .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .nBytes/Sector . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.nSect in FAT .nSectors/track .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .Sect/Cluster .instructions. IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h . (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .386P .nHeads . and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it. Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) .stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .nFATs .Root Dir entries max .386P directive is required because I use protected . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.on this disk that the operating needs to know.

9000h SS. return address. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. Its pseudo jump . AX MOV DS. DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. AX SP.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) ..This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: .Destination segment . that I calculated after assembling it once.Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX.This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . MOV AX. 0Fh .Clear interrupts . 7C0h DS. It works. 09000h ES.Make DS correct again . DI AX. SI CX. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it.This is done by finding out where it is and writing . nSectPerTrack . 8000h .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX. 512 MOVSB .Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . . vector location. MOV CX. table so it can read the disk for us. 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX.Segment for new location . 6Fh PUSH AX RETF .Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS . AX DI.Source segment . Push the .Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1. AX MOV BX. then "return" to it. . some of the parameters to it from the boot sector. 0078h .Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. AX SI.The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . at the beginning of this code CLI .

waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . AX MOV AL.What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster .logical sector order.so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be. bBootDrive XOR AX. Hidden Sectors (optional) .to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or . nOSSectors . OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. POP DS .really IS the OS. now let's read some stuff!! . AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) .Save in CX .We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file . CX . nBytesPerSect BX AX. FATS (1 or more) .Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX.CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root . We need the space for other code. ADC DX.STI MOV DL. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) .0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS . (3rd cluster is really the first allocated .on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in .stage one of the a two stage loader should be). nRsvdSect MOV CX.Must set interrupts for BIOS to work .Required for Disk System Reset .. MOV SI. .Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist . MOV CX.AX is at sector for cluster 0.0020h .Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. WORD PTR nHidden . AX .The controller is reset. cluster because the first 2 are unused).Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot .The layout of the Disk is: .Reset failed. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX.. nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX. OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .

bBootDrive DL. nSectPerTrack SI .Read 13h . ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI. . Drive to DL CX.Wait for keystroke . BX .Leaves Head in DL. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL.Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH.OR with Sector number AL.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte. BYTE PTR ResvdByte . CH . 0Eh MOV BX.Next Sector MMURTL V1. ES BX.Cyl into CX CL.BX will be zeroed at top of loop .Sector to read DX. .Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI. Read a .Number of sectors AH. Cyl in AX DH.This is a single sector read loop .AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH. It's slow. 1 . AX has . MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC .Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL .512 bytes for segment . DX . BX AX . AX .I increment ES and leave BX 0 . DH .Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL. 06000h MOV ES.AX 16h 19h .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads . before we move it down to 0000h . OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX.This is segment where we load the OS. 6 .XOR INT INT AX. BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX.0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX. 20h ES. Hi 2 bits to CL CL. but works well.0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS .Head to DH. 2 . DL .

Now we disable interrupts. AX ES. 06000h DS.WORD move . 07000h DS. DX MOVSW . 8000h .AL XOR CX.the OS down to address 0.DI CX.AL XOR CX.CX IBEmm1: IN AL.0D1h OUT 64h. move .0 . SI MMURTL V1. SI AX. turn on the A20 line.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .AX DI.So move the OS MOV DX. BX SI. .02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL.DI CX. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear.AX DI.64h TEST AL.A20 line should be ON Now . DX XOR SI.64h TEST AL. SI AX.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.1000h ES.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 .0DFh OUT 60h. BX SI.64h TEST AL.CX IBEmm2: IN AL. DX MOVSW .WORD move . Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS . Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.LOOP NextSector .02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL.

call JMP FAR 08h:10000h.Set up segment registers . DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. and a map file from the link (Bootblok.BX SS. BX XOR EDX.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry . The segment and code size escape . use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok.Set protected mode bit .CR0 OR AL. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX. The first 512 bytes is the .MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.BX ES.map).1 MOV CR0.EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.Load Processor ITD Pointer . 00h '.BX GS.BYTE move MOV BX. 00h 0Dh.Load Processor GDT Pointer .DI CX.EXE header. 'Loading MMURTL'.Control Register . 0Ah. I left it in. It's worthless. 9000h MOV DS. As you change and experiment with the boot sector.asm <Enter> This will make a .BX FS.lst).Clear prefetch queue with JMP . The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format.MS-DOS used this. 10h DS.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump .0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS .2000h ES. DX MOVSB . such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).'.AX DI.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction. 'Bad Boot Disk!'. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END .BX .EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX. EDX MOV DL. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector. To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok. 0Ah. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually .

It's quite easy to do with the Load.bin in the root directory of drive C. you can use Debug to load it as a . Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. After you have assembled your boot sector. They may do this as they format the disk. Register.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. C:\>Debug BootBlok. then write it to the disk. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. or after the fact. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. logical sector number.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. Write. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. The results can be disastrous. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. Then copy the operating system image to the disk.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. This will show you a segmented address. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. To find where Debug loaded it. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. you can use the Dump command to display it. you should not do this to your active development drive. and Name commands. From the MS-DOS prompt. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). Keep in mind. This is easy to do. and number of sectors following it. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. To read the boot sector from a disk.

It does everything that the boot sector code does. I couldn't. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. Hopefully. With MMURTL. At this point. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg.00 loader. This includes setting up the OS stack. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS .c) to properly build it. up to the point we jump the monitor program.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles.C:\> Copy OS. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. Additionally. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. and basic timers .asm on CD-ROM. If it is in an executable format from a linker. It should help give you a picture of what's required. “Initialization Code. If so. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. Chapter 21. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. They must simply be initialized to their default states. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. but it's not necessary. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. the Direct Memory Access hardware. Good luck. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary.” MMURTL V1. All of the hardware that is resident in the system .must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). understands. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. This single source file program (MMLoader. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. It is all contained in the source file Main. It is called MMLoader.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. I'm happy. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). “The Hardware Interface. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads.

You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . This leaves you with a few options . This depends on the platform. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. I just left it alone. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). It's not that big.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. on the Intel processors. setting up for multitasking. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. “the Tasking Model. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. the A20 address line serves no purpose. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. you've got your job cut out for you. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. The option is usually up to you. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. Being a little conservative. you just learn to live with it. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. as well as one to switch to. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. If you want to eliminate it. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. MMURTL V1. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. If you desire. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). In all of the cases that were discussed. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. If you use one more bit. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. Either way. While in real mode. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. you can address above 1Mb. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. is not trivial.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. Chapter 3. and also some basic variables. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. For instance. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls).

“Memory Management Code. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. I tried several methods. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. If you chose not to do this. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system.My goal was not to discover why it existed. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. otherwise. This piece of code may have a lot to do. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC).” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. Chapter 19. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. although some people may still have problems with it. but one I'm glad I didn't face. or is at least loaded. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). If you went with a full blown demand paged system. back to the initialization (already in progress). MMURTL V1. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. Meanwhile. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. This seems to work on most machines. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. You don't know how much you have. It's not that much of a headache. The point is. some which didn't work on all machines. If your machine doesn't support this method. where the address match will occur. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. and you can't manage or allocate it. The following list is not all-inclusive. or any number of things. At this stage of the initialization. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). It is explained in a fair amount of detail.

Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. public distribution. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. that on occasion. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. What could be easier? I can't imagine. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. If the parameters are on the stack. In any and all of these cases. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. may be similar to another documented call on the system. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. I'm still not entirely happy with it. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. I found. an embedded system. The call is made.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. life was easy in this respect. Quite often though. the function does its job and returns. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. what order are they in? If the stack is used. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). This may sound like a no-brainer. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system.Chapter 8. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. “API Specification. No kidding! With UNIX. or your own consumption and enjoyment. UNIX was written with C. they do. If this happens to me. and leave undocumented.” shows you how I documented my calls. because the call they add. Chapter 15. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. In the following sections. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface.

you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). and it required a fixed number of parameters. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. or at least every time it's rebuilt. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. Execution speed. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. Some use registers. I'm sure you know of several. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). there are many additional details to think about when designing the API.. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. OS/2. the interrupt vector table). that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. faster. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. support several conventions. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. Your opinion may vary on this. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. but the stack is not used for parameters. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. as if you couldn't guess). Second.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. However. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. Many systems use an intermediate library.g. especially when it comes to speed. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. First.junkies). It's up to you. has three or four calling conventions. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. no doubt. for example. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. this is MMURTL V1. Pascal . some use the stack. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. There are two reasons this library may be required. some use both. code size. In other words.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . This device is extremely hardware dependent. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e.

the hardware will be obsolete. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system." Yeah.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. For the operating system source. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. right. I really hope not. However. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. then execute the interrupt instruction. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. The intermediate library would fill in this value. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. For application source code portability. However.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. MMURTL V1. If portability is near the top of your wish list. and the call gates are really not a problem. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). the procedural interface is the key. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. This may be a personal issue for me. When you need to return data from the call.

Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. and Statusing the driver. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. For instance. Do you see what I mean? Internally. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. timers. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. and this wasn't my original plan. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. I set out to design the simplest. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. If this is the case. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. and certain memory-management functions. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. Suddenly. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. You need to consider these requirements in your design. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. that it's almost impossible to separate them. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. They work with the hardware. You more than likely will. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform.

nDevices MMURTL V1. “Systems Programming. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system.InitDevDr(dDevNum. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written.ESP SUB ESP. This will give you a good place to start in your design. nDevices. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. You'll see certain validity checks. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code.ASM.0 . The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. ndBlocks. For example. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. . This is a common requirement on many systems. . . pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice.” I provide detail on the use of these calls. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. pStatRet. so I won't go over it here. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. EAX MOV EAX. . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. dLBA. When you look at the code. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. dOpNum. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). The first call listed in this section. InitDevDr(). 16 MOV EAX. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself.Set up local vars . In a multitasking system. EBP+24 . sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. when one user is doing serial communications. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. pDCBs. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). EBP+20 nDevices. InitDevDr(dDevNum. pInitData.

dDevNum MMURTL V1.Now check to see if device is already installed .If we got here.No .Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX. rgpDCBs MOV EAX. 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . rgpDCBs EAX.Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs.Empty.12 .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. 0 . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array . ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: . .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX.Yes .Next devnum .dDevNum . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. dExchTmp .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX. dDevX SHL EAX. [EBP+16] nDevs. ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: .OK to replace existing driver? .error exit . OK to use . 2 .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .Next caller DCB . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.pDCBx = 0 if not used yet .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX. prgDevs .Decrement nDevices . 2 ADD EBX. EAX EBX.All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: . 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12]. and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX . 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 .All went OK so far.nDevices .NONE left .Point EBX to rgpDCB . [EBP+20] .Set nDev to number of devices again . [EBP+24] EAX.0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX]. we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX.

-83- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EBP . EBX . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .for all devices that one driver controls. ECX [EBX]. pInitData.EAX points to first DCB . . MOV EBX.next p in rgp of DCBs . 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX. loop through each . CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. EAX and ECX are set up. 4 EAX.Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. 2 . SHL EBX.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch]. [EBP+20] MOV ECX.next DCB .Any more DCBs?? .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB.Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX. rgpDCBs MOV EBX.Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP.ADD EBX.Set up for no error . MOV EBX. ErcBadDevNum .DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it. sdInitData). EAX MOV EAX. .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . or reset it after a failure. and . [EBP+20] . EAX EBX.ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: . ADD EAX. A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device.ESP . .also place Exchange into DCB. This is the same exchange .0 .If the device driver was NOT reentrant .ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . and are not presented here. dExchTmp . [EBP+20] . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . are almost identical to DeviceInit().pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. [EAX] .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. . nDevices . DeviceOp() and DeviceStat().now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. The other two calls.the first customer to use. 0 . EAX .Now that EBX. . DeviceInit(dDevNum.device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . MOV EBP.EBX now points to correct pointer .

0 DevInit02 EAX.Bogus Message .save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Push exchange number . CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP.Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] . 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX.0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get DCB ptr back .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd . If not we .dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.All looks good with device number .save ptr to DCB . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX . Send semaphore message to Exch .Save ptr to DCB . . MMURTL V1.Push all params for call to DD . It you use assembly language and provide code examples.No.Device IS reentrant .Yes .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 .Get device error back . . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType].Ignore kernel error . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX. This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.Get semaphore ticket .Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .. but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket. 0 .NO driver! . ..so we check to see if driver is reentrant.Is there a physical device? DevInit02: .Ptr to message area .

“Interprocess Communications. the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). usually passed on the stack. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. If I were a perfectionist. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application.g.Chapter 9. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. Byte . This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes)..” and Chapter 5. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. Before writing your first MMURTL program.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e.Same as Procedure.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. or a Procedure in Pascal.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . MS-DOS). Look at the table 9. but alas. It may even be entertaining. Argument . Terminology Throughout this section. or a Procedure in Assembler. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure . I think you will find it useful.a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord .An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word .This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. and a dword is also accessed at the same address. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. “Memory Management.A Function in C or Pascal. WORD. Function .1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. though. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. and DWORD.A value passed to a function or procedure. Call . and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE.1 .

Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. In some C compilers. All parameters are pushed from left to right. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. It may indicate an error. But the address is really a call gate. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. This will be done by the compiler. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate).0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . or dError. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. Some do not. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. MMURTL V1. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. and assembly language. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. erc. “API Specification. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. not the real address of the SetXY function. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. and are expanded to 32-bit values.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Pascal. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. even the assembler or processor itself. and in some cases. or simply convey information that may.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used.

g. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0.. ..2 . In fact. MMURTL V1. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself.. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. If you need a 2Mb array. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. MMURTL is a Paged memory system..2: Table 9. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. When you are done with it. you should deallocate it. “Interprocess Communications. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. . 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. The operating system resides at address 0.. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. Chapter 3.Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . There are no far data pointers.” describe this in great detail. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use.. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. but she would much rather that you did it.” and Chapter 4.... A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). malloc() in C). when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). you allocate it. “The Tasking Model. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. She may pick up your dirty socks. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. you simply allocate it.

cbData1. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. Of course. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. npSend. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. pData2. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. pData1. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. However. This is not a problem. Address 40100000h is returned to you. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. protect programmers from themselves. cbData2. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. dMsg1. wSvcCode. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. however. The operating system Code. pRqHndlRet. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). so long as you know it can't be addressed. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. This means that in a multitasking environment. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. dData0. Data. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). You allocate 5 pages. SendMsg (dExch. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. MMURTL does NOT. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. dRespExch.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. Now you allocate 4 pages.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . or you will need to know of one you send messages to. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. dData1.

You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them).LString */ MMURTL V1. /* User Name . In order to use the GetpJCB() call. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. but you don't want that either. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things.Normally. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. such as data communications. printing. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. Other than that. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. Messaging is very powerful. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. This eats all of your link blocks. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . and user interaction. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. you need to know your job number. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. For instance. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. only your program will be trashed. char sbJobName[14]. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). MMURTL is not a mind reader. The pointer is read-only. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. If you do. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data.

dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. and special keys. char *pVirtVid. To change data in the JCB. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. char fCursOn.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . pPathRet. char fVidPause. long nCols. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . long ExitError. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. long NormVid.LString */ std input . editing. char JcbCmdLine[80]. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. long CrntY. long NextJCB. long VidMode. “Keyboard Service. char JcbSysOut[50]. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. char JcbExitRF[80]. char fCursType. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. Chapter 13. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. }.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. with unused portions padded. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. The keyboard interface is a system service. For most applications. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. MMURTL V1.char sbPath[70].LString */ std output . pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. you must use the calls provided by the operating system.” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. long nLines. unsigned char ScrlCnt. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. char *pVidMem. long CrntX. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. char JcbSysIn[50].

This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . Background colors describe the attributes. Table 9.4. and 9. In this byte. The high bit of each. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes). PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. and cursor positioning.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24.4 .3.4096 bytes). the high nibble is the background. Foreground colors. logically OR the Foreground.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. The colors for TTYOut(). 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. only the least significant byte is used. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. is the intensity bit.3 . Background. character placement.Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs. Tables 9. The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. and Blink if desired to form a single value. and low nibble is the foreground.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation.

17. This is done by calling the Chain() function. and other things allocated while you were running. This includes any memory. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't.". Remember. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). "This is a test. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. or system calls. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. 0. exchanges. MMURTL V1.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. If no file is specified. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. MMURTL has to hunt for them. BGBLUE|WHITE).

It's not very useful. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. or provide services to application programs. Client programs make a Request. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. Additional tasks if required. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. Additional exchanges. and memory management operations. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. service them. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. Pascal. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. then Respond.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . if required. and Assembly language programmers. Wait for messages. use messaging. if needed. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. such as: Additional memory. Service names are casesensitive. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers.Chapter 10. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. the service does the processing and Responds. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. MMURTL V1. as well as for other services. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer.

if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. }. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError).ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. char *pData1. long ServiceRoute. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk.pData1 = NextNumber++. else if (pRqBlk. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch.Listing 10. long RQBRsvd1. ErrorToUser. Message[2]. long RqOwnerJob. long RQBRsvd2.1. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. Message). OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". MainExch). long cbData2. long cbData1. long RespExch. char *pRqHndlRet. long dData0. int ServiceCode. long dData1. MainExch. char npRecv. NextNumber = 0. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. char npSend. long RQBRsvd3. long dData2. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch).0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . char *pData2. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch.

For example. and what service you provide. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. when you receive a Request. and how much information a program must pass to you. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. This is called the service code. and another RenameFile. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. As a system service writer. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. For larger data movement to the service. The memory address of the Request Block. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. the service only defines one service code that it handles. and dData2. in the File System. They are 32-bit values. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. or any data movement back to the caller. because the operating system does not alias them as such. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in.The Request Block As you can see. As a system service. The operating MMURTL V1. In fact. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. dData1. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. you define the data items you need. The complexity of your service. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. In the simple example above. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. cbData1 and cbData2. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. For all other values of the service code. one number represents OpenFile. another CloseFile. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. These items are dData0. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. This is the number 1 (one). Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job.

OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. If so. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. before responding to any other requests you are holding. MMURTL is built in layers. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. This is the easiest way to handle requests. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. cbData1 and pData2. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. communications ports (serial and parallel). the file may not exist. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. until you respond. RAM disks. then respond before waiting for the next request. receive a request. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. and moves it to another exchange. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. In each of these cases. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. Synchronous services wait. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. tape drives. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. but carries it one step farther. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. you must respond to it immediately. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. cbData2. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. However. MMURTL uses this concept. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. In the keyboard service. which is a valuable system resource. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. The first is the request block handle. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). If so. Disk drives. If this happens. When you write system services. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS .system is “aware” of this.

The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. multi-threaded environment. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. RAM DISK). or network frame handlers (i. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. Sequential devices are things like communications ports.g. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. powerful. The interface is non-specific. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. hard disk. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. C and Pascal). For example. Things like Device name. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. keyboard. network link layer devices). Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information.and sequential-oriented.. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. or is included in the OS code at build time. the PICUs. interrupt vectors. SCSI ports. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. it passes in a pointer to its DCB.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . If a device driver controls more than one device. the file system is at user level (3). or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random.g. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access.. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device.e. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. basic video. timer hardware. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. With InitDevDr(). The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). multitasking.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. or any OS structures.) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). Block Size. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. This means message. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. keyboard. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. It does not directly access hardware. MMURTL V1. I have made it rather painless to build fast. or a processor protection violation will occur. as well as where the data is on the device. to handling complex devices such as hard drives.

just like any other program. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. InitDevDr() never returns to you. if needed.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. and is programmed. The device driver looks. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. Set up interrupt service routines.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. Allocate exchanges. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). You can name them anything you want in your program. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. Do anything else you need before being called. if required. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. The generic steps are described below. At this point. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. In C this would be main(). This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. Call InitDevDr(). This layer of code performs several functions for you. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. The main entry point will never be called again. it's the main program block. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. or in Pascal. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. if needed. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. Check or set up the device’s. like any application in MMURTL.

More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. and size of a DMA move. If you use MMURTL V1. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. Two calls provide these functions. In other operating systems. mode. Timer Facilities Quite often. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. This is often called an interrupt vector. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). MMURTL uses paged memory. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers.”API Specification. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). specifically DOS. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. direction. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. although it’s not a requirement. especially if the driver controls two devices. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. device drivers are very close to the hardware. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. or how much was transferred. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware.

and KillAlarm() functions. If you use SendMsg(). Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. Table 10. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). and how to implement them in your code. or assembler to construct the DCB. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. you can use SendMsg(). Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. but easy to figure out. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name.) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB.1-. Alarm(). You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. a structure in C. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep(). The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes.Alarm(). Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. Table 10.

In assembler. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . MMURTL V1. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant.Each driver names the device it serves.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . ndDevBlocks . we then move to the next head. pDevOp. znBPB . An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). If the device is sequential. pDevInit. sbDevName . fDevReent .Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. DevType .This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. this is device dependent. and WaitMsg() primitives. if you are on track zero. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). then this should contain a 2.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0.number of bytes per block. The Hard disk driver operates the same way. dLastDevErc . not the next track. head zero. For instance.When a driver encounters an error. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). In other words. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. and handle device conflicts internally. sector zero. If it is another device. Each device name must be unique. where several devices are controlled though one access point. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. This reduces disk arm movement which. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. and you read one sector past the end of that track. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. increases throughput.This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. For devices that are not re-entrant. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. the SendMsg(). but this is not much of a limitation. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device.this indicates whether the device is addressable. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. usually an unexpected one. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. RETN is the proper instruction. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. Disk drives are divided into sectors. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. For example. Each sector is considered a block. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver.

The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. Your function implementations must do the same.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time. dOpNum. and format.4. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register.dOpNum. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously.dLBA. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function.6 . pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. OSUseONLY1. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL.fSingleUser . A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. ndBlocks. no job is currently assigned the device. write. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. They equate to standard device operations such as read.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. this flag should be true (non-zero). The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller.5. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32). this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. pStatRet. pInitData. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. verify.2. dLBA.dnBlocks.If the fSingleUser is true.pData). The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved.3. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. wJob . If this is zero. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls.

pdStatusRet). pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. this will simply be the number of bytes. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate.pInitData.dInitData). In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. For sequential devices. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. Not all devices will return status on demand.pStatRet.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe. parity.dStatusMax. and so on.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice.

This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. If the driver controls more than one device. After the Device driver has been loaded. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. MMURTL V1. such as a disk or SCSI controller. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled. and so on. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. and one DMA channel if applicable. If this is not the case. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. fReplace If true. the second at pDCBs + 128. pDCBs.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. this is the first number of the devices. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. This is because one controller. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This means the devices are number consecutively. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. nDevices. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations.

If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status. then use it. MMURTL V1. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS .

.

In future versions of MMURTL. The format is very simple.1 shows a sample INITIAL. the job he is currently viewing. Even when a Job is not being displayed. (e. a buffer in memory. No spaces.the run file name are ignored. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. If it's displaying video data.Job file . C:\MSamples\Service\Service. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. the keyboard. If you intend to write an operating system.system boot in this file.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . Any spaces.JOB.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name.JOB file. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen. Listing 11.RUN <---.1.after each entry. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. Sample Initial.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon .g. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded.INITIAL. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. or terminate. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing.JOB . tabs or comments after . Drive:\DIR\NAME. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want.This is the initial jobs file. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up. The file name must contain the FULL . The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. . the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL.RUN) . The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1.file name including path.run C:\MMSYS\CLI. .Chapter 11. as well as the video display. Listing 11. One run file name per line. When the user presses these global keys. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system.Maximum line length is 80 characters total. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. No parameters are passed . it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication. .to the run file.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. The name must start in the first column of a line.. is assigned to the new job or is terminated.

These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages .0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor.1. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. Once the initialization is complete. Task switches total . the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. They are displayed as typed. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. Table 11. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services.1 describes the function of each assigned key. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). and access to the built-in debugger. RS-232 serial communications. Table 11. any errors returned are displayed.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI.RUN. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order.This is the total count of task switches since boot up. MMURTL V1. priority task. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job.. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. During this process.1. job display. and the parallel port (LPT) driver.

CPU idle ticks (no work) . Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor. Free Job Control Blocks . Tasks Ready to Run .A small structure used by all messages sent and received. Free Exchanges .This is the number of free job control blocks left. Free Link Blocks . If this number is greater than zero. the C library code can be used.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ". including requests. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time.h" "MMemory.These are task-management structures.2.2. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks. Free Task State Segments .h" "MData. Each job uses one. There were no tasks ready to run. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do.h" "MVid. This number may seem a little high.h" "MFiles. that don't get picked up right away. but the count is fixed at OS build time. Listing 11.h" "MTimer.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run. Response is made by the service. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time. even in the same job. See listing 11. Each new task uses one of these. but have a fixed count at OS build time. the request block is returned for re-use. MMURTL V1.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated. I include no C library code in the operating system itself.h" "MDevDrv.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel.h" "MJob. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated.h" "MKbd. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory.

Burgess. fKilled. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. U8 fNewMedia. tick. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. MMURTL V1. All Rights Reserved". static unsigned long GPHndl. LastSeekErc0. gcode. LastErcByte0. KillError.Message based. unsigned long KillExch. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. static unsigned long GP1Exch. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. date. LastSeekErc1. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot".static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. MngrMsg[2]. U32 BlocksMax. LastRecalErc1. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . U8 type_now. U32 blocks_done. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. static long time. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. MngrExch. 1990-1995. LastStatByte0. MUltitasking. LastStatByte1. LastErcByte1. fIntOnReset. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. KillJobNum. Real-Time kerneL". MngrHndl.A. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc.

/*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). coms_setup(void). nReady. nRQBLeft. nJCBLeft. static unsigned long nMemPages. nSlices.c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB.U8 ResetStatByte. #asm MMURTL V1. fdisk_setup(void). nLBLeft. char *pJCBRet). extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. BootDrive.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . char *ppJCBRet). nHalts. lpt_setup(void). nEXCHLeft.c */ RS232. nTSSLeft.asm */ Floppy. static long StatStack[256].c */ Fsys. InitFS(void). nSwitches. /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. U32 resvd1[2]. /* out to 64 bytes */ }. /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard.c */ Parallel.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { .c */ HardIDE. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. hdisk_setup(void). xsprintf.

[EBP+8] CMP AL. total = 0. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. i. *ptr.0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned long width. 39h .[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. chr.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . #asm XOR EAX. *ptr = justify = minus = 0. justify. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'.No CMP AL. total. minus.MOV EAX. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). value.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. chr = *fmt++.0 JL isdigit0 . long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. EAX MOV ESI. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr. ptr = &numstk[32]. width = value = i = 0.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. zero. JLE isdigit1 . zero = ' '. 30h . char *fmt.EAX .

} case 'u' : i = 10. break. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. *--ptr = chr. } value = *--argptr. case 'c' : *--ptr = value.'0'). } while(value /= i). generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. case 'b' : i = 2.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. case 's' : ptr = value. default: *--ptr = chr. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. break. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. case 'o' : i = 8. chr = *fmt++. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. if(width) --width. ++total. break. break.width = (width * 10) + (chr . ++minus. break. ++argptr.

return total.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). ap).. long total. } } } else { /* not format char. value = width . } /************************************ MMURTL V1. } /* move in data */ i = 0.. i < width. just move into string *outptr++ = chr. } } *outptr = 0. va_end(ap. va_start(ap. Color). ++total. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . ++i) *outptr++ = zero. fmt. fmt). ++total.1. TTYOut(buffer. ++total. return total. fmt). ++total. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. .) { va_list ap. char buffer[S_SIZE]. ++i. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. strlen(buffer). ++i.

*********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. 25. rgMonMenu3. 24. &iLine). va_start(ap. PutVidChars(0. ap). it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen.0. PutVidChars(54. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. rgStatLine. return. va_end(ap.1).. SetXY(0. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. WHITE|BGBLUE). MMURTL V1. iLine.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS .23. fmt. 24.1. long total..Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. SetXY(0. fmt). 26. return total. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. Msg[2].1). 24. PutVidChars(27.80. Exch.22). 80. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. When it gets one. "%d". . BLUE|BGWHITE). PutVidChars(0. rgMonMenu2. fmt). tick). GetXY(&iCol. total = _ffmt(s. i. rgMonMenu1. char *fmt. BLUE|BGWHITE). BLUE|BGWHITE). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.) { va_list ap. 26. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen.

&pJCB). PutVidChars(0.5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). WHITE|BGBLUE). Tone(440. The message has Error. rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). KillJobNum. KillError). /* sleep 0. /* month */ 0x0f). Sleep(50). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1.5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob).0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . PutVidChars(0. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. rgStatLine. pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. /* Day */ 0x0f). 80. "%d". WHITE|BGBLUE). ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). rgStatLine.U8 *pPD.. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. 0x0f). 80. for(. 0x0f). KillMsg). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). /* sleep 0.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). tick). GetTimerTick(&tick).0. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). (time & 0x0f). tick). TSSExch in it. Error: %d\r\n".50). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. *pVid. /* year */ 0x0f). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). Sleep(50). xprintf("Job number %d terminated. "%d".. pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid.. if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate.*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. CheckScreen().0.

Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. fKilled = 1. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). 0. MngrExch. DeAllocJCB(pJCB). 4. 0). 0. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. MMURTL V1.. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS .GetVidOwner(&i). &MngrHndl. i. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. if the debugger has the video. 1. Also. /* We're done (and so is he. DeAllocPage(pVid. char *pJCB. 0. fDone. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". We don't actually switch jobs. 0. 2.. &i. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. 0. 0.. 0. Exch. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key.. /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". */ DeAllocPage(pPD. 2).) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. Msg). j. 1). /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). &gcode. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc.

MngrExch. &gcode. 0. 0. 0. i = j. 0. if (i==2) i = 3. 0. 0. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". &MngrHndl. 0. 4. 0. 2.0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. erc = KillJob(j). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . 4. MngrExch. MngrMsg). while (!fDone) { i++. #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1.. 0. MngrMsg). 0. 0). 0). else if (i>34) i = 1. 0). &pJCB). 0. 0. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 0. &MngrHndl. i. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch.) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. for(. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. fDone = 0. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). erc = GetpJCB(i. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j).4.

GetSystemDisk(&sdisk).return. sjobfile.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. 1. fcli = 0.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . job = 0. #asm CLI MOV ECX. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. char ajobfile[50].first we clear interrupts . i.run and the last job loaded. /* 0=A.0FEh OUT 64h. sjobfile. do MMURTL V1.64h TEST AL. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. 20). j. unsigned char sdisk. fcli. 0. while (!fdone) { i = 0. job. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. fh. char arunfile[80].AL STI #endasm return. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. &ajobfile[1]. 2=C etc.Read Status Byte into AL .JOB\0".check port up to 64K times . } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . } . Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . sdisk += 0x41.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. 1=B.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. cbrunfile. char fdone. sdisk &= 0x7F. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. &fh). *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM.

.{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. job). else fcli = 0. if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". xprintf("Loading: %s. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). Sleep(50). erc). CheckScreen(). &j). 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. &job). "cli.\r\n". 4. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. &arunfile[i++]. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". GP1Exch. MMURTL V1. job = 0. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job).0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } } else fdone = 1. CheckScreen(). Sleep(50). CheckScreen(). &GP1Hndl. 0. arunfile). if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. } CloseFile(fh). cbrunfile. assign the keyboard and video to it. 1. erc = 0. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. 7) == -1)) fcli = 1..') continue.run".

iCol. 0. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). 0. SetVidOwner(job). CheckScreen(). 0. job. CheckScreen(). strlen(acli). InitScreen(). 4. sdisk += 0x41. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. iLine. GP1Msg). 0). &job). 0. acli). 0.0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . k. &GP1Hndl. job). unsigned char c.\r\n").". 2=C etc. sdisk &= 0x7F. xprintf("Loading: %s. GP1Msg). } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. char text[70].. job. ccode1. } return erc.JOB file not found in system directory. MMURTL V1. GP1Exch. 0. unsigned long ccode. Sleep(50). job.. 0. /* 0=A. 0. j. 0. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. 0). 1=B. i. acli[40]. &acli[1]. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc.RUN\0".0. *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. 16). 0. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". unsigned char sdisk. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc = LoadNewJob(acli. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. */ acli[0] = sdisk.

Burgess. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". erc). erc). c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc).. /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). Error: "). xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. &StatStack[255]. /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). erc). xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . erc = InitKBDService().Tone(250. xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n".. i). erc).. 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n").A. if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". erc). erc = fdisk_setup(). Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc).15). xprintf("Init floppy device driver. i). i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n".. erc = coms_setup(). erc). i = (oMemMax+1)/1024.Message based. erc).33). xprintf("%d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". Tone(1000.0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. 1 ). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). 0. Error: "). 24. erc = hdisk_setup(). xprintf("Copyright (c) R. c). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). erc = lpt_setup(). erc). Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. MUltitasking.

1. /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40. 0. for (.. GPMsg). /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. /* Line */ k = 0. erc). 1. GPExch. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n". xprintf("File System.j).. 0. xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". erc = InitFS().) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service.. pJCB->JobNum). 0. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. MMURTL V1. 13). &ccode. &GPHndl. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). break. 10.\r\n"). */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 1 ). c = ccode & 0xff. Error: %d\r\n". erc = GetpJCB(i.. &MngrStack[255]. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0.. */ LoadJobFile().j). 0. erc). erc). erc). /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch.xprintf("Initializing file system. 4. Tell it to wait for a key. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". text). 0.0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetXY(k+10. 0). if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". text. &pJCB). j++. case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen(). /* Col offset */ for (i=1. i<nMaxJCBs. j = 2.

xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". 1. 1). PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK).1). PutVidChars(29. Sleep(9). nEXCHLeft). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. 1. 1. " ". "-". 1. case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). GREEN|BGBLACK). if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). Sleep(12). nSwitches). nMemPages). GREEN|BGBLACK). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1.. GREEN|BGBLACK). nRQBLeft). GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". Sleep(9). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". xprintf ("\r\n"). break. PutVidChars(29. PutVidChars(29. 1. case 0x12: /* F4 . \r\n"). case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). 1. xprintf("Any key to dismiss status.1).future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. nTSSLeft).. "|". case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n".12).} } break. 1. nReady). nJCBLeft). "-". case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. 1. "\\". 1. "|". PutVidChars(29. nHalts). PutVidChars(29. nSlices). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n".. PutVidChars(29. "\\". xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n".Cancelled\r\n"). 1. 1. xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. GREEN|BGBLACK). erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. SetXY(0. Sleep(9).. break. PutVidChars(29. 1. Sleep(9). xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". Sleep(9). any other key to cancel"). Sleep(12). Sleep(9). GREEN|BGBLACK). "/". 1.loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). GREEN|BGBLACK).0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". 1. break. 1. xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". } SetXY(0. xprintf(". nLBLeft). "/".

1. 2.TTYOut (CRLF. else TTYOut (&c.80.23.22).1). } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS . &iLine). WHITE|BGBLACK). SetXY(0. WHITE|BGBLACK). } } GetXY(&iCol. 1.

.

The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. and a red banner is displayed. If the debugger was entered on a fault. non-symbolic debugger. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. It is not a separate run file. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). The registers can be examined to see where it happened. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code.Chapter 12. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. Certain debugger display functions. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. When this occurs. MMURTL V1. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . function keys are across the bottom. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. will clear the screen for display. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. the debugger is an assembly language. and why. such as dumping data. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. the debugger is entered. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. along with the exception number that caused it.

This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. TSSs are numbered sequentially. as most of them are. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries.Global Descriptor Table. TSS3 . JCBs .Display Exchanges.First TSS.Request Block Array. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. This returns to the application and executes one instruction. F5 Exch . The address is displayed on the left. This becomes the active address. The address is displayed on the left.Ready Queue. a linear address. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). F8 CrntAdd . F4 CS:EIP . LBs . next. TSS1 .” SVCs . and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. the address of the task's JCB.Dynamic TSSs.Dump Bytes. These values are hard coded at system build. “Application Programming.Job Control Blocks.Change Current Address.Set Breakpoint. . This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. F6 Tasks . F12 AddInfo .Single Step. GDT . RQBs . The abbreviations are given in the following list. RdyQ .Goto CS:EIP. This requests a linear address. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. F10 . This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. next. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. without executing them. that will be somewhere in this array.Link Blocks.Display Tasks. IDT .Address Information. You may move down through the instructions. F3 ClrBP . after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. F2 SetBP . Each TSS is 512 bytes. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . and then dumps the bytes located at that address. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. The GDT contains many items. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. F9 DumpB . and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. the associated Job number.Interrupt Descriptor Table. the address of the TSS. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging.Clear Breakpoint. This displays all active tasks on the system. This clears the single breakpoint. This is an array of 512-byte structures. low order). with the down arrow key. These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. This requests a linear address. MMURTL V1. The task number. This is the address of the Monitor TSS.Dump Dwords. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task.Services Array.This is the address of the array of currently registered services.

In MMURTL. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. This is the address of the array of timer blocks. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. without having to fill in special registers. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. but for right now. When it occurs. Lots of code here MOV ESP.Timer Blocks. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. or at the beginning of any instruction. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ASM files. ESP . which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. For applications. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. or for . actually a trap. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. entering the debugger. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. it is the index of that exchange in the array. such as [EBP+12].0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each exchange is 16 bytes. or whatever). like the older processors. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. its down and dirty troubleshooting. MMURTL V1. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. and also how local variables are accessed. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. locking up. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. With near calls like you would make inside your program. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features.Exchanges. There are four debug address registers in the processor. In some cases. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. listed in your ATF file. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. aTmr .and displayed as an unsigned number. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function.START in an assembly language program. whenever any linear memory location is accessed.Exch .

1. or faults. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. the current pRunTSS. It almost. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. When writing an operating system.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . a pointer to the currently running TSS. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. The debugger becomes the active job. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. you will see that there are many interrupts.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. Table 12. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. but not quite. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. If you are going to debug a task. Instead. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger. is saved by the debugger. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS).Processor exceptions. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. When the debug interrupt activates. usually a blank screen and nothing else. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened.. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. called exceptions. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). you must be able to access all of its memory. that can occur. MMURTL V1. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. No other task operates at a priority that high. The debugger cannot debug itself. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. including allocated memory. The debugger also has its own virtual screen.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction.. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger.1. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. Traps. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. a page fault is fatal to a task. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. just like applications do.

To do this. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS).0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . This makes the debugger transparent. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. These contain the address of the exception handler. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. When the debugger is entered. While you are in the debugger. you should kill the offending job and restart. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. MMURTL V1. which is exactly what you want. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner.

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0).not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . &KeyCode 4. As described in chapter 10. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. 0 0. &MyRqhandle. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. “system programming. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. but not as powerful. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD".0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS .Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. this is true multitasking). Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time.Not used (0) */ dData2 . Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time.1 shows the services provided by the service code.Chapter 13. 1. 0. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. It's easier to use. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. 1. 0.fWait for Key */ dData1 . Available Services Table 13. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. MyExch. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services.

The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. This allows for "hot-key" operation.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS . keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered.Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 .Wait for Key = 0 .Return with error if no key waiting 1 . If you have an outstanding Notify request. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1.Not used = 0 .Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section.Not used 0 . A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. described in detail later. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available. The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 . Unlike regular keystrokes.Not used. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). even if a key is not available. In this case. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes.1.Count of bytes in the code 0 .Table 13. the error should be 0.

Alt & Ctrl. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value.4. and Scroll). Num. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. this cancels it. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts.2. If you have an outstanding Notify request. as shown in table 13. as shown in table 13.3. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C). Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. Locks. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. The low-order byte is the actual key code. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later.). The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. etc. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. shown in table 13.

If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code. Alt or Shift). Num or Scroll).. This bit (Bit 0. This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned.2.Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 13.3 shows how the bits are defined. shows how the bits are defined.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. Table 13.2 . Table 13.3 . you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned. Table 13. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps.

Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . Alt. For example.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS .main keyboard.. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned.4 .4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. or Locks). If a shift code is not shown. Key Codes Table 13. Table 13. Ctrl. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1. A description is given only if required.1h to 7Fh). The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active.

' .5 shows the key code value returned.5 .Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values. comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr. Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality. . Table 13.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1. Table 13.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13.6 . Table 13. 13.7.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states. (Period) Cursor. Caps lock does not affect these keys.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS .7. Edit.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1.

if you desire. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. Remember.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code.”Keyboard Code.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS . Pieces of it may be useful for your system. or you may want more. Chapter 25. MMURTL V1. such as international key translations. when all else fails.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. as I have tried to do in this chapter. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. the programmer will read the documentation.

This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. the network service receives the request from the file system. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. a network name. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. The Service Name is "FILESYS ".Chapter 14. just how we access it. then up to three more characters. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. MMURTL V1. When a network file is opened. filename. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. This ties its hands so to speak. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. a period.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy).txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename.and finally the filename itself. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. there isn't anything new about the format. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. but none as wide spread. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. The third part is the filename as described above. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. and a node name is specified. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. the default name NETWORK is used. will be routed to the service with the same name. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . and optionally. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. For example.

The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. MMURTL V1. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. or just reading alone. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. 4096 byte buffer. in any mode or type. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). a number called a file handle is returned to you. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing.File Handles When a file is opened. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. When a file is opened in Read mode.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. Make no assumptions about this number. This is a one page.

&FileHandle 4. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA).1 . 1.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS .1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. 0). When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. &MyRqhandle.returned handle */ cbData2 -. For Stream files.Size of a handle */ dData0 -. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. All message-based services use the same request-based interface. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA.Block Type Access */ dData2 -.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. Table 14. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. Table 14. or file pointer. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. This is called a file pointer in some systems. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service. &"AnyFile.1. 0. 11. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. It meets all the requirements. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. no matter what Mode the file was opened in. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. The file system actually runs as a separate task. You can make a request.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language.doc". Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. MyExch. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file.1 shows the service codes the file system supports.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking).ModeRead */ dData1 -. 1. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ". Listing 14. 1.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -.ptr to name */ cbData1 -.size of name */ pData2 -. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0. Listing 14.

High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access. KBD and VID devices only.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. Table 14. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. Table 14.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. but only through the procedural interfaces. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. The request is transparent to the caller. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. The Request interface will not allow device access.2 .

dOpenMode.pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users. pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName. pdHandleRet .0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS .DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. dcbName . A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. dcbname. If stream access type was specified.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available. Stream = 1. all buffers are flushed and deallocated. Procedural parameters: pName . dAccessType.pointer to the filename or full file specification.Block = 0. Procedural parameters: dHandle . If a file is open in ModeRead. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1.READ = 0.a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead.

pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.Pointer to the data to write nBytes . MMURTL V1. This must be a multiple of the block size. This must always be a multiple of 512. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. This will always return a multiple of 512. pdnBlkRet .DWord with number of bytes to write. pDataRet. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. Procedural parameters: dHandle . dLFA . nBytes. pdnBytesRet . dLFA . Procedural parameters: dhandle . dLFA. Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. One Block = 512 bytes. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. nBytes.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. See the SetFilesize() section.DWord with number of bytes to read. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs. pData.Logical File Address to write to.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . dLFA. SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size. nBytes . This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk.Logical File Address to read from. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512).Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file. pDataRet .DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. pData .

0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . pDataRet . = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. nBytes. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. The bytes are read from the current LFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle.Dword with number of bytes to read. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. pData. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. pdnBytesRet . Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. nBytes . pDataRet. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. Parameters: dhandle . The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. nBytes.

0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdnBytesRet . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.Pointer to the data to write. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF).Procedural parameters: dHandle . The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C). as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle. nBytes . dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files.Dword with a valid file handle.Dword with a valid file handle.Dword with number of bytes to write. Procedural parameters: dhandle . as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. pData . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. Procedural parameters: dHandle .

a Dword with the LFA you want to set. The file length. as returned from OpenFile() dSize . pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS . dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files.a Dword with the new size of the file.dLFA .Dword with a valid file handle.Dword with a valid file handle. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. Procedural parameters: dHandle . 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: dhandle . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle.a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned. and allocated space on the disk. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically.

and ready to be opened and accessed.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dword with length of the filename dAttributes . dcbName . dcbNewName . Procedural parameters: pName . dcbname. Procedural parameters: pName . dcbName. empty file in the path specified.A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden.pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.pointer to the filename or full file specification to create.pointer to the current filename or full file specification. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dcbName .pointer to the new filename or full file specification.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1.Dword with length of the current filename pNewName . The file is closed after creation. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file.

Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. the directory is created in your current path. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. specified in the Job Control Block. No further access is possible.Dword that was returned from OpenFile.pointer to the path (directory name) to create. Procedural parameters: pPath . If only the new directory name is specified. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access).pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. dcbPath . empty directory for the path specified. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. and the filename is available for re-use. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. Procedural parameters: dHandle . as opposed to a full path.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Procedural parameters: pPath . or directory name. Each sector contain 16 directory entries.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles .pointer to the path. all files in this directory. the name is appended to the path from your job control block. the path in your JCB will be used. Procedural parameters: pPath . The directory must exist in the path specified. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. dcbPath. pSectRet. If no path is specified. as opposed to a full path. dcbPath .Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. The path must contain the directory name as the last element. This call returns one sector from a directory.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. to read tj sector from dcbPath .DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size.If set to non-zero. and files in subdirectories will be deleted.pointer to the path. dcbPath. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. If only the existing directory name is specified. or directory name to delete. all subdirectories. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1).

This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. Quite a few of them use this same name. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. Each opened file is allocated an FCB.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. FCB. Each FCB is 128 bytes. The FUBs contain the file pointer. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB).0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. the open mode. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. Some structures are dynamically allocated. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. MMURTL V1.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. When it reaches 0. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. buffer pointers. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. is what links the user of a file to the FCB.pSectRet . If the file is opened in Stream mode. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. Because it is a pointer. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. it's not allocating files. while others are part of the operating system data segment.

with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. X = not your file. From this. return an error ErcFileInUse. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. This is in itself is time-consuming. That's a lot of FAT (or file). FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. or three entries. The fourth entry points to the fifth. If so. If opened in Block mode. On most hard disks. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. Directories are stored as files. In this example. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. the user will strike next. That's 128Kb. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. source files for compilers. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. and raster image files. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. they use what is called a FAT16. Usually. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. Large database files are the major random users. The list could go on and on. However. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. because of the design of the FAT file system. Run files being executed.The disk is allocated in clusters. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. the fifth points to the sixth. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. The file is open. Load FAT buffer if required. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. inside of a 400 Mb file. you can usually do it quite rapidly. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. which is cluster size. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. If it's open in ModeWrite. and the sixth is marked as the last. L = Last entry in your file. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). MMURTL V1. vector. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. allocate an FUB and attach it.

and depends on how the file was opened. Close This is the easy part. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. you must find unallocated clusters. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. but much overhead is involved. MMURTL V1. Both copies must be updated. It sounds simple.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. then write the data.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the file is being extended. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. attach them to the chain. If opened in block mode.

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The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT).0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e.Chapter 15.1 lists the prefixes. Table 15. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes .g. I might add. The call address consists of a selector and an offset. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call.1 . then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use. Chapter 14.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. If you are going to write your own operating system. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names. They are listed by functional group first. Table 15. An improperly.. The offset should be 0.2 lists these additional prefix characters. Table 15.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword .2 . These are known as compound descriptions. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. Table 15. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. “File System Service”).4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs.

0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . dMsg1. or should be. The function name is followed by the parameters. be returned. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. Ret means Returned. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. If a parameter is a byte.3.3 . Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. Table1 5.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. and Min means Minimum. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. pdDataRet . This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. if a value is returned by the function.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. Pascal. Bytes and words (8.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15.Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. It is processor (hardware) enforced. a colon with the returned value. dcbDataRetMax . Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. dcbFileName . pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. Max means Maximum. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. grouped by type. The dError.and optionally suffixes . Each compound set of prefixes .or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. dMsg1. and finally. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl. the most common returned value shown. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. or Assembler. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch.

nDevices. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. pStack. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName.Request( pSvcName. dnBlocks. dOpNum. dfDebug. pData2. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. pInitData. dESP. pDestination. cbData2. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. wCodeSeg. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. pRqHndlRet. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. pS2. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. pDCBs. dcbFileName. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. dPriority. pData1. dcbMem. pPathRet. dExch. dcbFileName. dJobNum. dRespExch. npSend. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. wSvcCode. pDestination. cBytes. pStatRet. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. fDebug. LinAdd. dPriority. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. cbData1. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dStatusMax. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dBytes) MMURTL V1. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. pS2. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. dcbAliasBytes. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. dLBA. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dData1. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. dData0. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. ppMemRet.

dPort) OutWord(Word. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. nChars. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. ddLine. fdRead. dChannel.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. nLines. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. Speaker. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. pbChars. dTextOut. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. pDataIn. dCrntLen. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. nCols. dPort) OutWords(dPort. pdLenRet. dMaxLen. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. nChars. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. pDataOut. dULline. sdMem. pbCharRet. dLine. dLine. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. pbExitChar.

Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use. else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet.0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use. the parameters are not stack-based.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. and interrupts. exceptions.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . exception gates and interrupt gates.Returns an error. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. EAX Returns Error. or 0 if all went well. This must be zero (0) for task gates.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX .Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. Parameters: AX . AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). but can be used by experienced systems programmers. Unlike most other operating system calls. They are passed in registers.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . They are passed in registers. Unlike most other operating system calls.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. Parameters: AX . dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. the parameters are not stack based. and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number).

and don't get placed in a waiting condition. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. dcbMem. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. The overhead included in entry. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. do some other processing. dcbMem . dJobNum. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. WaitMsg. This means you can set an alarm.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. even though it's very close. This would be for the time-out function described above.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. etc. Each application has its own linear address space. AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use).0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. Parameters: nPages . It will always begin on a page boundary. If you do. Alarm() can be used for a number of things.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. ppRet . Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. Parameters: dnTicks . AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. pdPhyMemRet . except you provide the exchange. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. except it can be used asynchronously. In fact.Dword (4 BYTES). each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). The message that is sent is two dwords. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. MMURTL V1.Job number from the other application. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware.).Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. Parameters: pMem . ppAliasRet . Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. The larger dnTicks is. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppMemRet.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. the more precise the timing.A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). dJobNum . pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. Parameters: dn15us . but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. and the memory required to run code. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. initial Task State Segment. dcbFileName. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). When an IRQ is masked in hardware. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. MMURTL V1. Interrupts are not disabled. pdJobNumRet . LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small.pointer to the filename to run. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. Parameters: dIRQnum . and you call this often enough. Page Descriptor.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl.Parameters: dAlarmExch .A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. stack. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify.length of the run filename.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . so the time could be much longer. precise. Parameters: pFilename . although longer periods will work. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. Virtual Video.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer. and data pages. dcbFileName . You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state.

dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for.handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch .Which code segment. dESP.Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function.The address of the port. No error is returned.The address of the port.Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. Exch . else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. Paramters: Dword . dExch. OutWord OutWord(Word. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task.exchange where the Request is to be sent.The dword value to write to the port.Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . OS=8 or User=18 Priority .Exchange for TSS. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. dCodeSeg.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . it is made to run. Parameters: JobNum . dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS). NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. Parameters: MMURTL V1. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl .Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. DPort .The byte value to write to the port. dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. dPriority. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS . then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution. DPort . Parameters: Byte . ESP . dfDebug.

dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. “Application Programming. OutWords OutWords(dPort.The word value to write to the port. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. pDataOut. This is the number of Words * 2.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS .line (0-24) pbChars . QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space.color/attribute to use during display. It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. dLine. PdataOut . dAttr .pointer to the text to be displayed nChars .number of characters pbChars is pointing to.The address of the port. You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2).line (0-24) dnChars . DPort . dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort.” describes all of the attribute values. Parameters: pdnPagesRet .Word .The count of bytes to write to the port address. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol. pbChars. DBytes . PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. or virtual screen.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned. nChars. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port.column to start on (0-79) dLine . dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. Parameters: DPort . dLine.number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . Parameters: dCol .Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to.The address of the port. if not displayed. Each page of memory is 4096 byte. MMURTL V1. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values. Parameters: dCol . dnChars.column to start on (0-79) dLine .

If fWait is true (non-zero). Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . pRqHndlRet.A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. Request Request( pSvcName. dData0. If fWait is false (0). fWait . This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. pData2. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . Parameters: BAddress . This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. dData1.the exchange to be associated with the service name. Parameters: pSvcName . RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. This call blocks your task until completion. and padded with spaces (20h). See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. cbData2. cbData1. or on what machine the request is being serviced. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. npSend. Service names are case sensitive. The string must be left justified. if forwarded across a network. wSvcCode. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. pData1. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. dRespExch.If true (non-zero). the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning.a pointer to an 8-byte string. If no key was available.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS .

then npSend would be 2. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). dError. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. pRqHndlRet . For example. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. dData0. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. dData1. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message.the size of the data being sent to the service. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. of the message sent back to the requester of the service. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. dError. pData2 . pData1 . See Respond(). With all kernel primitives. are sending data to the service. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network.same as pData1. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. This may be data sent to the service. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). Zero will be returned if all was well. 1 and 2. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. Function Codes 0. cbData2 . What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. npSend . With all kernel primitives.This is the operating system Request primitive. Always assume it will be network-routed. dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. Parameters: dRqHndl . dMsgLo. service name. the value returned from the Respond() call itself.a number (0. The use of dData0. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service. This error is not the error returned by the service. MMURTL V1. dRespExch .dData0.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. space padded. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. or received from the service. cbData1 . wSvcCode . Respond Respond(dRqHndl. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. dStatRet . if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. The service must be registered with the operating system. dData2 .The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: pSvcName . the value returned from the Request() call itself. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. 65534 (0FFFEh).

DnLines . The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi.dnCols. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . and is not enforced by the operating system. This is an agreed-upon convention.The upper dword of the message. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB.The length of the command line string to store. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. and while Chaining to another application. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum.The number of columns to be scrolled. SendMsg SendMsg (dExch.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol.The count of lines to be scrolled. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. the message is associated. dMsgHi. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0.25. the new command line string.1). dMsgLo .0. msg[0].This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down.Points to an array of bytes. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application.The lower dword of the message.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . This call stores the command line in the JCB. msg[1]. dMsgHi . The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs. If it were a Response from a service. Parameters: pCmdLine . If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . and it is moved to the Ready queue. linked with that task.a polite term for crashed. dcbCmdLine . This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. it will be into an array of dwords.80.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent.dnLines. which is the first dword pushed.dULline. and the bottom line would be blanked. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. In this case the top line is lost. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. MMURTL V1. Parameters: DULCol . DfUp . If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. Parameters: dExch .

This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB).4 . of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. MMURTL V1. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. pVector . and its ExitJob is zero length.If installed. pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. Parameters: dIRQnum .Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. Table 15. After the interrupt vector is set. dcbExitJob . Built-in device drivers assume these values.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. Parameters: pExitJob . these should follow ISA hardware conventions. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . Initially. Table 15. When a job exits. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . The filename must not longer than 79 characters. which will happen most often. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2.

The path is 79 characters maximum.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. If no job name is set by the application. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. Parameters: dNormVidAttr . It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. The maximum length is 13 bytes. The default foreground color. Parameters: pJobName . If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. dcbPath .This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB.SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. a text string. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. Longer values will be truncated. dcbJobName . This is a maximum of 13 characters. the color of the characters themselves. and background colors may be changed by an application. MMURTL V1. Parameters: bPriority . will clear the job name from the JCB. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. Typically. SetPath SetPath(pPath. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. Refer to the file System documentation). The path is interpreted and used by the File System.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . A zero length. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call.This is the new priority (0-31). Parameters: pPath . dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. then call ClrScr().

A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes(). dcbFileName . If the SysIn name is set to KDB. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. The default name. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. Only ASCII data is returned from this call.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. which is the user's name. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. dcbFileName . The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. Parameters: pFileName .The job number for new owner of the active screen. The default name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. is KBD. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). dcbUsername . SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. If the SysOut name is VID. is VID. which is the one to be displayed.points to a text string. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application.SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. and Chaining to another application.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: pUsername .is the length of the string to store. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. Parameters: pFileName . dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. if none is set by the application. Parameters: DJobNum . WriteBytes(). if none is set.

Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value.This is a number from 0 to 31. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. Tone Tone(dHz. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. DNewY . Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. or the real video screen if currently assigned. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. or make it sleep. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. 1 is accepted. Parameters: dnTicks .A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. otherwise. Parameters: pEntry . Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. The timer interrupt sends the message.This is a pointer to the function. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack .This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. Application programs should use priority 25.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. If your task is a high enough priority. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. dPriority . If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. This applies to the virtual screen. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. Parameters: DNewX . fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. and clears the block when it reaches zero.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . but testing will be required to ensure harmony. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. it is made to run. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). fDebug. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. fOSCode . procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. should use priorities above 25. Certain system services are higher priority. dPriority.The new vertical cursor position row. pStack. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. fDebug . such as the file system and keyboard. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up.The new horizontal cursor position column. lower numbers.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1.

Parameters: pSvcName . if the cursor is in the last column of a line. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. dTicks10ms . the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. dTextOut. Parameters: dHz . Service names are case sensitive. no characters are changed. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed .Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . The string must left justified. will be moved down one line. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. and padded with spaces (20h). For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). the entire screen will be scrolled up one line. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. For character placement.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. next active character placement.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. A value of 100 is one second.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. Backspace will have no effect. DAttrib .A near Pointer to the text. DTextOut .A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. If already at column 0.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask.A pointer to an 8-byte string. The service with that name will no longer be available to callers.The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. from 30 to 10000.The attribute or color you want. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . Parameters: dIRQnum . dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job. They will receive an error. 08 backspace . TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut.The cursor. The backspace is non-destructive.The cursor will be moved one column to the left. Parameters: PTextOut . If this line is below the bottom of the screen.The number of characters of text.

Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer.A pointer to where the message will be returned. an array of two dwords. less than 8000000h. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. you would have had to make the request in the first place. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer. dExch . Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. At that time. Of course. MMURTL V1. so this would be obvious to you. If no message is available. the task will be placed on the exchange specified.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg .This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. You've got to send mail to get mail. Parameters: DError .

One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter. but it's a good start.Set file access path (New path e.Chapter 16.Make Directory Path . To see what has been included on the CDROM.Clear Screen Copy .Directory listing Debug . The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. It provides information such as date. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter.RUN files).Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help . is described in the following sections. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. CLI version.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . It has been expanded. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section.Display list of internal commands Monitor .Hex dump of a file Exit . However. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. it does work and it's useful in its own right. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute .Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its. use.Copy a file Dir . Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter.Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD . MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI.Rename a file (Current name New name) Run . The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. “What's On the CD-ROM. and your current path. MMURTL V1. see Appendix A.Delete a file Dump .Remove directory Rename . It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me). The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. job number for this CLI.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS . The internal commands are: Cls .g. The top line is the status line. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. D:\DIR\) RD . The CLI screen is divided into two sections.Enter Debugger Del . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. time.

or the same name in a different directory. If the character is not ASCII text. a period is displayed instead. If a file exists with the same name.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. >Copy THISFILE.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. Dump pauses after each screen full of text.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. MMURTL V1. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure.TXT THATFILE. Both names must be specified. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. “The Debugger. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set.

this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. or external command that is executed for this CLI. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive).. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. listing. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. In MMURTL.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. renaming. etc.) MMURTL V1. the tree will only be extend one level. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. and . The path must end with the Backslash. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. With any file-system operation (opening. In other words. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename.). for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. This CLI will still be executing. Unlike a single tasking operating system. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job.

The file must not be open by any other job.RUN).CLI follows: . pausing after each page. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME. An example of COMMANDS.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print.TXT Run (Execute a .0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS . Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk.CLI File The file COMMANDS.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test. The contents of the file COMMANDS.run New. The File COMMANDS. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix . MMURTL V1.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored. The first item on the line is the command name.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).End of Command. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below.CLI Commands.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file.Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. It is a simple text file with one command per line.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.run .RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number).

CLI Source Code Listing .h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.Ver.h> #include <string. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.0 of the Command Line Interpreter.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .CLI. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. Listing 16. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.1. In this case. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down. but other application might.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. CTRL-ALT-DELETE .h> #include <ctype.Terminates the currently displayed job. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.CLI file.

/* "Monitor". unsigned long GPHndl.0 Job Path: ". char ExitChar. clipath[60]. /* "Path". long cbPath. hlppath[60]. /* "Dir". /* "MD". unsigned char bigBuf[4096].#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. syspath[50]. long cbCmd = 0. date. /* "xxxxx". /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. /* "Copy". unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time.0 { 0 external */ 1 . char text[70]. /* "RD". /* MMURTL V1. /* "Help". iLine. /* "Del". /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. /* "Cls". /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* "Dump". long JobNum. unsigned char Buffer[512].not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . char aCmd[80]. cmdpath[60]. unsigned long GPExch. char char char char sdisk. /* "Ren". /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. /* "Debug". /* "Exit". char fUpdatePath.

0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . U8 Ext[3]. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. }."Run".. It updates the status line which has the time and path. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. "Type". U8 Rsvd[10].) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. U16 StartClstr. U16 Date. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. U32 FileSize. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. U8 Attr. } dirent[16]. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. U16 Time. long acbParam[13]. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. char *apParam[13].

aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). break. case 201: pSt = "No such drive". aStatLine. ' '). (time & 0x0f). case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". STATVID). char st[40]. break. FillData(st.0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . PutVidChars(0. break. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). 80. cbPath). break. case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". break. case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". break. break. CopyData(aPath. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). switch (erc) { case 0: return. break. &aStatLine[47]. break. break. fUpdatePath = 0. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). break. *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. /* month */ 0x0f). 40. } GetCMOSDate(&date). case 1: pSt = "End of file". case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). break. case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". /* Day */ 0x0f). case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". 0). FillData(&aStatLine[47]. break. case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". case 208: pSt = "File in use".0. MMURTL V1. case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". 0x0f). case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. break. /* year */ 0x0f). break. Sleep(100).cbPath = 30. case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". 0x0f). break. 30. break. case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". ((time >> 16) & 0x0f).

GetXY(&iCol. GetXY(&iCol. pSt = st. } SetXY(iCol. "Error %05d on last command". aStatLine. while (cb) { printf("%08x ". unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. break. MMURTL V1. iLine). unsigned char buff[17]. iLine = 2. } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. } printf("%s\r\n". } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). long cb. addr). If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. j. erc).0. &iLine). PutVidChars(0. erc = 0. STATVID). 80. *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). ClrScr().default: sprintf(st. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. &iLine). } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. return. #asm INT 03 #endasm return. KeyCode. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { .0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . i. pSt).

i<j."). } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. printf("ESC to cancel.23). } if (cb > 15) cb-=16.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. addr+=j. } buff[i+1] = 0. for (i=0.. } InitScreen(TRUE). else cb=0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. l. k. 512. if (!erc) { j=0. any other key to continue. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. Buffer. 512. &fh). &k). if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. This expects to find the filename in param[1]. acbParam[1]. else j = cb.*pb). dret. SetXY(0. i++) { printf("%02x ".80. ++iLine. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E. erc. buff[i] = *pb++. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1].1. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. 1.1). iLine =1. &dret). printf("%s\r\n"..23. &buff[0]). ModeRead. 0). if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.23).1). /* ReadKbd. MMURTL V1. SetXY(0. 1). fh. erc = ReadBytes (fh. erc = 0.if (cb > 15) j=16. } return erc.

iLine). } CloseFile (fh). j+=512. SetFileLFA(fh. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. return erc. long cbName) { long i.23. lfa. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. SetXY(0. else l=k-j. fh. 1.80. cbName. j<=i. &fh). erc = 0.23). dret. erc. } for (j=0. j).1. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. iLine. 0).1). &lfa). while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. } erc = OpenFile(pName. 0. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. dret = 1. dret. &dret). } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n").if (k-j > 512) l = 512. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. iLine++.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . NORMVID). KeyCode. Buffer. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. i. } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. i = 1. j. } SetXY(0. MMURTL V1. lfa+i). 512. Buffer. 78.

pTimeRet.1900. } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.mo. char *pTimeRet.1). Use block mode for speed. iLine =1. char *pTo. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11. SetXY(0. da = date & 0x001F. InitScreen(TRUE).se. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). CopyData(st. 1). char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo.mi. "%02d-%02d-%02d". mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. U16 date. erc. This is used by the directory listing. "%02d:%02d:%02d". return erc. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer.yr). } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking. erc). if (yr > 99) yr -=100. 8). mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. char st[15]. any other key to continue. pDateRet.if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. printf("ESC to cancel."). bytesGot. fhFrom. sprintf(st.mi.. 8). } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). sprintf(st. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom.mo.hr.da. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.. This uses a conservative 4K buffer. bytesWant. MMURTL V1. /* ReadKbd.da. CopyData(st. bytesLeft.hr. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time. U32 cbFrom.23).0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n". CloseFile (fh). yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 .se).

ModeRead.bytesOut. &bytesOut). erc = OpenFile(pFrom. cbTo. dLFA. bytesWant. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. &bytesGot). while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. dLFA. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. 0. cbTo. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. bigBuf. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. 0). bytesLeft = size. size). } dLFA += bytesGot.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). bytesGot. &size). } MMURTL V1. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. 1). else bytesWant = bytesLeft. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. } return(erc). ModeModify. KeyCode. cbFrom. &fhFrom). size. &fhTo). if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. } CloseFile(fhTo). dLFA. dLFA = 0. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). /* ReadKbd. bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. bigBuf.

i<16.23. dirent[i]. &st[24]). "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". ReadKbd(&KeyCode. KeyCode.1. iLine++. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. } } } MMURTL V1. /* ReadKbd. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. dirent[i]..StartClstr). dirent[i].Attr. } if ((dirent[i]. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. st).Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st.Time.Date.23). printf("ESC to cancel. 1)..1). iLine =1. SetXY(0. SectNum). i. dirent[i]./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. fDone = 1.80. char st[78]. i++) { if (!dirent[i].Name[0]) { erc = 1. any other key to continue. fDone = TRUE. SectNum = 0.Name. &dirent[0]. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]. SetXY(0.Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. acbParam[1]. U32 SectNum. } fDone = 0. erc.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) { for (i=0. } InitScreen(TRUE).1). 512.FileSize. dirent[i]. printf("%s". *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. &st[33]. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0.").23). dirent[i].Ext.

iCmd++. rawline[90]. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0.} else fDone = TRUE. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd.. MMURTL V1. iPrm<nParamsMax. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. k. fdone. } return(erc). iPrm. If it finds it. SectNum++. *f.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams.. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. j. i. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. cmdline[90]. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. for (iPrm=0. The format for a line entry in Commands.

f)) { if (rawline[0] == '.CLI not found. f = fopen(cmdpath. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1.cmdline[0] = 0. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++].') /* a comment line */ continue.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. acbParam[0]). return(1). if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. 89. /* now move arguments if any. if (f) { fdone = 0. cmdline).\r\n"). return(0). /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. runfile[k] = 0. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. rawline. } } else printf("Commands. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. cmdline[j] = 0. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. "r"). /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd).

acbParam[0]). If so. } MMURTL V1. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). we first look for a . erc. If we don't find one.RUN"). if it's not there. erc = OpenFile(runfile. &fh). strlen(runfile). SetCmdLine(aCmd. strlen(clipath)).CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. we go to the system directory. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. ModeRead. erc = OpenFile(runfile. runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. strlen(runfile). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. acbParam[0]). erc = Chain(runfile. SetExitJob(clipath. &runfile[i]. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. strlen(clipath)). SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(clipath)). erc = Chain(runfile. erc = Chain(runfile. ModeRead. strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). cbCmd). ". if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). cbCmd). runfile. &fh). ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. syspath). 0). strcat(runfile. we then go to COMMANDS.RUN file in the current path.When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. 1. strlen(runfile). CopyData(apParam[0]. cbCmd). SetExitJob(clipath.RUN"). /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. strlen(runfile). SetCmdLine(aCmd. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). SetCmdLine(aCmd. long i. 1. 0).0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. 0). i = strlen(runfile). ModeRead. &fh). } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. fh. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). ".

"COMMANDS. GetPath(JobNum. SetXY(0. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. i. */ cbPath = 0. 1=B. SpawnTask(&StatTask. SetJobName("CLI V1. command file. strcat(clipath. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). syspath)./********************************************** Main function entry point.RUN"). sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. and help file. sdisk += 0x41. 8). syspath). syspath[2] = 0. syspath). strcpy(cmdpath. sdisk &= 0x7F. Note: No params to CLI. } else { strcpy (aPath. strcat(hlppath.CLI"). j. InitScreen(FALSE). */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. 2=C etc. GetJobNum(&JobNum). 24. "\\MMSYS\\").0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS ."CLI. /* 0=A."HELP. 0). */ syspath[0] = sdisk. MMURTL V1. &iLine). iLine). /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. strcat(syspath. "%02d". aPath.0".CLI"). /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. syspath). syspath[1] = ':'. JobNum). erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). &cbPath). fh. strcpy(clipath. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. 0. strcpy(hlppath. strcat(cmdpath. &StatStack[255].

TTYOut (">". ' '). 79. strlen(syspath)). acbParam[0] = 0. 79. if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). } erc = 0. TTYOut ("\r\n". SetXY(0. &fh). if (!erc) MMURTL V1. aCmd[79] = 0. NORMVID). while (1) { FillData(aCmd. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. strlen(clipath)). acbParam[1]. EditLine(aCmd. EDVID).0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . } i++. 0. cbCmd. acbParam[2]). case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. break. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). acbParam[1]. break. paCmds[i]. &ExitChar. 1. NORMVID). InitScreen(TRUE). apParam[2]. } fUpdatePath = 1. apParam[0] = 0. cbCmd = 0. iLine). if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). CmdNum = 0. break. GetXY(&iCol. 2. SetExitJob(clipath. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. else erc = ErcBadParams. j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. break. &cbCmd. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). 1. SetPath(syspath.cbPath = strlen(syspath). &iLine).

break. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". SetExitJob(clipath. acbParam[1]). break. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. break. 0. 0). case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). break. &GPHndl. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. 0).\r\n"). 0. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". acbParam[1]. 0. 0. case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. aPath. GPExch. fUpdatePath = 1. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). 4. break. GPMsg). break. } break. else erc = ErcBadParams. strlen(hlppath)). break. 1. break. apParam[2]. acbParam[1]). break. cbCmd-i). acbParam[1]). default: break. case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. MMURTL V1. acbParam[2]).erc = DeleteFile(fh). &cbPath). if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. acbParam[1]). strlen(clipath)). break. ExitJob(0). if (!erc) printf("Done. 0.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. 0). break. SetVidOwner(1). acbParam[1]. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. 0. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. break.

23.} CheckErc(erc). such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line). The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM.1. The next 23 lines are the text editing area. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb. The top line provides continuous status information. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands.2. current filename. See Appendix A. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.23). Table 16. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). status and error display. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections. What's On the CD-ROM.80. } GetXY(&iCol. &iLine). The last line is used for data entry.1).1. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. SetXY(0. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns.

h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.2.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service. Listing 16. Listing 16. Editor Source Code /* Edit.2 is the editor source code.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .4 . File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.h" MMURTL V1.h> #include <ctype.h> #include <string.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.

. U32 sLine.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. *pBuf2. /* sBuf . /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. /* cursor. }. U32 iTabNorm. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. char *apParam[13]. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. U32 oBufBound. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. struct EditRecType *pEdit.. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. b1. U32 iAttrNorm. struct EditRecType EdRec. U32 iColMax.sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. char aStat1[80]. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. 0. U8 bSpace. void clearbuf(void). /* cursor. long cbFilename. U32 iRowMax. char fModified. char *pBuf1. U32 iAttrMark.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. unsigned char filler[100]. fh. U8 fVisible.1 */ U32 iColMin.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. 0. unsigned char b. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. char aCmd[80]. char fOvertype.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. U8 *pBufWork. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60].h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. char aStat[80]. long erc. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX].

} return (erc). } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. case 6: sprintf(st. } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. 0). If fClose. default: sprintf(st. case 5: sprintf(st. 40. 24. erc). erc). if (erc) { FillData(st.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. erc). } for (i=0. "Error break. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. 0). "Error break. "Error break.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 7: sprintf(st. NORMVID). case 3: sprintf(st. If fPrompt is true. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. FillData(st. erc). PutVidChars (40. %05d occured on ReadBytes". %05d occured on CreateFile". %05d occured on last command". st. %05d occured on WriteBytes". switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. "Error break. STATVID). PutVidChars (0. erc). erc). st. i<40. 80. "Error break. *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. %05d occured on OpenFile". case 4: sprintf(st. Beep(). %05d occured on SetFileSize". 39. "Error break. long i. long erc) { char st[40]. 24. "Error break. erc). "Error break. %05d occured on ReadKbd". this will prompt you to save. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". erc). case 2: sprintf(st. 80.

SetXY(0. STATVID). ClearStatus(). ".and the buffer will be closed. 24). 24. } } MMURTL V1. 43. ReadKbd(&keycode. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". keycode. fh = 0. WriteBytes (fh. 0)). SetFileLFA(fh. pBuf1. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. BLACK|BGCYAN). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. SetFileSize(fh. pEdit->oBufLast)). unsigned char *pBuff. 1). fModified = 0. TTYOut("This file has been modified. cbFilename = 0. if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). &i)).. Sleep(150). int fClose) { U32 i.. } fYes = 1. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt.0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . 10. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. PutVidChars (0. "DONE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. ClearStatus(). fYes. pEdit->oBufLast. clearbuf(). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. ClearStatus().

24). 10. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. "Filename: ". BLACK|BGCYAN). If not. fh = 0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. SetXY(50. 26. CreateFile(Filename. PutVidChars (0. cbFilename = strlen(Filename). **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. &fh)). else erc = 0. pEdit->oBufLast = dret. it will prompts to create. erc = 0.". } else { b1=0x0d. cbFilename. dret. ModeModify. Beep(). 1.0). } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. BLACK|BGWHITE). 13). MMURTL V1. name. pBuf1. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. cbFilename = 0. &dret). 24).24). EditLine(Filename. ReadKbd(&keycode. 60. keycode.24. SetXY(50. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. 0)). OpenFile(Filename. strncpy(Filename. SetXY(10. 0.24). BLACK|BGCYAN). &filesize).0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . Create?? (Y/N)". if (!name) { SetXY(0. 1). cbFilename. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). &fh). TTYOut("File is too large to edit. 29./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. cbFilename. SetXY(0. erc). if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. 1). ReadKbd(&keycode. filesize. &cbFilename. 1. TTYOut("Doesn't exist. BLACK|BGCYAN). ModeModify. &b1.

} if (!erc) ClearStatus(). ClearStatus(). iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. nEols = 0. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. iEolMax. *pBuff.if (erc) { fh = 0. erc). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. i. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. even though we word wrap always. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. cbFilename = 0. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. unsigned char *pBuff. } } else { cbFilename = 0. } } else CheckErc(1. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. return(nEols). i = 0.

while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. /* now find first non-space . j. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. iEol = iBuf. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. */ iEol = iEolMax. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. i = 0. char *pBuff.1. if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. } } return(iEol)..0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS .. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i.

iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. PutVidAttrs (iColStart. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. iLn.iColFinish. pEdit->iAttrNorm). while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . pEdit->iColMax . } while (i < oBufStart). iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. iColFinish . return(j). else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . iBoundLoc.i--. pEdit->iAttrMark). } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. iMarkLoc.pEdit->Line[iLn] .0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . iLn. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc .1. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. iLn. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. if (i) i++.pEdit->Line[iLn]. pEdit->iAttrNorm). if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. MMURTL V1.pEdit->Line[iLn].iColStart +1. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. iColFinish.

} /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. char fOvertype. pEdit->oBufInsert++. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS .pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . Beep(). erc = 40400. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. } return (fOK). fModified = 1. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. pEdit->pBufWork. cb). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. cb). pEdit->oBufLast++. char fOK. *pBuff. *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn.iLn. } } } else { fOK = 0. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->sLine. pEdit->iAttrNorm). CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn.

pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. char *pBuff. i<=iBd-iMk.1. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. for (i=0. i<=iMk . if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. iMk. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd.iBd + iMk .pEdit->oBufInsert . iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. } } } else Beep(). i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i].iMk. pEdit->oBufInsert . iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. *pBuffWork. iBd. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk.iBd . i <=iBd-iMk.1.0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound.1. iBd. for (i=0. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i]. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. MMURTL V1. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.

pEdit->sLine. } } } else Beep(). i. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert.char *pBuff. (hides it). if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . pEdit->oBufLast+1). } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.pEdit->oBufInsert+1). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. i <= pEdit->iRowMax.0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufLast . pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .iMk. MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. iBd-iMk+1). iMk = pEdit->oBufBound.iMk + 1. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark.iMk + 1. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pBuffWork. *pBuffWork. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd.

&pBuff[iMk]. iBd. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .if it is.normAttr (). else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk.1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.iBd + iMk . } nullMarkBound (). *pBuffWork. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert . pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. j. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd).iBd + iMk. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. char fProb. i = pEdit->iRowMin. } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling).might be off screen . *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. char *pBuff. else fProb = FALSE. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.

if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. } i = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol . /* get to potential insert . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. j = pEdit->iLine. } } MMURTL V1.1. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line.i++. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. i = pEdit->iLine.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . if prev char <> CR. pEdit->iLine = i . is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--.pEdit->iColMin. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. i. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. /* if bogus line. If oBufInsert is not onscreen.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. j = pEdit->iLine.is. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.

} } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. k. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. cb. j. j<NLINESMAX. oBuf. */ for (i = k. iLn. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. MMURTL V1. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. k = pEdit->iRowMax./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. else for (j=i+1. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. i<=k. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS .

80. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. FillData(filler. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. /* oBufInsert on screen . i = pEdit->iRowMin. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->iAttrNorm). iLn. char *pBuff. iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. pFiller. 0x20). iLn. for (i=0. cb. makeOnScreen (). /* Make size.1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. doMark (iLn).char *pBuff.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. Called before use and after closure. i<NLINESMAX. MMURTL V1.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. pBuff+oBuf. cb = i .oBuf + 1. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. pEdit->sLine-cb. else i = pEdit->oBufLast.

i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. normAttr (). nullMarkBound()."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". pEdit->oBufLast). erc = AllocExch(&exch). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. sprintf(aStat. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. FillData(aStat. char fSpecInsert. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. long exch. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. i. *pBuffWork. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). 80. fDone = FALSE. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. pEdit->iLine).0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . k. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. j. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. 0x20). /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. char *pBuff. for (i=0. unsigned char b. normAttr (). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. key. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. fScreen = FALSE. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. fOvertype = FALSE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace.fModified = 0. pEdit->oBufLast = 0. pEdit->iCol.

while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. 3). 80. aStat. ReadKbd (&key. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. break. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. fScreen = TRUE. break. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. 1)). case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. fSpecInsert = FALSE. coordCursor_oBuf (). break. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. 0. &aStat[40].CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. else CopyData("INS". i = pEdit->iLine. TRUE). fScreen = TRUE.Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine.0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . STATVID).Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. i = pEdit->iLine. &aStat[77]. break. fScreen = TRUE.Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0.CopyData(Filename.Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . PutVidChars (0. 3). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. &aStat[77]. break. break. cbFilename). pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. b = key & 0xff. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. coordCursor_oBuf (). if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR".

SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. } break. break. } fScreen = TRUE. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). } break. fDone = TRUE. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. default: break. } else { for (i=0. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast .Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. break.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). fScreen = TRUE. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. OpenAFile(0). break. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. FALSE).pEdit->Line[i]. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. i = pEdit->iLine+1. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . case 0x53: /* ALT S . TRUE). fScreen = TRUE.

} } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].5) pEdit->iCol += 5.1. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). fSpecInsert))) Beep(). if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. break. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . default: break. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1].} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf ().0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . fScreen = TRUE. break. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. if (!(putInBuf (b. MMURTL V1. findCursor (). pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . pEdit->oBufLast+1). if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . pBuffWork.1. fOvertype.

if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. break. i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE. i <=j. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace.(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). fScreen = TRUE. case 0x12: /* F4 -. FALSE). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark.1. fScreen = TRUE.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf ().UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). moveData ().1. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. } break. fScreen = TRUE. break. case 0x11: /* F3 -. case 0x06: /* Home .End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } break.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. MMURTL V1.1. } break.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). fModified = TRUE. case 0x10: /* F2 -. FALSE. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast .Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x17: /* F9 . i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast . if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. fScreen = TRUE. for (i=1. j = pEdit->iTabNorm .

i = pEdit->oBufLine0. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. } break. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). j--. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. j = pEdit->iRowMax . pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. coordCursor_oBuf (). i = pEdit->iRowMax. break. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). k--. pEdit->oBufInsert = i.break. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. case 0x18: /* F10 . break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0.pEdit->iRowMin. k = pEdit->iLine. } } break. CopyIt (). fScreen = TRUE. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine.

coordCursor_oBuf (). } fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. pEdit->oBufLast--. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). } break. pEdit->iLine = j. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . pBuffWork. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->iCol = i. fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iCol. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. } break. fModified = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. default: MMURTL V1. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. } break. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff.pEdit->iLine++. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. pEdit->oBufLast+1). break. j = pEdit->iLine. } } break. else fOvertype = TRUE. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1].

pEdit = &EdRec. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. cbFilename = 0.break. 0. and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. ClrScr(). pEdit->sLine+1.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . return. 0x20. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. &i)). pBuf1. } *pbExitRet = b. if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. 131071. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. fModified = 0. U8 *argv[]) { long i. i <=pEdit->iRowMax. FALSE. 1. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. } CloseFile(fh). pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. SetFileSize(fh. SetFileLFA(fh. pBuf2.pEdit->oBufLast)). pEdit->oBufLast. i. 0)). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. 0). /*sBuf . WriteBytes (fh. 79. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. 23. &pBuf2). SetJobName("Editor". i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0.0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. erc = AllocPage(32. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). fh = 0. 80. 6). &pBuf1). erc = AllocPage(32.

MMURTL V1.sLine-1 */ cursor. i<NLINESMAX.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler. for (i=0. EMPTY. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. 0. fOvertype = FALSE.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. ExitJob(0).h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. pEdit->Line[i] = 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob.h> #include <ctype. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. fModified = 0.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv. struct statRecC com. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. EDVID. 0. i. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]). 0. 0. 80. Listing 16. i = pEdit->iRowMin. 0..h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232. 4.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0x20).pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). 0..3. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. } Editor(&b). EMPTY. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY.h> #include <string. 0.

dnBlocks.IOBase). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n".Baudrate com. dLBA. = 8. 0. printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". com. ClrScr(). /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver.databits com. &i). we open the comms port */ /* device. ClrScr().0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS .RTimeOut). } /* If device init went OK.IRQNum).RBufSize). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. lastb.XTimeOut). ExitJob(erc). = 1. */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6.h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. CmdOpenC. ClrScr().parity = com. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). } /* set the params in the block */ com. /* View other params which we could set. &com. dOpNum. erc). /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. com. 64. ExitJob(erc). 0.stopbits = 9600. com.unsigned char b. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). if (erc) { MMURTL V1. &com. %d\r\n". %d\r\n". NO_PAR. erc). The structure is defined in commdrv. SetNormVid(NORMVID). char fOK. %d\r\n". com. 64). %d\r\n". %d\r\n". com. &i).XBufSize). but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. com.

/* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. 0. 0. erc = DeviceOp(6.. dOpNum. NORMVID).. dLBA. dnBlocks. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. dOpNum. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". } } else { /* device. 1.. ClrScr(). if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. &b). 0. ExitJob(erc). } } } MMURTL V1. &b). &b). CmdWriteB.0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . dnBlocks. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. fOK = 1. } printf("Communications Port Initialized.SetNormVid(CLIVID). SetNormVid(CLIVID). 0. break. 0. CmdReadB. 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". 1.\r\n"). dLBA. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. CmdCloseC. NORMVID). dLBA. default: break.. erc). lastb = b. &i). ClrScr(). ExitJob(erc). dOpNum. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. dnBlocks. erc). */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. /* This is it. } } } } /* device. 0. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". CmdWriteB.

Listing 16.h" "\OSSource\Parallel.Binary print.4 or 8) \D . Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1.4.Display the file while printing \F . col = 0.2. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device.h" "\OSSource\MJob.h> <stdio. struct statRecL lpt.h> <stdlib. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1.h" "\OSSource\MVid. long long long long long tabstops = 4. fBinary = 0. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver. That's the intention of the design.h" "\OSSource\MKbd.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv.h> <string.4. In listing 16. (Compare DumbTerm and this program).h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key.h> <ctype. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device. char name[80].0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n . FILE *f. NoFF = 0.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver. Send with no translations.h" "\OSSource\MTimer. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B . fDisplay = 0.

0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . 8). printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). *ptr.0x30.Tab stop translation value\r\n"). exit(1). ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. break.No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. name[0] = 0. break. cl. break. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). argv[i]. char fdone. break. i < argc. for(i=1. exit(1). lastb. erck. case 'B' : /* BINARY . switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . default: printf("Invalid switch"). Version 1. } MMURTL V1.0\r\n"). unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. NO translation. i. SetJobName("Printing". printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). unsigned char b. no FF\r\n\n"). 79). if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. break. printf("/B Binary print.void main(long argc. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1.

/* This is it. 0. The structure is defined in parallel.. "r"). ExitJob(erc). } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. erc). ExitJob(erc). while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. &i). ExitJob(erc). i = 0. name).h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . dOpNum. dLBA. dLBA. dOpNum. fdone = 0. erc)./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. CmdCloseLU. } /* If device status went OK. cl = fgetc(f). &i). } else { MMURTL V1. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. } col = 0. 0. &lastb). b = 0. we open the printer port */ /* device. */ f = fopen(name. if (!f) { /* device. dnBlocks.\r\n". dnBlocks. 0. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". CmdWriteB. &i). &lpt. lastb = b. if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". CmdOpenL. 64. if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". } printf("Printing %s .0 1. b = (cl & 0xff). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. 0.. */ erc = DeviceStat(3... name).

break. col = 0. &b). } fclose(f). 1. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. } } &b). /* reset */ break. 0. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). CmdWriteB. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. col++. dnBlocks. &b). "\f"). } while (col % tabstops). if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". 0. dOpNum. 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. break. CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. 0. CmdCloseL. erc). 0. &i). /* device. 1. 0. 1. erc = 4. erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. 0. case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. CmdWriteB.0 1. col++. %d\r\n". /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. erc = DeviceOp(3. dLBA. } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. 1. lastb). 0).switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. if (erc) MMURTL V1. &lastb). 1. " "). -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". CmdWriteB. } erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. b).

} System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL.h" "\OSSource\MVid.printf("Can't close LPT. Service. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. While this program is running. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. ExitJob(erc). The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. Listing 16. printf("Done\r\n"). ErrorToUser.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. Error: %d\r\n". This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly.h" "\OSSource\MJob. MMURTL V1. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources.” It has been expanded some. “Systems Programming. long *pDataRet. keycode. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. erc).RUN program to exercise the service. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2]. run the TestSvc.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch).5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError.h> "\OSSource\MKernel.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk.

Message). SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK).if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). &keycode. 1. ErrorToUser). *pDataRet = NextNumber++. if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). &rqHndl. 0. 0. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. } pRqBlk = Message[0]. printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. 0. Respond(pRqBlk. 0). /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. } DeAllocExch(MainExch). while (!CheckMsg(MainExch.\r\n". /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n".. /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ".. } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. OSError). /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. MainExch). else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. ClrScr(). 0. NextNumber-1). ErcNoSuchSvc).\r\n"). ExitJob(ErcOpCancel).\r\n"). 4. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". MainExch.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1.

6 exercises the sample system service listed previously. 0.h" unsigned long Number. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. 0.\r\n". &rqhndl. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. Also try it when the service is not running. 0. void main(void) { unsigned long Error. Exch. Error = Request("NUMBERS ". } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1. 4. Message). /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. rqhndl. unsigned long Exch. Error).\r\n". Message[1]). Number).} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request.\r\n". if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg.\r\n".0).C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS . Error = AllocExch(&Exch). unsigned long Message[2].h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel.C Listing The program in listing 16. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service. Error). You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available.\r\n".6. 1. } } DeAllocExch(Exch).0. Listing 16. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. TestSvc. 0. Error).

and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. Quite a few of them. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. but it is not used by the processor. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. MAIN.ASM . because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. This is the first file in the source.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. MPublics.Chapter 17. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. The GDT is 6K in size. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. the human becomes a compiler of sorts.. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls.ASM .ASM ..This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. MOSIDT. Also some data is defined here. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. common variables. In fact.ASM . This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. It helps me think.). Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). There are also header files for the C source. You may find some of the source files rather large. By including the comments. MOSGDT. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading.ASM . The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (.This is also a table.This is the first assembler file that contains code. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. use the stack just as a compiler would. however. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. and structures together. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. All source files are located in one directory.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . I just expend the time up front instead of later. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. The ordering for MMURTL V1. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. In fact. MOSPDR. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. This file should be left in the order I have it in. which means its data will be at the lowest address. and used by the processor.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). I hope I’ve met this goal. as you look through the code. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code.

FSys. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. if needed.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() . as well as port I/O support. MMURTL V1.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need.The simple parallel port driver is contained here. MemCode. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. undoubtedly.ASM . It think it still works with MFM drives.C .This file contains the RS-232 UART driver. You have to see what you're doing.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system. but can be modified for four.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here. RQBCode. is in this file.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. I was surprised. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps).ASM . you're on your own. and it works rather well. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled.ASM . Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. Device driver writers will appreciate this. This file has routines that handle DMA for you. MiscCode.C are contained in this file. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents.ASM . It provides stream access as well as block access to files. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work.the remainder of the modules is not as important.ASM .C .This file is the debugger disassembler. UASM.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers.ASM .Request block management code is in this file. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either.ASM was one of the first files written.This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. JobC. It supports the 16550. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. IntCode. Debugger. Parallel. It's not very pretty. JobCode. DevDrvr. Floppy.C .System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. SVCCode.C . Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .C . On the other hand. Keyboard.ASM .The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. but I don't have any more to test it. If you have MFM drives.C .ASM .ASM . but it's effective and accurate. DMACode. You only need to know the channel.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . Keyboard. NumCnvrt.ASM . how much to move.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC. but you never know where to put. It drives two channels. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. RS232. Debugging a debugger is even less fun. they must handle it themselves. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file.are in this file.The code memory allocation. even in the earliest stages of a project. This is one complicated driver. TmrCode. when a device driver writers need DMA. HardIDE.In many systems.ASM . and the mode. Video.C . It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger.ASM .The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service. someday).

An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as .BAT) will build the entire operating system.ASM . specify /E on the command line after the name. CM32 (no switches needed).” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM.5 minutes on a 486/33.Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.ASM . 6K) . but it really isn't part of the operating system.ASM .ASM .INCLUDE MOSIDT. . InitCode.ASM .INCLUDE MPublics. Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table . a C source file and must be compiled first with .The monitor program is contained in this file.5 Pages.INCLUDE MOSPDR.ASM . Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces). Listing 17.Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files. If you want an error file. This takes about 1. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) .ASM .ASM .1. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor. Video code and data MMURTL V1.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! .INCLUDE MAIN. . The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF). Keyboard ISR and Service . The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses. . One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL.INCLUDE Keyboard.C After all the C source files are compiled. Indirect calling address table . Monitor. This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.INCLUDE Video.All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file.ATF It's truly that simple. Main OS code and some data & START address .ASM .ASM . /L on the command line after the name.0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS .Kernel.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions. You could replace quite easily. Assembler Template File . Except.0 . but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL.INCLUDE MOSGDT. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28. It provides a lot of the OS functionality. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. and the DASM assembler (also included). Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code. DASM produces the operating system RUN file.C .DATA . All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.

In fact. If your C compiler allows it. .ASM Parallel. You will. CM32 packs all structure fields completely. .ASM DevDrvr.INCLUDE .ASM HardIDE. no doubt. You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures. . and they will work fine.array.INCLUDE .ASM Kernel. The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location.INCLUDE . .ASM Except. .ASM RS232.ASM Monitor. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies. you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments .ASM SVCCode.ASM NumCnvrt. This is because DASM doesn't support structures. it is placed into the code segment in that order.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM FSys.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular. .ASM MemCode.INCLUDE .ASM RQBCode. I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way.* .INCLUDE . As each piece of code is assembled. code (string. . you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier). .* . The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS . CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding.INCLUDE . This is one thing you should watch.INCLUDE .* . Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files. The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files.INCLUDE .* :* .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . MMURTL V1.INCLUDE .ASM MiscCode.ASM IntCode.ASM TmrCode.INCLUDE . Otherwise..INCLUDE . The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one.ASM .C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort.INCLUDE .ASM JOBC. . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system.* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. . use another compiler for your project.ASM DMACode.* .ASM InitCode.INCLUDE .* .ASM Floppy.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM UASM.ASM JobCode.code and data. . you can take the file system code (FSYS. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler. . but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.END Debugger.INCLUDE . For instance.

The actual message handling functions. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. Listing 18. The bulk of them are in the file Main. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. so I could get to them with the monitor program. the scheduler. job control blocks.INC DD 0 . I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them.INCLUDE .Chapter 18.1. local helper functions. and kernel publics functions. and offsets into structures and tables.DATA .INC RQB. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). See listing 18. Kernel data segment source .INC JOB.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data.INC TSS. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations. Being an old "structured" programmer. These are things such as the task state segments. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . The INCLUDE files define things like error codes. two underscores will be prepended to the name. I think it will make more sense to you. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). and memory management tables.ASM. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). internal public functions. These all change with respect to the task that is running. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. a single underscore will be prepended to the name.1. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts).INCLUDE .INCLUDE . Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables.

pLBin^. JZ eqMsgDone . the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. See listing 18. XCHG ESI.2. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs.EAX . an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). if . from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). 0 . For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. . OR EAX. MODIFIES : EDX . This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange .EDX. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: .EAX . for example. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. Listing 18. and therefore. which means interrupts must be cleared. It's not that the routines are called so often. pExch => EAX. pointed to by the ESI register. Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: .ESI.FLAGS .EAX . OUTPUT : NONE . In MMURTL. INPUT : ESI.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . . and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy.Next <= NIL. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. is coded in-line. link blocks. 0 .. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. This is strictly a speed issue. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. REGISTERS : EAX. and exchanges. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. and if a task is waiting there. This is important. pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. .2. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. When a message is sent to an exchange.

MOV [ESI+EHead]. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .ESI . You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . OR EAX. If not. . . .. . INPUT : ESI . then MOV [EAX+EHead]. MMURTL V1. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN .. See listing 18.MsgHead <= pLBin..MsgTail <= pLBin.EBX . you return NIL (0). .3. De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: . Listing 18.JNE eqMNotNIL . EAX . 1 .MsgTail <= pLBin.ESI . deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there.MsgHead. MOV EBX. See listing 18.EBX.[EAX+ETail] .[ESI+fEMsg] . but not both. If not. ..ESI .[ESI+EHead] . As stated before. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone .FLAGS . 1 . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. EAX ..ESI .MsgHead^. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.ESI .Next. MOV EAX.ESI. exchanges can hold messages or tasks. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. OUTPUT : EAX . deMsgDone: RETN .[EAX+NextLB] .3. If not. deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there.4. MOV [EAX+ETail]. MOV [EDX+NextLB].ESI . JZ deMsgDone .MsgTail^.NextLB <= pLBin.msg. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. . else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. REGISTERS : EAX.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS .. MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it.MsgHead <= .. pLBout <= .head and EBX . if pLBout = NIL then Return. . MOV [EAX+ETail]. No! (return 0) MOV EAX. Get Msg Flag OR EAX. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.

[EAX+NextTSS] . MOV [ESI+EHead].[EAX+Priority] . EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI . Priority => EAX. OUTPUT : NONE . MOV EBX.[ESI+EHead] .EBX . Set up to return nothing MOV EBX.FLAGS . The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists. . register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX.EBX. See listing 18. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: .EDX. OR EAX.. .TSSHead^. Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority. Listing 18..0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . head & tail per QUEUE). This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI . if Head = NIL MMURTL V1. if pTSS = NIL then return. Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: . EBX JNZ deTSSDone . It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX. 0 . INPUT : EAX . XOR EBX.TSSHead <= .EDX . . pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. .EAX . EAX . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers. get the priority MOV BL. Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX.ESI.TSSHead. 3 . OUTPUT : EAX . pTSSout <= . 0 . in EBX XCHG EAX.5. INC _nReady . . OR EAX.RdyQ .EBX . MODIFIES : EAX. one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL.Next. INPUT : ESI . if pTSSout = NIL then Return. This . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS]. JZ deTSSDone . JZ eqRdyDone ..4. Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. MODIFIES : EAX. . REGISTERS : EAX.EDX . XOR EAX.EBX . deTSSDone: RETN .EAX . This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue.[ESI+fEMsg] .5.Next <= NIL.EBX. . . REGISTERS : EAX. . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head].FLAGS .EBX .Listing 18. pTSSin^.EBX.

. queued on the RdyQ. De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: .6.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX.EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX..0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task .ECX.ECX deRdyDone: RETN . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . . then .Tail <= pTSSin.Tail^. INPUT : NONE .JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head]. . else . and 31 is the lowest. The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list. If none is found. MMURTL V1. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. . deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . RETURN Otherwise.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX].EBX. . Keep in mind. MOV ECX.6.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ. Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . . .sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. .FLAGS . See listing 18. EAX is returned as NIL. MODIFIES : RdyQ .Tail <= pTSSin. this returns NIL (0). . . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list.Head <= pTSSin. .NextTSS <= pTSSin.. . .[EBX] OR EAX. If there was no task queued.RdyQ . Listing 18.nPRI .. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. . . . REGISTERS : EAX. that 0 is the highest priority. . . ..EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . . OUTPUT : EAX .[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS].

. Get pTSSout in EAX .sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . EAX is returned as NIL. This why it's specified as PUBLIC. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue.RdyQ .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. . See listing 18. If there was no task queued.8.0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . REGISTERS : EAX. This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that .7.FLAGS . RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. . Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . .7.EBX. OUTPUT : EAX .ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation.ECX. Point to the next Priority Queue . the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. MOV ECX. without actually removing it from the queue. . but someone's got to it.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. is queued to run. They are located in Kernel.nPRI . EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX. "It's a nasty job. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue .[EBX] OR EAX. . either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. Listing 18." See Listing 18. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. INPUT : NONE . Listing 18. . check the next priority.8. MODIFIES : RdyQ . Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. .

MOV ECX. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.RdyQ . . MODIFIES : RdyQ . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. No error .ESP . .EAX . OUTPUT : NONE . Fix link in Queue list . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. EDI OR EAX. Point to the next Priority Queue .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. .nPRI .0 . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . Procedureal Interface : . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. . . . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. . PUSH EBP . a job. INC _nTSSLeft . Yes.pFreeTSS . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . Make EAX point to new head TSS . All done (clean stack) . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. EDI ADD EBX. pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . . POP EBX MOV EAX. Is it Zero? . Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. EDI PUSH EBX . .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. deQueue the TSS .EBX . . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]..Next <= pFreeTSS. 0 . pTSSin^. MOV EBP. . EAX OR EAX. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . No MOV EDI.

. Trash it. 0 .9. No.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. . ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. POP . The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange. char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. deQueue the TSS . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. .JMP RemRdy0 .back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified.9. back to check next at head of list . A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. pTSSin^. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. Finding the owner of an exchange . EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . SetExchOwner(). [EAX+NextTSS] . . ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 .EBX . . . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin.0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . Next TSS .pFreeTSS .Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI.Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX.EAX points to crnt TSS . .Yes.Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . . This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. .EAX . Listing 18. ESI PUSH EBX .Jump the removed link . This is not so if it's for a new job. See listing 18.Next <= pFreeTSS. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX. ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). . .This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. INC _nTSSLeft . This function is used with the next one. Yes. . Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. . [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX.Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) .Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) .EDI points to prev TSS . Next Queue please .

This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. mentioned previously. . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. Valid Exch (Allocated) . SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. . . not allocated . .nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX.ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). pJCBRet .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . Exch is . . . .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. . Listing 18. . No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch.10. EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). . .prgExch ADD EDX. .EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+12] CMP EAX. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. continue Yes. . .ESP MOV EAX. .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. . Changing the owner of an exchange .0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 18. . No. . . EAX XOR EAX.. MMURTL V1.10. . . [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. . Exch . . pJCBRet the exchange number. Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .

.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. Listing 18. SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. . . . telling them that a particular job has died. [EBP+12] MOV EDX. then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. . . .ESP MOV EAX.11. We ignore the kernel errors. See listing 18. . The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. . [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. . . . . . . The error it returns is of no consequence. Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . Notifying services of a job’s demise . or the operating system itself. .nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1.prgExch ADD EAX. .0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . . other services.EDX MOV EBX. . . . . . .ESP MOV ESI.OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. If a service is holding a request from the job that died. . EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. .11. Get the address of rgSVC . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . If a program sent a request. it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. . It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). EBX XOR EAX.

These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate. [EBP+12] .pName PUSH 0 . except this function requires several more parameters. 0 JE SAB05 . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls. NO. A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications.dData0 PUSH 0 . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model. Request kernel primitive code .cbData1 MOV EAX.CMP DWORD PTR [ESI].dData1 PUSH 0 . Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates.Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . EAX MOV ESP. A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . Listing 18.Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI. .Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI .Abort Service Code MOV EAX.pHandleRet PUSH 0 . sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX. . Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive.pData1 PUSH 0 . next service PUSH ESI . They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel.cbData0 PUSH 0 .Next Service name .JobNum PUSH EAX . The procedural interface to Request looks like this: .dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request .pData0 PUSH 0 . The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block. These are functions such as GetPriority(). See listing 18.12. Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . [EBP+8] . . The function that searches the array is GetExchange(). Valid name? .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS .asm. and code for it is in the file SVCCode.12.npSend PUSH 0 .

EAX MOV EAX. EAX MMURTL V1. Save the Previous FramePtr .Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 . AX MOV [EBX+RespExch].pServiceName CALL GetExchange .Yes. . . .Get .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX.Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.Put .EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX. Sorry. EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX.Get . .ESI still has the exchange for the service . . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0]. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch]. . ErcNoMoreRqBlks . Error in EAX register .Put .. .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: .Validate exchange MOV EDX.No JMP ReqEnd .No.. .put . .Get .. JMP ReqEnd . EAX MOV EAX. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. [EBP+56] .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX.EBX . Req04: .Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 . [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode].0 .ESP . . return error Req02: .Get .put .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2]. . . [EBP+48] CMP EDX. EAX MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX .Get .put .Put . continue Yes.Yes.Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. . [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1]. .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- . ESI MOV EAX.put . Set up New FramePtr .EDX still has the response exchange .EAX .Get .

ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.EBX DEC _nLBLeft .Number of Send PbCbs .Data PUSH EAX . EAX <= pFreeLB. pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^. .Get cbData1 . EBX .. EAX MOV EAX. DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS .prgExch EAX. No interruptions from here on . . .REQLB . [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2]. . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2]. 0 . . sEXCH EDX EDX. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX.. EBX MOV EDX.Ptr to return handle to . RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].pFreeLB OR EAX. . . [EBP+40] CMP EAX.EDX .ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. .put in RqBlk . Save pLB on the stack . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+44] MOV [EDI]. Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. CL . . free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].Give it to them .The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it.ESI EDX. 0 . Store zero in upper half of pLB^.MOV EAX.[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB.Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) . .Put npRecv in RqBlk .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.Save RqBlk in EDX CLI .Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk . . AL [EBX+npRecv]. MOV [EAX+DataLo]. Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch .Get pData2 .put in RqBlk . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. pLB^.EDX ESI. 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend].Next <= NIL. .Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user.put in RqBlk .0 .The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX. .EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX. AL CL.Next . . .Get cbData2 .Must be 2 or less .Leave in CL . . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. 2 CL.Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.EAX .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. EAX MOV EAX.

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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sEXCH . in the EAX register. ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . . POP EBP .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories.EDX . MOV EDX. pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. .We can be interrupted again . MOV ESI. .18. Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. .ercOutOfRange . Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return . MOV ESP. message should be sent. . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. .prgExch . .EBP . in the EAX register. MOV ESI.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI .ercNoMsg MOV ESP. CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . . Procedureal Interface : . 0 . .ESI . Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner].nExch . . Listing 18. .EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . . . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 .ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. CheckMsg kernel primitive code . . return to the caller with error MOV EAX. MOV EBP. PUSH EBP .0 -270- . CheckMsg(exch.EAX .18. .pdqMsg):ercType . . return with erc no msg . Chk01: MOV EAX. As with WaitMsg(). the return to caller with error MOV EAX.The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. RETF 8 .ChkExchange .REQLB MMURTL V1. If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 .ESP . See listing 18. . A result code is returned in the EAX register.

Get pRqBlk into EBX .dJobNum .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .Yes . continue .Save again . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX.Yes .cbMem .Linear Address of PData1 .pLB. ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX. .is cbData2 0? ..[EAX+DataLo] .. EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.No. dJobNum. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.Linear Address of pData1 . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. Treat it as a data link block . Get pRqBlk into EBX . continue .Make stack right .is pData1 NULL? .Yes .dJobNum .is cbData1 0? ..is pData2 NULL? .Error?? . EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. .Offset to pData1 in RqBlk . No. EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP. MMURTL V1. .Now we set up to alias the memory for the service .[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX. pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.Second Pointer (pData2) .pMem .Set up params for AliasMem . .Return Error. .Offset to pData2 in RqBlk . . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.Restore ptr to Link Block . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX. . [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX. Save ptr to Link Block .JNE Chk04 .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . [EBX+pData2] OR EAX. ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX._AliasMem(pMem.0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS ..No.Yes . .Set up params for AliasMem .Return Error. dcbMem.pMem .Error?? .Make stack right .cbMem . . [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.

Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs.Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . . EIP): dErcRet .Next <= pFreeLB. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation. . STI . INC _nLBLeft . .8 for OS.pFreeLB . stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. See listing 18. CodeSeg. MOV [EAX+NextLB]. nPRI-1 MMURTL V1.ESP MOV EDX.Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] .x. Procedural interface: .[EAX+DataLo] ECX. or page fault. .pCkMessage [EDX]. MOV pFreeLB. 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] . Exch.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. .EAX MOV ESP. XOR EAX. NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter. pFreeLB <= pLBin. Listing 18.EBX . Get pLB^. ESP.EBX [EDX+4]. .0 . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. .Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] . The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.[EAX+DataHi] EDX. .Data in specified memory space (EDX) .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . . . NewTask kernel primitive code . Priority.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. In future versions. . .ErcOK! (0) . fDebug. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in. .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] .19. For MMURTL version 1. . NTS_Pri CMP EDX. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection. pLBin^.Restore Ptr to Link Block .Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . NewTask(JobNum.ECX .EAX .19.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] .

Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 . .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX. NTS_EIP . NTS_Exch ECX.mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP].EAX now has pJCB .Set up to call LinToPhy .pFreeTSS OR EAX. nExch NT0001 EAX. ECX.Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch]. . NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.CX .0 .we can't be interrupted . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX. NTS_ESP .. .ercOutOfRange NTEnd .Put pJCB into TSS .Restore pNewTSS to EAX . . ECX.EBX .pNewTSS into EAX . EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].ECX MOV EBX.EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].Save pNewTSS .EBX EBX. ECX .ECX now has pJCB .No. NTS_CS . .0202h . .EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].Next .DL . EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg. 0 MMURTL V1. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].Exch in range? PUSH EAX ..[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI .Set up to call GetpJCB .mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS]. [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.Save pNewTSS again . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.

pStack.Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 . SpawnTask kernel primitive code .20. See listing 18.Save New TSS .BL .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .ercOk JMP NTEnd .New TSS -> EAX .EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP. NTS_Pri .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.Yes . the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it. SpawnTask(pEntry.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.Jump to new TSS . dPriority.EAX . . .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit].Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX. . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. . .JE NT0004 .pRunTSS .We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.Get priority of new task CLI . .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX. . Listing 18.Move new TSS into pRunTSS .0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX MOV BX. As with NewTask(). . Procedural Interface: . .EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick. New TSS -> EDX . .Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority]. It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] .ErcOk MMURTL V1.CrntTSS -> EAX.Save time of this switch for scheduler . 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. fOSCode).New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .20. fDebug.

see if we got an error . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .we can't be interrupted .Next .EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].No. [EBX+TSS_CR3] ...EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Yup. bad news .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 . NewExchST .EDX .EBX MOV EBX.mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX. .ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX. NewTSSST.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. .Allocate exchange . EAX . 8 CMP dPriST.pEntryST .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX. 0 . 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].EAX JNZ ST0002 STI . .Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.ESP SUB ESP. . 1 . JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP]. .EBX MOV EBX.two local DWORD vars . JobCodeSel .ercNoMoreTSSs . pStackST . OSCodeSel .0 .Priority OK? . .0202h . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.EDX MOV EDX. .Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1. pRunTSS MOV EDX.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX JNZ STEnd .pFreeTSS OR EAX.Save new TSS EBX.

EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .CrntTSS -> EAX.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. New TSS -> EDX . . Get number of exchanges in ECX .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .Place crnt TSS on Q . The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages. . . dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority]. . . See listing 18.21. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . Zero the Exch Index . . returned.Jump to new TSS . It is property of a Job (not a task). Listing 18.Get who's running . .ESP XOR ESI.Return to caller . . just put new guy on Q.we can't be interrupted .prgExch MOV ECX.EAX MOV BX.If crnt >. .0 . . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES). . New guy does (lowest num) . Allocate exchange code . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange. AllocExch(pExchRet):dError . 0 MMURTL V1.MOV EBX.New TSS -> EAX .Old guy does.EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP.Save time of this switch for scheduler . .ESI MOV EBX. .21.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. EBX <= ADR rgExch .put in TSS .nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. Procedural Interface : .ErcOk .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.Who got the highest Pri? .New TSS -> Stack .Move new TSS into pRunTSS .mov priority into BL . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.ercOk . .BL CLI MOV EDX.EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority].

Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange. . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector.prgExch EAX.sEXCH EDX EDX.ESI EDX. DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). Stats XOR EAX. and request blocks are freed up as necessary. it may have left over link blocks hanging on it. .EAX EDX. . .EAX . Deallocate exchange code . . .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. . . If we found a Free Exch. Procedural Interface : .[EAX+Owner] EBX. POP EBP . and link blocks.0 . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX.EDX . MMURTL V1. . . Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX.22. DEC _nEXCHLeft . Messages are deQueued.ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. Make the Exch owner the Job STI .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. TSSs.ESI . .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: .EAX . .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. Those link blocks may also contain requests.JE AE001 ADD EBX. . This function has a lot more to do. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. however. . .pRunTSS . DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType . . .sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX.[EBP+0CH] . PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .22. .0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. .EBP .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] .EDX ECX. . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner]. Listing 18. . RETF 4 .0 .pRunTSS EBX. See listing 18. .[EBP+0CH] EAX. .

pTSSin^. 0 .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. yes . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. INC _nTSSLeft . yes . INC _nEXCHLeft .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. INC _nLBLeft .Next <= pFreeTSS. Go free the Exch. MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. if not owner. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. . JMP DE001 . See listing 18. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg .0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . CLI . 0 . .23. . Go And Check for more.EAX . Go And Check for more. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. JUMP MOV ESI.instructions or a service crashes! . is this the OS??? . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. Yes. NIL = Empty. 0 .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . MMURTL V1.with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . ECX . Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. Reset msg Flag.Next <= pFreeLB. pLBin^. GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller.JE DE000 CMP EBX. No. Get the TSS off of the Exchange .EBX . Stats STI . Free up the exchange. pFreeLB <= pLBin.pFreeTSS . RETF 4 .only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow .EBX . . JMP DE000 .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. MOV pFreeLB.ercNotOwner MOV ESP. Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 .EAX . POP EBP . See if a message may be queued JE DE001 . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. ECX .pFreeLB .EBP . OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. EAX JZ DE002 .0 . 0 . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Nothing there. XOR EAX. .EAX .

Set priority code . Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. MMURTL V1. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX.Listing 18.24. This doesn't really affect the kernel. If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. to the priority specified in the single parameter. RETF 4 . Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. [EAX+TSS_Exch] . GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . . ErcOK POP EBP .[EBP+0CH] .24 Listing 18. POP EBP . SetPriority(bPriority):dError . the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority.pRunTSS . PUBLIC __SetPriority . PUSH EBP . EAX . ErcOK .pRunTSS . MOV EAX. Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI].This sets the priority of the task that called it . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX.No error. PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. MOV EAX. . Procedural Interface : . bPriority is a byte with the new priority. . See listing 18. . . BL .ESP . RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. . returned. . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX.Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. Procedural Interface : .23. EAX . .EBX . PUSH EBP . . MOV EBP. . 01Fh . MOV EBP. because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. GetTSS exchange code .ESP . SetPriority .[EBP+0CH] . The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES).

ErcOK POP EBP . BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. . Listing 18. EAX . and passes it to bPriorityRet. . Get the MOV EBX. RETF 4 . MOV EBP. Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. PUBLIC __GetPriority .[EBP+0CH] . GetPriority .pRunTSS . PUSH EBP . Procedural Interface : . . bPriorityret is a pointer to a . DL . XOR EAX.0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error. .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. See listing 18. MMURTL V1. SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError .25.This gets the priority of .25. MOV EAX. priority returned. . Get the MOV DL. . Get priority code .ESP .

Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode.INCLUDE JOB.User Readable (Code) .in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language. page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs).System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections. I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code. As with all assembler files for DASM.Number of free physical pages left . It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.User Writable .ASM.1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code.INC .1 bit/4Kbytes .User Writable (Data) . The task state segments are also used extensively.1. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).We alloc the "next" page table . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .Chapter 19. the code section must start with the .CODE command.Page Allocation Map .DATA . The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.Max is 2048 (64Mb) . The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h . The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.INCLUDE TSS. 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU . Listing 19.Default to 1 MB .2048 bytes = 64Mb .Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt .0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. Memory management constants and data .INC . Listing 19.Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .INCLUDE MOSEDF. I call these internal support code.

Make it the last DWord again .'mrtl' test string value for memory . OFFSET pTbl1 .Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].Supervisor.Yes! .100000h ADD _nPagesFree.1 Mb of pages = 256 .0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].top of 2 megs (for DWORD) . which was just loaded.EBX MOV ECX. Present MOV EBX.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. oMemMax must be last byte .ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX. neither of which you consider free.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].1FFFFCh XOR EBX.Set oMemMax . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . 256 ADD sPAM. The code in listing 19. Now you must fill in bits used by OS. in megabytes.ECX MOV EBX.3 ADD EAX. Its the law! Listing 19. Memory management initialization code .Another megs worth of pages .3 MOV _oMemMax. 0001h . and the Video RAM and Boot ROM. EAX CALL MarkPage . 4 .3. .Set it to zero intially .2.EAX SUB EAX.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX.USED: . PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED. See listing 19. Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code. You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree.See if we got it back OK . and makes PTEs.2.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. EAX . It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax.Yes.NO! . MOV EDX. which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh).Increase PAM by another meg . EAX . you have. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have. 0FFFFF000h .OUT: .Read test string into EBX .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS .Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed.Next table entry MMURTL V1.Next Meg . Listing 19. 32 CMP EAX.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX.IN: . InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree.Move in test string . Continuation of memory management init.3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data. . We assume 1MB to start. 256 MOV EAX.Are we above 64 megs . .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.

Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte. 4096 . This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. OFFSET PDir1 .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. ANDing it with 8000000h.6. EAX . Turning on paged memory management EAX. Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used. EBX.Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage .Next page please CMP EAX. EAX . EAX . Listing 19. The routine in listing 19. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM. nor can I provide instructions to everyone. EAX . C0000h –FFFFFh. and then writing it again. IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX].0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. The initial page directory and the page table are static. See listing 19.Store in Control Reg 3 EAX.4. such as the 82C30 C&T. See listing 19. 80000000h . This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. 0FFFFF000h . 0101b .Physical address of OS page directory CR3. Now we can go into paged memory mode.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. . SHL 2) .Next PTE entry ADD EAX. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX . but I can't be sure everyone can do it. Several chip sets on the market. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . EDX.5. Continuation of memory management init. 4096 EAX.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) . 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 .1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . Listing 19.Make it index (SHR 12. EBX.Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1.Get Control Reg 0 EAX. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses. then reading CR0.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 .EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX. go back for more . 4 .No.5. 100000h . CR0 . EAX. EDX.Set paging bit ON CR0.

this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it. MemExch . See listing 19.Done initializing memory managment . MMURTL V1. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage . 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. PUSH 1 .Page Allocation Map .8.6.7.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD. LEA EAX. or 0 if error EBX. assuming that you will allocate it.7. Listing 19.EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. Find highest physical page code . See listing 19. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. . It also marks the page as used. I'm afraid.OUT : .Where we are in PAM . 0 .0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .8. FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller.0FFh . sPAM DEC EAX .Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch .No EAX. This reduces nPagesFree by one. Finishing memory management init. Get 'em! RETN . OFFSET pNextPT . Allocation of memory management exchange . Of course.no memory left.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated.IN : .All 8 pages used? FHP2 . OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX..Listing 19.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn . Listing 19..

.OUT : .Another Byte lower .0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX.At the bottom of the Byte? .no memory left.Are we past at TOP of PAM? . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. DL SHL EAX.Next bit .Start at first byte in PAM . EAX SHL EBX.\ Listing 19.One less available .All 8 pages used? .Add page number in byte .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .Test bits . . we must call UnMarkPage to release it. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it.. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX.Page Allocation Map .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1.DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) ..Another Byte lower .Get the byte with a whole in it. sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS . . It also marks the page as used. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. This reduces nPagesFree by one.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.No . See listing 19.FOUND ONE! (goto found) . OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX. . EAX . Find lowest physical page code .Error (BAD CPU???) . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX. EDX MOV DL.Set the bit indexed by EBX . . Once again. 7 XOR EDX. or 0 if error EBX.Back for next byte .Set page in use . assuming that you will allocate it. 3 ADD EBX.Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 .9.0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].IN : . EBX FHPf EBX..9.

EBX FLPf EBX EBX. EBX SHR ECX.Set the bit indexed by EBX .One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1..Get the byte with a whole in it.OUT : .One less available .Test bits . .Page Allocation Map AND EBX.Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. 0FFFFF000h . 12 . 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX. 8 FLPn FLP3 .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . 15 . EAX SHL EBX.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX. [EAX+ECX] . 3 ADD EBX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL..10. 07h . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. EDX MOV DL.Get the byte into DL BTS EDX. DL SHL EAX. Listing 19.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].XOR EBX.10. . This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.Add page number in byte .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX.Next bit .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .Set page in use . .IN : .End of the Byte? . See listing 19.Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX.FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Error (BAD CPU???) . EBX XOR EDX. MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. Code to mark a physical page in use .Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree . This reduces nPagesFree by one. EBX .BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX]. OFFSET rgPAM . DL .0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. . See listing 19.Page Allocation Map . . ESI.OUT : .11.Round down to page modulo . PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1. etc. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages.Physical Address . EBX. 15 SHR EBX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM .12. Code to free a physical page for reuse . The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . Listing 19.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. EFlags . This increases nPagesFree by one. ESI -.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in.BitReset instruction .Linear address .IN : . . . EBX MOV [EAX].POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address. 07h ADD EAX. DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN .12. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing .11. EBX SHR ECX. 12 AND EBX. ECX MOV DL. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. This function supports the similarly named public routine. EBX -. OUTPUT: EAX -. See listing 19.Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. [EAX] BTR EDX. DMA operations.0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS . USED: EAX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM . INPUT: EAX -. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. . OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. Listing 19.

mask off lower 12 . EBX MOV EAX. 003FFFFFh SHR EBX.Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. 2 ADD EBX. EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. EAX MOV ESI. EBX RETN FindRun . in which case we return 0.PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX.EAX now has ptr to PD! .Index into PD for PT we are working on . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX. Save in EBX .Keeps count of how many free found so far .EBX/EAX now points to shadow .Save this address for caller .Cut off upper 22 bits of linear . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS. .13. . .Save it again .Get rid of upper 10 bits .Get original linear back in EBX . 2048 SHR EBX.get rid of lower 12 to make it an index . The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist. IN : EAX .13. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. EBX .Address of PD saved here .Leaves pJCB in EAX .Move to shadow addresses in PD . 00000FFFh OR EAX.*4 makes it byte offset in PT . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1. See listing 19. Listing 19.Get original linear . EAX MOV EAX. This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing.Copy number of pages to ECX. EBX MOV EDX.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . 12 SHL EBX.Save Linear . .Index into shadow addresses from EAX .Physical base of page is in EAX . 22 SHL EBX. This is either at address base 0 for the operating system. EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . Code to find a free run of linear memory .Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset . EBX . OUT: EAX .ESI now has ptr to PD . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX. USED: EAX. or the 1Gb address mark for the user. 2 ADD EBX.0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX now points to Page Table entry! . . The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables. The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.EAX now has Linear of Page Table .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . [EBX] AND EAX. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI.*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow .

Are we past last PTE of this PT? .We found enough entries goto OK . EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.EBX still has count of pages.EAX is next 10 bits of LA . if the run spans two or more tables.Yes.PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) .14. . .If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . Next PTE Please.Not done yet.Times size of page (* 4096) . The linear address of the run should be in EAX. SHL EDX.MOV EDI. and the count of pages should be in EBX. . .If .The starting linear address is equal to number of the last .Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .This is the linear address we ended at . EBX . keep testing . [ESI+EDX*4] . Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. EAX. 12 OR EAX. or tables.go INC MOV JMP FROK: . . . 22 SHL EAX. If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system. 12 SUB EAX. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. See listing 19. EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. next PTE please ECX. EDI .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . go for it XOR EAX.empty (available) .EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address . while EAX was index into PT.EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1.Zero means it's .Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 .No. This is the way FindRun left them. . 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 . FR1: XOR EAX. .EDX was index into PD.One less page (0 offset) . . The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 .Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI.Not empty.Next PT! .From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX .One more empty one! . EAX .In use . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4].we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: .

then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER . [ESI] . . EDX. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX. .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX. MEMSYS CMP EAX.Next PTE please.0 . 4 .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . . .ESI now has ptr to PD! .and OR in the appropriate control bits.At this point.No.Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.Set PTE to present. . EBX EAX 22 2 . [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. EAX AND EDX. THEN store it in PT. 003FF000h SHR EDX. EDX MOV EDX. .See if it's a user page . USED: . EDI is pointing the next PT. 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX.Get index into PD for first PT .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .LinAdd to EDX . IN : . 4 . . EBX .Restore linear address . EDX.Listing 19. EDX.Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS . Adding a run of linear memory . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX.Offset to shadow address of PD .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . OUT: . go do next PTE ADD ESI.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .14. . ARDone: MMURTL V1.EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX .(save for caller) .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . 2048 ADD ESI. MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX. .EDX .SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. CMP EDX. 10 AR0: MOV EDI.LinAdd into EDX again . AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. .Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) .Make it index to DWORDS . User ReadOnly .Yes. 4096 .

Listing 19. EBX EAX 22 2 . . this is the way FindRun left them.This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that .LinAdd to EDX . EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . . . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . ESI MOV AliasJob. EDX. . if the run spans two or more tables . . The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. (from find run) . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. . OUT: Nothing .adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. EFlags . . Adding an aliased run of linear memory .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . USED: EAX.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .Make it index to DWORDS .(save for caller) . . . and the count of pages should be in EBX.ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.15. Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span.Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). EBX Number of Pages to alias . 8 MOV AliasLin.Get index into PD for first PT . . EDX.we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table . Once again. . EDX.ESP SUB ESP. See listing 19. ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) .POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun .15.or tables. IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .

EDI is pointing to the PT we are in. MEMALIAS POP ESI .Set system bits as ALIAS .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1. 4 XOR EDX.SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. .Set up for next loop (post increment) . .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . AND EAX. AliasJob MOV EBX.LinAdd into EDX again .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) .Restore linear address . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . . 0FFFFF000h OR EAX.Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].EDX is index to exact entry . .Job we are aliasing . EAX AND EDX.EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) .Next PTE please. 003FF000h SHR EDX. to get a physical address into EAX. . . 2048 ADD ESI. . AliasLin ADD AliasLin. . ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . 10 ALR0: MOV EDI. [ESI] .cut off system bits of PTE . go do next PTE . MOV ESP.This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE. EDX MOV EDX.Yes. next PDE (to get next PT) . . . .Start at the entry 0 of next PT .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .Offset to shadow addresses in PD . 4 CMP EDX.Address we are aliasing . 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI. EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX.Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum .Are we done?? .mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT.ESI now points to first PT of interest .POP EAX ADD ESI.No.EAX now has physical address for this page .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .At this point.

AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. PUSH EDX . See listing 19. PUSH EDI . Listing 19. IN : Nothing .16.EDI points to UserPD Address . JcbPD ADD EDI. Adding a page table for user memory .ESI now points to PD . EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 .Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . out of physical mem . .Move to shadow . MOV EAX. EBX . Is it empty? . USED: EAX. . . . This will be in user address space above 1GB. Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . _nPagesFree OR EAX.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . EAX MOV ESI. [ESI] OR EBX. Next possible empty entry . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . MEMUSERD [ESI]. [EDI] ADD ESI. EAX ESI. pNextPT [ESI]. . . 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI.Sorry.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . as shown in the following. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code.Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow).ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD .See if have enuf physical memory .no free phy pages!) .EAX will have Physical address . This is easier than AddOSPT.Physical address in lower half . because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs.0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS .Set user bits (Read/Write) . EFlags .Offset to PcbPD in JCB .pJCB in EAX .Linear add back into EBX . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX. PUSH ESI . 2048 EBX. initializes it. No! (Try again) . and sticks it in the user's page directory. 2048 MOV ECX.16. 4 MOV EBX. This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write.

Listing 19. . . PUSH EDI .no free phy pages!) .save pNextPT (the linear address) . USED: EAX. in many cases. . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT.Sorry.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running. AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . Find first empty slot MOV ESI. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .size of request . Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in.was there an error (0 means no mem) . ESI points to OS Pdir .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . IN : Nothing . 1 XOR EAX. ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. . . Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. PUSH EDX . out of physical mem .. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow).Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . .17.AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . .EAX will have Physical address . PUSH ESI . OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX.17. See listing 19. 1 MOV EBX.next time.0 .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. MOV EAX. Adding an operating system page table . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. EFlags . _nPagesFree OR EAX.OS Job Number (Monitor) . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. . 511 MMURTL V1. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .See if have enuf physical memory . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX.

Physical address in lower half . Is it empty? . EBX .Set present bit . EAX ADD ESI.Source EAX . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI]. . .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX. Get back JCB number . Next possible empty entry .Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) . pNextPT MOV [ESI]. 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1. EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. 2048 MOV EBX. . 2048 . . . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 .Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX.Destination 1024 .Linear add back into EBX .Next JCB . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX .Source of Copy .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD . ESI EAX Get and . 2048 .No.Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) . # of dynamic JCBs .Move to shadow . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . Not a valid JCB (unused) .AOPT02: ADD ESI.Save nJCB we are on . JcbPD MOV EBX.EAX NOW points to PD of JCB .Save values on stack MOV EDX.Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . 4 MOV EBX. .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX . .0 .Get values from stack ADD EBX. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX.See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all. [ESI] OR EBX. [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX.

DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) .was there an error (0 means no mem) . EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. USES: EAX. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN .. 1 XOR EAX.save pNextPT (the linear address) . . Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate.We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . .18. EFLAGS MMURTL V1. .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . IN: AX . EBX.18. ESI. The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. else 0 if all's well . . . Adding a call gate to the GDT . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . . OUT: EAX Returns Errors. See listing 19. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: .size of request . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX.AddRun .next time. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . allowing access to OS procedures. .0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS . DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . Listing 19.Set ErcOK (0) . Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. ECX. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. .

. CX SUB EBX. AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. ESI. 16 . .19.0 . CX SHL EDX.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. See listing 19.Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS .Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . nCallGates . 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. Adding entries to the IDT . .Yes. ercBadGateNum . . SI .19.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . MOV EAX. EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX. BX MMURTL V1. Listing 19. .0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. or task gate. the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX. .Put Offset 31:16 into gate .Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . . CX .see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . AX SHR EAX.make index vice selector CMP EBX. MOV EAX.EDX now points to gate . EBX. ECX.Put Offset 15:00 into gate . . EAX .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. EDX. OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4].NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX.Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. SI . IN: . for a task gate. 40 . USES: AX . The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap.Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. 8 .call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX. 40h .Put Gate ID into gate . 3 ADD EDX. 3 . interrupt.Extend INT Num into EDX . . . .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. . AX MOV EAX.No. AX . ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX].sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. GDTBase .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].not too low.

The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above. AllocOSPage(dn4KPages.ppMemRet): dError .20. pRunTSS ADD EAX. This allows runs to span table entries. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory.0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX. A result code is returned in the EAX register. . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .EAX ALOSP00 EAX. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. we're maxed out EAX.(0 = No Runs big enuf) .size of request . Listing 19. AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space.Yes .Yes! Serious problem. . Allocate each physical page. . The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Can't be zero! .Sorry boss. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . . .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit . Allocating a page of linear memory .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1.See if have enuf physical memory .No Error! EAX. PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.RETF .More than 0? .size of request . EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .n4KPages XOR EAX. See listing 19.These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] . If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries.Kernel Error?? . but not close enough to easily combine their code. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX.20.Yes . placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request. Procedureal Interface : .0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage.n4KPages EAX.

ERROR!! . The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. .ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] . PUSH EAX . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space.Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . POP EBP .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. POP EAX . . . dcbMem.21. AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified.dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. MMURTL V1.Go back & try again . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: . Listing 19. Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. ppMemRet .EBP . . .Save last error PUSH MemExch . you need two pages. . Code to alias memory . however . ppAliasRet): dError . ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to.Does not return error . . If so. This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around.pMem EQU [EBP+24] . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. Procedureal Interface : . . Even if the address is only two bytes. . . Exit.0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX . . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Only an entry in a table. AliasMem(pMem.JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . EAX . RETF 8 .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP.Add a new page table (we need it!) . if it crosses page boundaries. dJobNum.See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. pMem is the address to alias.No error ALOSPExit: . This wastes no physical memory.EAX now has linear address . See if they are available.CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed. No alias is needed. .

See if it is OS based service .dcbMem EBX . .Save nPages in ECX .Yes .Get Job number for pMem .EAX is 256 for user space.OS Job? . 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.pMem into EAX 0FFFh . . alias it . User memory .0h JNE ALSPDone .Puts Current Job Num in EAX . EAX JMP ALSPDone .Add to dcbMem 12 .Set up for OS memory space . 0 for OS . EAX.Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX.Yes. PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Number of pages we need into EBX . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. No Error .Kernel Error?? .Are they the same Page Directory?? .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . .No.0 .Yes! Serious problem.PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX.EAX has 0 or 256 . EAX. .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. EAX.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX. [EBP+16] CMP EAX. ECX CALL FindRun . we're done ALSPBegin: . pRunTSS ADD EAX.EAX is nPages-1 .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. . .EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.Yes . .No.See if it is OS based service .EBX still has count of pages OR EAX. .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX . EAX. 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . EBX. EAX ECX.No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now wait our turn with memory management .Exit.OS Job? . [EBP+24] .Yes . .Was there enough PTEs? . .

Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . EAX ESI. JobNum):ercType .EAX .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. . [EBP+24] EAX.and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX.Set .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) .pAliasRet . See listing 19. Procedureal Interface : . Listing 19. . PUSH EAX . . PUSH MemExch . [EBP+12] [ESI]. . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: . Code to remove alias PTEs . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1. .22.0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Save alias page address base .We are done ALSPExit: .Save last error . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address . dcbAliasBytes. EDI EAX. [EBP+24] MOV EDX. you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. DeAliasMem(pAliasMem.ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun .Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing . .Now.Get remaining bits .Address to alias . EAX MOV ESI.Job number . EAX . pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" .Go back & try again .Returned address to caller! .0 = NO Error .22. . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .EBX . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call.Set to 0 (no error) . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP. 0FFFh EDI. This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines.ERROR!! . .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .original pMem .

PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Get PTE into EBX . if so just ZERO PTE.Job num into EAX for LinToPhy . [EBP+16] . [EBP+20] . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS . [ESI] TEST EBX.pAliasMem .Add to dcbMem EAX. . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP.None at all! .Next linear page .Is page present (valid)??? .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI. DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .but less than you asked for! ECX. EDX MOV EAX. 0FFFh .Yes. PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.dcbAliasBytes . .ESP .Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX. . . ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX. EAX MOV [ESI].DO not zero it! .AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .EAX is nPages-1 EAX . EAX .MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX. EDI DALM011 EAX.Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) .and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS). 12 .Address of next page to deallocate . it's page is present .dcbMem EAX. XOR EAX.NO! (did we do any at all) .. . [EBP+20] . EBX . .We did some. EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.so we zero out the page. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX.See if PTE is an alias.If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias .0 . ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 .ECX .ZERO PTE entry .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.Is page an ALIAS? .pMem into EAX EBX. .We dealiased what we could. [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy . .NO .Add the remainder of address EAX.EBP MMURTL V1.Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.Linear Mem to DeAlias .

if so just ZERO PTE. . . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1.Is page present (valid)??? .23.Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy .See if PTE is an alias. pOrigMem AND EDX. . Even if you specify more pages than are valid.Now we have Physical Address in EAX .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page.Error?? . providing it is valid. pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be . because we deallocate 4K pages.Linear Mem to deallocate .Address of next page to deallocate .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX. .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . . n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .Get PTE into EBX . It will always free linear memory. .POP EBP RETF 12 . .Number of pages to deallocate .23. . [ESI] TEST EBX.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias. .Yes. DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls. . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem. Listing 19. deallocate. Deallocating linear memory . pRunTSS ADD EAX.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . . See listing 19.Yes! . Procedureal Interface : . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy . The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored . n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX. pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] .and pointer to PTE in ESI. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS . n4KPages):ercType . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.0 . .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .

Procedureal Interface : . You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system.so we must unmark (release) the physical page. .We did some. . ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .None at all! MOV EAX. 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP. EAX MOV [ESI]. . AND EBX. .Yes.. .NO! (did we do any at all) .We deallocated what we could.Is page an ALIAS? . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType . Listing 19. . .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias . ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.24. Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left.get rid of OS bits .ZERO PTE entry . See listing 19. it's an Alias .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated.save Memory error .CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. over memory error . EAX ADD EDX. n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX. 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX.Send a dummy message to pick up . so next guy can get in . . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit .but less than you asked for! . .24.Kernel error has priority . .get Memory error back . Code to find number of free pages .Next linear page .

.0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . . This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. pPhyRet):ercType . .ESP MOV EBX.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .25. . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . . . pMemLeft EAX. .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] .LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pPhyRet . be returned . Public for linear to physical conversion . GetPhyAdd(JobNum. _nPagesFree [ESI]. See listing 19. [EBP+16] MOV EAX. MOV ESP. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. Listing 19. LinAdd. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will .. pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Linear Address .END OF CODE MMURTL V1. EAX MOV ESP. left available returned . Procedureal Interface : . . No Error . . [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. .No Error . . EAX EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . Job Number . EAX .25. . EAX XOR EAX.

.

because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. As you well know. Back when I started this project. with 100-MHz machines around.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 20.. preemptive multitasking. A single communications channel running at 19. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. MMURTL is no exception. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. which works out to about 1. which is very conservative. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions.2 percent. however. etc.1. The average is was far less. a slow machine. actually the scheduler. Somewhere between these two was the average. It's at the end of the timer ISR. It was 0. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. divided by the total clocks for the same period.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. or 3000 clocks. I was consuming less than 0. See listing 20. Listing 20. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. The average really depends on program loading. memory wait-states. as well as the fastest one possible. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. was the effect on interrupt latency. I ended up with 10ms. my worries were unfounded.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX.1. especially synchronous. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. along with a piece of the kernel.6 percent for the worst case. Two of them will come in at 260us. But even with these calculations.2 percent of available bandwidth. Even more important than total bandwidth. I experimented with several different intervals. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. In a 10ms period we have 200. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands.

INCLUDE MOSEDF. sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386.DATA . Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16.FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. . This I could live with.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. and finally with test programs. Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. The Timer Block is a structure that contains . the exchange number of a task that is sleeping. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long .0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . Data and constants for timer code .INCLUDE TSS.Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). . PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. or 20us. The odds of this are truly astronomical. The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone.INC . plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop.DD 00000000h .2.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 . 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium. This doesn't cause a problem at all.ALIGN DWORD .2.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. including the 10 percent overhead. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. Listing 20.INC . and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. These are the offsets into the structure .2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. or one that has requested an alarm. TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . See listing 20.320 clocks. But. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time.DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 .

It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1.goto decrement it PUSH EAX . You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches.No . . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX.Yes! .Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 . The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel.No. -1 .3. It is a small. Listing 20. See listing 20.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR . Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . The three external near calls. External functions for timer code .0h .Yes .Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].FALSE .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. only one task is actually executing. or higher. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs. which is the one you interrupted. you switch to it. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more. See listing 20.ASM. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed.INTS are disabled automatically . INT 20 .save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX .Timer Tick. priority than the task that is now running. You have now interrupted that task. Listing 20. At all times on the system.save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] . The timer interrupt service routine . The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative. If so. They may have been placed there by other ISRs.No .is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 .ASM. If it is the same or higher.Yes . we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. the first things defined in this code segment.. and they may be of an equal.4.Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.3.ISend Message MOV EAX.4.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown].ECX has count of Timer Blocks . yet very important part.nTmrBlks CLD .

EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX. his . EAX JZ TaskCheckDone .Is this from a HALTed state? . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL.If current is higher(lower num). CMP EAX.Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) . MOV EBX. Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX.[EDI+Tid] . If so.keep going .is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX.empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX..FALSE .get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. EAX MOV EAX. ESI CALL enQueueRdy .10ms more gone.DL is pri of current .current pri.We will now check to see if this guy has been running .PUSH EAX . Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .for more then 30ms (3 ticks).Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . pRunTSS MOV DL.bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg .. That means .Compare current pri to highest queued . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.if we got a CARRY on the subtract.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 .. .EDI .0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed . and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS. EAX .skip decrement . If the Queued Pri is LOWER .next block please! .Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ . Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick.. MOV ESI. PUSH 0 . and save in EDI .Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 . we want to Switch. JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone .or Equal.YES. SUB EAX. Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .BX .number was higher and we DON'T . MMURTL V1. no need to check tasks . we will . Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel.Change this to change the "time slice" .switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri . dfHalted OR EAX.unless were done ..No. TimerTick . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.Is there one at all?? .bogus msg PUSH EAX .tell him his times up! POP ECX . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices . Put current one in EAX .get count back POP EAX .

The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.EBX .FALSE .nTmrBlks .Must do this before we switch! .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Count of timer blocks CLD . TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD .Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX. RETF 4 .See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX. Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .ErcNoMoreTBs .5.and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX. PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP .5. .Sorry. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero.TRUE . IRETD .TSS_Msg .goto next block MOV EBX.pRunTSS . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch]. The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX. MOV EBP.put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .EBP .ESP .Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed . POP EBP .DelayCnt . DelayCnt CMP EAX. This requires an exchange. Sleep() . out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP.rgTmrBlks . See listing 20.clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . 0 . Listing 20.0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .Empty block? JNE Delay02 .No .EBX . MOV EAX.FAR return from publics MMURTL V1.[ECX+TSS_Exch] .Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) .ErcOk .unless were done MOV EAX.sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX.JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .

MOV EBP. The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.put it in timer block! . .sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX. nothing will stop it.Sorry.7. .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.Count of timer blocks CLD . The message is not repeatable.0 . AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch]. KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. It must be set up each time.clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel.ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP. .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . See listing 20.Get delay count [EAX+CountDown]. 0 .EBX .FALSE .It's OK to interrupt now . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed. See listing 20.ErcOk . DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].all is well Alarm03 . Code for the Alarm function .Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .Empty block? Alarm02 .Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.goto next block EBX.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Up the blocksInUse count EBX. Alarm(nAlarmExch.6.rgTmrBlks .ESP . which means the message has already been sent. Procedural Interface: . AlarmCnt):dErc .AlarmCnt .EBX . AlarmCnt CMP EAX.nTmrBlks . MMURTL V1. MOV EAX.unless were done . Listing 20. out of timer blocks . -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .No . PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP .TRUE . AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.6.It's OK to interrupt now EAX.

Block in use? KAlarm02 . so we get out! .FALSE .7.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].clear direction flag .8. .It's OK to interrupt now . -313- RICHARD A BURGESS . KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.EAX points to timer blocks .ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.Get exchange for killing alarms to . 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.KAlarmExch LEA EAX.Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed .No blocks in use . Listing 20.Count of timer blocks . KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . .Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].8.unless were done . This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds). The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port. . The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled.TRUE . . The count is in 15us increments.ALl done -. PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Code for the KillAlarm function . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers. See listing 20.Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX.EAX MOV ESP. Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1. The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator. The task is actually not suspended at all. .goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch].No .0 .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . But it's still very much needed. .EBX .Listing 20. Code for the MicrDelay function . which drives the processor clock. This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.ErcOk .nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX. Procedural Interface: .

9.0 . EAX MOV ESP. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.Seconds . The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). EBX MOV EAX. .71h MOV BL.04h OUT 70h. . Listing 20. 10h CMP AH.check refrest bit . . and the high order byte is 0. the next byte is the Hours in BCD. EBX MMURTL V1. See listing 20. 61h AND AL. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL. 8 MOV EAX. . . GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines.ESP MOV ECX.ESP XOR EBX.Clear time return .AL IN AL. AL SHL EBX. AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.02h OUT 70h.9. [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX. 8 MOV EAX.Minutes .get out if they came in with 0! .71h MOV BL. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI].AL IN AL.71h MOV BL.AL IN AL.AL SHL EBX. .Hours .Toggle! Move to AH for next compare .Check toggle of bit .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.No toggle yet .00h OUT 70h.AL MOV ESI. the next byte is the minutes in BCD. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. Code to read the CMOS time . MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get delay count .MOV EBP.Get system status port .

.AL IN AL. . AL SHL EBX.XOR EAX.AL IN AL. .71h MOV BL.Month .AL IN AL. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI].AL SHL EBX. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99). 8 MOV EAX.Day of month . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12). MMURTL V1. See listing 20. EAX MOV ESP.06h OUT 70h. 8 MOV EAX. MOV EBP.10. No Error . GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror . pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP .Day of week .09h OUT 70h. XOR EBX.0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS .AL IN AL. No Error .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Year . EBX XOR EAX. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). 0-6 0=Sunday). AL SHL EBX. . EBX . .08h OUT 70h.71h MOV BL. EAX MOV ESP.AL MOV ESI.Give 'em the time . GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. Procedural Interface: .07h OUT 70h. Code to read the CMOS date . .71h MOV BL. .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Clear date return MOV EAX. Listing 20.ESP .71h MOV BL. 8 MOV EAX.10.

. TimerTick MOV [ESI]. Because it is a dword. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h. pTickRet MOV EAX. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror . Helper function for Beep() and Tone() .Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS .11.DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep().No Error .12. EAX XOR EAX.11. With a 10ms interval. The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. this amounts to 262.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. Listing 20. The procedural interface: . .800. . MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. . AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h. divide 1. . See listing 20. which is connected to the system internal speaker. Hardware timer number 2.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1.This does all work for BEEP and TONE .ESP MOV ESI.12. EDX MOV EAX.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . LSB. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . Binary . . .193182 Mhz . See listing 20. MSB.193182Mhz by Desired Freq. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. Code to return the timer tick . 61h MMURTL V1.000 ticks per month. AL MOV AL.0 . AL XOR EDX.1. AL IN AL.193182Mhz . The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). is used to generate tones. Listing 20.Timer 2. 10110110b OUT 43h.To find the divisor of the clock.

. 800 MOV ECX. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime .ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. .Freq . AL RETN Beep() . See listing 20.OR AL. . This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. . Code to produce a beep . This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. Listing 20. . It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. (Sorry.350ms . I couldn't resist.14. Code to produce a tone . .14.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS .13.13. if it had.ESP MOV EBX. MMURTL V1. . Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq. 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h. 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . . See listing 20. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker. CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. AL PUSH ECX . I would have called it Beep_Beep(). . 11111100b OUT 61h. Listing 20. . Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.

ToneFreq MOV ECX. MMURTL V1. .PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP MOV EBX. . ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 .

” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. Global Descriptor table (GDT).ASM. the first instruction executed after boot up. The assembler does no alignment on its own.INC for structure details. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL . and Public Call Gate table.INC . It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. I generally try to align data that is accessed often. The second file is InitCode. The first file is Main.INC . Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) .INCLUDE JOB.See MOSEDF. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 .ASM which is presented later in this chapter. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) . The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size. .DATA .ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. In chapter 7. Initial OS Page Directory (PD). and I don't worry about the rest of it. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.ASM.ALIGN command. Initial OS Page Table (PT). It is the entry point in the operating system. The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical.======================================================= . The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 .1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files.Chapter 21. The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary.ALIGN DWORD . Main Operating System Data . Periodically you will see the . For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1.INCLUDE MOSEDF. Listing 21. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the .0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . access to the data is faster if it is. a workhorse for Main.ASM. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files. “OS Initialization. OS Global Data Listing 21. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main. Kernel Structures .INCLUDE TSS.1.INC .

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . First. 3 . 1 . OSCodeSel . 255 . OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0 . GDTBase . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. AX . Trap gate MOV EBX.This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI.DPL 3. Out : Nothing .Overflow 08F00h . SI .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. Second.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].DPL 3. 08F00h . OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . 16 .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector. OSCodeSel . 08F00h . software and hardware interrupt handlers.DPL 3.Breakpoint MOV EAX. EBX. 8 . 3 . PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX. InitIDT . handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called.========================================================================= . EAX.16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04].Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. . Used : ALL registers and flags . 4 .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. 08E00h . .Single Step MOV EAX.SUB EBX.Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. MOV ESI.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.Divide By Zero MOV EAX. 08F00h . Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . 40 . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. .DPL 3. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. CX . . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . ESI.call DPL & ndParams RETN .0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. SI .DPL 3. TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . IN : Nothing .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].

Double Exception MOV EAX. IRQ0 IRQ1 22h .DPL 3. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 20h . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 0Dh . 08F00h . 08E00h . EBX. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 0Bh .GP fault MOV EAX. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Invalid TSS MOV EAX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. 0Ah . OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. MOV ESI.DPL 3. 6 . OSCodeSel . 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 0Ch . 08F00h .Int Page Fault MOV EAX.Seg Not Present MOV EAX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. 8 . OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. MOV ESI.0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. 21h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. 08F00h . OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. ESI.Int TIMER MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . 08F00h .DPL 3.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h . 08F00h . 08E00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI.Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. EAX. 0Eh .

DPL 3.0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS . OSCodeSel .... 08E00h . .DPL 3. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.Int COM1 MOV EAX..Int . MOV ESI.Int COM2 MOV EAX. 08E00h . 08E00h . MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.... OSCodeSel ...... 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..DPL 3. 08E00h .. OFFSET IntQ . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.... 27h . OSCodeSel . 08E00h . 08E00h .. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ .DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. 29h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. 24h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX...Int LPT2 MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . 2Bh ... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 2Ah . 23h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 25h .. ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . 26h .. MOV ESI...IntLPT1 MOV EAX. 28h ...Int . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..DPL 3..DPL 3. EAX.Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. EBX.. MOV ESI... OSCodeSel ...Int .. MOV EAX. 08E00h ..CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..DPL 3..Int . MOV EAX. 08E00h .DPL 3.DPL 3.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI.. MOV ESI.. IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel .Int ..FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.

.DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV EAX. MOV ESI. but MUST be called before the first far call to any ..3 DWord Params. 0EC03h . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 2Dh . OSCodeSel . This can't .. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..DPL 3. MOV EAX.. . OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel ..Int .. 50h MOV DX. 0EC01h .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 . OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1. OSCodeSel . 08E00h .0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS .. InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. MOV ESI. DPL 3 MOV ECX.. IN : Nothing .2 DWord Params. 2Fh .SendMsg -.1Dword param. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. MOV EAX. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX...Int .Int .Set Priority ..DPL 3. 08E00h . Used : ALL registers and flags .. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! ... before initcallgates. DPL 3 MOV ECX.... 2Eh .. OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! .3 DWord params. 48h MOV DX.ISendMsg -. 0EC02h . 08C03h . PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX. DPL 0 MOV ECX.. Out : Nothing .WaitMsg -.. 40h MOV DX.. 58h MOV DX. 08E00h .========================================================================== .. DPL 3 MOV ECX.

The rest of the call gate set ups go here..0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS . RETN MMURTL V1.

Begin Code ================== .INCLUDE JOB. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management.DATA . Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. can be a complicated scenario. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. See listing 22. JCBs are in allocated memory .Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in . Pieces of related code in the kernel. TSSs. Job Management Subroutines .INCLUDE MOSEDF. These calls.INCLUDE TSS. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. Before I wrote this code. EBX -.asm . pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. this is the where you'll end up.CODE . many of them public functions. exchanges. and finally starting the new task. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD . INPUT : EAX -. The process of allocating all the resources.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) . From Main. link blocks. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . The program loader is in this chapter. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. It was every bit as difficult as I imagined.Chapter 22. When things don't work right. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one. Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. it is usually quite a mess.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs . the JCB. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB .INC . are used by almost every module in the operating system.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two .======= End data.Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1. In the functions ExitJob() and Chain().1. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: . the monitor. Ptr to free Job Control Blocks .================================================================ . and finally the operating system memory. request blocks.1 Listing 22.INC .

.============================================================================= . .ESI EFLAGS . .Move it in . ESI.EAX .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX.cbJobName EDX -. . . EDX . while . . . EBX. MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. . ECX . . EBX .EDX.Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs.EDI points to JCB . EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols]. 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr].EAX .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB].Count of JCBs .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. . EDX is size of each JCB. .size is filled in ..0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs. 7 MOV EAX. 0 . EDI. ESI -. . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated. EDX. EAX . USED: EAX. . ECX. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI]. This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs.Size of JCBs . .Make last one NIL RETN .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX. pJCBs . .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX.EAX .Put Ptr to PD into JCB .1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI.EBX. ECX is count of JCBs. . [EAX+JobNum] RETN .pbJobName ECX -. The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). . in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). InitFreeJCB . We can't use its position . 3 . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines].ECX. OUTPUT : NONE . MMURTL V1.EBX MOV EDI. PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB.Video number is in JCB .Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop .Now to JobName . EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information. . EAX points to the first JCB. INPUT : EAX .Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. . EAX ADD EDI. .EDX .Address of JCBs to be initialized . The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. .first byte of name .

4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX. . 0 .IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in . .Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. OUTPUT : NONE . pJCBs STOSD .0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS .FLAGS . nJCBs MOV EDX. . EAX ECX. . MOV EAX. This routine will also .EBX.============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . INPUT : NONE . CMP EAX. . NewJCBDone: RETN . JE NewJCBDone . . 4096 EDI. 0 . . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX.[EAX+NextJCB] .pFreeJCB . . pJCBs MOV ECX. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . . .Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX.Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1.FLAGS . . . Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). REGISTERS : EAX. . INPUT : EAX . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. the free pool. The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. MOV EBX. This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free ..DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. JE DispJCBDone . REGISTERS : EBX. OUTPUT : EAX . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 .0 . .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . . then EAX will contain NIL (0). This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb.================================================================ .EBX . If none exists. Get 'em! . .

pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB].Current Job Number . Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. GetpJCB . . . This is based on which Task is executing.EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . . OUTPUT: EAX -. . assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. INPUT: Nothing . A Job may have more than one Task. PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX.Job Number of desired pJCB . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . EFlags .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS .============================================================ . . INPUT: Nothing . EFlags . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX. . GetCrntJobNum . USED: EAX. INPUT: EAX -. 2 MMURTL V1.MOV EBX.Pointer to JCB RETN . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. . . pRunTSS . . OUTPUT: EAX -. PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. . GetpCrntJCB . USED: EAX. This is based on which Task is executing.============================================================ .Move it into newly freed JCB . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . [EAX+JobNum] . Many OS functions deal with the Job number.Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. OUTPUT: EAX -. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .============================================================ .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . . All TSSs are assigned to a Job. USED: EAX. in EAX. assigned to a Job. EFlags . All TSSs are . The Job number . is a field in the JCB structure.EBX MOV pFreeJCB. .Linear Address of current JCB . All TSSs are .Current JCB RETN . .EBX has OS ptr to free list . Returns the Job number for the currently executing task.

. languages. Get a new JCB . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. . [EAX+JobNum] . . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). .============================================================ . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB. GetJobNum . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. pJCBs POP EDX RETN .Current Job Number . ppJCBRet):ercType . Procedureal Interface : . We got one! . .JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. . . is a field in the JCB structure. .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX.Times size of JCB . sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. . Many OS functions deal with the Job number. Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. . . AllocJCB (NEAR) . . . . .0 . USED: EAX. The Job number . .Current JCB RETN . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. 3 MOV EDX. EFlags .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) .Now points to desired JCB . call to support the public job management calls in high level . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. .Within range of JCBs . Sorry. EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX.Add in two static JCBs . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. This is a NEAR . . . out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . OUTPUT: EAX -. EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. .============================================================ .

. dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetpJCB(dJobNum. pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . . . . . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . . Get a new JCB . languages in the OS code. [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. . . pJCB . . . MMURTL V1. pJCBRet):ercType .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . . EAX XOR EAX.============================================================ . EAX MOV ESP. Procedureal Interface : .No error . EAX MOV ESI. . . This is a NEAR . EAX MOV ESP.============================================================ . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . you specifiy. .============================================================ . . . .Job Num . . GetpJCB . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . . . . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . call to support the public job management calls in high level . .MOV ESP. [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. . . . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). Procedureal Interface : .ESP MOV EAX. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. .pJCBRet .

. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 . . . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX.JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. . This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job.Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. [EBP+16] . POP EBP .Job Num OR EAX. . EAX MOV ESP. .0 is invalid CMP EAX. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP . RETF 8 . POP EBP . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. . . Procedureal Interface : . . . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. . This is .ESP . .pJobNumRet . nJCBs + 2. the job that the task that called this belongs to. RETF 8 . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . ErcBadJobNum .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. . MOV EAX.. MOV ESP.pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. [EBP+12] .No Error . . 0 .EBP . ErcInvalidJCB . .============================================================ .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. RETF 8 . EAX XOR EAX. . or 0 will be returned with the data.EBP . POP EBP .Leave jobnum in EAX . GetJobNum . . .

.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI].2. variable _BootDrive defined in Main. the number representing the system disk is returned. Listing 22. PUSH EBP . . This code is here for lack of a better place. still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. It's really not a filesystem function either. disk that the system booted from. GetSystemDisk .c. This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . ending jobs. .0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. XOR EAX. _BootDrive AND EAX.============================================================ . This is from the public . . Jobc. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk .asm. AL ..get rid of high bits MOV ESI.No Error POP EBP . Jobc. Procedureal Interface : . MOV EBP. . loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. And will . [EBP+12] . . . pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where .================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. 7Fh . RETF 4 . Functions for starting new jobs. . . .c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). EAX . and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. MOV EAX.ESP .

h" "MTimer. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. char *ppJCBRet).h" "MFiles. long Exch).h" "MVid.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode. char *pNewJCB).).0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS .Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel. . SetExchOwner(long Exch. SendAbort(long JobNum. /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. GetExchOwner(long Exch. MMURTL V1. long cb). RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB). */ static long TmpStack[128].h" #include "runfile.h" "MMemory. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB.h" "MKbd.. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it. char *pJCBRet).ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet.h" "MJob.h" "MData.. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB.

static unsigned long oCode. iE. j. *pStack. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. static long offCode = 0. When all PTs have been cleaned. *pPDE. 0. 0. *pData. offData = 0. k. 0. ExchE. 0. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. static char aFileE[80].0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. 0. filetype. sStack. ercE. extern unsigned long KillExch. BogusMsg[2]. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. for (i=768. oData.static long JobNum. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. static long sCode. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. sData. char *pMem. unsigned long *pPT. i<1024. static struct tagtype tag. job_fhE. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. we eliminate the user PDEs. 0. i++) { MMURTL V1. erc. 0. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. static long cbFileE.

} } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. fh. k). *pfhRet = 0. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. i. for (j=0. nCDFIX = 0. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. 1. cbFileName. &fh). /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. erc = ReadBytes (fh. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. j<1024. oCCFIX = 0. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. long cbFileName. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0.id = 0. &tag. &dret). Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. nDDFIX = 0.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. oDCFIX = 0. If all is well. long *pfhRet) { long erc. oCDFIX = 0. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. &dret).id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. offData = 0. 0. junk. nDCFIX = 0. char fDone. oDDFIX = 0. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). 1. reads and validates the run file. &filetype. nCCFIX = 0. offCode = 0. MMURTL V1. while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. dret.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . 5. switch (tag.

nDDFIX = tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. nDCFIX = tag. 4. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. break.len). &dret). 4. &oCDFIX). case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* skip it break. /* skip it break.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &oCCFIX). oCode+tag. break.break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &sStack. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oDDFIX+tag. &dret). &oDDFIX). if (tag. /* skip it break. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE.len).0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &sData. /* skip it break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &oData).len).len/4. nCCFIX = tag.len). case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. MMURTL V1. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. oData+tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &offData.len/4.len). break. break. &offCode. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. 4. &sCode. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. i+tag. &dret). /* skip it break. 4. nCDFIX = tag.len). case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len/4. oCDFIX+tag.len). /* skip it break. &dret). case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret).len/4. 4. &pStart. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i). &oDCFIX). &dret). oDCFIX+tag. oCCFIX+tag. &oCode).

MMURTL V1. i. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. return(0). } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh.0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . pRunRet. i). &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). } return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB). erc). dcbRunFile). else { CopyData(pRunFile. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0.break. long dcbPath) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. return (erc). GetpJCB(JobNum. *pdcbRunRet = i. long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n".

pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. pCmdRet. pPathRet. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. *pdcbPathRet = i. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. return(0). i). else { CopyData(pPath. erc. } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. i). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. GetpJCB(JobNum. *pdcbCmdRet = i. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. MMURTL V1. } return(0).else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbPath). else { CopyData(pCmd. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. dcbCmd). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. } return(erc). GetpJCB(JobNum. long dcbUser) { long JobNum. long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. i. char *pPathRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1].0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS .

i. dcbName). GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pName. GetpJCB(JobNum. *pdcbFileRet = i. &pTmpJCB). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. i). pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum.0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . long dcbName) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. pUserRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. &pTmpJCB). pFileRet. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. i). pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). return(0). else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0.GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pdcbUserRet = i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. else { CopyData(pUser. i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). return(0). } return(0). dcbUser).

dcbName). unsigned long *pPD. pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. return(0). *pdcbFileRet = i. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum). i). GetpJCB(JobNum. long *pFix. pFileRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. *pVid. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. fh. U32 PhyAdd. dcbName). long cbFileName. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. return(0). } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. i. *pOSPD. *pPT. else { CopyData(pName. cbFileName. dret. GetpJCB(JobNum. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned.0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. &fh). long dcbName) { long JobNum. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). i. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. &pTmpJCB). nPages.{ long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB).

pPT = 0. 4096. &pNewJCB). sStack = nPages * 4096. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". pPT = pPD + 4096. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sData%4096) nPages++. 4096. nPages = sData/4096. pPT. pOSPD[768] = pPT. pPT). &pPD). nPages = sCode/4096. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". pPD). /* Job's PD. pVid = 0. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. &PhyAdd). PhyAdd). MMURTL V1. 1). FillData(pVid. pPD = 0. &pTmpJCB). &pCode). erc = AllocPage(nPages. &pData). /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. &pStack). */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. GetpJCB(1./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. pVid = pPD + 8192. pNewJCB = 0. xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE.0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0). /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. 0).

pFix = pCode + i. &dret). oDCFIX). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offData + pData. &dret). 4. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh./* Right now. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. pPD. pData. &i. &dret).offCode + pCode. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret). pFix = pData + i. oDDFIX). so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). oCDFIX). 4096). &dret). pFix = pCode + i. the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. oCCFIX). &i. 4. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. 4. sCode. sData. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. } MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. pFix = pData + i. oData). */ CopyData(pOSPD. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oCode). } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.offCode + pCode.offData + pData. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .

/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. 1024. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. 1024. 0. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. 0). pStart+pCode-offCode). i. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). 0x18. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->nCols = 80. 0). &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). 3). pNewJCB->nLines = 25. pNewJCB). pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. pStack+sStack-4. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. /* Size */ CopyData("VID". 3). 25.

Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCode). nPages = sCode/4096. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. long *pFix. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. nPages. nPages = sData/4096. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. oData). if (sData%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &pCode). erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. &dret). ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. sData. &dret). pData. /* All Job memory is now allocated. pNewJCB = pJCB. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. return(erc). pCode. erc = AllocPage(nPages. dret. The PD. sCode. oCDFIX). i.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . (CleanPD left the first PT for us). sStack = nPages * 4096.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. &pStack). long fh) { long erc. &pData).

4. &dret). This task. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. pFix = pCode + i. oCCFIX). &dret). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .PT and video. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. pFix = pCode + i. /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. return(erc). ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). pFix = pData + i.offCode + pCode.offData + pData. &dret). &dret). /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData.erc = ReadBytes (fh. } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. 4. MMURTL V1. pFix = pData + i. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oDCFIX). /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. &i. &i. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS .offCode + pCode. its exchange. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.offData + pData. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. oDDFIX). /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.

erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. It results in a violent death for the job specified. */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. &pTmpJCB). */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. This is used to kill run-away jobs. ercE = 0. Debugger or the current job. WaitMsg(ExchE. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. ExchE. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. ErcOpCancel). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. SetPriority(31). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE).0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). GetTSSExch(&ExchE). &pTmpJCB). This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. BogusMsg). This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue.GetpJCB(JobNumE. if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). CleanUserPD(pPDE). BogusMsg). ISendMsg(KillExch. if (erc) return(erc).

/* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. 0x08. &_KillTask). ExchE). return(erc).ercE = 0. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. &pCrntJCB). ESP. Priority. 3. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. 0. &pExchJCBE). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. } ercE = 0. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). fDebug.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . pTmpJCB). &TmpStack[127]. iE = 0. iE++. /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. We send "Abort" messages to all services. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. GetpJCB(JobNumE. Exch. CodeSeg. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). ExchE. If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service.

*/ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). ercE = 0. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. EAX. &pExchJCBE). /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). iE = 0. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. ESP. EBP. ercE = 0. ExchE). if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. ercE = 0. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). Send Abort messages to all services. CleanUserPD(pPDE). } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. iE++.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . &cbFileE)./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. If no exit run file.

This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . &job_fhE). job_fhE). MOV ESP. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. ADD EAX. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. BogusMsg). SUB EAX. ercE).if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. SetPriority(31). ExchE. WaitMsg(ExchE. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. cbFileE. MOV EBP. */ #asm MOV EAX. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. MOV EBX.

error loading the Job. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). GetpJCB(JobNumE. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). &pExchJCBE). ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. In other words. iE = 0. cbFileName). ercE = 0. &job_fhE). pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pCrntJCB). Send Abort messages to all services. long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. } CloseFile(job_fhE). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. long cbFileName. cbFileE = cbFileName. iE++. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. */ MMURTL V1. cbFileName. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). aFileE. /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName.

and we can't run the chain file (bummer). The original user's job is destroyed. ESP. ercE = 0. &job_fhE). job_fhE). If no exit run file. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob.SendAbort(JobNumE.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. job_fhE). ExchE). Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). CleanUserPD(pPDE). /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. ercE = 0. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. cbFileE. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. */ MMURTL V1. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. cbFileE. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). &job_fhE). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. &cbFileE). /* Try to load the Chain file. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). */ GetExitJob(aFileE. EAX. EBP.

PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. WaitMsg(ExchE. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. MOV EBP. MOV ESP. ADD EAX. ercE).We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). SUB EAX.#asm MOV EAX. ExchE. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. MOV EBX.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . BogusMsg).

The debugger is a separate task. debugger operate in the current tasks memory space.===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. This makes the . You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. which are all debug exceptions. Get EIP of offender for debugger . but is still very immature. on which exception is was. task (without going through the kernel). Breakpoints. All of the debugger's . one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1.0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS .Enter debugger . Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. Get Flags . then copy the CR3 . It has grown substantially. Get CS . If we get here.1. . . code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. While writing the operating system. First we copy the Page Dir . . small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . Get EIP of offender for debugger . Next. See listing 23.EnterDebug .1. They are made to match those of the interrupted task.Chapter 23. I have left them as individual procedures. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. . This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. . so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address.Enter debugger . .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . . Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger . and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. entry from the current job into the debuggers job. Listing 23.

External near Variables MMURTL V1.. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. pRunTSS." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code.Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX. OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3].INC JOB. then jump to the debugger's selector. You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.INCLUDE .Save the current pRunTSS .INCLUDE . OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.pRunTSS -> EAX .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS . EBX EAX. [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.2. caller's registers them before the into the debugger .INCLUDE MOSEDF. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. and restore PUSH EDX .INC . Debugger Data and Code .ALIGN DWORD .Install Debugger's as current .INC RQB. EAX EAX.Page Dir -> Debugger JCB .CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX . . EBX EAX.current CR3 -> EBX .pCrntJCB -> EAX . pRunTSS EBX.Set up debugger selector .Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23.2 presents the debugger code in its entirety.DATA . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].INC TSS. BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .pDebuggerJCB -> EDX . pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave. Listing 23.INCLUDE . task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.Switch tasks to debugger . EAX This switches tasks. we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS .we MUST save PUSH EBX . . EnterDebug: PUSH EAX .Put the stack back the way it was .When the debugger exits. .make his registers right! . [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX. with the exception of the disassembler.

Active bytes in buf2 .For ReadDbgKbd .0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .' ' ' .Has Dbg Video been initialized? .ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 = Exch ..0B3h.'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'. dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.General use buffers DB '0000000000' .0B3h.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.'Tasks'..0B3h.General purpose DDs (used all over) . .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.' '.40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' . ESC to quit.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .flag 1 = Msg.Address of instructions we are displaying .0B3h.debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .0B3h. .'ClrBP'. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB . .0B3h.0B3h.are we dumping DWORDS? .Address we are setting as next .Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .TO save the TSS we interrupted .To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .Address we are dumping . dbgExchMsg .CR LF for Dump etc.0B3h.For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .Boolean.0B3h. 0Ah DB 0 . .'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.' '.'DumpD'.'SetBP'.0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .

'EBX: 0B3h.'ESI: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.'EFL: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h. Begin Code ========================== .'EIP: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . OFFSET DbgVidSave .' FS: 0B3h.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .' CS: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .' GS: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.==================== End Data.'CR0: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .' DS: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.' ES: 0B3h.'TSS: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.

dbgOldCS .NO .dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit. (we chanage the tasks) .procedure was entered. DbgpTSSSave . and flags are not the .Display fault message and .Dbgr is Job 2 .0 .EBX . The debugger . 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX. . Code Seg. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.dbgOldEIP . so we shouldn't have to reset it. .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. This only applies if .See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX. when the handler is entered..[EAX+TSS_EFlags] ..BX MOV EBX. . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. MOV EBX. I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. the handler is a procedure (NOT a task).When a fault or debug exception occurs.EBX .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS. and number at 0 . 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor . MOV EBX. But we do.dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the . the values of .0FFh . .REF . is always entered as a procedure.EBX .dbgOldEflgs .Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .0 .the Instruction Pointer.Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. .

0FFh . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .0 . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Get USER pUserTSS .dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .Set BP (Current Address . 0FFh LEA EAX. 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.Set TF in flags for single step .Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags]. .1 .Reset X & Y to 0.Display menu PUSH dbgX .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu . 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.Color White on black . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP.Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.ESCAPE (Exit) .Fall through to keyboard loop .DbgpTSSSave .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX. EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX. 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX. EAX MOV dbgX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. EAX .reset fault indicator .=========================================================== .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.Single Step (F1) .=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid .CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. MOV EAX.

. 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd. 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX.This puts the instruction on the line .F3) . EAX dbg00 EAX.Display Exchanges (F5) .0 . . EAX EAX.Task array display (F6) . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX.Save it so we know where BP is . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX.Clear BP (Current Address . 00000002h DR7.See if we need to scroll up . EBX EAX.This puts the instruction on the line .Full display . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. .MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX.Address displayed .Sets NextEIP . 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL.Clear BP saved address . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. EAX DR6. .Return to CS:EIP (F4) . EAX dbgBPAdd. EBX DR0.Back to where we were . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX DR7. 00 MMURTL V1.See if we need to scroll up .DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. EAX dbg00 . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL.Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . 11h dbg04 EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Not used yet .Set Disassembly Address (F8) . . .BP0 Set global .

Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .This puts the instruction on the line .EAX must be preserved MOV EBX.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) . EAX BX.Query XY . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL. . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner .Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .Back to begining .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . If they are the same. 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL.MOV dbgfDumpD.See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX.we are about to display.This compares the current breakpoint the address . DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. .Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .Info Address dump (F12) .============================================================== dbgShowBP: . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 . BX . . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD.0 . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1.Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.Return saved pRunTSS .Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . .

dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Number of this TSS .07 MOV ESI. ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.MOV ECX.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.00 MOV ESI.EBP Display MMURTL V1.BP Address .OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.06 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.============================================================== .ESI Display .ECX Display .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.03 MOV ESI.EDX Display .This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .02 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .04 MOV ESI.Save EAX across call .OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.3 params to TTYOut .01 MOV ESI.EBX Display .05 MOV ESI.EDI Display .0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX Display .EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .TSS Display .[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.

OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.GS Display .CR3 Display .14 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ES Display .OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.FS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.EFlags Display .10 MOV ESI.09 MOV ESI.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.EIP Display .ESP Display .OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.0 .[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.13 MOV ESI.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.08 MOV ESI.18 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.12 MOV ESI.DS Display .20 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.SS Display .[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX MOV AX.17 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.11 MOV ESI.CS Display .CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR2 Display .MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.CR0 Display .19 MOV ESI.15 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.16 MOV ESI.

This is for Debugger Register display . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS . .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.============================================== . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1.CALL DispRegs RETN .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. ECX loaded with number of text line to display on . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 .========================================================================== .

0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX. DbgBuf2 .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. . PUSH EAX .0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .Ignore error if any MOV AL.did they exit with CR? . EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN .Goto Query Line .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.ptr to destination DD .Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Max size LEA EAX.. cbBufLen2 .ptr to string .=========================== . 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX.Convert String to DD . PUSH EAX . dbgChar CMP AL. dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone . PUSH EAX .=========================== . dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .length of string ..pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgChar . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.Go home.

0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. 24 . dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .ptr to string . PUSH EAX .convert address to text LEA EAX. 4 .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd .Max size LEA EAX. 6 LEA EAX.dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! .Ignore error if any MOV AL. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.. dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .did they exit with CR? .Crnt size PUSH 8 . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.0 .Goto Query Line . PUSH EAX . .PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. dbgChar ..length of string .ptr to destination DD . DbgBuf2 .line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Go home. dbgChar CMP AL.Convert String to DD . 0 JNE DumpDone . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . LEA EAX. cbBufLen2 . dbgSpace MMURTL V1. PUSH EAX .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .

dbgBuf ADD EAX.ignore error . [EBX] .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS .make it a DD Text LEA EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL.Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX.go to display bytes LEA EAX. dbgfDumpD . display 1 space . dbgDumpAdd . 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX. 0 JE DumpB . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.get dump address MOV EAX.NO . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 2st byte .point to second 2 bytes . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.Display First byte . dbgBuf .0 .Display 1 spaces .ignore error .

CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.display 4th byte .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS . DEC dbgGPdd1 .ignore error LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.ignore error ."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .NO .Query XY PUSH dbgX .go back for next 4 bytes . LEA EAX.Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.a space . dbgCRLF .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.done with 4 quads?? .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.NO . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.ignore error .23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 . dbgCont .Yes .

MOV EAX. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch .prgExch .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .=========================== . .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Col PUSH 0 . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 1Bh . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.Do CR/LF 0 . 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . PUSH 54 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . .Displays exchanges that are allocated along with . 1 . 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Exch number . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .Col dbgGPdd1 .messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Convert Exch number for display . 0FFh . 0 RETN .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.line we are one . sEXCH EDX EDX. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Exch# we are on . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. dbgGPdd2 EDX.

ADD EAX.Yes.Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .pExch -> EAX . EAX MOV EAX.pMsg -> EBX .Get dMsg2 .Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX OR EBX.Col dbgGPdd1 . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX. . . MOV EAX.Is is 1 (a message)? . [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars ..Could have left it on stack. . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) .See if there is a first message MOV EAX.Line OFFSET dbgBuf . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX.EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. 0 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX.Get dMsg1 . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. .Col dbgGPdd1 . [EAX+EHead] .Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Flag to indicate we are doing messages .Save for loop . ..Line OFFSET dbgBuf . but would be confusing later.Is is NIL (no msg or task)? . EAX MOV EBX. [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX. .No. .0 . .Convert Job Number 10 . [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .pMsg -> EBX 20 .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5.Convert dMsg1 .MsgFlag -> EBX .Save dMsg2 ."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.For next msg in chain (if it exists) . Go to next Exch . Go check for tasks .

[EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5. dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Clear pNextTask .Col dbgGPdd1 . [EBX+TSSNum] .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone .Col . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone .Col 24 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5.Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Get Number of Task at exch . MOV EAX.pExch -> EAX . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.No .Is is 0 (no TSS)? . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX.pTSS -> EBX .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Next line please . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . 31 .Line OFFSET dbgCont . MOV EAX. PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 . 0FFh CMP EAX.See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.Save ptr to next task if it exists . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. nDynEXCH . EAX EAX.0 .Lop off key status bytes . .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 . EAX AX.Convert Task Number 1 . 23 . .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . INC dbgGPdd1 . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.Line .

Task number . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS .=========================== .Length of message . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . MMURTL V1.line we are one . Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Set up to loop for next msg/task .Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . . 0 RETN .If not.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg .No .Col PUSH 0 .NonZero if we are doing tasks . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX.line. 1 . . 1 . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . We are on line 1 again . dbgGPdd2 EAX.If so. OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .Col .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . nDynEXCH .Tasks .Displays Tasks that are active along with .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. PUSH 54 .for the next one dbgDT01: . Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX.Line for labels . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX.Another pointer in the link? . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 . we get all the data BEFORE we display it .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX. 2 dbgDT03 EBX. EAX. . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .First we get pTSS and see if it is valid . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX.PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. 1 dbgDT02 EBX. we increment TSS number and go back .

EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . DDtoHex 10 .Save pJCB for display .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6. 8 . go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX. . JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. EAX . EAX MOV EBX.Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .Col dbgGPdd1 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .of TSSs .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . EBX . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . dbgGPdd3 . 8 . EAX .EAX has pJCB OR EAX.Not used. dbgGPdd4 .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. nTSS . [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3. DDtoHex 20 .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX. [EBX+Priority] .EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4. ECX .Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 . MOV CL.Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX. 512 ECX EBX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgGPdd2 .back for next one dbgDT05: . ECX MOV EAX.TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX.NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.

length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0 RETN . DDtoHex 30 . EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. Call with: . This is for Debugger Address Info display . 1Bh .Yes.Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . 23 . 31 .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Save it for the top MOV EAX.Col 24 .Col dbgGPdd1 . continue prompt dbgDT01 .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 .No. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . MOV EAX.=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .go for next Task number .Line OFFSET dbgCont . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't . go back for next 0 .Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd6 .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . . 0FFh . 8 . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 8 . DDtoHex 40 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. ESI loaded with EA of text line to display . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. .====================================================================== .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save number to display MMURTL V1. EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .

Do it .IDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM5 . rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1. prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.GDT LEA EAX.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .Length of line . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.RQBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM6 .OFFSET DbgM8 .OFFSET DbgM2 .OFFSET DbgM1 .pTSS3 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM4 .Exchs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgPA .OFFSET DbgM9 .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.JCBs MOV EAX. pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.=============================================== .OFFSET DbgM7 .OFFSET DbgM3 . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.SVCs LEA EAX.RdyQ LEA EAX.DbgInfo .Vid Attribute .ptr to line . rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .OFFSET DbgM0 . IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.LBs LEA EAX.MonTSS MOV EAX.

Timer Blocks LEA EAX.MOV ESI.0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .If so.Got to Column 0.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. and line 0 to 24. .Clear the query line (Line 23. Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .ignore error RETN .======================================================= .Query XY (See what line and Col) .fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .between colums 0 and 66.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.Lines 0-23 1 .Yes.This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23.No.and the register display. Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN . 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . .OFFSET DbgMB . dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX. we scroll up the text area by one line. .===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1. Line 0-24) 0 66 .======================================================= . .Columns 0-65 24 .All of the debugger text is displayed in a window . Scroll test area (Col 0-64. query line.areas are resrved for the menu. go back for next key 0 . The other .Col 0. 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 .

.

though I would rather have done them in assembler. In fact. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out.1. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. U32 nDevices. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet).. See listing 24. but I think you're OK. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. Comments.1. this device driver should work with MFM drives. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code.Chapter 24. U32 dfReplace). All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. This seems to be the best. many device drivers are written in C. you're on your own. but I try not to. All of the hardware commands are well documented. There are no include files. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . S8 *pDCBs. If you have MFM drives. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. in addition to those in the code itself. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum.g. Listing 24. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. They were designed that way. unsigned long int). and maybe the only dependable way to do it. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. Time was the deciding factor.

InWords(U32 dPort. U32 msg1. While writing the operating system. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. void OutWord(U16 Word. MMURTL V1. U32 dnBlocks. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U8 *pDataIn). U8 *pDestination. U32 dBytes). U32 dnBlocks. U16 wPort).. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U32 msg2).. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U32 dLBA. See listing 24.). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Listing 24. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). U32 msg1. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. static U32 hd_init(U8 drive).0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS .2. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U32 nBlks). I needed a method to get data to the screen. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U8 InByte(U16 wPort). It's called xprintf(). U16 wPort). U32 HdSect. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). S8 *pIRQ). U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. U32 count). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 hd_wait (void). U8 *pDataIn. U32 *pMsgRet). void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 msg2). U8 *pDataOut. U32 dBytes). U32 dBytes).2. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 dnBlocks). Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. U16 InWord(U16 wPort). OutWords(U32 dPort. /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. U8 *pDataRet). static U32 send_command(U8 parm). U32 dnBlocks. U32 *pMsgRet). static void hd_reset(void). . static U32 check_busy(void). U32 dOpNum. The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. U8 *pDataOut).

.0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. S8 *pInitData. U32 sdInitData). bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. U32 dStatusMax. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. U32 *pdSatusRet).. S8 * pStatRet.U8 static U32 *pData).

high cyl (1F5h) 6 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit .sector number (1F3h) 4 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .write data (1F0h .Set.pre-comp (1F1h) 2 . can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1. wait 50us.sector count (1F2h) 3 . then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver.sector number (1F3h) 4 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 ..16 bit) 1 .read data (1F0h .command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six. head and Sector number.sector count (1F2h) 3 .error register (1F1h) 2 .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives.high cyl (1F5h) 6 . Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.16 bit) 1 .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .low cyl (1F4h) 5 . and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.

The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . statbyte. */ /* Current number of heads.3. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. See listing 24. hd0_cyls. hd1_type.which head */ hd_nsectors. If I did one member. fDataReq.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Current control byte value */ hd_command. cylinders. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. /* Calculated from LBA . hd1_heads.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type.3. hd0_secpertrk. /* Calculated from LBA . hd1_secpertrk. hd0_heads. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. /* Current Physical Drive. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. Listing 24. hd_control. /* Current Command */ hd_drive.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8].

/* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. }. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. U8 fSingleUser. LastErcByte0. U32 OS2. LastSeekErc0. S16 nBPB. fIntOnReset. S8 *pDevOp. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. U32 OS6. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. U8 type_now. U32 blocks_done. LastStatByte1.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. LastErcByte1. S8 *pDevInit. 32 bytes out to here.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. /* Number of bytes per sect. U32 OS5. MMURTL V1. ResetStatByte. U8 fNewMedia. U32 OS1. U32 OS4. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. S8 sbName. filler1.static U16 hd1_cyls. S16 wJob. LastStatByte0. S8 *pDevSt. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. U32 last_erc. U8 fDevReent. U32 OS3. S8 type. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. LastSeekErc1. U32 BlocksMax. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. LastRecalErc1. }. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. U32 nBlocks.

this would be the main() section of the C source file. '0'. 'D'.pDevOp hdcb[0]. 1.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a loadable driver.sbName hdcb[0].nBlocks hdcb[1]. static long HDDInt.nBlocks hdcb[0].pDevOp hdcb[1]. 3.4. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024. &hddev_stat. static U32 hd_msg2.nBPB hdcb[1].Name[1] hdcb[1]. MMURTL V1. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read. /* Random */ 512.pDevInit hdcb[0]. /* largest device handled . IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19).2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17. 524288. 'D'. Listing 24. hd1_cyls = 1024. 3. hd1_heads = 16.nBPB hdcb[0].4. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0]. 'H'. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A). /* largest disk handled . static U32 hd_msg. 524288.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. &hddev_stat. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver.pDevInit hdcb[1].Name[0] hdcb[1]. &hddev_init.Name[0] hdcb[0]. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch.type hdcb[1].Name[2] hdcb[1].Name[2] hdcb[0]. /* Random */ 512. See listing 24.Name[1] hdcb[0]. hd1_secpertrk = 17. '1'.sbName hdcb[1].type hdcb[0]. &hddev_init.pDevSt hdcb[1]. 1.

} } /* if we got here. They vary from BIOS to BIOS. We have to make this sucker work the hard way. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0).0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). */ hd_reset(). /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). We have to do it once. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. erc = hd_recal(0). but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. &hdisk_isr). */ /* Reset the HDC . We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. MMURTL V1. It seems like a lot of work. If the second drive is not there. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. */ hd_reset().erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch).last_erc = erc. UnMaskIRQ(14).last_erc = erc. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). hd1_type = 0. They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. then try both physical drives. /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. hd0_type = 0. SetIRQVector(14. The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. but they don't. */ erc = hd_recal(0). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset().

else hdstatus.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). if (i) hdstatus.erc = hd_recal(0). 0xfffffff0. &hdcb. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. UnMaskIRQ(14). and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple.seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch.last_erc = erc. 1)). HD_REG_PORT). 2. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. MicroDelay(4). /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. hdcb[0].ResetStatByte = statbyte. EndOfIRQ(14). This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. HD_REG_PORT). OutByte(4. &hd_msg). Sleep(20). We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. It just waits for an interrupt. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. ISendMsg(hd_exch. /* 200ms .fIntOnReset = 1. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i.fIntOnReset = 0. HDDInt = 1. The caller should call check_busy and check the error. 0xfffffff0).

while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS).0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). hd_Cmd[3] = 0. return(erc). /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. /* set max heads. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. Listing 24. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. Sleep(5).5. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. etc. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. check_busy(void) count = 0. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. erc = hd_wait(). /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). See listing 24. even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk.). nSectors.5. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. hd_Cmd[4] = 0. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR.3 seconds. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise.

0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS .Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur.LastRecalErc0 = erc. if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). else hdstatus. &hd_msg). erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). KillAlarm(hd_exch). *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. Time-out and return if no interrupt. ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. KillAlarm(hd_exch). else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. return(erc). return(ok). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. if (drive) hdstatus. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc).LastRecalErc1 = erc. /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). 300). } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0.

if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. &msg) == 0). OutByte(hd_control. setupseek(U32 dLBA. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). seek).alarm or int messages before we send a command. } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder.0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). U16 cyl. head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. HD_PORT+1). For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. } erc = check_busy(). msg[2]. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+3). return(erc). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. HD_PORT+4). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. verify. write. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. HD_PORT+2). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. HD_PORT+6). *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. MMURTL V1. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. HD_PORT+5). j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. format. if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). HD_PORT+7). hd_nsectors = nBlks. HD_REG_PORT).

*********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* hd_sector. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk).LastSeekErc0 = erc. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore.. 1). } = = = = = nBlks. /* cyl & 0xff. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors..0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS ./* we now know what cylinder. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. return(erc). but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. hdstatus. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.

if (hd_drive) hdstatus. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault. */ erc = check_busy(). if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. After all. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. errbyte. default: break. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. else hdstatus. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek.LastErcByte0 = errbyte. } return(erc). else hdstatus. he interrupted us with status. } else { erc = check_busy(). else return(erc). else return(erc). MMURTL V1. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound.U8 statbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. break.

nBPB. nBPS. dnBlocks). nSoFar++. dnBlocks). U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. nleft. hd_sector. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. U32 dnBlocks.nBPB. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). hd_sector. --nleft. erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. nSoFar. erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. } } return(erc). } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). pDataRet. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. pDataRet+=nBPS. U32 dnBlocks. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. pDataOut. pDataOut+=nBPS. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. erc = check_busy().0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT.else erc = ErcBadHDC. nBPS. nBPS). nBPS). } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ).

erc = hd_wait(). /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. nSoFar++. Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. erc = hd_wait(). head and Sector number. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. U32 HdSect. hd_sector). HD %d. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. U16 cyl. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. pDataOut+=nBPS. hd_head. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. SEC %d\r\n". hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. cyl. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. cyl = Cylinder. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. return(erc). dnBlocks).0 -404- . U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. erc = setupseek(dLBA. } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). pDataOut. } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. return(erc). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). nBPS). /* cyl & 0xff. /* hd_sector. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA.

/* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). U32 dnBlocks. erc = hd_wait(). &hd_msg). erc = 0. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next.6. } Chapter 8. For Hard disk. See listing 24. } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. MMURTL V1. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. pDataRet.blocks_done = 0. U32 dOpNum. 12=0 and 13=1.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0.6. else hd_drive = 1.” discussed device driver interfaces.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dLBA. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. “Programming Interfaces. Listing 24. 512). *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. return(erc).

} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. pData). default: erc = ErcBadOp. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. break. break. S8 * pStatRet. pData). dnBlocks. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. erc = 0. return(erc). pData). This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. break. break. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). dnBlocks. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. U32 dStatusMax. /* Null Command */ break.last_erc = erc. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. dnBlocks. */ break.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. break. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. dnBlocks). dnBlocks. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). break. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. break. pData).

This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. S8 *pInitData.erc = hdcb[1].nHead = hd1_heads. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. } else { hdstatus. CopyData(&hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[0]. } /* Calculate size of status to return.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. hdstatus. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat). U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS .nBPS = hdcb[1]. return ok. else i = sStatus.nBPB.nHead = hd0_heads.erc = hdcb[0].nCyl = hd1_cyls. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice.last_erc.type_now = hd1_type.type_now = hd0_type.nCyl = hd0_cyls. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. i). hdstatus. pStatRet. hdstatus.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. hdstatus. hdstatus. hdstatus. The DCB values are updated if this is successful.nBPB. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters.). hdstatus. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. hdstatus.{ U32 i.last_erc. hdstatus. hdstatus. *pdStatusRet = i.

} hdcb[hd_drive]. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive]. hdcb[hd_drive]. } /* If no error. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. i).nBPB = HDStatTmp. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive).nHead. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.type_now. erc = 0. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.last_erc = erc. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp.nCyl * HDStatTmp.nHead.nSectors. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp.nSectors. CopyData(pInitData. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive).nHead. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.last_erc = 0.nCyl.{ U32 erc. &HDStatTmp.type_now. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. else hd_drive = 1. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive]. /* If no error. i.nCyl. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0.nBPS.nSectors * HDStatTmp. else i = sdInitData. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. return(erc).

38400 */ Parity for this port. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. It needs more work. unsigned long XTimeOut. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver.. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. the driver. RS-232. unsigned long RTimeOut.. unsigned long LastErc.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. but. unsigned long resvd[6]. or 16550 UARTs. */ It's already open. 0=none.7. unsigned char IRQNum. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. unsigned char stopbits. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. 16450.. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port.. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file. MMURTL V1. */ It's opened by someone else. 150 . unsigned long RBufSize. unsigned long Baudrate. */ 150-38400 */ 0. unsigned long IOBase. as well as by the driver itself. Listing 24. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is a sequential byte-oriented device. unsigned long LastTotal. which is a block oriented random device. other than that. as well as status.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. “MMURTL Sample Software. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port.. it is a fully functional driver. unsigned long XBufSize. Unlike the IDE disk device driver..7. See listing 24. and this driver. unsigned char databits.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. unsigned char parity.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. 1=even.

S8 *pDCBs.8. you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. U8 **ppMemRet). RICHARD A BURGESS -410- .0 *pIRQ). extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 dfReplace). All other command are specific to this driver. extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem.8. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). U32 nDevices. extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). See listing 24. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum.}. Listing 24. S8 MMURTL V1. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. U32 nPages).

U32 *pdStatusRet). S8 *pInitData. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). S8 *pMsgRet). U32 dnBlocks. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. /* local prototypes. U32 msg1. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 dBytes). S8 *pStatRet. U16 wPort). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 sdInitData). U32 msg2). S8 *pMsgRet). U8 *pData). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. set and reset signal line condition and functions. U32 msg2). U32 dLBA.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . U32 count). */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. U8 *pDestination. U32 msg1. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 dOpNum. */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. U32 dStatusMax. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). These will be called form the device driver interface. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U32 Sleep(U32 count).

/* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. sSendBuf[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. MCR[2]. head_recv[2]. fExpectInt[2]. FCR[2]. IER[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1.H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. DLAB_HI[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. stat_byte[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. head_send[2]. tail_send[2]. tail_recv[2]. int_id[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2]. cSendBuf[2]. LCR[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . IIR[2]. LSR[2]. MSR[2]. mstat_byte[2]. *pRecvBuf[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2].

9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char.9. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -. \___________ = 0.1 char 01 . I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion. MMURTL V1. 1 = Multichar 0. Listing 24.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS . RX data.TX data.Interrupt Enable. 0.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.4 chars 11 . You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0. Divisor Latch LSB IER -.2 chars 10 . FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 . \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -.

See listing 24. Listing 24.H. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -. static struct statRecC *pCS.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.10.Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2]. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1. MMURTL V1.10.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS . The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232.

the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. U32 nBlocks.Name[1] comdcb[0].12. S8 fSingleUser.12. S16 wJob. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc. One for each channel. S8 *pDevInit. as is required by MMURTL. Note that there are two of DCB’s. S8 *pDevOp. U32 last_erc. S8 *pDevSt. U32 OS6. U32 OS4. S8 sbName. static void interrupt comISR1(void). U32 OS1. = 'M'. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0].11. U32 OS3. = 'O'. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS .This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. U32 OS2. 8N1. See listing 24. See listing 24. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600.Name[2] MMURTL V1. This means it's ready for business.11. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. Listing 24.0 = 'C'.Name[0] comdcb[0]. S16 nBPB. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. Listing 24. }. S8 type. U32 OS5. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts. S8 fDevReent. and they are contiguously defined. /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void).

nBlocks comdcb[1].IRQNum = comstat[1]. 2. = 1.IOBase = comstat[0]. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. /* none */ = 8.RTimeOut comstat[1]. /* Set default comms params in stat records */ comstat[0].type comdcb[0].sbName comdcb[0]. &comdev_init.XTimeOut comstat[1]. = 4096.pDevSt comdcb[1]. &comdev_init. 0x2F8.IOBase = comstat[1].type comdcb[1].stopbits comstat[0].XTimeOut comstat[0]. &comISR1). = 2.parity comstat[0].Baudrate comstat[1].nBPB comdcb[0]. } MMURTL V1. &comISR0). = 0. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. 1)).RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096.Name[2] comdcb[1].pDevInit comdcb[1]. 'O'.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'.RBufSize sSendBuf[1] = 4096.pDevOp comdcb[1]. 4.nBPB comdcb[1]. SetIRQVector(4. = 0.RTimeOut comstat[0]. 4. 4. = 9600. 'M'. MaskIRQ(3). /* Sequential */ 1. = 2.comdcb[0].0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS . 2.nBlocks comdcb[0].databits comstat[1]. = 4096. = 100. /* 1 byte per block */ 0. SetIRQVector(3.Name[0] comdcb[1]. /* COM1 */ /* COM2 */ = 9600.pDevOp comdcb[0].sbName comdcb[1].Name[2] comdcb[0]. return(erc = InitDevDr(5. MaskIRQ(4). &comdev_stat.databits comstat[0].XBufSize comstat[0].parity comstat[1].Name[1] comdcb[1]. 3. &comdcb. sRecvBuf[1] = 4096. = 4096.pDevInit comdcb[0]. 2. = 4096. /* 1 byte per block */ 0.stopbits comstat[1].I