MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
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RICHARD A BURGESS

..........................................317 Listing 20......................................15......13.............................3........................................301 Listing 19.......296 Listing 19........................................................2.....................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ............................................................................................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory............ External functions for timer code .............14........... Code to read the CMOS time..........................................................305 CHAPTER 20..............................................................................................................................................................................19..............................................................23.......................................317 Listing 20.................................................................................................................................................................................304 Listing 19................297 AllocOSPage..............................................................313 GetCMOSTime() ....................................................................... Code to alias memory ................................................6...7..............................298 Listing 19..........................307 Listing 20........................................296 AddGDTCallGate .................................................................................................................309 Listing 20..............307 TIMER DATA ................................................................................ Adding a run of linear memory................................................................................................................... Public for linear to physical conversion..........................312 Listing 20.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................298 AliasMem ................................................................................................................................ Loop in timer ISR ............................................................................................................... Deallocating linear memory................................309 Listing 20......................................................................291 Listing 19...............................................21.......................... Code for the MicrDelay function ..........................................................................................................10...........314 GetCMOSDate() ................ Code for the KillAlarm function.......................................4...... Code to find a free run of linear memory...........................................................................................22................................................................................................. Code to return the timer tick ...............................................................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS .......................................................................................................................................................... Adding a page table for user memory............................................................315 Listing 20........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Allocating a page of linear memory........................................................................................................................................................299 DeAliasMem..............................................288 AddRun ............309 The Timer Interrupt .................................... Code for the Sleep function .........................................299 Listing 19................................................................................316 Beep().............................317 Tone()...................................................................................................................................................1........... Code to find number of free pages............................................................................................293 AddOSPT ...........................................313 Listing 20..............................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ..305 Listing 19.........................................................317 MMURTL V1................. Code for the Alarm function .........303 Listing 19..............................13........................ Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ................................291 AddUserPT .............................. Code to read the CMOS date ................................................................................................................................293 Listing 19.................................................................................................303 QueryMemPages.......................................................................301 DeAllocPage ...................................................312 KillAlarm().............................. Adding a call gate to the GDT ...................................................... TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE .......................................................................................................................................18.............................................315 GetTimerTick().....314 Listing 20...........................14...................................................................................308 TIMER CODE ...........................................................311 Alarm()........................................................................................................................................... Code to produce a beep...............313 MicroDelay() ..........................................................309 Sleep() ......................................................................................316 Listing 20...288 Listing 19.............................................................................11..................................................................................................................308 Listing 20.....................................................................17.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8........................... Code to remove alias PTEs....316 Beep_Work() .............. Data and constants for timer code..................................................................................................... Code to produce a tone ................................................................................................................................297 Listing 19...................................................................................289 Listing 19....................304 GetPhyAdd ............................................................25.20.....................................................................................307 INTRODUCTION ......................................................FindRun .................................................................................................................................24...............311 Listing 20........................................................................................................................ Adding an operating system page table ........ Adding entries to the IDT ..............................16....................................................................................290 AddAliasRun ..................................... The timer interrupt service routine ..........................................................5..................................................................................................................................................................12.....................................316 Listing 20........................................................................................................................................................................................................9..............................................................................................................................294 Listing 19..........................312 Listing 20..................................................................................................................................296 AddIDTGate....................................................................................................................

...........................................3..................................................................................4....... 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ................................................................. 438 Reading the Final Buffer .............................................................................................................................................6....................................................................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) ... 415 Listing 24..................................................................................................................................... Keyboard Translation Code......................................... 436 Keyboard ISR... 366 Listing 23...............................................2.......................................................11................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 389 INTRODUCTION .................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) ................................................................................................................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE ..........................................................................................................................................10................................................................. SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 414 Listing 24......... Debugger Data and Code............................................................... 398 Listing 24........................................................................................................... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ..................... 424 CHAPTER 25........................................ 319 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) .............5....................................................................................................... OS Initialization Code and Entry Point................................... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ..........3............................. 321 Listing 21.......................................................14.................................... Keyboard ISR Code.................................... Continuation of OS initialization................... 417 Listing 24................................................... KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE.. 429 Listing 25..... 393 Listing 24........................................ 409 Listing 24................................1................................. Jobc.................................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 365 Listing 23...................7............... 337 Listing 22...................................................... DEBUGGER CODE ..........................................................................................8.....12.......................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init).....................5.............................................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS ............................. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ..... 442 Listing 25.................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ................... 365 INTRODUCTION . Initialize call gates amd the IDT..... Initialization Subroutines............1.. 325 Listing 21............ Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) .............................. 331 CHAPTER 22.............................................................................................2.................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ............................. 438 Listing 25................................................................................... 436 Keyboard Translation.............................................. 389 Listing 24.............................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ................................................................................................................................................................ JOB MANAGEMENT CODE .......................................2..............3.......2................................. 327 Listing 21............................................................................. 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ............................................. 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER.............. 321 Listing 21.......................................................... 429 INTRODUCTION ......... Continuation of OS initialization....................... 337 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 319 Listing 21..............................................................................................................................................................................4.............................................................. INITIALIZATION CODE ...... Main Operating System Data ...................c source code.................................... Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger.......1.................................... 436 Listing 25...............................h Header File ............... 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ............................13..............................................................4............................................... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ........................................................................................................ 442 MMURTL V1......................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) .................................................6................................................................................. 366 CHAPTER 24.................1.................................................... 413 Listing 24................................ Job Management Subroutines................................................. Keyboard Data and Tables ................................................................... 344 Listing 22.............. 326 Listing 21...................................................................................... Read Keyboard Buffer Code ......... 390 Listing 24......... 344 CHAPTER 23......... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA ...................1.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7...... 395 Listing 24...................................................................................................................... 410 Listing 24.......................................................... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ..................................................................................CHAPTER 21.................. RS-232................... 429 KEYBOARD DATA........... 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING .................... 415 Listing 24.............................................. 328 Listing 21........................................................................................................................................... 389 Listing 24...................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ......... End of Initialization Code......................................................................................................................................9................................................ 409 Listing 24.........................................2........................................................................................

..........541 List File Option ................................466 Listing 26....................... Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen...541 Command Line Options ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... DASM....................... Code to Return Current Cursor Position .......................... Code to Set the Video Owner ...........................................................474 CHAPTER 28...............16......................474 Listing 27..............................450 Listing 25.................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up....................... VIDEO CODE ..................................................................................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position.......................462 Listing 26........................................................................................................................................7........................................ Code to Clear the Screen ....................... Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call ....................................................... Keyboard system service code............................................................................10.......................................................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization ....................................................................................................................................................542 MMURTL V1...9............................................13....................................2............................................................................9..............................................................474 File System Initialization ....................15................................................................................................................................................................................................... MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ...473 Hidden Sectors................................................ Code to get the Normal Video Attribute...................................................................473 INTRODUCTION ............................................... Code to set Normal Video Attribute ...................................................................................457 Listing 26............................................................................................................ Code to Set Cursor Position........................................8.................................. Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ................................................. Code to Get a Character and Attribute................................................................................... Code to Get the Current Video Owner............................................................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ...................................................................................................................... A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER ................................................................................................................. FILE SYSTEM CODE........................6...............................................459 Listing 26....................................2...............................................539 DASM CONCEPTS ..................................................7................................ Keyboard Service Initialization ................................................................................................................443 Listing 25...............451 Listing 25......................................................................................................................................................457 INTRODUCTION .......................................6...................453 CHAPTER 26...0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ............461 Listing 26...................................................539 USING DASM........3.........................................................................................................................................473 MS-DOS Boot Sector .....................................................................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ..................................458 Listing 26..................................468 Listing 26....................464 Listing 26................................................... Code to Initialize Video .......................................................................................................................................452 Hardware Helpers .................................................................. Debugger Read Keyboard Code .... Simple Application Template File ......................................................................................................540 Listing 28............................................................................................................................ Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware .................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM .....................539 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................5...........................................................................................................................................................542 Device Drivers ..........................................................................473 Logical Block Address (LBA)......................................448 Debugger Keyboard......................................................................................540 Application Template File....................................................................................................................542 Dynamic Link Libraries ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................10...... Low-level Keyboard Control Code.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................472 CHAPTER 27...................................................................................................461 Listing 26................ Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ...................................................................................................................................................................................................540 Listing 28..................................................452 Listing 25....................14............................The Keyboard Service .............465 Listing 26.....................................................................................................................................................458 Listing 26.............457 THE VIDEO CODE ................................................................... Code to Edit a Line on the Screen............................5............................. Video constants and data ..................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT .......................................................................8.....................1.................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ....................................1..........457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT .....................................................................................................................541 Errors Only Option ............. Code to Screen Video Attributes ........................ A More Complicated Template File ...........................................453 Listing 25........................................................................................................................460 Listing 26................468 Listing 26.........464 Listing 26...............................................................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers.........................................................................................................................................................4....................................................................................11.............469 Listing 26...............................................................................................................................448 Listing 25.............................................................460 Listing 26.............................12.................1.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................... 545 Table 28........................ 547 DW (Define Word) ................................................................................................................................................ 545 DASM Addressing Modes .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 568 USING CM32...................................................................................... 563 Library Header File Access...................................................... 556 Tag Descriptions...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 548 EXTRN Declarations................................. 569 Library Code Examples ................................................................................................................................................................................. 555 Table 28........................... 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ....................................3 .............................................................................DASM Source Files ..........................................................Specifying Memory Operands...................................... 570 Listing 29........................................................................................................................ 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT .................. 569 Listing 29........................................................................................... Standard file I/O for MMURTL ............................................................................................................ 565 Type Conversion and Pointers.............................................. 562 Interrupt Functions.............................................. 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax .................................. 547 DF (Define Far Word) ................. 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ...................................................................................................... 565 Structure Limitations ..........................................................................................3................................ 565 Far External Functions ..................................................... 568 Library Functions ............................................................... 552 Table 28............. Supported Library Functions .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 581 MMURTL V1................................................................ 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations ...... CM32................ A 32-BIT C COMPILER .............CD-ROM CONTENTS .................................................................... 542 DASM Program Structure .............. 559 CHAPTER 29.................................................................................................................................. 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information...............................................................................................................................1 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ............................................. 566 Initialization of Static Variables ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.................... 563 Supported C Language Features ...... 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ........................................ 548 Labels and Address............................................................................................................................................................................... 570 Listing 29..................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Tag Usage .................................................. 558 Your Own Assembler? ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 .................................................................................... 579 INDEX ..............................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ........................................................................ 562 Variable Length Argument Lists .............................................................. 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ........................................................................................................................... 548 PUBLIC Declarations.................................... 545 Storage Declarations............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Alternating data and code in a template file ............................................................................................................................................................................... 561 INTRODUCTION ................................ 568 Command Line Options ...................................... 542 Memory Model................. 543 Listing 28...................................................................................................................................................................................... 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 562 FAR Calls ............................................................Supported Instructions .................................................................................................................................................................................................2................................................................ 575 APPENDIX A -.................................. 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ...................................... 543 DOT Commands .............................................. 547 DB (Define Byte)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Standard String Functions for MMURTL ....1..............................................................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. In the case of my own operating system. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. are the tasking model. I determined the specifications for the final product. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. portability issues size and speed. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. As coding began. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. and begin coding. however. it's a complete system." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. code. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. I have documented what it takes to really write one. I set the ground rules. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. I would just make a list. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). Unfortunately. they work with them. They use them. The most obvious of these.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . but very light on specifics. Realizing this. When I started out. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. not his IQ. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. IBM. If you're an experienced programmer. I decided what stayed and what went. It's up to you. You. You don't need to design your own. it's unlikely they'll use it. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. NOT SO FAST THERE. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. When OS/2 was first developed. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. and the programming interface. or Sun.Chapter 1. MMURTL V1. In the early days. as viewed by the outside programmer. That was part of my wish list. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. do some research on each of the desirables. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. memory model. But I wanted a small API. If you write something that no one can use.

For this reason. would help me write better application software for it. Even though they have added speed. For instance. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. size and speed. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. real-time. message based. programming interfaces. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. In fact. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. change it to suit your needs. or write your own. redesign it to meet your requirements. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. hardware interface. they are effectively super-386 processors. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. which I felt. your goals may be different. portability issues. modify. 80486 (486). Hardware Timers. multitasking. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. Once again. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. along with all the tools necessary to build. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time.to 32-bit jump. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. This was completely intentional. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. You may or may not want to do this for your system. It clouds far too many real issues these days. MMURTL V1. or all of it if you wish to write your own. a few more instructions. I'm sure it won't. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. This was the 16. You can use pieces of it. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. and some serious "turbo" modifications. Throughout this book. ideas from it. In my opinion. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. the memory model. But that's not what this book is about. Serial and Parallel Ports. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. so I've removed the mystique. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386). The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. The source code. but it was a "must" for me. and then finally discuss my code in great detail.

MMURTL V1. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. Power without BLOAT. but not all the options. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. We. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel.The ability to react to outside events in real time. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. HIMEM. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. UMBs. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). and most of them are grossly under used. LIM. hardware paging. and for a very good reason. We want the system to react to us. “Programming Interfaces. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability).Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . “Programming Interfaces. yet powerful enough to get the job done. YOURMOTHERSMEM.. You may start with my list and modify it. If it is another processor. Easy programming . but real multi-threading . I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. If you don't have this requirement.But not the programmer.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). Extended. I didn't want to do this. are outside events. Chapter 5 covers memory management. and also what I decided on. “The Hardware Interface. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking . is with a procedural interface.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems.Not just task switching between programs. I discuss this in chapter 6. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted.” Simplicity . Client/Server design .Keep the system as simple as possible. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. Real-time operation .0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS .My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. I use the stack. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. calling conventions. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. you may have a different platform in mind. I'll discuss some of your options. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. or maybe a little less? Of course. I also wanted to maintain a small. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. or start one from scratch. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). if we knew how. such as C or Pascal. “The Hardware Interface. LOMEM. the humans.. but I don't recommend it. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. Message agents could be added to any platform.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. If you're going to write your own. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. and what my end result was. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed .” and chapter 8.” Protection from other programs . and 4 (Interprocess Communications). the right mix of capability and simplicity. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. General Discussion and Background. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements.

I put together my own operating system.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. the code. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. Yes. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. no doubt. Real-Time. MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. Sections of the source code will. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. Message based. If you intend to run MMURTL. kerneL. x86/Pentium processors. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). If you don't want to start from scratch. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. and 64K of data). make up your own! But. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. Multitasking. and the initialization entry point jumped to. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. And of course. or for general reference. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). nor is it intended to directly replace them. In the educational field.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . I'm sure. Real-Time. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. the tools. but only a distant cousin. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. be of value in your other programming projects as well. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. expand it to your heart's desire. or use any of the tools I included. If you're not worried about memory consumption. Then again. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. MMURTL V1. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. If you don't like my acronym. Dedicated. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own.

8250. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. you can change the code as needed. IBM and other clone processors. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. that is. If yours isn't. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. EISA (Ed. The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). Both 5. but still. No reformatting or partitioning your disks.x (IBM). IDE is preferred. eases the development burden. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. (or even MS-DOS). Note: PCI bus designs work well. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. and more importantly.25" and 3.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. but a few are not).5" are supported. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. also – 2000). but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. 2 MB (or more) is recommended. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. Pentium. One Megabyte of RAM is required. AMD. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. If you want to run DOS. MMURTL V1. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). This includes Cyrix. not at all the same. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. you can ignore this section. Hence.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. The processor must be an Intel 80386. 80486. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. but only out of convenience. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required.

.

As you can see. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. In Chapter 1. Borrow from mine. Five years later. write your own operating system. It whet my whistle. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. simplified memory management. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. has had an effect. My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. take away. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). improve. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer.000. In fact. Far too often. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. my reading of various publications and periodicals.a. a. etc. add. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. Burroughs and Sperry. you might not want to).0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . affect its design. however. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. client server designs.k. and just make it better if you have the desire. as well what may influence your design. It was a 32-bit system. It does. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. I would not let this happen. That worked out just about right. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. here it is. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. Every little thing you've run across will. my schooling. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. make a lot of sense.). I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. no doubt. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. That was 1989.Chapter 2. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. for no apparent reason). MMURTL V1. “Overview. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. merged). Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77.” I covered what my final design goals were. and borrowed with great respect. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. I might add).

0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . Of course.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. but the tools just worked better. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. there was no such thing. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. or even OS/2. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy).0) and later moved to 5. popular platform. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. however. but as you well know. Once again. like a bad virus. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems.After I got involved with the IBM PC. maybe. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. and utilities . The next major decision was the software development environment. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage.x assembler and 2. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. I thought about other processors. MS-DOS was everywhere. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. and a few others. at times it was quite difficult. Message-based. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. It's the place to start. Then those were the 2. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. was a must. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier.1. In fact. but it worked nonetheless.. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. It is just now becoming popular. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. I really had no choice.including assembler. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. Operating system developers.x linker. however. compiler. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. Again. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway.all but ancient history now. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. or ported to a system.. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. I'm not a Borland salesman. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. There was no turning back. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . but the tools worked. a lure that could not be suppressed. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. Memory access was limited. in the process of using these other tools. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. It was limited to the small memory model. As you may be aware.

SX MMURTL V1. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. Many different books. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. That set me back four months. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. That's right. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. articles.. in which case. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). Besides.some tools from the major software vendors. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier.). Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. a disassembler.. To fully understand this. in itself. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. TTL." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. as you may understand. and the called function cleans the stack. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. I do so because its bus. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. which is 32 bits for the most part. but I pretty much built from scratch. I plead the "Fifth" on this. no linker. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. Computer chip manufacturers. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. a major task. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. Developing this assembler was. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. documents. I think many people started there. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. but another port is in the works.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. at least. In fact. Communications controllers. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". IBM published theirs. or even port MMURTL to it. There is no linker. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. which is fed to the assembler. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. The C compiler produces assembly language. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together.” Assembly language has its place in the world. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. want or need. as well as the software control of these devices. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. DMA. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. DC. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. and a few other minor utilities. such as Chips & Technologies. or may not. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. you will need to read chapter 28. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. It is tied to the internal bus. Needless to say. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. It's simply not needed. interface design. etc. etc. These documents are usually free.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. Parameters are passed left to right.

x.and 16-bit code and data. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). timers. The thought was rather sickening. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. This simple model could allocate and manage memory. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. of course. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. gentler" environment I was after. but not a fully segmented model . etc. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. no way to get test programs into the system. all implementations of UNIX). but instead a lean. This was timeconsuming. but this is transparent to the programmer. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. The segmented memory idea was canned. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. you'll be ahead of the game. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. If you use Intel-based platforms. etc. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. as you will see. But as you may be aware.).] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). EISA. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. I discuss several options you have. anyway (e. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. OS/2 version 2. Windows version 3.. It has turned out very nicely. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. It was a "kinder. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. powerful. If you write your own system. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?).g. all based on their own selectors.). "Thunking" was out of the question. MMURTL V1. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. aliasing is also required.x. All of the early test programs were in assembler. There was no loader. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. This easily consumed the first six months. this is a year you won’t have to go through. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. In a paged system. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. During this time. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). In chapter 5. but it's not at as complicated. as well as the stack storage. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. anyway.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . [Thunking is when you interface 32. I had to meet my design goals. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book.two segments per program and two for the OS. even the operating system writer. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. but it presented several serious complications. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. from a 16-bit code segment. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. Memory Management.

or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. but they just didn't say. If this has never happened to you. For example. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. Decide on your basic models. compilers and utilities. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). I was really interested in communications. Go for the kernel. But I'll try. MMURTL V1. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. The level of complexity. but there wasn’t. you'll NEVER really be done with it. I envy you. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. "You start here. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. Investigate your tools. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. Or at least when you get it working. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. of course. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. get to know it very well. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. Document the problems. It may be RISC. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. it may be CISC. I say this from experience. memory model and basic programming interface. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. Of course. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. I'll tell you the easiest. the rest is real work. Memory management is next. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. will depend on the memory model you choose.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . You can then “port” the prototype. you will no doubt find bugs." It is difficult for me to do this also. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). But. and overall program management – as you see fit. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. but I'm very serious. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. Get to know your assemblers. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. It will be worth the time spent. you know that certain items in a project must work. I have provided such an operating system with this book. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. you know that it can be a very daunting task. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use.anything that you think you'll need to remember. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. garbage collection. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. This is called the critical path. Know your desired application. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. The Critical Path Along your journey. or how much time you really have to invest. and there will also be background noise. This may sound a little humorous. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. Select your hardware platform. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. do it. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. the discoveries . hints are about all I CAN give you. how much knowledge you have. There are so many platforms out there. This includes the tasking model. the actual application may not be so important. but whatever you decide on. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did.

Working Attitude Set your goals. I lay out my notes for what I want. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. But really. I moved on from there. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. These tools include documentation for the hardware. sweat and maybe some tears. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. I had my wish list well in advance.” Once satisfied. Good luck. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. it won't be luck. it's worth the time. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. Document as you go. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. As I mentioned above. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. I write the documentation.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. compilers. But don't set them too high. Sounds backwards? It is. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. Work with small. easily digestible chunks. and then I write the code. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. all the way. dependable pickup truck. It will be blood. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside.

" which means communications between tasks. is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. Hence. It shouldn't be.Terminate and Stay Resident programs). but it is used a lot in the computer industry. or at least coming to agreement on them. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. In other words. however. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using.Chapter 3. MMURTL V1. but I hope you will accept them. TASK . One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. MS-DOS TSRs .g. This makes it a very small kernel. Some documentation. it’s PREEMPTIVE. I admit some guilt here too). Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. and most people refer to.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . But this is not cast in stone either. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. In its executable form. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. When a task is suspended from execution. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. be specific about it. CPU utilization. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising.” while others call it a “thread. at least temporarily. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. You may not agree with the definitions. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. then start another task running. but it is. After all. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. and I'm not talking about programming languages. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. KERNEL .This term is not disputed very much.” In most instances I call it a TASK. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. If you write your own. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. save its state. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. coffee and soda spilled on them. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. and more specifically. Tell the programmers what you mean. but doesn't expect the interrupt. I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. Generally. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. Some operating systems call a task a “process. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model.. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services.

Multitasking." but needless to say. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. DMA.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. How tasks are handled. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment. but it may not be so easy for you. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. Managing these resources in a simple.In other words. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. When I wrote these programs. Some are communications programs (FAX software. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). and some are user-oriented software. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. keyboard. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. and why. including video. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. Tasks crash. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. or the user was done. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. Task Management Tasks begin. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. In each case. Quite obviously. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. and hardware (Timers. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. Input/Output (I/O) devices. Interrupt Controller Units. good old Albert). In other words.). "Everything should be as simple as possible. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). Single vs. "simple software for simple minds. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. memory management. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model).0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. But in almost all of these systems. These are the real resources. One of my friends suggested the motto. execute programs as the new users desire. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. it didn't sit too well with me. On the other hand. Tasks end. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). Nor did I want it to be.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). It may have memory assigned to it. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). when the mission was accomplished. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. etc. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. This is its only real purpose in life. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. Single User. You may MMURTL V1. or even network connections for logons. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). comms programs). I deal with one user at a time. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. disk.

but an important one. Then I asked. "It's 11:00PM. I had my very own processor. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. it would seem to return at its leisure. In the case of hardware interrupts. It's actually easier than it sounds. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. this is usually a no-brainer. Microcomputers spoiled me. Yet. but effective. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS .want to deal with many. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. In a multitasking operating system. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. It was crude. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. This will be the heart and brains of the system. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. The software state can consist of almost nothing. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. My first programs were written with that attitude. it was a breeze. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. When you change tasks. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. This is where the hardware-state is saved. MMURTL V1. We were each getting a piece of the pie. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. When you restore a task. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. The CPU takes care of it for you. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. If you must do it yourself.

This may be in milliseconds. interrupt servicing. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. or a combination of the two. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. which I cover in this chapter. do an adequate job in many cases. They can. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. "Hey . Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. if necessary. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. And yes. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. Meanwhile. the screen and everything else looks frozen. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. or to pause when it has nothing to do. A task that has the processor gives it up. In this case. a single threaded system may be the best solution.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking.I'm done with the CPU for now. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). and in some cases. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. This can be for a number of reasons. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. you are cooperating with the operating system. It may not always be obvious when it happens. With these calls.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. In many single tasking systems. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. you basically have a hardware manager. he then monopolizes the CPU. For instance. Cooperative and Preemptive. and basic input/output. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. In a single tasking operating system. however. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. management of CPU time is easy. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. however. In fact. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). the ability to cut a task off at the knees." From there. MMURTL V1.

there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. hardware timer. or after a set period of time.communicating. Most of the time. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. As I also mentioned earlier. However.. or even a requirement. a program. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. or it may be for something extremely critical. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. To expand on that definition. communications device. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. It does nothing to prepare for it. When. In a preemptive system. The next section is the tricky part. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). The timer can help determine when to preempt. The currently running task is preempted. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). Generally. to which task do we switch. They are also. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver.g. this adds the requirement of timing. In fully cooperative systems. outside events. we must now decide which task runs next.). or a few other hardware-related things. and maybe memory context. These parties include the programmer. disk drive. or monitoring. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. and how long does that task get to run? Who. it doesn't expect it. after the interrupt is finished. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. Also. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. As you can see. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). the scheduler simply determines who's next. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. When do we switch tasks. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. is a preemptive system. For the preemptive system.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. when a task is preempted. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. etc. the task that's running. controlling. connected to the outside world . this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. quite often. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). or the operating system from an external device (e. On most platforms. the scheduler. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. there is going to be a desire.

only the very highest would ever get to run. But it has some major drawbacks. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. For example. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. In the simplest time sliced systems. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. For example. Who determines which task gets more time. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. but it won't be on their terminals. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4).0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. This is usually not very effective. it can serve admirably. Time slicing is an old technique. A simple queuing system suffices. This gives the scheduler something to work with. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. each task will get a fixed amount of time . Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. In some systems.and they will be executed in the order they were created. In a time sliced preemptive system. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run.all tasks will get the same slice . or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. the one with the highest priority will be executed.000 burgers. otherwise. its complete hardware and software state is saved. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. each task gets 25 milliseconds. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. "a slice of time. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. and if a user interface is involved. The others may see a slow down. and the next task in line is restored and executed. When a task's time is up. Not quite that simple. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. In a cooperative system. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. (the others will be flipping 8.

come do something with this data before I lose it"). Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are. and we want our machines responsive to us. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. things are never as simple as they seem. dependable. The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. But I opted to "get real" instead. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. Therefore. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. The buffer will overflow.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. or the user. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch.g. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. computers are everywhere. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. These are communications and user interface issues.to go around on the system. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. In a message based system. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. We want good. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. This IS real-time stuff. clean communications.. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. Now. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. but it makes the point. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. but one channel is handling five times the data. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. For instance. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. but it's not dramatic enough. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. Thus. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate.

See what works for your applications. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. even though these methods are very important. But even when the task has nothing to do. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. Some Cooperation In this type of model. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. Time Sliced. it would still be scheduled to execute.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. To be honest. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. however. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. In this type of system. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). No doubt. In addition. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . all tasks will get to run. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. Users on a larger. and even help define the tasking model. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. Fully Time Sliced. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. although such systems exist. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. A task may. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. you have a few ideas of your own. MMURTL V1. based on the number of tasks scheduled. Primarily Cooperative. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. I can't picture a system without it. A very simple.

and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. if you have 256 priorities. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. I never wanted to miss outside events. To briefly explain my tasking model. and the next task with the highest priority executes. For instance. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. and limit the functionality if at all possible. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. file access.PERIOD. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. or whatever. "Experience is a wonderful thing. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. preemptive. and in reality. Other processors may offer similar options. This is a speed issue. The timer-interrupt routine. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. goes into a "waiting" state. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. It's faster – actually. Limited Time Slicing category.Primarily Cooperative. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. To me. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. real-time operating system. Go for the fastest option . MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. monitors the current task priority. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. The task based ISR is slower. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. I wanted a priority based. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. and no. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. The less time the better. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. multitasking. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. Keep them short. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. This could have presented some protection problems. timer services. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. In such a system. After all. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . much faster.

On systems that are primarily time sliced. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). For instance. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. or Ms. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. you switch tasks. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. MMURTL V1. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. who's to say when Mr. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. the problems didn't surface. After a period of time has elapsed.only the user knows. or even possibly the users. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . and they are surely out of your control most of the time. In a cooperative environment. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing.management headaches. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model.

only one task can execute at a time. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. perform operations on the semaphore structures. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter." MMURTL V1. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. where it waits. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. As you will see in this chapter. This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . or is suspended when it can't run. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. it could cause some serious problems. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. nor should they have to.Chapter 4. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. Of course. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. However. As I described in earlier chapters. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). In operating systems that use semaphores. if it's being allocated). some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. In other words. portions of the code will not be reentrant. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. On a single CPU. As the name implies. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. what operation you want to perform. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time.

I refer to a program as a “job. etc. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. more powerful.In most cases. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. In my humble opinion. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. OpenPipe(). As you can see. In fact. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory.). They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). I didn't. or similar ones. and WritePipe(). ClosePipe(). such as those procedures that create new tasks. If you intend to implement semaphores. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. I have added a second. ReadPipe(). Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). destroy tasks. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). OS/2 is one such system. This is much more efficient. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. But once again. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. public pipes are very handy. He or she will make a system call for some resource.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . In my system. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. a program is made up of one or more tasks. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. OS/2. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. on most real-time operating systems. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. In fact. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. which will consist of one or more tasks. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. but I used a second form of messaging instead. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. such as MMURTL. In a message-based system. or schedule tasks for execution. you should study how they are used on other systems. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. tasks are not wholly independent. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). With the send() and wait() types of messaging. I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. You will see these commands. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you.

There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. You can send one way messages to a person.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. SpawnTask(). dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. the answering machine is the exchange. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages)." This is an example of a one way message. a bin. You tell it what exchange. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. "Tell Mr. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). The task is the human. You point to a piece of code. dExch is the destination exchange. request() and respond(). I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). If there is no task waiting at that exchange. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. only one task is actually executing instructions. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. provide some other pieces of information. or whatever you call it. SendMsg(). It returns 0 if all goes well. In an operating system's case. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. char *pMsgRet). All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). it's a little more complicated than that. AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. and VIOLA. the message is received right away. an exchange point.it sends a message. or just about any other name you like. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. I called it an Exchange. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). but enough that we can talk about them. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. for which you expect no response. It does just what it says . Zork to forget it. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. If you're lucky. char *pMsgRet). such as. It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. Consider the phone again. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. his offer is the pits. WaitMsg(). In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. but large enough for a couple of pointers. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. Now. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. CheckMsg(). give it the message and away it goes. long dMsgPart1. Yes. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. a task is born. You also need a way to send the message. MMURTL V1. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered.not in detail yet.functions. In MMURTL's case. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). long dMsgPart2). MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. Not too large to move around. Now I have some very important terms and functions .

I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. Task1 is ready to run. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. very small. Task2 is still running. Task2 allocates Exch2. What it's doing isn't important. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue.). it's not called the kernel zone. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. Table 4. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. time is passing. You start with a single task executing.. As we move down the table in our example. It's still task 2.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 4. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Just kidding. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system.. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. In this example. Task2 is higher. None are waiting. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. None found. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. Kernel makes Task1 run.

dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it .the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. From the example you can also see that when you send a message. It gives task2 the message. Each service can provide up to 65.. they must be waiting for something. I didn't do this with MMURTL.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. FAX services. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue.. it will be made to run. but the name will always be the same.. queued file management. They are dedicated types. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. With MMURTL. Each time an interrupt occurs. This can simplify the scheduler. If there is one. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. This may not work on all types of processors. 10 or even 15 system services. A fully loaded system may have 5. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. The name must be unique on the machine. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. In fact. BBS systems. e-mail services. When the service is first installed. the receiving task is made to run. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. unsigned int wSvcCode. In some systems. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). They are ideal for things like file systems. This way. keyboard input. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . printing services. each service installed is given a name. only the service name. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). you will more than likely not use these types in your system.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. From the simple example in table 4. The processing is carried out by the service.1. the list could go on and on. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. If there is a task at the exchange. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. . More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. MMURTL V1. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system.. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services.

long dStatRet). Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. In many functions you will not even use pData1. There's still a little work to do.the status or error code returned to the requester.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. this would be the size (length) of the filename. wSvcCode . dData0.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). They are described below: dRqHndl . dnpSend would be 1. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. it is NOT a response. Zero (0) usually indicates no error. dStatRet . but network transport mechanisms do not. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. These can never be pointers to data. The service already knows this. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. This will be explained later in memory management. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). long dcbData1SR. Second. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . dnpSend . This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. long dData1. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. If you remember.Pointer to the service name you are requesting. if the request was serviced (with no errors). and dData2 .Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). dData1. and spacepadded on the right. Where is the response data and status code? First. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. char *pData2SR.long dRespExch. These are documented independently by each service. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. If this is the response. Second. long dData2 ). the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. *pData2 . But. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. you'll need to know which one is responding.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). long *pdRqHndlRet.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS .the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. Using the Open File() example. The service name is eight characters. Two questions arise: 1. dcbData1 . you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg().is the number (0. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. If you made more than one request. For instance. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. *pData1 . dRespExch . all capitals.This is the same as dcbData1. If it is 80000000h or above. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. or pData2 to send data to the service.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. long dcbData2SR. At first glance.Number of the specific function you are requesting. dcbData2 . in the file system OpenFile() function. *pdRqHndlRet . pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). long dData0. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill.

but still very important. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. and show you what can happen.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. When each task is done with the allocation routine. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange.to read or write data. To really understand this issue. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. An exchange is a small structure in memory. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). As you know. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. even in a multitasking system. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. The buffer is gone. but this would slow things down a bit. there was only one buffer left. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. it is preempted. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. Not very big. task1 gets to run again. Also. it's a mess. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. Now. Not as difficult as you expect.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . It's really quite simple. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. As you can see. Now. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem().it's crash time. Each task that enters the code. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. pointers are off the ends of arrays. lets look at an example. So the code goes in. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX. checks the semaphore. and WHAMO . So. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. right? But let me guess . MMURTL V1. Semaphores are used on many systems. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. only one task can really be running at a time. For the sake of understanding this. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. But when it reaches PointX. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. or pauses in the middle of them. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function.

“Memory Management. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. I started with one and abandoned it early on. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. and maybe even not often enough. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. Also. This is 1/38.200 baud in Windows 3. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. In the kernel code. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38.task switches.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . The next sections discuss this. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. WHOA THERE . you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. Don't blame Windows though.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time.If the instruction sequence is short enough. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds.000 * 3). This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. it will simplify IPC greatly . It will be the only way. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. and also "the biggie" . In theory. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time.000. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. You will lose data. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores).x? You will lose data. You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. but my testing shows I did OK. You didn't disable interrupts. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. let's look at a real-world example. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused.” MMURTL V1.

This greatly affects the next three items. it's all basically the same. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. For instance. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. or another complicated applications. MMURTL V1. The memory model you choose. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. Some do it with internal paging hardware. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. There are some major differences though. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. With the Intel processors. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. so does an operating system. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. if available.Chapter 5. Whether or not you use paging hardware. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. Address 0 is the first. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. Basic Terms Once again. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table).0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . I do make some assumptions about your processor. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. Instead. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. Either way. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with.

Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. different memory allocation schemes (top down. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. No address translations take place in hardware. With this scheme. and bad. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. This can be good. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. at least for the operating system. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection. chunks of physical memory called pages. MMURTL V1. and possible partitioning for each program. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. Figure 5. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. As programs are loaded.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. In this type of system.1. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. As programs are loaded. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . Figure 5.). The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. You may be restricted from using some of these options. bottom up. etc.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses.

but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. Figure 5. With this scheme. Figure 5. For instance. direct access storage device. With paged memory.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. For example.Figure 5. With demand-paged memory. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. or even 64 MB).0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS . This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required.2 . you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. if you have 16 MB of physical memory.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. Figure 5. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. more than likely a hard disk drive. MMURTL V1.

Figure 5. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). and the hardware allows it.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. With paging hardware. it means that you're lying to your programs. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL.3 . Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces. The minute you apply this term to memory management. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. Look at Figure 5. but it sure looks like it is. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique. as in virtual reality. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. and indeed you are. MMURTL V1. all the programs still use the same linear space.

you will think of. MMURTL V1. In order to allow multiple. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. A way around this to use a shared memory area. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space. yet. Note also the disadvantages. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. the memory management hardware must support it. Note the advantages here.4 . Unlike Paged Flat Memory. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is the idea. there are many possible variations. In Figure 5. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. memory is NOT flat. Once again.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory.Figure 5. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. The options here are almost mind boggling. parallel linear spaces. and implement some of your own. No doubt. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. different data or code).

the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. and you need to understand the implications. one for code and several for data access. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. When a page has been written to. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. we had some pretty limited address spaces. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. They used something called a segment register. 20 to be exact. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. It's just what it sounds like. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. Likewise. or even an 8-bit one.g. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. so I won't go into further detail. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. and 80286). but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. This is a very handy feature. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. they needed to identify and manage those segments. What they came up with is called Segmentation. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. This was actually several registers. However. and generally the most efficient. The most common. and the popular Zilog Z80). To make this work. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. 8088. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. In fact. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. When this was a 16-bit world. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. MMURTL V1. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. This means you can save the time rewriting it. 80186. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. They are not limited to 64K. When you use a selector. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. It is really a form of virtual memory itself.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS .. When the 80286 came on the scene. it is usually termed as "dirty. OS/2 or Windows). They allowed multiple sequential. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. All of the Intel products are very well documented. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. The LRU schemes have many variations.

you should decide on your basic allocation unit. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. Tracking client linear memory allocations. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. the type of applications you cater to. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. This can be a real hassle. but not in the order I listed them. which will be defined by the paging hardware. I'll discuss each of these things. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. You'll have to make a decision. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. If you do. one person). Allocating memory to load applications and services.” Before you decide which method to use. you ARE the operating system. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. MMURTL V1. I will give you a good idea what it's like. But in many systems.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . Tracking physical memory if paging is used. This way. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. I learned this the hard way. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. With this scheme. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. They are “linked lists” and “tables. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup.With a 32-bit system. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. it usually takes the whole system down. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. and Handling protection violations. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. Remember. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. You make the rules. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. and it will be based on many factors. Other factors include how much memory you have. if your hardware supports it. Allocating memory for applications. when one application crashes. each block holds its own link. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. when one application crashes. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. How you store the links in this list can vary.

MMURTL V1. pFree.pNext = 0x100000. struct MemLinkType *pLink. pMemInUse. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. No next link yet. pLink->owner = 0. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data.pPrev = 0. These are the first links in your list. you would set up the two base link structures. pFree and pMemInUse.pNext until pLink.owner = 0. I haven't disassembled their code. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size.16. In the following simple linked list scheme.pNext = 0.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. } When a client asks for memory. you must remember that pLink. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. long owner.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. pMemInUse. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. For my description. but I'll touch on it some.owner = 0. pMemInUse. pFree. struct MemLinkType pFree. pFree. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. or you reach a link where pNext is null. This is done by following pLink. char *pPrev. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). pMemInUse.size is large enough. Of course. In the process of memory management initialization. which means you can't honor the request.size = 0. /* " " */ long Client = 0. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. }. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink.size = 0. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink.pPrev = 0. pLink->pNext = 0. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic. This is another topic entirely. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. You now have an idea where they went.

but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. If you use this code.. it WILL get fragmented. Client is the owner of the new block..pNext = &pLink. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16).16. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. } /* Sorry . pNewLink->owner = 0. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. The following example code is expanded to show each operation. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. The function returns the address of the new memory. pNewLink->size = pLink->size .pNext.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. pLink->size = WantSize. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. } } return(0). fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16).0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . And believe me. Granted. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language. WantSize is the size the client has requested.WantSize . or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree.

which returns memory to the free pool. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. validate the link. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. if at all possible. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. But you can't depend on this. and you insert it there.pNext. This will be useful in the following routine. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. In other words. then move it to the pFree list. There are several thoughts on cleanup. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. But we can't add our size to pFree. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. change its owner. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . /* scan till we find out where we go. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it.deallocate. You have the linear address. or you can do it all after the fact. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. This will add time to deallocation routines.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . This makes the most sense to me. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. depending on the order of deallocation. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. This is where the fragmentation comes it. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. This provides instant cleanup. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now.16. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. but cleanup will be a snap. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list.

In the memorymanagement routines earlier. we couldn't be combined with the previous. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). It should give you a great number of ideas. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). return(0). /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. you will have two memory spaces to track. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. */ /* In this case. In the case of the paging hardware. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. you can decide how you want them setup. MMURTL V1. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. You can expand on them if needed. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. } } /* If we got here. If you don't use the paging hardware. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. pNewLink->owner = 0.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . The two must be synchronized. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. there are physical pages assigned to it.

MMURTL V1.When you work with paging hardware. “OS Initialization. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. You will be allocated these up front. add the translations you need and are already using. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. you will have independent tables for each application. You must set up tables. From there. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it.” but once the operating system is loaded. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. For instance. you will have to move it all. trap. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. In some cases. If you use paging. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. it becomes allocated memory right away. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. Wherever you load it.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. it will generally be in a block of addresses. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. But it's up to you. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. and turn on the paging hardware. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. You must consider where the operating system loads. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. Batteries fail. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. and you should take that into consideration. This can get complicated. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. It will be the page’s size. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. If your processor gives you these types of options. “the Hardware Interface. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used.

If you have no desire to use them. I use almost no segmentation. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. the initialized data segment. and one or more code segments. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. This greatly simplifies every program we write. The common data segment is 10h. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. and I even use the Intel segment registers. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. set them all to one value and forget them. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. the application code segment. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. Small. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. I wanted only one program memory model. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. Large. but in a very limited fashion. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . and even larger with demand page memory. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. but nice to have. This was too complicated for me. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. For instance. and one data segment for all programs and applications. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. you know that with MS-DOS. Medium. Compact. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. uninitialized data segment. but will have no effect on applications. The user code segment is 18h. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. and many others. The operating system code segment is 08h. If you are familiar with segmented programming. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. 32-bit offset). but it serves my purposes quite well without it. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. It can be very complicated to use on any system. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. This could change in future versions. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. the concept of program segments is an old one.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively.

The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker." huh?). and each application the same thing. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries.294. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. Because of this. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. No. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory.1. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. Besides. What you don't see. MMURTL V1. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. but most of the operating system code – specifically. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. is that you really do need most of this capability. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. because I haven't explained it yet. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. This is done with something called a page directory (PD).memory. it has code and data and a task or two. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. Each PTE is four bytes long. If you get our calculator out. which can have 1024 entries. Each PDE is also four bytes long. but you need it in pieces. but it’s close. The operating system itself is technically not a job. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. Right? Wrong. its not magic. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space.967. the kernel . The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE).runs in the task of the job that called it. Sure. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. Each of the PDEs points to a PT. If you want just a few bytes. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. Every Job gets its own PD.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. For instance. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS .

possibly several for each application. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. Sounds like a lot of work. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. but it does this with very little overhead. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. Well. In the scheme of things. and it needs it fast. Sure. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. Now that it knows where the PD is. 20.1 . I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. but it wasn't needed. certainly less overhead than this explanation). The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. the secret is out. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. Besides. When I started the application. If you remember. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. MMURTL V1. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. However. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. I wanted to keep the overhead down. I could have built a separate table and managed it. But it was for a good cause (No. Code. Read on and see what I did. Likewise. in a word. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. Now it's got the PTE. Of course. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after.Table 5. This is fine for one address per job. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). but when you start talking 10.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. yes.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to.

0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . 256 257 . Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. AllocOSPage(). in Table 5. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. If I desired. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory.2. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum). The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. If I decided to do it. I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. That would really be a waste.. 512 513 . it would be transparent to applications anyway. and how I use the processor's paging hardware.. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address.. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present.. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). all the shadow entries are marked not present. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary.. MMURTL V1. in fact.1. Table 5. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors.. 768 769 . This is 1Gb to 2Gb. but you get the idea. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. As shown.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 .. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. AllocPage(). This is 0 to 1Gb.. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write.

which is also my sister's name. Device drivers. Each application (job) gets it own PD. it will create a new PT. If it does. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. nor do you even care. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. from a previous AllocPage() call. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. It is not important. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. With a 1Gb address space. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. initial stack. It's loaded into these initial pages. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. along with the number of pages to deallocate. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). It does not tell you whom they belong to. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM.Managing physical memory.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. must all be loaded into memory somewhere.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. and whether or not it's currently in use. only that number will be deallocated. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. there will be no error. and data. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. you allocate physical memory from the top down. but no stack. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). or will return an error if it's not available. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. They are simply new jobs. If so. The caller will never know. nor should it try to find out. If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. If the physical memory exists. but the memory will not be available for later use. System Services. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). and DLLs. Now comes that easy part . the caller passes in a linear address. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. but only from this caller's memory space. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. Device Drivers have code and data.

and no stack. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. but that's trivial (a few instructions). They are there to be used as shared code only. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. Instantly. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. Of course. no data. They have only code. This will make more sense if you do. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. When an application requests a service. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. They share physical memory. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. There is no new allocation of physical memory. the second job has access to other job's data. But this gets away from memory management. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). then you can also alias addresses using selectors. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . an error will occur. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. how could they be swapped?). you should do it before you read this section. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). With a page based system such as MMURTL. If it tries to deallocate them. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller.

0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. One or more PTs for the OS. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). it responds. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. MMURTL V1. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. When it's done its work. use it. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. How they see the interface is very important. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. For MMURTL. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. Places the message on the caller's response exchange.

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The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. You provide a common. although I never thought so. is the interrupt or trap. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. It executes your instructions. however. The most common. or for specific timing requirements. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. to interoperability with other systems. and speed. there are drawbacks to this idea. But there's always more than meets the eye.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. but that doesn't mean that you won't. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. MMURTL V1. aside from the instructions you give it. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example.how it is accessed in memory. The two that are obvious are code size. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. As good as it sounds. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. in theory. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. and the most significant at the lowest. Therefore. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system.Chapter 6. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). jumps where you tell it. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. and it simply runs.

or ISA Bus. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. such as those dealing with interrupts. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. just to name a few. no matter which device you must code. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. and some that are available now. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. in that case. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. internal bus. Finally. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. On the PC-ISA platforms. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. On smaller systems. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. ISA.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices.some proposed. This is handy. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. The second is the address bus. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. The most common is the relatively low-speed. address. I read many books about my target processor. Multibus. but in some of the processor documentation. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. and especially the interface bus. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. They are actually very forgiving devices. but I found the most valuable. There are many extensions to this bus . and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. and most useful. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. MMURTL V1. The first set is the data bus. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. or CPU bus. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. Quite honestly. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. EISA. I've tried both methods. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. PCI. For instance.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is called the main bus. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696.

I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. In fact. Parallel buses can move data faster. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). network frame handlers. and on some systems. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. or even memory to memory. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. except for the hardware clock timing. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention.g. They have no way. to name a few. MMURTL V1. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. Therefore.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. in many cases. or network card). are synchronous communications such as those used with X. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion.25 (an international link and network layer standard). Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. or HDLC.. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. Another way is programmed I/O. Quite often. the infamous Centronics interface). SDLC. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. Unlike UART devices. but still very important. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system.Less commonly found. to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). They work with frames or packets of data. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. and tape drives. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. but is really a device connected to the bus.

The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. On an 80-column-by-25-line display. Video Like the keyboard. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. All the output would be via a serial port. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. This requires an interrupt service routine. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. This could consume a vast amount of memory. However. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. but you must realize the importance of this device. If you want 16 colors for each bit. If this is the case. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. this only consumes 4000 bytes. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. Each bit array is on its own plane. In character-based systems. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. this video memory will contain character codes (e. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. or Unicode. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. This consumes the least amount of your address space. is worth more than I can indicate to you. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). On the PC-ISA platform. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. In most cases.. Quite often. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement.g. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. Video hardware manufacturers realize this.On many systems. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. In fact. and MMURTL V1. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. This is known as planar pixel access.500 bytes of memory space. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays.

and to query the status of the move. This is known as packed pixel access. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. “Memory Management. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management.allow you to switch between them. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. That equates to 600. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. non-overlapping video users. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. Chapter 26. For a 256-color system. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization.g. I did. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. This includes cursor positioning.000 bytes. this would be 16 planes at 37. I took this into consideration also. MMURTL V1. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . and timing when you write to the video display area. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. you'll have no problems. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. Your requirements will more than likely be different. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. except maybe an embedded system board. and your tasking model. Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. and GetDMACount(). With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. interprocess communications. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. In some cases. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. I was interested in character-based. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. “Video Code.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. The code for these two calls is shown below. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. have to research hardware cursor control. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. In many cases.. multiple. however.

Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h . etc.CODE With 8-bit DMA.Ch 2 Address . while 23-17 are put in the page register. but the standard include file MOSEDF.The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 1 Address .DATA . . the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .DMA DACK0 Page register .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .INC .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed.INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller.INCLUDE MOSEDF.Read/Write DMA Rq Register . DACK1 (etc. etc. There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware.Ch 3 Word Count .Ch 0 Word Count .Ch 0 Address .Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h .Read Status/Write Command . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device. This is called a cascaded device. and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16). .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .) MMURTL V1.Ch 2 Word Count .0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS .Read/Write Mode register .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .Read Command/Write Single bit mask . Optimize it as you please.Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah . DMA moves (channels 5-7).Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh . With word.Ch 1 Word Count .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch .DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h .Ch 3 Address . There really is no data segment for DMA. DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h .

AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. AL OUT DMA2Mode. . Out. 42h OUT DMA1Mode.All commands set to default (0) .Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . . This is called one time during initialization of the operating system.CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 .0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL MOV AL. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. AL XOR AL. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL.CH 0 DMA 1 .CH 0 DMA 2 . AL OUT DMA2Mode. so they always specify byte count for the setup call. I do this for the caller. or 128K boundaries for a word move. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . For channels 5. which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2.Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. . This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. AL MOV AL. 40h DMA1Mode.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . .6 and 7. 04 . AL OUT DMA2Mode. Verify). AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. dChannel. AL . AL RETN .Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. the segment is wrapped around. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. AL OUT DMA2Clear. If they do. . . . (Cascade Mode) MOV AL. dType. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. 41h OUT DMA1Mode. even on word moves.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 .DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. AL AL. . dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. 0C0h DMA2Mode. . AL XOR AL. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. . sdMem. AL OUT DMA1Clear. . AL XOR AL. we do math) MMURTL V1. as you might assume).MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) .

2 Block. 1 Single Cycle..0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL DMA1FF. 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. 2 = Out (Read memory) . MMURTL V1.0 Demand Mode. Hi Byte . AL EAX. [EBP+12] . 04 . 3 Cascade . OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. 00000000b AL. (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) .Jump table for channel selection . 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. . ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. MOV EBP. 8 DMA10Add. dMode CMP EAX. AL EAX. AL . Yes CMP EAX. 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. 1 = In (Write Mem). 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . BL DMA1Mode. Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. AL . [EBP+28] DMA10Add.3. Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. 00000100b . OR with MODE . get dType AND BL. OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL.1.0 = Verify. Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . dType . In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 1 . Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . [EBP+20] CMP EAX. Put it in BL MOV EAX.5.6. AL AL.2. . dPhyMem . 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. 0 .ESP . 00001000b .7) . 6 . [EBP+16] . CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . Lo byte address . dMode . MOV EAX. 0C0h . dChannel (0. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX.

channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 8 DMA11Add. 8 DMA12Cnt. 00000010b AL. OR with MODE/TYPE .0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . CH2 . 8 DMA11Cnt. AL EAX. sdMem . CH1 . AL EAX. AL EAX. OR with MODE . 8 DMAPage2. Highest byte (to page register) . AL AL. AL EAX. 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. 8 DMA10Cnt. AL EAX. AL . AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . dPhyMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. AL EAX. Hi Byte . channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 8 DMAPage0. [EBP+28] DMA11Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Lo byte address . channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . AL AL. AL EAX. sdMem . 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL DMA1FF. Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. Highest byte (to page register) . dPhyMem .SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. 00000001b AL. Hi Byte . AL EAX. AL AL. AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . BL DMA1Mode. 8 DMA12Add. 8 DMAPage1. Lo byte address . 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL AL. AL DMA1FF. BL DMA1Mode. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt.

[EBP+24] EAX. Lo byte address . AL EAX. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. Highest byte (to page register) . We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL EAX. AL EAX. . AL EAX. Hi Byte . AL EAX. . EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. OR with MODE . 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. [EBP+28] DMA13Add. MMURTL V1. . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . . 8 DMA21Cnt. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . BL DMA1Mode. AL EAX. 8 DMAPage3. sdMem . EBX EAX. 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. . 8 DMA13Cnt. AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . 00000001b AL. . AL AL. AL EAX. AL AL.XOR EAX. 0FFFFh EAX. . BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. OR with MODE . [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt.NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. CH3 . . Hi Byte . AL EAX. 00000011b AL. 1 DMA21Add. 8 DMA13Add. 8 DMA21Add.0 AL. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . dPhyMem . 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. EAX DMAEnd . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. EAX EAX. [EBP+28] EBX. . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. AL DMA2FF. CH1 on DMA 2 . AL AL. AL DMA1FF. AL AL. 15 DMAPage5.

dPhyMem . AL EAX. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. AL EAX. AL EAX. 15 DMAPage6. AL AL. EAX EAX. AL EAX.EBP MMURTL V1. [EBP+28] EBX. AL EAX. AL AL. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL EAX. 1 DMA23Add. AL DMA2FF. 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . [EBP+24] EAX. EAX EAX. OR with MODE . EAX DMAEnd . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. 00000011b AL. OR with MODE . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 15 DMAPage6. 0FFFFh EAX. BL DMA2Mode. 8 DMA23Add. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . sdMem . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . EAX . EBX EAX. [EBP+28] EBX.0 AL. Lo byte address . dPhyMem . 1 DMA22Add. AL AL. Highest byte (to page register) . 8 DMA22Add. Lo byte address . AL EAX. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . BL DMA2Mode. Highest byte (to page register) . -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. 8 DMA22Cnt. 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. 0FFFFh EAX. AL EAX. AL DMA2FF. 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. CH3 on DMA 2 . 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL AL. Hi Byte . 8 DMA23Cnt. Rid of all but lower 16 . AL EAX. CH2 on DMA 2 . [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX. 00000010b AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. Rid of all but lower 16 . Hi Byte .DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . sdMem . EBX EAX. AL EAX.

. . you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. . you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. pwCountRet) . For channels 0 through 3. dChannel (0. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. . For channels 5 through 7. In this case. PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The count is number of WORDS-1 . . no error from the floppy controller). this will be the number of words. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX. 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX. To move 64K. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX.Channel . 7 MMURTL V1. GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified.0 . 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. . you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX.5.535: . [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. . EBP+ 16 12 . . This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. [EBP+16] MOV ESI. GetDMACount(dChannel. You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel.g. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. . . -62- RICHARD A BURGESS .6. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. you actually set the channel byte count 65.ESP MOV EAX. .7) .Return address for count .POP EBP RETF 20 . In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX.3. On some devices. the count will be returned. . this is bytes. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX.2. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where . DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. . DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX.1.

A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. CX XOR EAX. Usually. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. Quite often. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. however. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time.DX MOV CH. This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. Therefore. program. MMURTL V1. or at set intervals. which determines the interrupt interval.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. This is not very complicated. . The operating system may. . but it is critical that it's done correctly. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access. Internally. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. No Error . and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . Your job is to know how to program the PICU.JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. or even hours in some cases. many devices interrupt the processor. . be responsible to program these dedicated timers. EAX MOV ESP. hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. . The PICU takes care of this for you.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . . Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. .DX MOV CL. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. As you can imagine (or will have realized). 20 bytes of junk to dump .No such channel! . and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. . and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly.AL IN AL. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. and read as required. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. . some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. . In the process of an interrupt.

All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses. You will need the hardware manual for code examples. MMURTL V1.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS .

In the PC world. the boot sector code may load another. If you're using another platform. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. then execute it. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. If this is true. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. tasks. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. memory. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. where boot ROMs usually reside.at least not as a file from the file system. you'll have to do some research. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. This is known as a multistage boot. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. then go through each section of the basic initialization.Chapter 7. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't .) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. and it's not exactly easy. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. In other words. and important structures. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. This can be done in more than one step if required. This device will. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. MMURTL V1. When I say "just enough code. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. no doubt. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter." that's exactly what I mean. be organized with a file system. it executes from a reset state. In this chapter. To be honest. I've done all your homework. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. then jumping to the first address of the sector. For this reason. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. including hardware. we start with loading the operating system. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. The question is. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. more complicated. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system.

I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. 7. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. In my case. 6. then executed the next instruction at the new address. 5. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. then life is easy. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. 5. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. This was the case with my system. 2. which they store in a small work area in RAM. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. 8. 2. such as a fixed track or cylinder. Second. because they provide the BIOS. and where you stored it. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. Where your operating system will reside in memory. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). But it gets more complicated. This lead to two relocation efforts. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. 3.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. 8. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. 4. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. 1. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. such as a whole track). MMURTL V1. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. 4. This was a double problem. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. First. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero).. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). 6. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. then Drive C. 7. so you can begin execution. 3. the hardware commands.g. In an ISA system.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system.

I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.nBytes/Sector .disks.386P directive is required because I use protected . (worthless) .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS . The OS must .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk.Sect/Cluster .media desc. Examine the following code: .LIMIT 768 slots . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.nSectors/track . There's no operating system here now.This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' .nFATs . This contains additional information about the file system . Why not? I do own it. One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.Drive boot sector came from . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing.and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible .11 bytes for volume name .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors. DS:CSEG.The . The boot sector code also .nSect in FAT . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) .nHeads .This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .Root Dir entries max .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system. (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' . IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG .nTotalSectors if > 32Mb . .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) .Resvd sectors .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.BASE (Linear) .Padding to make it 3 bytes .on this disk that the operating needs to know. and are not part of the above boot sector data structure. .8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads .386P .instructions.

DI AX.Destination segment .Clear interrupts . that I calculated after assembling it once.The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . AX MOV BX.Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1.This is done by finding out where it is and writing .Offset to new location (Next PUSH) . table so it can read the disk for us. then "return" to it. . AX DI. Its pseudo jump .Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . at the beginning of this code CLI .Make DS correct again .. Push the . MOV AX. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. .Segment for new location . 0078h . It works. return address. 512 MOVSB .Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI.9000h SS. DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. AX SI. nSectPerTrack .Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. 8000h .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: . 0Fh .Source segment . vector location. AX MOV DS. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. some of the parameters to it from the boot sector. AX SP. 09000h ES. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it.This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS . SI CX. 7C0h DS.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS . 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. MOV CX.

WORD PTR nHidden .The controller is reset.CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root . bBootDrive XOR AX.AX is at sector for cluster 0.Save in CX . nOSSectors .really IS the OS. ADC DX. We need the space for other code.We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file . (3rd cluster is really the first allocated . cluster because the first 2 are unused).Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. FATS (1 or more) . AX .Required for Disk System Reset . OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1.0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS .logical sector order. nBytesPerSect BX AX. POP DS . AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot .. nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX.Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot . WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX.Reset failed. nRsvdSect MOV CX.Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . . Hidden Sectors (optional) . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX. CX .to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or .Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) .What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster .stage one of the a two stage loader should be).STI MOV DL.so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be.. Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX.0020h . MOV CX.Must set interrupts for BIOS to work . MOV SI.Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . AX MOV AL. but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist . now let's read some stuff!! .The layout of the Disk is: . OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in .

Leaves Head in DL.Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL. 0Eh MOV BX.This is segment where we load the OS. BYTE PTR ResvdByte .Head to DH. 1 . 06000h MOV ES. but works well. bBootDrive DL. ES BX.Wait for keystroke .OR with Sector number AL. OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX.This is a single sector read loop . Drive to DL CX. 20h ES.BX will be zeroed at top of loop .0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS . CH .Next Sector MMURTL V1. Read a .0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX. It's slow.Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI.Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH. AX . BX AX .Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL . before we move it down to 0000h . DX . 2 .Cyl into CX CL.512 bytes for segment . DH . ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI.AX 16h 19h . Cyl in AX DH.Sector to read DX.XOR INT INT AX. BX . DL .I increment ES and leave BX 0 . Hi 2 bits to CL CL. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL. MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC . AX has . 6 .Read 13h .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads . BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX. .Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte.Number of sectors AH. . nSectPerTrack SI .AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH.

AX DI.DI CX. AX ES. 8000h .64h TEST AL.A20 line should be ON Now . move . 06000h DS.So move the OS MOV DX. SI AX. DX MOVSW .02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL. BX SI.LOOP NextSector . turn on the A20 line.DI CX. .02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 .64h TEST AL.Now we disable interrupts.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS .CX IBEmm1: IN AL. SI MMURTL V1.0D1h OUT 64h. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS. DX XOR SI.the OS down to address 0.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .WORD move .0 . Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.AL XOR CX. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX. DX MOVSW . BX SI.1000h ES. 07000h DS.WORD move .CX IBEmm2: IN AL.0DFh OUT 60h. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX.AX DI.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear. SI AX.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.AL XOR CX.64h TEST AL.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL.

2000h ES.We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually . To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.asm <Enter> This will make a .EXE header.BX ES.Clear prefetch queue with JMP .by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump . 10h DS.BX . The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS . I left it in. DX MOVSB . such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate). To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector. and a map file from the link (Bootblok.1 MOV CR0.Load Processor GDT Pointer . The segment and code size escape .EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX. It's worthless.map). 9000h MOV DS.Set up segment registers .call JMP FAR 08h:10000h. 0Ah.Load Processor ITD Pointer .MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. The first 512 bytes is the . bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are . 00h '.Set protected mode bit . use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.BYTE move MOV BX. you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.BX FS. As you change and experiment with the boot sector.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry .BX SS.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction.lst). 'Bad Boot Disk!'. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END . use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok.MS-DOS used this.CR0 OR AL.DI CX.Control Register .EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length. BX XOR EDX.'. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. 'Loading MMURTL'.AX DI. 00h 0Dh. 0Ah.BX GS. EDX MOV DL.

To read the boot sector from a disk. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. From the MS-DOS prompt. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. or after the fact. This will show you a segmented address. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. Write. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. then write it to the disk. you can use Debug to load it as a . you can use the Dump command to display it. and number of sectors following it. The results can be disastrous. C:\>Debug BootBlok. you should not do this to your active development drive.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. This is easy to do. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). and Name commands.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. Register. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. To find where Debug loaded it. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. logical sector number. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. They may do this as they format the disk. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. It's quite easy to do with the Load.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . Keep in mind. Then copy the operating system image to the disk. After you have assembled your boot sector.bin in the root directory of drive C. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector.

it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. This single source file program (MMLoader. up to the point we jump the monitor program. It is all contained in the source file Main.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language.c) to properly build it. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). I couldn't. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. “Initialization Code. Additionally. It should help give you a picture of what's required. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. It does everything that the boot sector code does. It is called MMLoader. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. “The Hardware Interface. If it is in an executable format from a linker. and basic timers . Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. With MMURTL. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. Chapter 21. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. At this point. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like. If so.00 loader. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers.C:\> Copy OS. but it's not necessary. I'm happy. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. the Direct Memory Access hardware.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). Hopefully. This includes setting up the OS stack.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. All of the hardware that is resident in the system . They must simply be initialized to their default states.” MMURTL V1. understands.asm on CD-ROM. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. Good luck. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads.

or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. as well as one to switch to. MMURTL V1. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. If you use one more bit.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. is not trivial. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. Being a little conservative. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. you can address above 1Mb. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. Either way. This depends on the platform. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. on the Intel processors. For instance. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. Chapter 3. If you desire. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. If you want to eliminate it. you've got your job cut out for you. In all of the cases that were discussed. setting up for multitasking. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. the A20 address line serves no purpose. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. This leaves you with a few options . While in real mode. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). you just learn to live with it. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. It's not that big.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. I just left it alone. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. “the Tasking Model. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. The option is usually up to you. and also some basic variables.

you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. This seems to work on most machines. and you can't manage or allocate it.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. or maybe even load up your windowing environment. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. “Memory Management Code. If you chose not to do this. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. or any number of things. Chapter 19. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. Meanwhile. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. If your machine doesn't support this method. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). You don't know how much you have. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. The point is. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. although some people may still have problems with it. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. At this stage of the initialization. I tried several methods. back to the initialization (already in progress). This piece of code may have a lot to do. or is at least loaded. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. It's not that much of a headache. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. otherwise. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). where the address match will occur. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do.My goal was not to discover why it existed. MMURTL V1. but one I'm glad I didn't face. some which didn't work on all machines. The following list is not all-inclusive. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor).

What could be easier? I can't imagine. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. what order are they in? If the stack is used. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. or your own consumption and enjoyment. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. UNIX was written with C. The call is made. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. No kidding! With UNIX. life was easy in this respect. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). I wanted to provide a good code example for each call.” shows you how I documented my calls. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. an embedded system. I found. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. because the call they add. the function does its job and returns. In the following sections. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. public distribution. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. “API Specification. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. Chapter 15. Quite often though. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. If this happens to me. they do. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. This may sound like a no-brainer.Chapter 8. and leave undocumented. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. I'm still not entirely happy with it.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. If the parameters are on the stack. that on occasion. In any and all of these cases. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. may be similar to another documented call on the system. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it.

or at least every time it's rebuilt. support several conventions. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. this is MMURTL V1. faster. Many systems use an intermediate library. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. but the stack is not used for parameters. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. OS/2. Some use registers. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. the interrupt vector table). I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). It's up to you. This device is extremely hardware dependent. There are two reasons this library may be required. Execution speed. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. and it required a fixed number of parameters. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. code size. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. no doubt. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. some use both.g.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. Pascal . First. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. Your opinion may vary on this. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. In other words. Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. I'm sure you know of several. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. as if you couldn't guess). Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions.junkies). Second.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS .. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . When a high-level language has its own calling convention. However. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. has three or four calling conventions. especially when it comes to speed. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. for example. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. some use the stack.

I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. I really hope not. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. but the portability of the operating system source code itself.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. the hardware will be obsolete. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. right. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. For application source code portability. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. then execute the interrupt instruction. If portability is near the top of your wish list. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). For the operating system source. When you need to return data from the call. However. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. and the call gates are really not a problem. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. However." Yeah. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. the procedural interface is the key. This may be a personal issue for me. MMURTL V1. The intermediate library would fill in this value.

This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. and Statusing the driver. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. and this wasn't my original plan. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. If this is the case. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. You need to consider these requirements in your design. They work with the hardware. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. You more than likely will. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. Do you see what I mean? Internally. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. Suddenly. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. timers. that it's almost impossible to separate them. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. and certain memory-management functions.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. I set out to design the simplest. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. For instance.

The first call listed in this section. In a multitasking system. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). dOpNum. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. You'll see certain validity checks. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. .Set up local vars . pInitData.InitDevDr(dDevNum. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. 16 MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. dLBA. pDCBs.ESP SUB ESP. “Systems Programming. For example. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). EBP+24 . This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. . The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. . pStatRet. . pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). so I won't go over it here. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. EBP+20 nDevices. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant.0 . [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. This is a common requirement on many systems. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. ndBlocks. .ASM. InitDevDr().Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . nDevices. When you look at the code. nDevices MMURTL V1. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. EAX MOV EAX. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. This will give you a good place to start in your design. InitDevDr(dDevNum. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. when one user is doing serial communications.” I provide detail on the use of these calls.

we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX. ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: . dExchTmp .error exit . and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs. rgpDCBs MOV EAX. 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Now check to see if device is already installed .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS .OK to replace existing driver? .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX.If we got here. [EBP+20] . 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.JB InitDev01 MOV EAX.Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX. ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: .Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX .dDevNum MMURTL V1.All went OK so far. 0 . 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array . prgDevs .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX].Point EBX to rgpDCB . .Empty. 2 .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX. 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12]. dDevX SHL EAX.Not valid DCB number InitDev01: .No . [EBP+24] EAX.All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: . EAX EBX.nDevices . rgpDCBs EAX.pDCBx = 0 if not used yet . [EBP+16] nDevs. OK to use . 2 ADD EBX. ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .Set nDev to number of devices again .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .Next devnum .Yes .Decrement nDevices .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX.12 .NONE left . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.dDevNum .Next caller DCB .

ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . MOV EBP.DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it. . rgpDCBs MOV EBX. PUSH EBP . [EBP+20] .Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. nDevices .ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: . MOV EBX.next DCB . You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB.Any more DCBs?? . [EBP+20] MOV ECX. DeviceOp() and DeviceStat().Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. MOV EBX. .the first customer to use.for all devices that one driver controls. EAX .next p in rgp of DCBs . dExchTmp . SHL EBX. and are not presented here. ECX [EBX].Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . sdInitData). are almost identical to DeviceInit(). 4 EAX.also place Exchange into DCB. [EBP+20] .ADD EBX.EAX points to first DCB . A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. 0 .Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. and .EBX now points to correct pointer . [EAX] . 0 JNZ InitDev06 . .If the device driver was NOT reentrant . ADD EAX.Now that EBX.we send a semaphore message to the exchange for .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. loop through each . MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch].ESP . pInitData. ErcBadDevNum . -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .Set up for no error . 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX. or reset it after a failure. . 2 . DeviceInit(dDevNum. EBX . .0 . EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . EAX EBX.Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . EAX and ECX are set up. The other two calls.device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . EAX MOV EAX. This is the same exchange .

JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.Bogus Message .so we check to see if driver is reentrant.Push exchange number .Push all params for call to DD . If not we .. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX. The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.. ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType].NO driver! .call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket. but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.Get device error back . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX .Get semaphore ticket . CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Device IS reentrant .Is there a physical device? DevInit02: . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX.Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 .YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP. .Get DCB ptr back . .Ignore kernel error . It you use assembly language and provide code examples. MMURTL V1.save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].No.0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS . Send semaphore message to Exch .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.All looks good with device number .dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example. adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. .Save ptr to DCB .Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] .Ptr to message area . 0 DevInit02 EAX.Yes . ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd . 0 .save ptr to DCB .Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .

you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. and DWORD. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . If I were a perfectionist. Look at the table 9. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure .a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord .1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. Argument . These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application.Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL.1 . the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). WORD.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e.Same as Procedure. though.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). usually passed on the stack. Before writing your first MMURTL program.A value passed to a function or procedure. This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. “Interprocess Communications.A Function in C or Pascal. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. Terminology Throughout this section. or a Procedure in Pascal.Chapter 9. MS-DOS). All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). Byte .” and Chapter 5..g.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. “Memory Management. but alas. or a Procedure in Assembler. Function . I think you will find it useful. Call . and a dword is also accessed at the same address. It may even be entertaining.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word .

this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. “API Specification. and assembly language. It may indicate an error. All parameters are pushed from left to right. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. Pascal. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15.) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. MMURTL V1. This will be done by the compiler. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. and are expanded to 32-bit values. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. But the address is really a call gate.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. Some do not. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. erc. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. not the real address of the SetXY function. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). In some C compilers. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. and in some cases. or simply convey information that may. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. even the assembler or processor itself. or dError. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions.

..” and Chapter 4.2 .Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. The operating system resides at address 0. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. If you need a 2Mb array. “Interprocess Communications. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. There are no far data pointers. In fact. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. “The Tasking Model. . She may pick up your dirty socks. When you are done with it.” describe this in great detail. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. but she would much rather that you did it. Chapter 3. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. you allocate it. . This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. you should deallocate it. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory.. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested.. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you.. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector.. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. MMURTL is a Paged memory system. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9.g.2: Table 9.. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. you simply allocate it... The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). malloc() in C). Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system.

This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). pData1. dData1. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. dMsg1. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. dRespExch. protect programmers from themselves. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds").pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. The operating system Code. however. MMURTL does NOT. dData0. in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). You allocate 5 pages. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. However. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). Now you allocate 4 pages. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. Of course. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. npSend. Address 40100000h is returned to you. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. pRqHndlRet. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. cbData1. cbData2. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . Data. This means that in a multitasking environment. so long as you know it can't be addressed. SendMsg (dExch. pData2.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is not a problem. wSvcCode.

/* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). struct JCBRec { long JobNum. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. printing. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. you need to know your job number. This eats all of your link blocks. For instance. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. such as data communications. Other than that. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. and user interaction. If you do. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. MMURTL is not a mind reader. char sbJobName[14]. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. /* User Name . but you don't want that either. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. Prior to calling SpawnTask().LString */ MMURTL V1. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks.Normally. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). only your program will be trashed. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. Messaging is very powerful. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. The pointer is read-only.

and special keys. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. long ExitError. long NormVid. char *pVirtVid. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. unsigned char ScrlCnt. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. }. MMURTL V1. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. long nCols. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet.LString */ std input . This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. long nLines. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. For most applications.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . char JcbSysIn[50]. char JcbExitRF[80]. char fCursType. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet.char sbPath[70]. char fCursOn. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. To change data in the JCB. long CrntY. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. long NextJCB. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. with unused portions padded. long CrntX. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. pPathRet. char *pVidMem.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. “Keyboard Service. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line .LString */ std output .” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. char fVidPause. you must use the calls provided by the operating system. char JcbSysOut[50]. editing. The keyboard interface is a system service. long VidMode. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. Chapter 13. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. char JcbCmdLine[80].

Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. character placement.4. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. only the least significant byte is used. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes).Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. Tables 9. Background. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. and 9. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs.4096 bytes). and low nibble is the foreground. Table 9. is the intensity bit. Foreground colors. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24. and cursor positioning. The colors for TTYOut().3.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS . the high nibble is the background. In this byte. The high bit of each. logically OR the Foreground.4 . The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. and Blink if desired to form a single value.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated .3 . Background colors describe the attributes.

all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. This includes any memory.". BGBLUE|WHITE). 17. Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). "This is a test. This is done by calling the Chain() function. MMURTL V1. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. 0. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. If no file is specified. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. MMURTL has to hunt for them. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. Remember. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . exchanges. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. or system calls. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. and other things allocated while you were running.

Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs. such as: Additional memory. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. Wait for messages. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. Pascal. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. then Respond. Additional exchanges. and memory management operations. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. Client programs make a Request. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). Additional tasks if required. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. service them. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. and Assembly language programmers. the service does the processing and Responds. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. if required.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. use messaging. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. or provide services to application programs.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. as well as for other services. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. It's not very useful. MMURTL V1.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. Service names are casesensitive. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer.Chapter 10. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. if needed. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services.

char *pData2. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError).0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . Message[2]. long RqOwnerJob.Listing 10. MainExch). long RQBRsvd2. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError).pData1 = NextNumber++. char *pRqHndlRet. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. }. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. else if (pRqBlk. Message). long RQBRsvd3. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch).1. long dData0. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. long RQBRsvd1. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. char npSend.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. int ServiceCode. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. MainExch. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. char npRecv. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. long cbData2. long RespExch. char *pData1. NextNumber = 0. ErrorToUser. long dData1. long ServiceRoute. long cbData1. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0].ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. long dData2.

The first dword is the Request Block Handle. As a system service writer. when you receive a Request. The memory address of the Request Block. in the File System. and how much information a program must pass to you. The operating MMURTL V1. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. The complexity of your service. These items are dData0. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. For all other values of the service code. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. cbData1 and cbData2. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. For example. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. dData1. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. because the operating system does not alias them as such. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. and another RenameFile. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . For larger data movement to the service. This is called the service code. In the simple example above. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. one number represents OpenFile. another CloseFile. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. In fact. As a system service. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. and what service you provide. the service only defines one service code that it handles. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. and dData2. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. or any data movement back to the caller. They are 32-bit values. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. you define the data items you need. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. This is the number 1 (one). installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt.The Request Block As you can see. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is.

This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. and moves it to another exchange. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. However. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. MMURTL is built in layers. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. cbData2. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. which is a valuable system resource. cbData1 and pData2. If so. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. tape drives. If this happens. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. then respond before waiting for the next request. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. until you respond. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). communications ports (serial and parallel). All operations are handled in a serial fashion. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. If so. Disk drives. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. The first is the request block handle. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. This is the easiest way to handle requests. In each of these cases. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. RAM disks. Synchronous services wait. but carries it one step farther. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. MMURTL uses this concept. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS .system is “aware” of this. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. In the keyboard service. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. you must respond to it immediately. before responding to any other requests you are holding. When you write system services. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. receive a request. the file may not exist. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system.

Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. SCSI ports. the PICUs. RAM DISK). or is included in the OS code at build time.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. as well as where the data is on the device. multitasking. keyboard. the file system is at user level (3).) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. The interface is non-specific. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. C and Pascal). or any OS structures. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. hard disk. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. It does not directly access hardware. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). Things like Device name. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr().0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS .. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. or network frame handlers (i. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. network link layer devices). Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. basic video.and sequential-oriented. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. to handling complex devices such as hard drives. This means message. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. timer hardware. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information.. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. or a processor protection violation will occur. multi-threaded environment. If a device driver controls more than one device. I have made it rather painless to build fast. Sequential devices are things like communications ports. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. For example. keyboard. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. interrupt vectors.g. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access.g. Block Size. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. With InitDevDr().e. and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). MMURTL V1. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. powerful.

In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. The main entry point will never be called again. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. just like any other program.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. Allocate exchanges. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. The generic steps are described below. You can name them anything you want in your program. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. or in Pascal. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. In C this would be main().Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. InitDevDr() never returns to you. Call InitDevDr(). In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. Do anything else you need before being called. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. At this point. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. Check or set up the device’s. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. The device driver looks. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. Set up interrupt service routines. like any application in MMURTL. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. and is programmed. This layer of code performs several functions for you. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. it's the main program block. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. if required. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. if needed. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. if needed. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers.

Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. device drivers are very close to the hardware.”API Specification. Timer Facilities Quite often.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL uses paged memory. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. specifically DOS. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. or how much was transferred. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. mode. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. although it’s not a requirement. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. In other operating systems. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. and size of a DMA move. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. Two calls provide these functions. direction. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). especially if the driver controls two devices. This is often called an interrupt vector.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). If you use MMURTL V1.

You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. but easy to figure out. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. and KillAlarm() functions. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it.Alarm(). Table 10. so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. Table 10. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. and how to implement them in your code. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. you can use SendMsg(). Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. a structure in C. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. or assembler to construct the DCB. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). each of the three PUBLIC device calls.1-.) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. If you use SendMsg(). Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep().0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there).1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. Alarm(). IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1.

defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. RETN is the proper instruction. For devices that are not re-entrant. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. This reduces disk arm movement which. the SendMsg(). we then move to the next head. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. and handle device conflicts internally.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices.This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. Each device name must be unique. In other words.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0.When a driver encounters an error. If it is another device. Disk drives are divided into sectors.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. In assembler. MMURTL V1. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. pDevInit. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. dLastDevErc . and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. The Hard disk driver operates the same way. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver. znBPB . but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. where several devices are controlled though one access point. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. increases throughput.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. head zero. sbDevName . Each sector is considered a block. DevType . if you are on track zero.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() .this indicates whether the device is addressable. For instance. not the next track. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses.Each driver names the device it serves. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. If the device is sequential. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). and you read one sector past the end of that track. ndDevBlocks . this is device dependent. then this should contain a 2. fDevReent . DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. it should set this variable with the last error code it received.number of bytes per block. sector zero. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. but this is not much of a limitation. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. For example.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . usually an unexpected one. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. and WaitMsg() primitives. pDevOp. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose.

sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. pStatRet.pData).0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS .5. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. wJob . The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. dOpNum. pInitData. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. write. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32). Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver.6 . all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL.dnBlocks. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. OSUseONLY1.dOpNum. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. verify.2. Your function implementations must do the same.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on.3. If this is zero. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. ndBlocks. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register. They equate to standard device operations such as read. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. this flag should be true (non-zero). no job is currently assigned the device. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1.dLBA.fSingleUser .4. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. dLBA.If the fSingleUser is true. and format. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice.

pStatRet. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status.dStatusMax. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate.pdStatusRet). DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. parity. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. this will simply be the number of bytes. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1.dInitData).pInitData. and so on.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . Not all devices will return status on demand. For sequential devices.

If this is not the case. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. After the Device driver has been loaded. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. nDevices. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . pDCBs. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. and so on. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. This means the devices are number consecutively. the second at pDCBs + 128. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. such as a disk or SCSI controller. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. This is because one controller. MMURTL V1. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. If the driver controls more than one device. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. fReplace If true. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. and one DMA channel if applicable. If more than one device is controlled. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. this is the first number of the devices. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64.

Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. then use it. MMURTL V1. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS .

.

Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file.g. as well as the video display. is assigned to the new job or is terminated.You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . If it's displaying video data. The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line . the job he is currently viewing. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. The file name must contain the FULL . you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing. Even when a Job is not being displayed.system boot in this file. No spaces. C:\MSamples\Service\Service. a buffer in memory. The format is very simple. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded.1. .Maximum line length is 80 characters total.run C:\MMSYS\CLI. Listing 11. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. In future versions of MMURTL. The name must start in the first column of a line.JOB . or terminate.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1.This is the initial jobs file.INITIAL.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon . tabs or comments after . Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. .JOB file. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication.the run file name are ignored. (e.to the run file. the keyboard. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change.after each entry. Drive:\DIR\NAME. Any spaces. One run file name per line.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. Sample Initial.file name including path.JOB. No parameters are passed .RUN) . . The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. If you intend to write an operating system.Chapter 11. Listing 11. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen..Job file . tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name.RUN <---. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input.1 shows a sample INITIAL. When the user presses these global keys.

Table 11.1.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. MMURTL V1. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. Task switches total . any errors returned are displayed. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. and access to the built-in debugger. During this process. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). priority task. RS-232 serial communications.1. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages .This is the total count of task switches since boot up. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system.RUN.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code.1 describes the function of each assigned key. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. Table 11. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. Once the initialization is complete. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. and the parallel port (LPT) driver.. They are displayed as typed. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. job display. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display.

Free Job Control Blocks .h" "MJob. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval. Free Link Blocks . These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory.2. the request block is returned for re-use. There were no tasks ready to run.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated.A small structure used by all messages sent and received.0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks.h" "MData. even in the same job.h" "MTimer. I include no C library code in the operating system itself.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do.h" "MVid.CPU idle ticks (no work) . including requests. Free Task State Segments . Listing 11. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time.h" "MMemory. Each job uses one.2. Free Exchanges . These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. that don't get picked up right away.h" "MFiles. the C library code can be used. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel. Tasks Ready to Run . See listing 11. This number may seem a little high. If this number is greater than zero. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time.This is the number of free job control blocks left. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.h" "MDevDrv.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run.h" "MKbd. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. MMURTL V1.These are task-management structures. Each new task uses one of these. but have a fixed count at OS build time. Response is made by the service. but the count is fixed at OS build time.

All Rights Reserved". /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. KillError. MngrMsg[2].static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. U8 type_now. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. MMURTL V1. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". static unsigned long GP1Exch. fKilled. tick. U32 BlocksMax. LastSeekErc0. MUltitasking. static unsigned long GPHndl. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. LastRecalErc1. Real-Time kerneL". static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". LastSeekErc1. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. date. Burgess. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. unsigned long KillExch. LastErcByte0. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. gcode. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) .Message based. U32 blocks_done. U8 fNewMedia. LastErcByte1.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS . static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. LastStatByte0. fIntOnReset. LastStatByte1. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". static long time. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. MngrExch. MngrHndl. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. 1990-1995.A. KillJobNum.

/* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg.c */ HardIDE. U32 resvd1[2]. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. nSwitches. extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. nSlices.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . nEXCHLeft.c */ RS232. nJCBLeft. char *pJCBRet). nLBLeft. fdisk_setup(void). nHalts.c */ Parallel.c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. nReady. static long StatStack[256]. coms_setup(void). lpt_setup(void). /* out to 64 bytes */ }.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS .asm */ Floppy. char *ppJCBRet). /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. xsprintf. InitFS(void).U8 ResetStatByte. BootDrive. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. #asm MMURTL V1. static unsigned long nMemPages. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. nTSSLeft. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void).c */ Fsys. hdisk_setup(void). nRQBLeft.

i. zero = ' '.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. value. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify. 30h .No CMP AL. long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. total = 0.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. EAX MOV ESI. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. minus. justify. width = value = i = 0.EAX . while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . *ptr = justify = minus = 0. unsigned long width. total.MOV EAX. chr. *ptr. 39h .[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. ptr = &numstk[32]. } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. #asm XOR EAX. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). zero. JLE isdigit1 .0 JL isdigit0 . chr = *fmt++.[EBP+8] CMP AL. char *fmt.0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS .

++argptr. default: *--ptr = chr. ++total. break. chr = *fmt++. break. ++minus. case 'o' : i = 8. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. break. } case 'u' : i = 10. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. } value = *--argptr. break. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. case 's' : ptr = value.width = (width * 10) + (chr . if(width) --width.'0'). } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. } while(value /= i). /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. *--ptr = chr. case 'c' : *--ptr = value. case 'b' : i = 2. break.

} } } else { /* not format char. ++total.) { va_list ap.{ for(i = strlen(ptr). while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. . ++i. } /************************************ MMURTL V1. va_end(ap. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. strlen(buffer). long total. return total.. just move into string *outptr++ = chr. ap). ++total..0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . TTYOut(buffer. fmt. char buffer[S_SIZE]. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. Color). } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero.1. return total. ++i. fmt). fmt). value = width . va_start(ap. ++total. i < width. } } *outptr = 0. } /* move in data */ i = 0. ++total. ++i) *outptr++ = zero.

MMURTL V1. WHITE|BGBLUE).22). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. "%d". Msg[2]. BLUE|BGWHITE). rgMonMenu1. long total.. 80. PutVidChars(0. SetXY(0. . iLine. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . 24.Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s.1. it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. 24. char *fmt. PutVidChars(0. va_start(ap. total = _ffmt(s. fmt. rgMonMenu3. return. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol.80. Exch.. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr().0. i.1).23. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. PutVidChars(54. va_end(ap. GetXY(&iCol. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. When it gets one. 24. 25.1). } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. ap). &iLine). fmt). BLUE|BGWHITE). PutVidChars(27. 26. return total.) { va_list ap. fmt). rgMonMenu2. 26. BLUE|BGWHITE). SetXY(0. tick). *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. rgStatLine.

80. if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate. if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. TSSExch in it.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). 0x0f). "%d". Error: %d\r\n". rgStatLine. WHITE|BGBLUE). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). PutVidChars(0. xprintf("Job number %d terminated. /* Day */ 0x0f). tick). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].U8 *pPD. KillError). rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f).0. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].0. tick).5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob).. Sleep(50). /* sleep 0. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch.. ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). The message has Error. PutVidChars(0. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1.*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. 80. KillMsg). /* sleep 0. pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD..0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . CheckScreen(). pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. &pJCB). rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f).5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). (time & 0x0f). /* month */ 0x0f). Tone(440. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. *pVid. rgStatLine. KillJobNum. WHITE|BGBLUE). /* year */ 0x0f).50). Sleep(50). ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). 0x0f). "%d". GetTimerTick(&tick). for(.

1. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. 0.. char *pJCB. fKilled = 1. } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. if the debugger has the video. Also.. &i. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. /* We're done (and so is he. 2). Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video.) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. 0. 4. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch).. Exch. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. 0. 0. /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc = Request("KEYBOARD". DeAllocPage(pVid. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. 0. 0. MMURTL V1. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. 1). we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). */ DeAllocPage(pPD. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. 0. We don't actually switch jobs.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . i. DeAllocJCB(pJCB).GetVidOwner(&i). fDone. &MngrHndl. &gcode. Msg). 2. 0).. MngrExch. j.

else if (i>34) i = 1. 0. 0. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 2. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. 0). 0. &gcode. 0). erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. i. 0. i = j. MngrExch. &MngrHndl. 0. 0. &MngrHndl.0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). 0). MngrMsg). 0. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i).. MngrExch. fDone = 0. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 0. erc = KillJob(j). 0. 0. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. 0. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. 0. for(. &pJCB). while (!fDone) { i++. MngrMsg).) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. erc = GetpJCB(i.4. 0. 4. 4. if (i==2) i = 3. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. 0.

AL STI #endasm return. char fdone. while (!fdone) { i = 0. sdisk += 0x41. job. fcli. i. sjobfile.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1=B. 2=C etc. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk).64h TEST AL. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. 0. unsigned char sdisk. sdisk &= 0x7F. do MMURTL V1. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. sjobfile. cbrunfile. if (!erc) { fdone = 0. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). job = 0.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk.0FEh OUT 64h.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . char ajobfile[50]. fh. &fh). 20). #asm CLI MOV ECX. erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. char arunfile[80].check port up to 64K times . 1.run and the last job loaded. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { .02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. j. fcli = 0.first we clear interrupts . We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. } . &ajobfile[1]. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli.return.Read Status Byte into AL . *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. /* 0=A.JOB\0".

assign the keyboard and video to it. CheckScreen().') continue. job = 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". job). arunfile). if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '..\r\n". xprintf("Loading: %s. Sleep(50). "cli. cbrunfile. erc = 0. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. &GP1Hndl. } } } else fdone = 1. 4.{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. MMURTL V1. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. &arunfile[i++]. &j). 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. 1. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. } CloseFile(fh).. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. else fcli = 0. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). erc). CheckScreen(). } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". CheckScreen().run". 0.0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . GP1Exch. Sleep(50). &job).

0. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. CheckScreen(). sdisk &= 0x7F. ccode1. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". j. 0. 0. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch.. sdisk += 0x41. 0.". 2=C etc. */ acli[0] = sdisk. /* 0=A. unsigned char sdisk.RUN\0". iCol. &job).JOB file not found in system directory.0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. job. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. GP1Msg). 0). Sleep(50). 0. 0. &acli[1]. 0). GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. 4. InitScreen().0. GP1Exch. } return erc. 1=B. SetVidOwner(job). 0.\r\n"). k. acli). erc = LoadNewJob(acli. char text[70]. CheckScreen(). &GP1Hndl. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. unsigned char c. 0. job. unsigned long ccode. strlen(acli). } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. GP1Msg). i.. *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. MMURTL V1. iLine. acli[40]. 16). xprintf("Loading: %s. job). 0. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. job.

0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS .Message based.. i). 1 ).. 0. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). xprintf("Copyright (c) R. erc = fdisk_setup(). erc). &StatStack[255]. erc). erc). xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc). xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. c). xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". erc = coms_setup(). erc).Tone(250.Burgess. /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. erc). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". erc).15). erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". xprintf("Init hard disk device driver.A.. 24. xprintf("Init floppy device driver. /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK.. Error: ").33). erc). i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. erc). c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). erc = lpt_setup(). erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). erc). Error: "). erc = hdisk_setup(). erc = InitKBDService(). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. i). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". Tone(1000. MUltitasking. erc = AllocExch(&KillExch).

j++. case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen(). xprintf("File System. 10.) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. 1. if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n".j). /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. erc = InitFS().. 0. Error: %d\r\n". erc). GPMsg). 0. 1 ). text. &pJCB). c = ccode & 0xff. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". for (.\r\n"). &MngrStack[255]. erc). /* Line */ k = 0. text). break. j = 2. 4. 1. 0.. &ccode. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). */ LoadJobFile(). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. erc). &GPHndl. MMURTL V1. /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". erc = GetpJCB(i. xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40.j). 0. 0).. Tell it to wait for a key. pJCB->JobNum)... erc). SetXY(k+10. i<nMaxJCBs.xprintf("Initializing file system. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n". 13). if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n".0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . GPExch. 0. /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. /* Col offset */ for (i=1.

. "|". "-". GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. "\\". 1. "/". 1. 1. xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". break. xprintf(". " ". while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. 1. nRQBLeft). "\\". Sleep(9). PutVidChars(29. PutVidChars(29. nTSSLeft). PutVidChars(29. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK).} } break. Sleep(9). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". case 0x11: /* F3 Stats .. 1.future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. nSlices). 1. xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). nMemPages). SetXY(0. PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK).0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . Sleep(9). "|". 1..Cancelled\r\n"). xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". 1. 1. xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). any other key to cancel"). PutVidChars(29. "/". xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n".12). Sleep(9). 1. nSwitches). xprintf ("\r\n"). erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n".loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. break.1). 1. Sleep(12). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1). 1. 1. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). "-". nLBLeft). 1. xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". case 0x12: /* F4 . GREEN|BGBLACK). nReady). case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. Sleep(9). 1. } SetXY(0. GREEN|BGBLACK). PutVidChars(29.. Sleep(12). 1. nJCBLeft). \r\n"). break. Sleep(9). PutVidChars(29. nEXCHLeft). nHalts). GREEN|BGBLACK). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0.1). xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n".

22).23.TTYOut (CRLF.80. SetXY(0.1. 2. WHITE|BGBLACK). } } GetXY(&iCol. 1. &iLine). WHITE|BGBLACK).1). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1. else TTYOut (&c.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished.Chapter 12. along with the exception number that caused it. Certain debugger display functions. It is not a separate run file.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. function keys are across the bottom. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). will clear the screen for display. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). MMURTL V1. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. non-symbolic debugger. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. the debugger is an assembly language. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. the debugger is entered. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. When this occurs. and why. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. and a red banner is displayed. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. such as dumping data. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. If the debugger was entered on a fault.

Clear Breakpoint.Change Current Address. You may move down through the instructions.First TSS. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. as most of them are. F6 Tasks . F2 SetBP . . These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses.Address Information. TSSs are numbered sequentially. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there.Link Blocks. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep .Goto CS:EIP.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each TSS is 512 bytes. F4 CS:EIP . the associated Job number. F9 DumpB . This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. the address of the TSS. RQBs . The task number. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. This is the address of the Monitor TSS. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. F10 . F8 CrntAdd . This returns to the application and executes one instruction. a linear address. IDT .Set Breakpoint. F3 ClrBP .Job Control Blocks. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. TSS3 .Interrupt Descriptor Table. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3. F12 AddInfo . RdyQ . The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. This requests a linear address. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. the address of the task's JCB. MMURTL V1. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task.Ready Queue. next. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. GDT .” SVCs . This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. TSS1 . The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. LBs . The address is displayed on the left. that will be somewhere in this array.Request Block Array. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI.Dump Bytes. next.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. The GDT contains many items. The abbreviations are given in the following list. without executing them. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. This is an array of 512-byte structures. JCBs . The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint.Services Array.Single Step. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer.Dump Dwords. This clears the single breakpoint. and then dumps the bytes located at that address. This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction.Global Descriptor Table. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. This requests a linear address. with the down arrow key.Display Exchanges. These values are hard coded at system build. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. F5 Exch . low order).Dynamic TSSs. “Application Programming. This displays all active tasks on the system.Display Tasks. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). The address is displayed on the left. This becomes the active address.

it is the index of that exchange in the array. This is the address of the array of timer blocks.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger.Exchanges. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. Lots of code here MOV ESP. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). and also how local variables are accessed. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. entering the debugger. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction.START in an assembly language program. or whatever). With near calls like you would make inside your program. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. MMURTL V1. ESP . When it occurs. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. locking up. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. such as [EBP+12]. actually a trap. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. like the older processors. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. For applications. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. its down and dirty troubleshooting.ASM files. Each exchange is 16 bytes. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. or for . listed in your ATF file. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. whenever any linear memory location is accessed.Exch .Timer Blocks. or at the beginning of any instruction. In some cases. aTmr . There are four debug address registers in the processor. The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks.and displayed as an unsigned number. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . but for right now. without having to fill in special registers. In MMURTL. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set.

MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. When the debug interrupt activates. When writing an operating system. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. a pointer to the currently running TSS. Table 12. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run.Processor exceptions. but not quite. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news.1. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). It almost. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. The debugger cannot debug itself. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. Traps. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. the current pRunTSS. a page fault is fatal to a task. including allocated memory. called exceptions.. just like applications do. is saved by the debugger. you must be able to access all of its memory. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger.1. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. that can occur.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . usually a blank screen and nothing else. you will see that there are many interrupts. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. Instead. If you are going to debug a task. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. The debugger becomes the active job. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. MMURTL V1. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. No other task operates at a priority that high. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). or faults. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it..

All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. These contain the address of the exception handler. which is exactly what you want. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . While you are in the debugger. To do this. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. MMURTL V1. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. you should kill the offending job and restart. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. When the debugger is entered. This makes the debugger transparent. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address.

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Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. As described in chapter 10. &MyRqhandle.Chapter 13. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). Available Services Table 13. 1.Not used (0) */ dData2 . It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service.fWait for Key */ dData1 . Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. this is true multitasking). I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. “system programming. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. It's easier to use. 0).Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. MyExch. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 .1 shows the services provided by the service code.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . but not as powerful.0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 0. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. 1. 0. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". &KeyCode 4.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. 0.

Count of bytes in the code 0 .Not used = 0 .Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section.Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS .Not used. Unlike regular keystrokes. If you have an outstanding Notify request. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. described in detail later. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned.Not used 0 . A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately.Table 13. Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 .Wait for Key = 0 . The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications. the error should be 0. This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. even if a key is not available.1. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available.Return with error if no key waiting 1 . In this case. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. This allows for "hot-key" operation. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered.

This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C).0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. and Scroll).4. If you have an outstanding Notify request. this cancels it. Locks. as shown in table 13. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. as shown in table 13. etc. Alt & Ctrl. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. The low-order byte is the actual key code.). All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard.3. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. Num.2. shown in table 13. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift.

Table 13..3 . CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code.3 shows how the bits are defined. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. This bit (Bit 0.If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. Table 13.Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. Num or Scroll). This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned. you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned. Table 13. shows how the bits are defined. Table 13.2. Alt or Shift).2 .Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS .

main keyboard. Key Codes Table 13. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . or Locks). For example. Alt.1h to 7Fh). The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. Table 13. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. Ctrl.. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. If a shift code is not shown. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard.4 . A description is given only if required. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned.0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS .Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc.

Table 13. ' . comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. Table 13.5 shows the key code value returned. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values. .5 . Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality. / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1.Y Z [ \ ] ` CR .0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS .

6 . 13.7.6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 .7. (Period) Cursor.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13. Edit. Caps lock does not affect these keys.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 13.

Pieces of it may be useful for your system. the programmer will read the documentation. Remember. such as international key translations.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS .Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. MMURTL V1.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. if you desire. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. or you may want more. when all else fails. Chapter 25.”Keyboard Code. as I have tried to do in this chapter.

File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. and optionally. the network service receives the request from the file system. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. will be routed to the service with the same name. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. and a node name is specified. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . there isn't anything new about the format.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 14. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. but none as wide spread. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). When a network file is opened. filename. This ties its hands so to speak.and finally the filename itself. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. The third part is the filename as described above.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. For example. a period. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". then up to three more characters. just how we access it. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. MMURTL V1. a network name. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. the default name NETWORK is used.

it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. MMURTL V1. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. or just reading alone. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . When a file is opened in Read mode. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. in any mode or type. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written.File Handles When a file is opened. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. 4096 byte buffer. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. This is a one page. Make no assumptions about this number. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. a number called a file handle is returned to you. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices.

It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking).doc". Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ".0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file system actually runs as a separate task. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. &FileHandle 4. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. 1. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA).size of name */ pData2 -. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. This is called a file pointer in some systems. It meets all the requirements.Block Type Access */ dData2 -.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0.1 shows the service codes the file system supports. 11. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive.1 . The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA). no matter what Mode the file was opened in. All message-based services use the same request-based interface.Size of a handle */ dData0 -. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. &MyRqhandle. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. or file pointer. &"AnyFile. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. 0. For Stream files. Listing 14. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service.1. You can make a request. 1.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. 0). The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file.ModeRead */ dData1 -. MyExch. 1. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from.ptr to name */ cbData1 -. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. Listing 14. Table 14. Table 14. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0.returned handle */ cbData2 -.

All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. MMURTL V1. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function.2 . KBD and VID devices only.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. Table 14.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported. but only through the procedural interfaces. The Request interface will not allow device access. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. The request is transparent to the caller. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. Table 14.

DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . Stream = 1. Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . If stream access type was specified. dcbname.READ = 0. Procedural parameters: dHandle . pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. dcbName . dAccessType. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users.pointer to the filename or full file specification. Procedural parameters: pName . Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. If a file is open in ModeRead. Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1.Block = 0. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName.pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you.a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). all buffers are flushed and deallocated. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . dOpenMode. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. pdHandleRet . A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path.

pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file. pData. pdnBytesRet . This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk. dLFA. Procedural parameters: dhandle . SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size. nBytes. Procedural parameters: dHandle . One Block = 512 bytes. Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. nBytes. dLFA . pdnBlkRet . This must always be a multiple of 512.pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. pDataRet.DWord with number of bytes to read. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs.Logical File Address to read from. See the SetFilesize() section.DWord with number of bytes to write. dLFA. MMURTL V1.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512). This will always return a multiple of 512. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. nBytes .wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. dLFA . Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. pDataRet .Logical File Address to write to.DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS .Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read.Pointer to the data to write nBytes . This must be a multiple of the block size. pData .

GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. pDataRet. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . nBytes. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. The bytes are read from the current LFA.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. nBytes . pData. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. pDataRet . nBytes. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA.Dword with number of bytes to read. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. Parameters: dhandle . pdnBytesRet .

An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.Procedural parameters: dHandle . pdnBytesRet . Procedural parameters: dHandle . Procedural parameters: dhandle .0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle. pData . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet .Pointer to the data to write. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF). An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.Dword with number of bytes to write. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files. The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C).Dword with a valid file handle. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access.a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned. as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle. nBytes .Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).Dword with a valid file handle.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.

Procedural parameters: dhandle . as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify.a Dword with the new size of the file.a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned. 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. Procedural parameters: dHandle . as returned from OpenFile() dSize . The file length.a Dword with the LFA you want to set.dLFA . Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS . dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle.Dword with a valid file handle.Dword with a valid file handle. and allocated space on the disk. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically.

and ready to be opened and accessed. dcbName . Procedural parameters: pName .Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode.A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName.0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .pointer to the current filename or full file specification.pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName. dcbName . dcbName. pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. Procedural parameters: pName . dcbname. The file is closed after creation.pointer to the new filename or full file specification. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. dcbNewName . empty file in the path specified.pointer to the filename or full file specification to create.Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .Dword with length of the filename dAttributes .

No further access is possible. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . Procedural parameters: dHandle . The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. and the filename is available for re-use. as opposed to a full path.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. the directory is created in your current path. empty directory for the path specified. The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). dcbPath .Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist.pointer to the path (directory name) to create.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. If only the new directory name is specified. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. Procedural parameters: pPath . specified in the Job Control Block.

This call returns one sector from a directory. dcbPath . dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. pSectRet. the path in your JCB will be used.0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbPath. Procedural parameters: pPath .pointer to the path. or directory name to delete. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. Each sector contain 16 directory entries. The path must contain the directory name as the last element. The directory must exist in the path specified. the name is appended to the path from your job control block. to read tj sector from dcbPath .Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . or directory name. and files in subdirectories will be deleted. all subdirectories.pointer to the path. as opposed to a full path. If only the existing directory name is specified.If set to non-zero. Procedural parameters: pPath . A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. If no path is specified. dcbPath. You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). all files in this directory.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath.

the open mode. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. FCB. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. If the file is opened in Stream mode. Some structures are dynamically allocated. Each opened file is allocated an FCB.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. Because it is a pointer. while others are part of the operating system data segment. When it reaches 0. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. Quite a few of them use this same name. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. The FUBs contain the file pointer. buffer pointers. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. it's not allocating files. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum .pSectRet . Each FCB is 128 bytes. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. MMURTL V1. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it.

If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. The list could go on and on. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. which is cluster size. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. Load FAT buffer if required. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. If it's open in ModeWrite. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. Usually. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. Run files being executed. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. or three entries.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . However. Directories are stored as files. inside of a 400 Mb file. vector. On most hard disks. MMURTL V1. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. they use what is called a FAT16. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. the fifth points to the sixth. the user will strike next. That's a lot of FAT (or file). the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. If opened in Block mode. Large database files are the major random users. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. return an error ErcFileInUse. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. The fourth entry points to the fifth. This is in itself is time-consuming. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. and raster image files. and the sixth is marked as the last. In this example. L = Last entry in your file. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory.The disk is allocated in clusters. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. From this. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. X = not your file. you can usually do it quite rapidly. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. That's 128Kb. source files for compilers. because of the design of the FAT file system. allocate an FUB and attach it. The file is open. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. If so. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. A great number of files are read and written sequentially.

It sounds simple. attach them to the chain. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes. Both copies must be updated. MMURTL V1. If the file is being extended. Close This is the easy part. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. If opened in block mode.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. and depends on how the file was opened. then write the data. you must find unallocated clusters. but much overhead is involved.

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API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls.. Table 15.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. These are known as compound descriptions.0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use.Chapter 15. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address.1 lists the prefixes. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. An improperly. or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. The call address consists of a selector and an offset. Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes . Table 15. “File System Service”).1 .Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. The offset should be 0. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e. Table 15.2 lists these additional prefix characters. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names. Chapter 14. I might add. The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. If you are going to write your own operating system. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT).2 .g.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword .4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. Table 15. They are listed by functional group first.

pdDataRet . The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch. Each compound set of prefixes . The dError. Max means Maximum. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. dMsg1. and Min means Minimum.3. dcbDataRetMax .and optionally suffixes . The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl. Bytes and words (8. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. grouped by type.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. If a parameter is a byte. Pascal. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. if a value is returned by the function. be returned. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. the most common returned value shown.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . Ret means Returned.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. or should be. and finally.3 . dcbFileName .Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. Table1 5. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch. a colon with the returned value. It is processor (hardware) enforced.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. The function name is followed by the parameters.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. or Assembler. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. dMsg1.

dStatusMax. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. dBytes) MMURTL V1. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. npSend. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dOpNum. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. pDestination. pInitData. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. dcbFileName. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. dData1. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. pStack. fDebug. pDestination. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. nDevices. dData0. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. dnBlocks. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. wCodeSeg. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. pData2. dcbFileName. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. pPathRet. dPriority. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. pDCBs. dcbMem. pData1.Request( pSvcName. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. pRqHndlRet. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. pStatRet. dfDebug. cBytes. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . dJobNum. dPriority. cbData2. ppMemRet. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. pS2. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. wSvcCode. LinAdd. dcbAliasBytes. dRespExch. dExch. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. dESP. cbData1. dLBA. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. pS2.

0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS .dBytes) OutByte(Byte. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. nChars. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. nLines. dTextOut. pDataIn. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. dChannel. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. nChars. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. pbExitChar. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. dPort) OutWords(dPort. sdMem. pbCharRet. pDataOut. fdRead.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. nCols. dLine. pdLenRet. dMaxLen. dLine. pbChars. Speaker. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. ddLine. dCrntLen. dULline. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. dPort) OutWord(Word.

Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . Unlike most other operating system calls. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . Unlike most other operating system calls. or 0 if all went well. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number). the parameters are not stack based. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . They are passed in registers. exceptions. EAX Returns Error.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . and interrupts. Parameters: AX . Parameters: AX .Returns an error.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute. exception gates and interrupt gates. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0).0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . the parameters are not stack-based. AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. They are passed in registers. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. This must be zero (0) for task gates. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use.

You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. The message that is sent is two dwords. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppMemRet. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. except it can be used asynchronously.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. dcbMem . WaitMsg. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. Parameters: dnTicks . you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. Alarm() is similar to Sleep().A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned. Alarm() can be used for a number of things. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. It will always begin on a page boundary. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. This means you can set an alarm. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. This would be for the time-out function described above. If you do. and don't get placed in a waiting condition.). etc. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. In fact. dJobNum . even though it's very close. The overhead included in entry. and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. The larger dnTicks is. each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1). Each application has its own linear address space.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to.Job number from the other application. except you provide the exchange.Dword (4 BYTES). Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. ppAliasRet . AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). do some other processing. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. pdPhyMemRet . Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. MMURTL V1. Parameters: pMem .Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS .A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. Parameters: nPages . the more precise the timing. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. dJobNum. ppRet . dcbMem.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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dcbFileName. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. Parameters: dn15us .the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. Interrupts are not disabled. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. precise. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. Parameters: pFilename .length of the run filename. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. Virtual Video. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval.Parameters: dAlarmExch . and data pages. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. pdJobNumRet . although longer periods will work. and you call this often enough. Page Descriptor. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. dcbFileName . stack. so the time could be much longer.pointer to the filename to run. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. initial Task State Segment. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. MMURTL V1. Parameters: dIRQnum . The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. and the memory required to run code. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately.

Which code segment.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS . ESP . The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.The byte value to write to the port.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. Parameters: MMURTL V1. Exch . dExch. dESP. DPort .Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg . Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use.exchange where the Request is to be sent. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS). dPriority. dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for.Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function.Exchange for TSS. dCodeSeg.The address of the port. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord.The address of the port. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl . Parameters: JobNum . Parameters: Byte . then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution.The dword value to write to the port. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. OutWord OutWord(Word. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address. OS=8 or User=18 Priority . else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. DPort .Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. No error is returned. NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. Paramters: Dword . it is made to run.handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch . dfDebug.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug .

It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS .a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned. Each page of memory is 4096 byte.The word value to write to the port.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. Parameters: dCol .pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . PdataOut . This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.The address of the port. OutWords OutWords(dPort. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. Parameters: DPort . nChars. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. “Application Programming. pbChars.number of characters pbChars is pointing to. MMURTL V1. dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. dLine. or virtual screen.Word . if not displayed.Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to.number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol.color/attribute to use during display. dAttr . dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort.” describes all of the attribute values. Parameters: dCol .line (0-24) dnChars . The Basic Video section in Chapter 9.The address of the port.line (0-24) pbChars . This is the number of Words * 2.The count of bytes to write to the port address. dLine. dnChars.column to start on (0-79) dLine .column to start on (0-79) dLine . PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. DPort . You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2). Parameters: pdnPagesRet . DBytes . pDataOut. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values.

fWait . If fWait is true (non-zero). if forwarded across a network. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture.If true (non-zero). cbData2.a pointer to an 8-byte string. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. dData0.0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . The string must be left justified.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. pRqHndlRet. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located.A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. npSend. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . the call will wait until a key is available before returning. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. cbData1. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. pData1. Request Request( pSvcName. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. dData1. Parameters: pSvcName . error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. wSvcCode. dRespExch. or on what machine the request is being serviced. This call blocks your task until completion. If fWait is false (0). pData2. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. If no key was available.The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. and padded with spaces (20h). RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet .the exchange to be associated with the service name. Parameters: BAddress . Service names are case sensitive.

See Respond(). 65534 (0FFFEh).A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service.a number (0. The use of dData0. MMURTL V1. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. dData1. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. cbData2 . Always assume it will be network-routed. pRqHndlRet . Parameters: pSvcName . For example. is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. pData2 . The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. of the message sent back to the requester of the service. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. service name.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . space padded. dData0.dData0.the size of the data being sent to the service. With all kernel primitives. dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. dMsgLo. This error is not the error returned by the service. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. or received from the service. Parameters: dRqHndl . This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. Respond Respond(dRqHndl. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. This may be data sent to the service. pData1 . The service must be registered with the operating system. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. dRespExch . the value returned from the Respond() call itself.same as pData1.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. 1 and 2. are sending data to the service. Function Codes 0. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. dStatRet .The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed.This is the operating system Request primitive. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. dError. cbData1 . Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. Zero will be returned if all was well. With all kernel primitives. npSend . wSvcCode . then npSend would be 2. the value returned from the Request() call itself. dData2 . a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService). otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. dError.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in.

dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . which is the first dword pushed.1). The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. dMsgHi. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. This is an agreed-upon convention.Points to an array of bytes. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. dMsgHi . The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0.The length of the command line string to store.ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. and while Chaining to another application.dnCols. dMsgLo . Parameters: dExch .The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. msg[1].25. DfUp .dnLines. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent.The count of lines to be scrolled. In this case the top line is lost. DnLines . SendMsg SendMsg (dExch.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS .dULline.a polite term for crashed. msg[0]. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. and it is moved to the Ready queue.0. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value.The number of columns to be scrolled. If it were a Response from a service. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter.The upper dword of the message. and the bottom line would be blanked.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange. in C this is unsigned long msg[2]. The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi. the message is associated. This call stores the command line in the JCB.80. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. linked with that task. dcbCmdLine . Parameters: pCmdLine .The lower dword of the message. MMURTL V1. the new command line string. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. Parameters: DULCol . it will be into an array of dwords. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. and is not enforced by the operating system. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system.

After the interrupt vector is set.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. Table 15.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. dcbExitJob . the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. pVector . SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. The filename must not longer than 79 characters. When a job exits. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. Parameters: dIRQnum .0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. Table 15. This is typically used by a command line interpreter.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. MMURTL V1. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. Built-in device drivers assume these values. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to.4 .If installed. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Parameters: pExitJob .SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . which will happen most often. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. Initially. and its ExitJob is zero length. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2.

If you SetNormVid() to Black On White. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. Parameters: pPath . the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. a text string.This is the new priority (0-31). you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. dcbJobName . and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. then call ClrScr(). It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. The path is 79 characters maximum. Refer to the file System documentation). A zero length.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. The default foreground color. Parameters: pJobName . This is a maximum of 13 characters. Typically. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. the color of the characters themselves. will clear the job name from the JCB. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. If no job name is set by the application. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. MMURTL V1.Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. SetPath SetPath(pPath.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. and background colors may be changed by an application.SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. Parameters: bPriority . The maximum length is 13 bytes. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. Longer values will be truncated. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. dcbPath . Parameters: dNormVidAttr .

This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes().A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName.is the length of the string to store. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. dcbUsername . Parameters: DJobNum . SetXY SetXY(dNewX. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. dcbFileName . which is the user's name. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). if none is set. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. Parameters: pFileName . If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application.The job number for new owner of the active screen. If the SysOut name is VID. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager.points to a text string. WriteBytes().SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. The default name. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. If the SysIn name is set to KDB.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. and Chaining to another application. Parameters: pFileName .The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. dcbFileName . Only ASCII data is returned from this call. you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call. The default name. dNewY): dError MMURTL V1.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . if none is set by the application. is KBD. Parameters: pUsername .A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. is VID. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. which is the one to be displayed.

A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. Application programs should use priority 25. 1 is accepted. should use priorities above 25.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. Parameters: DNewX .The new horizontal cursor position column. and clears the block when it reaches zero. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. dPriority. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. Certain system services are higher priority. or the real video screen if currently assigned.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. If your task is a high enough priority. This applies to the virtual screen. fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. Parameters: dnTicks . Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. it is made to run. The timer interrupt sends the message. Parameters: pEntry . Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it.The new vertical cursor position row. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. such as the file system and keyboard.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. pStack. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. fDebug. otherwise.This is a number from 0 to 31. Tone Tone(dHz. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . but testing will be required to ensure harmony. DNewY .This is a pointer to the function. fDebug . fOSCode . when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. lower numbers. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. dPriority . Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. or make it sleep. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value.

The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. When an IRQ is masked in hardware.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. if the cursor is in the last column of a line.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. The backspace is non-destructive. DAttrib . the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. They will receive an error. Service names are case sensitive. If this line is below the bottom of the screen. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). will be moved down one line.A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . Parameters: pSvcName . If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line. next active character placement. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. Parameters: PTextOut .The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone.The cursor. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . dTextOut. The string must left justified.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . from 30 to 10000.The cursor will be moved one column to the left. and padded with spaces (20h). no characters are changed. For character placement. Parameters: dIRQnum . Parameters: dHz .A pointer to an 8-byte string. Backspace will have no effect. 08 backspace . dTicks10ms . The service with that name will no longer be available to callers.The number of characters of text.The attribute or color you want.Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. DTextOut . WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. A value of 100 is one second. If already at column 0. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job.A near Pointer to the text. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return .

This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. You've got to send mail to get mail. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. an array of two dwords. If no message is available. you would have had to make the request in the first place. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. Of course.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. so this would be obvious to you. dExch .The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . Parameters: DError . it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. MMURTL V1.A pointer to where the message will be returned.0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . At that time. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer. less than 8000000h.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. the task will be placed on the exchange specified.

To see what has been included on the CDROM. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . job number for this CLI.g. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. MMURTL V1.Enter Debugger Del . The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. However. Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter.Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD .Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help .Rename a file (Current name New name) Run .RUN files). The CLI screen is divided into two sections.Remove directory Rename .Directory listing Debug . see Appendix A.Delete a file Dump . and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. CLI version. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me). The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system.Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. use. and your current path. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter. is described in the following sections.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS .Make Directory Path .Chapter 16.Hex dump of a file Exit . It provides information such as date. It has been expanded. it does work and it's useful in its own right. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL.Set file access path (New path e.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type .Clear Screen Copy . The internal commands are: Cls . MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.Display list of internal commands Monitor .Copy a file Dir . “What's On the CD-ROM. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. D:\DIR\) RD . time. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs. The top line is the status line. but it's a good start.

MMURTL V1. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. Both names must be specified. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. a period is displayed instead.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. or the same name in a different directory. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full. If a file exists with the same name. The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. >Copy THISFILE. Pressing Esc will stop the listing. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set.TXT THATFILE. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. “The Debugger.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. Dump pauses after each screen full of text.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file. If the character is not ASCII text. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset.

Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job.0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS .CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. With any file-system operation (opening.). the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job.) MMURTL V1. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line.. The path must end with the Backslash. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. Unlike a single tasking operating system. and . The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). etc. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). or external command that is executed for this CLI. In MMURTL. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. This CLI will still be executing. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. the tree will only be extend one level. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. renaming. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. In other words. listing.

run New. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI.run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. MMURTL V1. It is a simple text file with one command per line.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name. pausing after each page.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number). EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit. The File COMMANDS. An example of COMMANDS. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32.CLI follows: .TXT Run (Execute a . The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below.TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. The contents of the file COMMANDS. The first item on the line is the command name. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored.CLI Commands.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test.run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file.run .End of Command. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file must not be open by any other job. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix .RUN).CLI File The file COMMANDS.

Ver.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN . In this case.0 of the Command Line Interpreter.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. CTRL-ALT-DELETE . This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.h> #include <string. CLI Source Code Listing . The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. Listing 16.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. 1.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.1.h> #include <ctype.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS . Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down.CLI. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.CLI file.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.Terminates the currently displayed job. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. but other application might.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob.

/* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. char aCmd[80]. /* "Monitor". /* "Del". cmdpath[60]. syspath[50]. hlppath[60]. /* "RD". long cbPath. unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* "MD". /* "Dump". unsigned long GPHndl. /* "xxxxx". long cbCmd = 0. /* "Exit". /* "Ren". unsigned char bigBuf[4096].0 Job Path: ". /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. char char char char sdisk. iLine. /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1.not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* MMURTL V1.0 { 0 external */ 1 . char text[70]. /* "Cls". /* "Help".#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. long JobNum. unsigned long GPExch. date. clipath[60]. unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* "Dir". /* "Copy". /* "Path". char ExitChar. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. /* "Debug". char fUpdatePath. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70].

#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. "Type". U8 Rsvd[10]. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. U8 Attr. } dirent[16]. long acbParam[13]. It updates the status line which has the time and path. U16 Date. char *apParam[13].. U16 StartClstr."Run". U8 Ext[3]. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. U32 FileSize. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. }. U16 Time. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS .) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1.

case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". /* Day */ 0x0f). *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. 0x0f). case 1: pSt = "End of file". /* year */ 0x0f). char st[40].0. case 201: pSt = "No such drive". cbPath). aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time).cbPath = 30. break. aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). STATVID). break. break. aStatLine. case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)".0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". break. break. case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". break. break. (time & 0x0f). break. Sleep(100). + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). break. break. case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". FillData(&aStatLine[47]. case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". switch (erc) { case 0: return. case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". 0x0f). &aStatLine[47]. case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". break. ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). fUpdatePath = 0. case 208: pSt = "File in use". /* month */ 0x0f). break. MMURTL V1. 40. FillData(st. /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. break. case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". 30. break. ' '). break. break. 80. PutVidChars(0. 0). case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". } GetCMOSDate(&date). break. CopyData(aPath.

80. } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. "Error %05d on last command". pSt = st. break. return. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position.0. i. GetXY(&iCol. erc). unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. long cb. *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID).default: sprintf(st. j. KeyCode. MMURTL V1. GetXY(&iCol. } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). PutVidChars(0. unsigned char buff[17]. pSt). erc = 0. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. } SetXY(iCol. aStatLine. &iLine).0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . addr). ClrScr(). while (cb) { printf("%08x ". } printf("%s\r\n". } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. &iLine). *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . iLine = 2. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. STATVID). iLine). #asm INT 03 #endasm return.

else cb=0. /* ReadKbd. any other key to continue.if (cb > 15) j=16. iLine =1.80. SetXY(0. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. } buff[i+1] = 0. i++) { printf("%02x ". printf("ESC to cancel. erc. acbParam[1]. l.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. } return erc. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.. ModeRead. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. This expects to find the filename in param[1]. } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. &fh). } InitScreen(TRUE). buff[i] = *pb++. MMURTL V1. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. printf("%s\r\n". for (i=0. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. Buffer. 1). else j = cb. fh. &buff[0]). addr+=j.23). ++iLine.. 0). &k). i<j. 512."). if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. 512. if (!erc) { j=0. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E.23).23. erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret).1). erc = 0. /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh.1).1. k. SetXY(0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.*pb). dret.

} /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. erc = 0. dret. i = 1. } for (j=0.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. MMURTL V1. 512.iLine). erc = ReadBytes (fh. KeyCode. i.1. 78. Buffer. erc. j). } SetXY(0. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer.23). cbName. return erc. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. j+=512. lfa. iLine. SetFileLFA(fh. dret. iLine++. dret = 1. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. 0. fh. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20.80.23. j. long cbName) { long i. else l=k-j. &fh).if (k-j > 512) l = 512. &lfa). *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. 0). &dret). SetXY(0. 1. } CloseFile (fh). lfa+i). } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. j<=i. } erc = OpenFile(pName. Buffer.1). NORMVID).

8). U32 cbFrom. if (yr > 99) yr -=100. bytesWant.se. 1).. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . CloseFile (fh). hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n").mi. da = date & 0x001F. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. SetXY(0. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking.yr).. "%02d-%02d-%02d".hr.if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. iLine =1.mi. bytesGot.da. /* ReadKbd. U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. "%02d:%02d:%02d". MMURTL V1. any other key to continue. U16 date. printf("ESC to cancel. This uses a conservative 4K buffer. } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.da. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer.hr.1). Use block mode for speed. erc). char st[15]. return erc. erc.mo. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time.23). 8). yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . pTimeRet.").1900. fhFrom.se). wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). pDateRet. sprintf(st. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. sprintf(st. bytesLeft. CopyData(st. char *pTo. InitScreen(TRUE). se = (time & 0x001F) * 2.mo. CopyData(st. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n". mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. char *pTimeRet. This is used by the directory listing.

dLFA. &bytesOut). } MMURTL V1. if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. cbTo. if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. ModeModify. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). cbTo. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. &fhTo). if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. bytesWant. } dLFA += bytesGot. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. bytesLeft = size. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. /* ReadKbd. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. cbFrom. size. bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. KeyCode.bytesOut. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. size). bigBuf. dLFA. erc = OpenFile(pFrom. ModeRead. &bytesGot). 0). wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. dLFA = 0. } return(erc). if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. &size). 0. 0.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . } CloseFile(fhTo). &fhFrom). dLFA. bytesGot. 1). else bytesWant = bytesLeft. bigBuf.

*********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. 1).Date. char st[78]. } InitScreen(TRUE). /* ReadKbd. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. i<16. dirent[i]. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]. fDone = TRUE.StartClstr). dirent[i]./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path.23). fDone = 1. if (!erc) { for (i=0.80. } fDone = 0. dirent[i]. i. } } } MMURTL V1. } if ((dirent[i].Name[0]) { erc = 1.Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. U32 SectNum. SectNum). &st[33].1). iLine++.1). printf("ESC to cancel.1. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. 512. SectNum = 0.Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". iLine =1. erc.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS .Attr. dirent[i]. dirent[i].FileSize. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. &dirent[0]. dirent[i]. KeyCode.Name."). SetXY(0.23. &st[24]). any other key to continue.Time.. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4.23). printf("%s". SetXY(0.. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. acbParam[1].Ext. st).

/* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. fdone. iPrm<nParamsMax. *f. k. The format for a line entry in Commands. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. If it finds it.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. rawline[90]. MMURTL V1. iPrm. } return(erc). SectNum++.. iCmd++. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams.} else fDone = TRUE.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands.. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. i. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. j. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. for (iPrm=0. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. cmdline[90].

89. rawline. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. } } else printf("Commands. cmdline). return(1). } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. cmdline[j] = 0. return(0). j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. f = fopen(cmdpath.cmdline[0] = 0. "r"). while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (f) { fdone = 0. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0.CLI not found. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). runfile[k] = 0.') /* a comment line */ continue. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. /* now move arguments if any. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++.\r\n"). acbParam[0]).

runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. strlen(clipath)). we go to the system directory. 0). ModeRead. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. erc = Chain(runfile. cbCmd). CopyData(apParam[0]. If we don't find one. we first look for a . erc = Chain(runfile. strlen(runfile). If so. long i. ". } MMURTL V1. &runfile[i]. /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. SetExitJob(clipath. SetCmdLine(aCmd. cbCmd).CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. fh. if it's not there. acbParam[0]).RUN"). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). &fh). SetCmdLine(aCmd. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. i = strlen(runfile).RUN file in the current path. strlen(clipath)). we then go to COMMANDS. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. &fh). strcat(runfile.When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). 0). ".0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . acbParam[0]). runfile. strlen(clipath)). 0). SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(runfile). } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. ModeRead. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). cbCmd). ModeRead. SetCmdLine(aCmd. &fh). SetExitJob(clipath. erc = OpenFile(runfile. 1. erc.RUN"). erc = Chain(runfile. } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. erc = OpenFile(runfile. 1. 1. strlen(runfile). runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. syspath).

1=B. syspath). */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). syspath[2] = 0. 8). /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. 0). strcat(hlppath. syspath)."CLI. strcpy(hlppath. SpawnTask(&StatTask. sdisk += 0x41. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). &iLine). command file. strcat(clipath. strcat(cmdpath.RUN"). syspath). erc = AllocExch(&StatExch)."HELP. SetXY(0. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]./********************************************** Main function entry point. 24. } else { strcpy (aPath. &StatStack[255]. */ cbPath = 0. syspath). GetJobNum(&JobNum). JobNum). strcat(syspath."COMMANDS. sdisk &= 0x7F.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . &cbPath). ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. j. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. aPath. strcpy(clipath. and help file. SetJobName("CLI V1. iLine). if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. syspath[1] = ':'. Note: No params to CLI. MMURTL V1.CLI"). /* 0=A. GetPath(JobNum. /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. "\\MMSYS\\"). */ syspath[0] = sdisk. strcpy(cmdpath. InitScreen(FALSE).0". i. 2=C etc. fh. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen.CLI"). "%02d". 0.

SetExitJob(clipath. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. &fh). strlen(clipath)). j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. 79. } i++. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). break. apParam[0] = 0. acbParam[1]. TTYOut (">". cbCmd = 0. iLine). SetXY(0. if (!erc) MMURTL V1. break. 1.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). NORMVID). NORMVID). EDVID). if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. } erc = 0. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). else erc = ErcBadParams. GetXY(&iCol. acbParam[1]. &cbCmd. InitScreen(TRUE). break. aCmd[79] = 0. SetPath(syspath. if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). ' '). acbParam[0] = 0. acbParam[2]). apParam[2].cbPath = strlen(syspath). &iLine). strlen(syspath)). break. EditLine(aCmd. 0. TTYOut ("\r\n". case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. &ExitChar. paCmds[i]. cbCmd. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. 1. CmdNum = 0. 79. 2. } fUpdatePath = 1.

0). strlen(hlppath)). break. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. 0. acbParam[1]). case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. break. acbParam[1]. acbParam[1]). case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. acbParam[1]. break. 0). break. else erc = ErcBadParams. } break. MMURTL V1. default: break. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). 1. 0. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. GPMsg). break. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. break. 0. 0. 4. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". aPath. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . fUpdatePath = 1. strlen(clipath)). break. while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. break. acbParam[1]). GPExch. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1].erc = DeleteFile(fh). &GPHndl. SetExitJob(clipath. break. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. ExitJob(0). 0). 0. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). SetVidOwner(1). acbParam[1]). acbParam[2]). case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). cbCmd-i). erc = Chain(apParam[1]. apParam[2]. break. break. break. if (!erc) printf("Done. 0.\r\n"). &cbPath).

What's On the CD-ROM. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line). See Appendix A. Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. The last line is used for data entry. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16.23).1. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes).23. current filename. } GetXY(&iCol. SetXY(0. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections.80. &iLine). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.1). status and error display. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb.1. The next 23 lines are the text editing area. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. The top line provides continuous status information. Table 16.2.} CheckErc(erc). Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1.

Listing 16.2 is the editor source code. Editor Source Code /* Edit.h> #include <string. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors. Listing 16.h" MMURTL V1.2.4 .3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.h> #include <ctype.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.

/* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13].. /* cursor.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. *pBuf2. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. U8 fVisible.sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. void clearbuf(void). }. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. struct EditRecType EdRec. long erc. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. b1. char fModified. char aStat1[80]. 0. /* cursor. 0. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60].h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. U32 iRowMax. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol. char fOvertype. char *apParam[13]. struct EditRecType *pEdit.1 */ U32 iColMin.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. char aCmd[80].cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. U32 iColMax. U32 iAttrNorm. U8 *pBufWork. U32 oBufBound. char *pBuf1. U32 sLine. /* sBuf . unsigned char filler[100].h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS .. U32 iTabNorm. U32 iAttrMark. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. fh. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. char aStat[80]. U8 bSpace.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. long cbFilename. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. unsigned char b.

"Error break. "Error break. "Error break. "Error break. i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. %05d occured on ReadKbd". case 6: sprintf(st. PutVidChars (40. 0). "Error break. the file will be closed MMURTL V1. "Error break. %05d occured on CreateFile".Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. FillData(st. erc). } for (i=0. } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. erc). %05d occured on SetFileLFA". erc). 39. NORMVID). if (erc) { FillData(st. case 7: sprintf(st. long i. erc). st. %05d occured on OpenFile". %05d occured on last command". this will prompt you to save. erc). long erc) { char st[40]. erc). case 2: sprintf(st. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. erc). Beep(). 24. i<40. PutVidChars (0. case 5: sprintf(st. %05d occured on WriteBytes". 0). st. case 4: sprintf(st. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. If fClose. %05d occured on ReadBytes". *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. "Error break. } return (erc). default: sprintf(st. 80.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . %05d occured on SetFileSize". 40. 24. If fPrompt is true. 80. erc). case 3: sprintf(st. STATVID). } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. "Error break.

} } MMURTL V1.and the buffer will be closed. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. BLACK|BGCYAN). &i)). pEdit->oBufLast. "DONE. pEdit->oBufLast)). cbFilename = 0. if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). ". SetXY(0. keycode. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". 24). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. STATVID). fYes. fModified = 0. int fClose) { U32 i. fh = 0. **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. Sleep(150). SetFileLFA(fh. 1). pBuf1. ClearStatus().0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0)). if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6.. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. WriteBytes (fh. 43. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. PutVidChars (0. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. unsigned char *pBuff. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). 10. ClearStatus(). TTYOut("This file has been modified. SetFileSize(fh. ClearStatus(). 24.. clearbuf(). } fYes = 1. ReadKbd(&keycode.

fh = 0. &fh). filesize. &dret). it will prompts to create. MMURTL V1. 0)). SetXY(50.24). &cbFilename. 29. cbFilename. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. keycode. EditLine(Filename. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. ReadKbd(&keycode. 24). **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). OpenFile(Filename. 10. 0. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. erc = 0. "Filename: ". 24). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. BLACK|BGCYAN). BLACK|BGCYAN). &fh)). ModeModify. cbFilename. SetXY(10. PutVidChars (0. dret. ReadKbd(&keycode. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. if (!name) { SetXY(0.0). name. } else { b1=0x0d.24. CreateFile(Filename. erc). Beep(). pEdit->oBufLast = dret. 60./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. cbFilename = strlen(Filename). else erc = 0. If not. 1. 1). SetXY(0.24). BLACK|BGCYAN). /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh).0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbFilename. SetXY(50. cbFilename = 0. pBuf1. strncpy(Filename.". if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 26. &filesize). Create?? (Y/N)". ModeModify. 13). &b1. if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. TTYOut("Doesn't exist. BLACK|BGWHITE). 1. 1). TTYOut("File is too large to edit.

} } else CheckErc(1. even though we word wrap always.if (erc) { fh = 0. iEolMax. } } else { cbFilename = 0. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. ClearStatus(). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. erc). ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. return(nEols). } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *pBuff. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . i = 0. unsigned char *pBuff. i. nEols = 0. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. cbFilename = 0. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window.

iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. j.1. */ iEol = iEolMax. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. i = 0. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. } } return(iEol). if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line.. char *pBuff.. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . /* now find first non-space . iEol = iBuf.

iMarkLoc. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc .i--. if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. iLn.pEdit->Line[iLn]. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. iColFinish . } while (i < oBufStart). pEdit->iAttrNorm).iColFinish. MMURTL V1. pEdit->iAttrNorm). if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. PutVidAttrs (iColStart. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--.pEdit->Line[iLn]. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command.iColStart +1.1. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.pEdit->Line[iLn] . iLn. iBoundLoc. iColFinish. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . pEdit->iAttrMark).0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . if (i) i++. iLn. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. return(j). iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->iColMax .

} /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.iLn. *pBuff. Beep(). } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. cb). pEdit->iAttrNorm). CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->oBufLast++. pEdit->pBufWork. char fOvertype. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->oBufInsert++. cb). } } } else { fOK = 0. erc = 40400. char fOK. pEdit->sLine.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufInsert++. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. } return (fOK). fModified = 1. CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++.pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++.

if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. iBd. i<=iMk . } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0.1. for (i=0. iMk.0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. i <=iBd-iMk. for (i=0. i<=iBd-iMk.1. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. MMURTL V1. *pBuffWork.iBd + iMk . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .1. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. iBd. } } } else Beep().pEdit->oBufInsert .iMk.iBd . i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i].void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufInsert . pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . char *pBuff. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk.

iMk.pEdit->oBufInsert+1). if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert].0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLast+1). pBuffWork. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. MMURTL V1. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. pEdit->oBufLast . pEdit->iAttrNorm).iMk + 1. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } } } else Beep(). (hides it). } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. i. pEdit->sLine. iBd-iMk+1). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk.char *pBuff.iMk + 1. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert.

} else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. *pBuffWork. *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1].iBd + iMk. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block.1. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.normAttr (). pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). iBd. iMk. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . &pBuff[iMk]. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. else fProb = FALSE. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. char *pBuff.iBd + iMk . } nullMarkBound (). } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). char fProb. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert . else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk.might be off screen . if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . i = pEdit->iRowMin. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. j.if it is.

j = pEdit->iLine. if prev char <> CR. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol . guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine.pEdit->iColMin. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. /* if bogus line. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert .is. } } MMURTL V1.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. /* get to potential insert .1.i++. j = pEdit->iLine. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. i.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . } i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->iLine = i . i = pEdit->iLine. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1.

pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. cb. j. i<=k. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). j<NLINESMAX. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. else for (j=i+1.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . oBuf. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. MMURTL V1. k = pEdit->iRowMax. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. k. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. */ for (i = k. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. iLn.

pEdit->iAttrNorm). /* oBufInsert on screen . FillData(filler.char *pBuff. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. char *pBuff. doMark (iLn). i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY.oBuf + 1. iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. makeOnScreen ().1. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pBuff+oBuf. iLn.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pEdit->sLine-cb. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. cb = i . oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. 80. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i = pEdit->iRowMin. i<NLINESMAX. pFiller. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. 0x20). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. for (i=0. Called before use and after closure. MMURTL V1. cb. /* Make size. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pEdit->Line[i] = 0. iLn.

for (i=0. normAttr (). FillData(aStat. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. pEdit->oBufLast).0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . 80. pEdit->iCol. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. key. fDone = FALSE. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". pEdit->iLine). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. pEdit->oBufLast = 0. long exch. k. char *pBuff. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. sprintf(aStat. fScreen = TRUE. nullMarkBound(). while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). normAttr (). j. fScreen = FALSE. unsigned char b. erc = AllocExch(&exch). fOvertype = FALSE. i. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. 0x20). char fSpecInsert. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. *pBuffWork. i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F.fModified = 0.

case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1.CopyData(Filename. fScreen = TRUE. STATVID).Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. break. aStat.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. 1)). case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . else CopyData("INS".Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. TRUE). &aStat[77]. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. 3). break. ReadKbd (&key. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. fSpecInsert = FALSE. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. 3). coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0. coordCursor_oBuf (). i = pEdit->iLine. case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. break. break. &aStat[40]. break. 0. &aStat[77]. break. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR".0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS .Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. b = key & 0xff. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . PutVidChars (0. i = pEdit->iLine. cbFilename).Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. 80.

} } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. } fScreen = TRUE. TRUE).0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS .SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. break. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . OpenAFile(0). } break. break. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. FALSE).Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. break. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). fScreen = TRUE.pEdit->Line[i]. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). fDone = TRUE. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. } break. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . i = pEdit->iLine+1. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. fScreen = TRUE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. break. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. } else { for (i=0. default: break. case 0x53: /* ALT S . pEdit->bSpace = 0x20.

findCursor (). pEdit->oBufLast+1). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. pBuffWork. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. break. if (!(putInBuf (b.1. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. fSpecInsert))) Beep(). pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . fOvertype.1. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff.0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). break. if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. fScreen = TRUE. MMURTL V1.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . default: break.

1.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. FALSE. case 0x10: /* F2 -. fModified = TRUE. pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. for (i=1. i = pEdit->iLine. FALSE). fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. fScreen = TRUE. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark . break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast . } break. } break. break. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast .(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). i = pEdit->iLine.Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf ().1.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). case 0x12: /* F4 -. j = pEdit->iTabNorm . case 0x17: /* F9 .MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). i <=j. MMURTL V1. fScreen = TRUE. } break.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. case 0x06: /* Home . } break. fScreen = TRUE. moveData ().if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. case 0x11: /* F3 -.1. fScreen = TRUE.

k--. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. j--.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. CopyIt (). fScreen = TRUE. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. j = pEdit->iRowMax . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.pEdit->iRowMin. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax.COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } } break. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. i = pEdit->iRowMax. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. break. } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). fScreen = TRUE. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf ().break. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. coordCursor_oBuf (). break. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). k = pEdit->iLine. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). fScreen = TRUE. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. case 0x18: /* F10 . while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. i = pEdit->oBufLine0. } break. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufLine0 = i.

} fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. i = pEdit->iCol. pBuffWork. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. else fOvertype = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLast+1). case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. pEdit->iLine = j. coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. } break. j = pEdit->iLine. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. break. pEdit->iCol = i. default: MMURTL V1. } break. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. } break. fScreen = TRUE.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). fModified = TRUE.pEdit->iLine++. pEdit->oBufLast--. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. } } break. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert).

WriteBytes (fh. SetJobName("Editor". pEdit->sLine+1. &i)). 0). 0)). &pBuf2). } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. fh = 0. erc = AllocPage(32. FALSE. SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. 0. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. i. &pBuf1). i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. 0x20. i <=pEdit->iRowMax. pBuf1.break. 131071. } CloseFile(fh).0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. cbFilename = 0. 1. 6). i <=pEdit->iBufMax. fModified = 0.pEdit->oBufLast)). and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. erc = AllocPage(32. return.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . U8 *argv[]) { long i. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. 79. ClrScr(). 80. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. 23. SetFileSize(fh. pBuf2. pEdit = &EdRec. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. } *pbExitRet = b. /*sBuf . if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. pEdit->oBufLast. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc.

cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler. 4.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232. } Editor(&b). fModified = 0. i = pEdit->iRowMin. EDVID. EMPTY. 0. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. i<NLINESMAX. Listing 16. 0. 0.sLine-1 */ cursor. 0x20). } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. struct statRecC com. MMURTL V1.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv..h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key.3.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob.. 80. EMPTY. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. 0. for (i=0.h> #include <ctype. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. 0. 0. 0. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]). fOvertype = FALSE.0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . i.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. pEdit->Line[i] = 0.h> #include <string. ExitJob(0).

&com.XTimeOut). /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6.IRQNum).h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. char fOK. com. com. if (erc) { MMURTL V1. = 8. printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n".RTimeOut). /* View other params which we could set. ExitJob(erc). but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized.0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . %d\r\n". NO_PAR. %d\r\n". dOpNum. &i). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). &i). ClrScr(). %d\r\n". we open the comms port */ /* device. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). com. dnBlocks. 0.unsigned char b. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). 64. 0. &com. ExitJob(erc). SetNormVid(NORMVID). ClrScr(). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. erc).IOBase). The structure is defined in commdrv. lastb. } /* If device init went OK. com. 64). printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n".stopbits = 9600. /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. erc). */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n".parity = com. = 1. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB. com.XBufSize). } /* set the params in the block */ com. CmdOpenC.RBufSize). dLBA. %d\r\n". com.databits com. %d\r\n". ClrScr().Baudrate com.

ClrScr(). */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. } } } MMURTL V1. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. 0. NORMVID). CmdCloseC. 0. lastb = b. dLBA. CmdWriteB. &b). 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. break. dLBA. dnBlocks. 0.SetNormVid(CLIVID). dnBlocks. erc). NORMVID). 0. 0. dLBA. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b.. dOpNum. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n"... 0. &i). default: break.0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . ExitJob(erc). fOK = 1. 1.. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". } } else { /* device. dnBlocks. dOpNum. 1. ClrScr(). CmdWriteB. 0. erc = DeviceOp(6. } } } } /* device. /* This is it. &b).\r\n"). CmdReadB. /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. &b). if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". ExitJob(erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. erc). SetNormVid(CLIVID). dOpNum. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0.

4.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver.h> <ctype. col = 0.h> <stdlib.h" "\OSSource\MVid. In listing 16. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1.h" "\OSSource\MKbd. fBinary = 0.h" "\OSSource\MTimer.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key. fDisplay = 0. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.h" "\OSSource\MJob. FILE *f. long long long long long tabstops = 4.h" "\OSSource\Parallel. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. Listing 16. Send with no translations. struct statRecL lpt.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B .Binary print.Display the file while printing \F . NoFF = 0. Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.h> <stdio.2. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No.4 or 8) \D .0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . (Compare DumbTerm and this program). char name[80].4.h> <string. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n .Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1. That's the intention of the design.

printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . cl. NO translation. Version 1.0x30. ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. exit(1). break. i. break. } MMURTL V1. break. unsigned char b. default: printf("Invalid switch").No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. i < argc. *ptr. 8). unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. break. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). lastb. argv[i]. case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. printf("/B Binary print. exit(1).0\r\n"). printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n").0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . name[0] = 0. no FF\r\n\n").void main(long argc. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. char fdone. } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. erck. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . 79). for(i=1. break. case 'B' : /* BINARY . SetJobName("Printing".Tab stop translation value\r\n").

h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. } /* If device status went OK. dOpNum. -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { MMURTL V1. &i). } printf("Printing %s .. CmdWriteB. erc). &lpt. fdone = 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. we open the printer port */ /* device. The structure is defined in parallel. name). if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". CmdOpenL. */ erc = DeviceStat(3. /* This is it./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. dOpNum. ExitJob(erc). printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1.. if (!f) { /* device. erc). 0.0 1. i = 0. 0. */ f = fopen(name. 0. } col = 0.. 0. b = 0. dLBA. CmdCloseLU. name). dnBlocks. cl = fgetc(f). &i).. b = (cl & 0xff). 64. dLBA. dnBlocks. ExitJob(erc).\r\n". pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. ExitJob(erc). 0. &i). &lastb). "r"). if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". lastb = b.

lastb). break. col++. dOpNum. 1. erc = 4. CmdWriteB. 0.0 1. &i). b). -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. 0. CmdWriteB. } while (col % tabstops). } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. 0. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). 1. /* reset */ break. &b). col++. 0. 1. %d\r\n". " "). 1. 0. } erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. } fclose(f). if (erc) MMURTL V1. col = 0. } } &b). 0. 1. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. erc).switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. dLBA. 0. break. dnBlocks. erc = DeviceOp(3. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. 0). CmdWriteB. &b). /* device. "\f"). CmdCloseL. erc = DeviceOp(3. if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. 0. &lastb).

erc).5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2]. keycode. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. ErrorToUser. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly.h" "\OSSource\MJob. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. run the TestSvc. Error: %d\r\n".printf("Can't close LPT. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . ExitJob(erc). /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. long *pDataRet. printf("Done\r\n").h" "\OSSource\MVid. Service.RUN program to exercise the service. “Systems Programming.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service. Listing 16.” It has been expanded some.C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. While this program is running.h> "\OSSource\MKernel. MMURTL V1. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources.

else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. 1. } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. 1. } pRqBlk = Message[0]. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". } DeAllocExch(MainExch). while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost.\r\n"). MainExch). /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). Respond(pRqBlk. 0. printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. MainExch. /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. ClrScr(). &keycode. 0. Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. NextNumber-1). *pDataRet = NextNumber++. /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". 0. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel).0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.\r\n"). SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). 0)..\r\n".. ErcNoSuchSvc). Message). /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. &rqHndl. 4.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. OSError). ErrorToUser). if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError).if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). 0.

6.C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. 4.C Listing The program in listing 16.\r\n".\r\n". Message[1]). Error = AllocExch(&Exch).} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. Listing 16. unsigned long Message[2].0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS . You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. rqhndl. 0. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running. Error). Number). 0. Error). Error). Also try it when the service is not running. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service. 0. &rqhndl.h" unsigned long Number. 1. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1. TestSvc. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. Error = Request("NUMBERS ". 0. unsigned long Exch.0).6 exercises the sample system service listed previously. void main(void) { unsigned long Error.0.\r\n". /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. Message). if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch. } } DeAllocExch(Exch). Exch.h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio.\r\n".\r\n". /* No Send ptrs */ &Number.

MPublics. In fact. The GDT is 6K in size. and used by the processor. however.This is also a table. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM.). use the stack just as a compiler would. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. but it is not used by the processor.ASM . This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules.ASM . it ends up at physical and linear address 0. Quite a few of them.ASM . All source files are located in one directory. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors. which means its data will be at the lowest address. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. By including the comments. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. MOSPDR. common variables. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. The ordering for MMURTL V1. I hope I’ve met this goal.. This is the first file in the source. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor.ASM . as you look through the code. The caller cleans the stack in this convention.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). Also some data is defined here.This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. MAIN.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). and structures together. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. I just expend the time up front instead of later.. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). the human becomes a compiler of sorts. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler).0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . It helps me think. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. This file should be left in the order I have it in.This is the first assembler file that contains code. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files.Chapter 17. In fact.ASM . Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). You may find some of the source files rather large. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. MOSIDT. There are also header files for the C source. MOSGDT. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion.

C .This file is the debugger disassembler. Keyboard. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled. but can be modified for four.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC. It think it still works with MFM drives.This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . HardIDE. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. FSys.C . you're on your own. RS232. and it works rather well.ASM .C are contained in this file. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. MemCode. but you never know where to put. IntCode.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service.In many systems. This file has routines that handle DMA for you.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system.C .the remainder of the modules is not as important.Request block management code is in this file. but it's effective and accurate.are in this file.The simple parallel port driver is contained here.ASM .The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer . SVCCode. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. UASM.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain. It's not very pretty.C . On the other hand. You have to see what you're doing.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need.ASM .Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers.ASM . JobCode. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either. RQBCode. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file.C . they must handle it themselves.ASM . is in this file. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. Debugging a debugger is even less fun. DMACode.ASM . You only need to know the channel. undoubtedly. but I don't have any more to test it. It drives two channels. Device driver writers will appreciate this. It supports the 16550. Parallel. Debugger.ASM . Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. when a device driver writers need DMA. If you have MFM drives. even in the earliest stages of a project. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file. someday).ASM .C . if needed. and the mode. DevDrvr. as well as port I/O support. JobC.ASM .ASM . MiscCode. but only to enable the input buffer (which helps). Floppy.The code memory allocation. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions.ASM .This file contains the RS-232 UART driver.ASM .System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. I was surprised. This is one complicated driver. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa. Video. Keyboard. NumCnvrt.ASM was one of the first files written.C .along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() .The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. MMURTL V1. how much to move. TmrCode.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here.

INCLUDE MOSPDR.ASM . An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . . Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM.INCLUDE MPublics.ASM . 6K) . but it really isn't part of the operating system.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions. This takes about 1.1. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) .All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. Keyboard ISR and Service . /L on the command line after the name. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL.INCLUDE MOSIDT.Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. Indirect calling address table .ASM .INCLUDE Video.INCLUDE MAIN.C . Main OS code and some data & START address . InitCode.ASM . . If you want an error file.C After all the C source files are compiled. Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table . Listing 17. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.BAT) will build the entire operating system.5 Pages.ASM . CM32 (no switches needed).INCLUDE Keyboard.0 . Monitor. a C source file and must be compiled first with . Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! .ATF It's truly that simple. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).ASM .” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL.Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1. This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM. specify /E on the command line after the name. Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files. It provides a lot of the OS functionality. Video code and data MMURTL V1.0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces).ASM . Except.INCLUDE MOSGDT. If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses.Kernel.5 minutes on a 486/33. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. .ASM . Assembler Template File . DASM produces the operating system RUN file. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor.DATA . 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1.ASM . You could replace quite easily.ASM .The monitor program is contained in this file. and the DASM assembler (also included).

. I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way.INCLUDE .ASM Monitor. Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files. You will. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.INCLUDE . no doubt. .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . For instance.INCLUDE . use another compiler for your project.INCLUDE . . .ASM TmrCode. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . .INCLUDE . As each piece of code is assembled.INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular.ASM InitCode. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. .ASM MiscCode. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies.INCLUDE . .INCLUDE .0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM DevDrvr. You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures. and they will work fine.ASM HardIDE.ASM Kernel. .ASM UASM. The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location.ASM Except. code (string.* . .ASM NumCnvrt.ASM JOBC. .code and data.ASM DMACode.ASM MemCode.END Debugger. it is placed into the code segment in that order.INCLUDE .C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort. Otherwise. This is one thing you should watch. .INCLUDE .ASM RQBCode.* .* .INCLUDE . you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments . CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding.INCLUDE . you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier). In fact.* :* .. The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files. . the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.ASM .ASM Floppy.INCLUDE . This is because DASM doesn't support structures.INCLUDE . CM32 packs all structure fields completely.INCLUDE .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc.ASM Parallel. .I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one.ASM FSys.array. The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language.INCLUDE . you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack.ASM IntCode. The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.ASM SVCCode.INCLUDE . If your C compiler allows it.* . you can take the file system code (FSYS.INCLUDE .ASM JobCode.* . MMURTL V1.ASM RS232.

I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them. I think it will make more sense to you. a single underscore will be prepended to the name. the scheduler.INC JOB. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used).INC RQB.1. internal public functions.INCLUDE . See listing 18.1. These are things such as the task state segments. local helper functions. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler.INC DD 0 . The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.Chapter 18. Being an old "structured" programmer. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running.INCLUDE . and offsets into structures and tables. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. Listing 18.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. These all change with respect to the task that is running. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). two underscores will be prepended to the name.ASM. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations.INCLUDE . and memory management tables. The bulk of them are in the file Main. so I could get to them with the monitor program. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. and kernel publics functions.INC TSS.DATA . The actual message handling functions. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables. Kernel data segment source . job control blocks.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS .INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF.

2. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. This is important. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. and therefore. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. . REGISTERS : EAX. This is strictly a speed issue.Next <= NIL. and exchanges. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources.EAX . The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . 0 . pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. for example. which means interrupts must be cleared. XCHG ESI. See listing 18. and if a task is waiting there.ESI. is coded in-line.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. . JZ eqMsgDone .2. MODIFIES : EDX . pointed to by the ESI register. When a message is sent to an exchange. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places. and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called.EAX .EAX .. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. It's not that the routines are called so often. . pExch => EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. Listing 18. Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. 0 . OUTPUT : NONE . The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. if .FLAGS .EDX. pLBin^. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). OR EAX. In MMURTL. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. link blocks. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. INPUT : ESI.

it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register.[EAX+NextLB] .MsgTail^. . OUTPUT : EAX .FLAGS . MOV EAX. deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there.JNE eqMNotNIL .ESI . De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: . . pLBout <= .MsgHead <= . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. . If not.[ESI+fEMsg] .msg... Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. MOV [EAX+ETail]. Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN .. MOV [ESI+EHead]. MOV [EAX+ETail]. . MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. if pLBout = NIL then Return.MsgHead. then MOV [EAX+EHead]. If not.EBX. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. exchanges can hold messages or tasks.ESI . Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . you return NIL (0). See listing 18. INPUT : ESI . 1 .ESI ...ESI ..EBX . else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. .MsgHead^. EAX . If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. .Next.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS .head and EBX .MsgHead <= pLBin.4. .3.ESI .ESI . deMsgDone: RETN . . See listing 18. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the . MOV EBX. If not.. You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. but not both. Listing 18. MMURTL V1.ESI. REGISTERS : EAX.[EAX+ETail] . OR EAX. 1 .NextLB <= pLBin. No! (return 0) MOV EAX. deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there.MsgTail <= pLBin.[ESI+EHead] .MsgTail <= pLBin. JZ deMsgDone .3. EAX . MOV [EDX+NextLB]. Get Msg Flag OR EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. As stated before.

INPUT : EAX . pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX.EAX . . See listing 18. INPUT : ESI . Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX.FLAGS .EBX . MODIFIES : EAX. Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. if pTSS = NIL then return. This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue. OR EAX. The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists. INC _nReady . This .EDX . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS].EBX.[ESI+EHead] . one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL.4. EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI . . REGISTERS : EAX.EBX.Listing 18. XOR EAX. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. OUTPUT : NONE . deTSSDone: RETN . Listing 18. XOR EBX. The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers. Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX.ESI. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1.EBX . Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: .TSSHead^.5. MOV [ESI+EHead]. algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority. EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head].TSSHead.Next.EDX.5. 0 . .EDX . .EBX.EBX . Priority => EAX. De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI . OR EAX. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. . .[EAX+NextTSS] . pTSSout <= .TSSHead <= . if pTSSout = NIL then Return. 3 ..Next <= NIL. MODIFIES : EAX. .FLAGS . . 0 . get the priority MOV BL.0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS .. in EBX XCHG EAX. JZ deTSSDone . pTSSin^.. . head & tail per QUEUE). EAX .[ESI+fEMsg] .EBX . MOV EBX. REGISTERS : EAX. EBX JNZ deTSSDone . OUTPUT : EAX .EAX . JZ eqRdyDone . You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX.RdyQ .[EAX+Priority] .

.Head <= pTSSin. If there was no task queued.JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head].Tail <= pTSSin. RETURN Otherwise. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX.6. .Tail <= pTSSin. queued on the RdyQ. .EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. . . .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX]. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ. The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list.. .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. REGISTERS : EAX.[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS]. De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . If none is found.ECX.nPRI .EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . . . . else . EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX. MMURTL V1.EBX. . . deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list.. . .RdyQ .ECX deRdyDone: RETN . . INPUT : NONE . OUTPUT : EAX .Tail^. . . then .[EBX] OR EAX.NextTSS <= pTSSin. MODIFIES : RdyQ . Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 18. Keep in mind. this returns NIL (0).sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. Listing 18. MOV ECX.FLAGS . EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. .6. that 0 is the highest priority.. and 31 is the lowest. . Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. EAX is returned as NIL. This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]..

This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . MOV ECX. . They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation. "It's a nasty job. OUTPUT : EAX . RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures.EBX. INPUT : NONE . .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. EAX is returned as NIL.[EBX] OR EAX. . . When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . but someone's got to it.ECX. This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . Listing 18. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and . . This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. MODIFIES : RdyQ . They are located in Kernel. .7. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. is queued to run. check the next priority.8. If there was no task queued. See listing 18.nPRI . REGISTERS : EAX. Get pTSSout in EAX . Removing a terminated task from the ready queue .ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. . Listing 18.7.0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS .sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers.RdyQ . This why it's specified as PUBLIC." See Listing 18. .8. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX. Point to the next Priority Queue . without actually removing it from the queue.FLAGS .

. Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . MODIFIES : RdyQ . Make EAX point to new head TSS . All done (clean stack) . EDI OR EAX.EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail].nPRI . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. a job. Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI.Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. EDI PUSH EBX . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. .ESP . 0 . Yes. PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . . OUTPUT : NONE .EAX . Procedureal Interface : .0 . No MOV EDI. EAX OR EAX. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . .. Is it Zero? .pFreeTSS . MOV ECX. . Point to the next Priority Queue . EDI ADD EBX. No error . . Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . MOV EBP. INC _nTSSLeft . REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . deQueue the TSS . . POP EBX MOV EAX.RdyQ . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. Fix link in Queue list .EBX .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX.EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. . PUSH EBP .Next <= pFreeTSS. EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. pTSSin^.

. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: .EDI points to prev TSS . . pTSSin^. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. 0 . . Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . . These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). No.9. Next TSS . deQueue the TSS . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. [EAX+NextTSS] . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. SetExchOwner(). . . This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block.0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS . . back to check next at head of list . INC _nTSSLeft . OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program.Next <= pFreeTSS.Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . ESI PUSH EBX .EAX points to crnt TSS . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX.Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. . Finding the owner of an exchange . ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes. Yes. Next Queue please .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . This function is used with the next one. This is not so if it's for a new job.Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . See listing 18. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. .Yes. .This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. Trash it.pFreeTSS . .Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI.Jump the removed link . A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. . . POP . char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1.JMP RemRdy0 . The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange.9. .EBX . Listing 18.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified.EAX .

pJCBRet the exchange number.0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . [EBP+12] CMP EAX. ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). . EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . Exch is . .. No. [EDX+Owner] OR EAX.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch. . pJCBRet . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. See listing 18.EAX MOV EAX. Listing 18. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). continue Yes. Changing the owner of an exchange . .10.ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. . . EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. . .10. . . . Exch . char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. mentioned previously. . . . . MMURTL V1. is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. not allocated .prgExch ADD EDX. . . Valid Exch (Allocated) . SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. . Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. .ESP MOV EAX. . . .nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX.Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . . EAX XOR EAX. .

telling them that a particular job has died. If a service is holding a request from the job that died. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner].nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. .11. . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). . pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . . .ESP MOV EAX. . We ignore the kernel errors. . [EBP+12] MOV EDX. . . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. .OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX.ESP MOV ESI. then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. or the operating system itself. ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . See listing 18. It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead).prgExch ADD EAX. it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. .EDX MOV EBX. EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. . Listing 18. Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . The error it returns is of no consequence. . . . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job.11. . . .. . Get the address of rgSVC . . . other services. The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. . EBX XOR EAX. . . . . the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. If a program sent a request. Notifying services of a job’s demise . .

Abort Service Code MOV EAX. [EBP+8] . [EBP+12] .pData1 PUSH 0 .Next Service name . 0 JE SAB05 .Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . Valid name? .pName PUSH 0 . wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1. See listing 18. A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it.Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI. These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate. The function that searches the array is GetExchange(). Request kernel primitive code . . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model. EAX MOV ESP.pData0 PUSH 0 .pHandleRet PUSH 0 . and code for it is in the file SVCCode.Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI . .12.JobNum PUSH EAX . These are functions such as GetPriority(). .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . The procedural interface to Request looks like this: . sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX.0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 18.asm.12.cbData1 MOV EAX. Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive. The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block.dData0 PUSH 0 .dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request .npSend PUSH 0 . next service PUSH ESI . A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates. Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . except this function requires several more parameters.CMP DWORD PTR [ESI].cbData0 PUSH 0 . NO.dData1 PUSH 0 .

. EAX MOV EAX. EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch].ESI still has the exchange for the service . [EBP+48] CMP EDX..Get .No. JMP ReqEnd .Get . . EAX . [EBP+56] .put .Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX.Get . Error in EAX register . . EAX MOV EAX.ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: .Put . .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. EAX MMURTL V1. . . Set up New FramePtr . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. return error Req02: .ESP .Yes. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob].put .put .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- .Yes.Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 . .pServiceName CALL GetExchange . EAX MOV EAX.Validate exchange MOV EDX. ESI MOV EAX.EDX still has the response exchange . .Get .. . EAX MOV EAX.put .0 .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX. . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2].Get . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX. [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1].. AX MOV [EBX+RespExch]. [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode].Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 .Put . Save the Previous FramePtr . .No JMP ReqEnd . Sorry. . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0].EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.Get . dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EAX . ErcNoMoreRqBlks .Put . continue Yes.Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX. Req04: . .Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB .EBX .

.Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) . [EBP+44] MOV [EDI].prgExch EAX.ESI EDX. .put in RqBlk .Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX.Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user.Give it to them . 0 .. 0 .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. Save pLB on the stack . . EBX . pLB^.Data PUSH EAX .ESI still has the exchange Number for the service. EBX MOV EDX. [EBP+40] CMP EAX. EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2].Next <= NIL. [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. . 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend]. AL [EBX+npRecv]. EAX MOV EAX. EAX <= pFreeLB.. Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch .ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1. .Get pData2 . . AL CL. free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. . .Put npRecv in RqBlk .Number of Send PbCbs . No interruptions from here on .EAX .REQLB . . CL .Must be 2 or less .Ptr to return handle to .put in RqBlk . EAX MOV EAX.The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it. [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2]. sEXCH EDX EDX.pFreeLB OR EAX.put in RqBlk .Leave in CL .EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX.MOV EAX. Store zero in upper half of pLB^. MOV [EAX+DataLo]. 2 CL. . .Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk .Get cbData2 . DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Next .0 .The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.Get cbData1 .EDX . 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^. . RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi]. .EDX ESI. . .[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB.EBX DEC _nLBLeft . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX.Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB].

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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prgExch .ercNoMsg MOV ESP. return with erc no msg .ESP .ESI .sEXCH . . . message should be sent.EBP . 0 . If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . RETF 8 . Procedureal Interface : . . Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner]. .EAX . . CheckMsg(exch. See listing 18. exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code .We can be interrupted again . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . A result code is returned in the EAX register.nExch . Listing 18.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. . Exch => EAX MOV EBX.REQLB MMURTL V1. return to the caller with error MOV EAX. As with WaitMsg(). MOV ESI. MOV EDX.ercOutOfRange . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . MOV ESP. MOV EBP. MOV ESI.EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories.EDX .ChkExchange . Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return . Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX.18. POP EBP . . in the EAX register. PUSH EBP . . . Chk01: MOV EAX. . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 .0 -270- . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. in the EAX register. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX .ercNotAlloc MOV ESP.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . .pdqMsg):ercType . . . the return to caller with error MOV EAX. .

. .Linear Address of PData1 .[EAX+DataLo] . . EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. . Save ptr to Link Block .Yes .cbMem .No.Offset to pData1 in RqBlk .Set up params for AliasMem .cbMem . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP.dJobNum . [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX. EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.pMem . ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. dcbMem..is pData2 NULL? . ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX. Treat it as a data link block .Yes .Restore ptr to Link Block . .is pData1 NULL? .. Get pRqBlk into EBX .[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX.. ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX.Return Error.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX. continue .Set up params for AliasMem . continue . MMURTL V1.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .Make stack right .Error?? .Yes .JNE Chk04 .pMem . .0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS .. . [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX. EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. Get pRqBlk into EBX . .pLB.Now we set up to alias the memory for the service .Second Pointer (pData2) .is cbData2 0? .Error?? .Yes ._AliasMem(pMem. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.dJobNum .Return Error.Make stack right . No.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX.Save again .Offset to pData2 in RqBlk . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX. pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX. [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.is cbData1 0? .Linear Address of pData1 . dJobNum. .No. (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .

The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection.Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX. pFreeLB <= pLBin. . or page fault.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.19. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in. 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] . . . Listing 18.pCkMessage [EDX].Restore Ptr to Link Block . Procedural interface: . pLBin^. In future versions.EBX [EDX+4].Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX.pFreeLB . MOV pFreeLB. .EAX MOV ESP.ErcOK! (0) . NewTask kernel primitive code .0 .8 for OS. fDebug.[EAX+DataLo] ECX.19. . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] . INC _nLBLeft . .Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation. Get pLB^. CodeSeg. NewTask(JobNum.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] .[EAX+DataHi] EDX.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. ESP. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs. .Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . . The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. Exch. For MMURTL version 1. . .x.EAX . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution.Next <= pFreeLB.ECX .Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter.Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] . STI . . EIP): dErcRet .ESP MOV EDX. Priority.Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] . See listing 18.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1.Data in specified memory space (EDX) . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. . .EBX . NTS_Pri CMP EDX. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. XOR EAX. . stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code.

Set up to call LinToPhy . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.Save pNewTSS again .EBX EBX.ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX. .EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg.0 . NTS_Exch ECX.No. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. NTS_ESP .Set up to call GetpJCB . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return. .0202h .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX. .Next .CX . ECX .mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP]. [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .Save pNewTSS .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI .ECX MOV EBX.Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch].we can't be interrupted . nExch NT0001 EAX..Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX. NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.pFreeTSS OR EAX. .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.EAX now has pJCB .EBX .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS].Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 .Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 MMURTL V1.DL .ercOutOfRange NTEnd . .put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. NTS_EIP .Put pJCB into TSS .Restore pNewTSS to EAX . . ECX.EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority]. NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].Exch in range? PUSH EAX ..pNewTSS into EAX .EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.ECX now has pJCB . ECX. NTS_CS .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.

EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space.Jump to new TSS .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. NTS_Pri . As with NewTask(). Procedural Interface: .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. New TSS -> EDX .Yes . .EAX MOV BX. .0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX. .EAX .Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority].Move new TSS into pRunTSS .Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 . dPriority. . .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. .Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP.BL .ercOk JMP NTEnd .pRunTSS .20.Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX.CrntTSS -> EAX.JE NT0004 . .Save time of this switch for scheduler . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.Save New TSS . pStack. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it. SpawnTask(pEntry. .ErcOk MMURTL V1.New TSS -> EAX . pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] . . fDebug.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.We can't be interrupted MOV EDX. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.20.New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy . See listing 18. SpawnTask kernel primitive code . 1 NT0004: MOV EBX. .Get priority of new task CLI . fOSCode). Listing 18.

ESP SUB ESP. JobCodeSel . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .EBX MOV EBX.ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX. bad news . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.see if we got an error .ercNoMoreTSSs .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX. EAX .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.Yup.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.Next . EAX JNZ STEnd . OSCodeSel .PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.two local DWORD vars . nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.EDX MOV EDX. [EBX+TSS_CR3] .EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0]. NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX. 8 CMP dPriST.0 .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. . move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. NewExchST .EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].No. JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.pFreeTSS OR EAX.0202h .Debug on entry? JE ST0004 .Priority OK? . 1 . pRunTSS MOV EDX.mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. . .Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3]. .Save new TSS EBX.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].Allocate exchange . .mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].we can't be interrupted . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. pStackST .EBX MOV EBX..EDX .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .pEntryST . . 0 . NewTSSST.

AllocExch(pExchRet):dError .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.Old guy does. Procedural Interface : . just put new guy on Q. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . .Who got the highest Pri? . New TSS -> EDX . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. returned. .put in TSS . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .prgExch MOV ECX.Jump to new TSS .we can't be interrupted .Get who's running .ercOk . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES).BL CLI MOV EDX.ESP XOR ESI. dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority].[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.EAX MOV BX.nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. EBX <= ADR rgExch . .21.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. . .EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP. . . It is property of a Job (not a task). 0 MMURTL V1.New TSS -> EAX . .Save time of this switch for scheduler .MOV EBX.Move new TSS into pRunTSS . . Zero the Exch Index .21. Allocate exchange code .Place crnt TSS on Q . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ESI MOV EBX. This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange. New guy does (lowest num) . Get number of exchanges in ECX . .pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority].Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .CrntTSS -> EAX. . .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() .BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.If crnt >.Return to caller .New TSS -> Stack .mov priority into BL . .0 . . See listing 18.EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages.ErcOk . Listing 18.

Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. Those link blocks may also contain requests. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges.pRunTSS . . DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType . .ESI EDX. and request blocks are freed up as necessary.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] . This function has a lot more to do.ercOK (0) MOV ESP. . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). MMURTL V1.[EBP+0CH] EAX. .[EAX+Owner] EBX. . JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX.22. . . See listing 18. .EAX . Procedural Interface : .EBP . .[EBP+0CH] .0 . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead].EAX EDX. Deallocate exchange code . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector.EDX .EDX ECX. and link blocks. If we found a Free Exch. .pRunTSS EBX. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX. . . . .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. . . POP EBP . Listing 18. Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released.sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. it may have left over link blocks hanging on it.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . .JE AE001 ADD EBX.ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner]. .prgExch EAX. DEC _nEXCHLeft .22.ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI. RETF 4 . however. Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX.0 . . . Make the Exch owner the Job STI . Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange. Messages are deQueued. . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. Stats XOR EAX. .0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX .sEXCH EDX EDX. .ESI . TSSs.

. INC _nTSSLeft . . These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. if not owner. JMP DE001 .EBX . Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX.only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow . RETF 4 . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . NIL = Empty. Stats STI . Go And Check for more. MOV pFreeLB. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. JUMP MOV ESI. Yes. 0 . INC _nEXCHLeft . INC _nLBLeft . ECX . yes . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. EAX JZ DE002 . ECX .23. Nothing there. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg .pFreeLB .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. XOR EAX. . See listing 18. Go And Check for more. CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner].with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . Reset msg Flag. pTSSin^. 0 . is this the OS??? .instructions or a service crashes! . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX.Next <= pFreeLB. Get the TSS off of the Exchange .JE DE000 CMP EBX. 0 . yes . JMP DE000 . See if a message may be queued JE DE001 . pFreeLB <= pLBin.EAX . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . . .EAX . CLI .0 .Next <= pFreeTSS. MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg].ercNotOwner MOV ESP. POP EBP . Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead].0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS .ercOK (0) MOV ESP.EAX . pLBin^. 0 . Free up the exchange. Go free the Exch. MOV [EAX+NextTSS].EBX .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . No. MMURTL V1. Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI.EBP .pFreeTSS .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.

MOV EAX. . MOV EAX. bPriority is a byte with the new priority. If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority. Procedural Interface : . PUSH EBP . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX.This sets the priority of the task that called it . . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX. EAX . MOV EBP. ErcOK POP EBP . Procedural Interface : . ErcOK . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI.24. GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority]. 01Fh . .Listing 18.[EBP+0CH] .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . returned. EAX .pRunTSS .ESP . . Set priority code .No error. Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . RETF 4 .24 Listing 18.ESP . MOV EBP. RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. .23. . This doesn't really affect the kernel. MMURTL V1. . SetPriority . . See listing 18. Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. PUSH EBP . PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . to the priority specified in the single parameter.EBX . . POP EBP . BL . [EAX+TSS_Exch] . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. PUBLIC __SetPriority . the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority.[EBP+0CH] . The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). . SetPriority(bPriority):dError .Put it in the TSS XOR EAX.pRunTSS . . GetTSS exchange code .

Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . EAX .25. Get priority code .ESP . DL .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. RETF 4 .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . priority returned. . and passes it to bPriorityRet.pRunTSS .[EBP+0CH] . . Listing 18.25. . PUBLIC __GetPriority . ErcOK POP EBP . . MMURTL V1. MOV EAX. PUSH EBP . GetPriority . . bPriorityret is a pointer to a . . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error.This gets the priority of . Get the MOV EBX. See listing 18. Get the MOV DL. Procedural Interface : . MOV EBP. XOR EAX.

INC .User Readable (Code) .System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections.INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h . The task state segments are also used extensively.DATA .0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS .1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code. The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.Max is 2048 (64Mb) . I call these internal support code. Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode. It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.INCLUDE TSS. The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.CODE command.User Writable (Data) .2048 bytes = 64Mb . Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM). page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs).in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language. Listing 19. The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT . As with all assembler files for DASM. the code section must start with the .We alloc the "next" page table .1 bit/4Kbytes .ASM. Listing 19.1.Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt . MMURTL V1.Number of free physical pages left .INCLUDE JOB.User Writable .Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .Default to 1 MB .INCLUDE MOSEDF. Memory management constants and data .Chapter 19.INC . I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code. 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .Page Allocation Map .

3. PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED. 256 MOV EAX. . EAX CALL MarkPage .3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX.100000h ADD _nPagesFree.top of 2 megs (for DWORD) .Read test string into EBX .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. Memory management initialization code . It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].1FFFFCh XOR EBX.2. OFFSET pTbl1 . This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used .ECX MOV EBX.'mrtl' test string value for memory .Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh). InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree. Present MOV EBX.OUT: .ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.Yes. We assume 1MB to start. 0001h .0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS .Next Meg . you have.3 MOV _oMemMax. Its the law! Listing 19.Yes! .06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. 4 . in megabytes.Another megs worth of pages . Now you must fill in bits used by OS.Next table entry MMURTL V1. Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.Move in test string .See if we got it back OK . 0FFFFF000h .InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory.NO! . EAX .Set oMemMax . EAX . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree. .Are we above 64 megs . MOV EDX. neither of which you consider free.1 Mb of pages = 256 .Increase PAM by another meg .3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data. 256 ADD sPAM. oMemMax must be last byte .2. See listing 19. Listing 19. .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].EAX SUB EAX.Set it to zero intially . by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test. 32 CMP EAX.0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. which was just loaded. and makes PTEs. The code in listing 19.Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed.IN: . Continuation of memory management init.EBX MOV ECX.USED: . It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX.3 ADD EAX.Supervisor.Make it the last DWord again .

such as the 82C30 C&T. EAX .Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots. EAX. This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory.No.Set paging bit ON CR0.Next PTE entry ADD EAX. Turning on paged memory management EAX. C0000h –FFFFFh. 4096 . SHL 2) .Physical address of OS page directory CR3. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM. but I can't be sure everyone can do it. which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. . nor can I provide instructions to everyone.Store in Control Reg 3 EAX.5. Listing 19. go back for more .Reserve 192K for OS (for now) .Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses.5.4. See listing 19. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX . Listing 19.Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. See listing 19. EBX. and then writing it again. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. The initial page directory and the page table are static.Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS .Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area .6.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. ANDing it with 8000000h. EBX.Make it index (SHR 12.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . 0FFFFF000h . finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM.Get Control Reg 0 EAX. 0101b .1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . CR0 . 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . then reading CR0.Next page please CMP EAX. 4 . IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX]. 4096 EAX. 80000000h . Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used.Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. OFFSET PDir1 . 100000h . Continuation of memory management init. EDX.EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . EAX .Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage . EDX. Several chip sets on the market. Now we can go into paged memory mode. EAX . The routine in listing 19. EAX .

assuming that you will allocate it.Done initializing memory managment .no memory left. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated. Listing 19. Listing 19. MemExch . PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage .6. This reduces nPagesFree by one. See listing 19. or 0 if error EBX.Listing 19.Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch . It also marks the page as used.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn .0FFh .8. LEA EAX.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD. sPAM DEC EAX .IN : . PUSH 1 . MMURTL V1.7.OUT : .0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .Where we are in PAM . FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller.7. OFFSET pNextPT ..8. Finishing memory management init. Find highest physical page code . Get 'em! RETN ..EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. 0 . I'm afraid. this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it. Allocation of memory management exchange . 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX.No EAX. Of course.All 8 pages used? FHP2 . See listing 19. . OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX.Page Allocation Map .

Another Byte lower .Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1.At the bottom of the Byte? ..One less available .. EDX MOV DL.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.OUT : .0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX. . EAX SHL EBX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX. Find lowest physical page code .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . or 0 if error EBX.9.All 8 pages used? .Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller.\ Listing 19.. It also marks the page as used.Test bits . See listing 19. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it.Set the bit indexed by EBX .no memory left. .Add page number in byte .FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Are we past at TOP of PAM? .DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX. .Next bit .Start at first byte in PAM . DL SHL EAX.Page Allocation Map . EAX . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX. EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 . we must call UnMarkPage to release it. .0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].IN : .Get the byte with a whole in it. This reduces nPagesFree by one. EBX FHPf EBX.Set page in use .Error (BAD CPU???) . sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS .Another Byte lower .No . 3 ADD EBX. assuming that you will allocate it. OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX.. 7 XOR EDX.9.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . Once again.Back for next byte . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.

3 ADD EBX.FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. EBX SHR ECX.10.End of the Byte? . MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use.10. This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.Page Allocation Map AND EBX. 12 . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. Listing 19. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX. 8 FLPn FLP3 . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. .One less available .Add page number in byte . EAX SHL EBX.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX. . EDX MOV DL.BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX].Set page in use . 15 .IN : .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL. Code to mark a physical page in use . 07h .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .Error (BAD CPU???) .Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.. OFFSET rgPAM . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX.Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX.OUT : . 0FFFFF000h . [EAX+ECX] . EBX XOR EDX. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX.Get the byte into DL BTS EDX. DL .Next bit . See listing 19..Test bits .Get the byte with a whole in it. .Set the bit indexed by EBX . This reduces nPagesFree by one.Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree . DL SHL EAX.XOR EBX.One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX. EBX FLPf EBX EBX. EBX .

12. EFlags . .One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. . This increases nPagesFree by one.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN . Code to convert linear to physical addresses .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX.Linear address . . [EAX] BTR EDX. Listing 19.POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again.11.ECX is now byte offset into PAM . PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1. .BitReset instruction . This function supports the similarly named public routine. . 12 AND EBX.0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX.Physical Address . This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. etc. Listing 19. 07h ADD EAX. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX. EBX. EBX -. INPUT: EAX -. DMA operations.Round down to page modulo .11.12. ECX MOV DL.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM . The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. 15 SHR EBX.OUT : .IN : . This call is used for things like aliasing for messages. EBX MOV [EAX]. ESI. EBX SHR ECX. See listing 19. OUTPUT: EAX -.Page Allocation Map . USED: EAX. ESI -.Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . See listing 19. Code to free a physical page for reuse .

This is either at address base 0 for the operating system. 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX.EAX now has Linear of Page Table .Leaves pJCB in EAX . 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX. . 2 ADD EBX.Get original linear back in EBX .Save this address for caller . . or the 1Gb address mark for the user.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory. USED: EAX. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.Save it again .mask off lower 12 . IN : EAX . EBX .EBX/EAX now points to shadow . EAX MOV EAX. This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. [EBX] AND EAX.ESI now has ptr to PD . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI. EAX MOV ESI. EBX MOV EAX.Cut off upper 22 bits of linear . EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS . 2048 SHR EBX. 003FFFFFh SHR EBX. 22 SHL EBX. .get rid of lower 12 to make it an index .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . in which case we return 0.Get rid of upper 10 bits .Move to shadow addresses in PD .13. Code to find a free run of linear memory .Index into PD for PT we are working on . 12 SHL EBX. See listing 19. Listing 19. FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS. OUT: EAX . . 2 ADD EBX. [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX. EBX . the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. Save in EBX . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1.EBX now points to Page Table entry! . EBX RETN FindRun . The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist.Keeps count of how many free found so far .Address of PD saved here .EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables.Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX.PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX.*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow .Copy number of pages to ECX.13.Get original linear .Save Linear .*4 makes it byte offset in PT .Physical base of page is in EAX .Index into shadow addresses from EAX . 00000FFFh OR EAX.Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset . EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . EBX MOV EDX.EAX now has ptr to PD! . .

If .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX .Times size of page (* 4096) . The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. 12 SUB EAX.0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is the way FindRun left them.The starting linear address is equal to number of the last .In use .Yes. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX. [ESI+EDX*4] . . EAX.go INC MOV JMP FROK: . EBX . .We found enough entries goto OK . EAX .MOV EDI. 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 .EAX is next 10 bits of LA .One less page (0 offset) .No. .Not done yet. EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table. Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system.EBX still has count of pages.PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) .empty (available) .One more empty one! . keep testing .Next PT! .Not empty. EDI . 22 SHL EAX.If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . . go for it XOR EAX.Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 . or tables. if the run spans two or more tables.Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT . Next PTE Please. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection.Zero means it's . .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 .EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .This is the linear address we ended at . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4].14.EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. 12 OR EAX. next PTE please ECX. . and the count of pages should be in EBX.EDX was index into PD.Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. SHL EDX. . The linear address of the run should be in EAX. . See listing 19. while EAX was index into PT. FR1: XOR EAX.we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. .

EDX MOV EDX.(save for caller) . 10 AR0: MOV EDI. go do next PTE ADD ESI. .Listing 19.14.Make it index to DWORDS . User ReadOnly .EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. EBX .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX.0 . [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. EDX.Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. 4 .See if it's a user page . .Offset to shadow address of PD . EDI is pointing the next PT.then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER . CMP EDX. 4 .ESI now has ptr to PD! .EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX .Next PTE please. . [ESI] . next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX. IN : .Restore linear address .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 .At this point. EDX. .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).LinAdd into EDX again . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX.SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX.Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 .No.Get index into PD for first PT .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. . 2048 ADD ESI. MEMSYS CMP EAX. .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . . AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. Adding a run of linear memory .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS .Yes.LinAdd to EDX .and OR in the appropriate control bits.EDX .Set PTE to present. ARDone: MMURTL V1. USED: . EDX. . 4096 .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX. THEN store it in PT. . EBX EAX 22 2 .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . EAX AND EDX. OUT: .

AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table . . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . Listing 19. [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. and the count of pages should be in EBX.or tables. . See listing 19. The new linear address of the run should be in EAX.adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. OUT: Nothing . . . .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . USED: EAX. if the run spans two or more tables .(save for caller) . EBX Number of Pages to alias . EBX EAX 22 2 .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span.Get index into PD for first PT .Make it index to DWORDS . . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . EDX. ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) . .This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . this is the way FindRun left them. (from find run) . 8 MOV AliasLin.LinAdd to EDX .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. . .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . EDX.15. .ESP SUB ESP. EDX. .15. ESI MOV AliasJob.we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX.POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun . Once again. EFlags .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. .

Start at the entry 0 of next PT .cut off system bits of PTE . .mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT. 10 ALR0: MOV EDI. EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX. . . .Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. AND EAX. . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . AliasLin ADD AliasLin. .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) . to get a physical address into EAX. 0FFFFF000h OR EAX.EAX now has physical address for this page . . .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . .ESI now points to first PT of interest . 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI. . 003FF000h SHR EDX. 4 CMP EDX.SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.Are we past last PTE of this PT? . [ESI] .Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum .Yes. 4 XOR EDX.Set system bits as ALIAS .EDX is index to exact entry .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS .Set up for next loop (post increment) . go do next PTE . next PDE (to get next PT) .POP EAX ADD ESI. MOV ESP.No. AliasJob MOV EBX. 2048 ADD ESI. .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) .Restore linear address . .LinAdd into EDX again .Offset to shadow addresses in PD .This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE.EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1. .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 . EAX AND EDX. EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.Job we are aliasing .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . EDX MOV EDX.EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . MEMALIAS POP ESI .Are we done?? .Next PTE please.Address we are aliasing .At this point.

as shown in the following. IN : Nothing . Adding a page table for user memory . See listing 19. PUSH ESI . This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . Next possible empty entry . 2048 EBX. EAX ESI. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . . _nPagesFree OR EAX.no free phy pages!) . MOV EAX.pJCB in EAX .EDI points to UserPD Address .16. pNextPT [ESI].Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . EFlags . . EBX .16. 2048 MOV ECX. [ESI] OR EBX. 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. out of physical mem .Set user bits (Read/Write) .Offset to PcbPD in JCB . Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow). . EAX MOV ESI.Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. This will be in user address space above 1GB. Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. Is it empty? .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . MEMUSERD [ESI]. No! (Try again) . 4 MOV EBX. initializes it. PUSH EDI . USED: EAX. ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. Listing 19.See if have enuf physical memory .Move to shadow .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. . AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . [EDI] ADD ESI. This is easier than AddOSPT.EAX will have Physical address .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD .Physical address in lower half .Linear add back into EBX . JcbPD ADD EDI.Sorry. and sticks it in the user's page directory. PUSH EDX . EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code.(save for caller) PUSH ECX .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1.ESI now points to PD . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX.

no free phy pages!) . . _nPagesFree OR EAX. PUSH EDI . . . USED: EAX. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow). PUSH ESI . Adding an operating system page table .17. OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX.AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.OS Job Number (Monitor) . See listing 19. IN : Nothing .save pNextPT (the linear address) .17.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. Listing 19. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. out of physical mem . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. EFlags . AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . MOV EAX.Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . 1 XOR EAX. Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. Find first empty slot MOV ESI. . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running. .was there an error (0 means no mem) .next time. PUSH EDX . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. 1 MOV EBX.See if have enuf physical memory . Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often.EAX will have Physical address . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .Sorry.size of request .. .0 . . 511 MMURTL V1. in many cases. ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. ESI points to OS Pdir .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . .

Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. EBX .Destination 1024 . 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX. ESI EAX Get and .Linear add back into EBX .Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . EAX ADD ESI.Source EAX .Save values on stack MOV EDX. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX.Save nJCB we are on . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX.Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. JcbPD MOV EBX.AOPT02: ADD ESI. .Source of Copy . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir .0 . . pNextPT MOV [ESI]. 2048 . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all.Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .No. # of dynamic JCBs . 2048 . Get back JCB number .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) . .Next JCB . .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . [ESI] OR EBX.Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX . . 4 MOV EBX. The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) . Next possible empty entry . . . 2048 MOV EBX. OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX .Move to shadow .Set present bit .Physical address in lower half . Not a valid JCB (unused) .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB . Is it empty? . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI].Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX.Get values from stack ADD EBX.

CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . . . EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. .Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . OUT: EAX Returns Errors. ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute .18. ESI. Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. . . EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN . The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. Listing 19.18. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number. ECX. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . EFLAGS MMURTL V1. AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate. . DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . USES: EAX.At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! .size of request . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. . else 0 if all's well . 1 XOR EAX. DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . IN: AX . DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) .0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .was there an error (0 means no mem) .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for .AddRun .next time. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . Adding a call gate to the GDT . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. .Set ErcOK (0) . EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. . See listing 19.save pNextPT (the linear address) .. allowing access to OS procedures. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. EBX. .

Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. 16 . ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX].Put Gate ID into gate .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. ESI. 40h .No. nCallGates . .Put Offset 31:16 into gate .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercBadGateNum . .EDX now points to gate . AX .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04].0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap. 40 . . .make index vice selector CMP EBX. CX SUB EBX. AX MOV EAX.19. .not too low. OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4]. SI . CX .Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) . for a task gate. .0 .Yes.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 . MOV EAX.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . BX MMURTL V1.19. EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. . .Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI .Put Offset 15:00 into gate .Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. . MOV EAX. 3 ADD EDX. Listing 19. GDTBase . or task gate. See listing 19. ECX. .Extend INT Num into EDX . IN: . 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6].sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX. the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. Adding entries to the IDT . EBX. 8 . CX SHL EDX. interrupt.see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . SI . 3 .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. .call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX.Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . . USES: AX . RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. EDX.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. EAX . AX SHR EAX.

Allocating a page of linear memory .n4KPages EAX.ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request.More than 0? . A result code is returned in the EAX register.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . . . Allocate each physical page. AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.size of request .Yes . Procedureal Interface : .RETF .EAX ALOSP00 EAX. This allows runs to span table entries.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] . .20. but not close enough to easily combine their code. AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit .size of request . pRunTSS ADD EAX.Yes! Serious problem.(0 = No Runs big enuf) .Can't be zero! . The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree.20.Kernel Error?? .ppMemRet): dError .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit . . AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage. PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.See if have enuf physical memory . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate.Sorry boss.These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX. . we add another page table to the operating-system page directory.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. Listing 19.Yes . EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 . . . See listing 19. _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX.No Error! EAX.n4KPages XOR EAX.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. we're maxed out EAX.

EAX now has linear address .Save last error PUSH MemExch . . AliasMem(pMem. No alias is needed.CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. if it crosses page boundaries. .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. . ppAliasRet): dError . MMURTL V1. Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. pMem is the address to alias. dJobNum. Even if the address is only two bytes.EBP . Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed.pMem EQU [EBP+24] . . POP EBP .Does not return error . The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. . ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. however . EAX .EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] .No error ALOSPExit: . Listing 19.Go back & try again .0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . If so. See if they are available. . dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. dcbMem.Only an entry in a table. The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . Code to alias memory . . This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around. Exit. This wastes no physical memory.See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) .ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] . Procedureal Interface : . ppMemRet . .Add a new page table (we need it!) . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: . . EAX .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP. POP EAX . . PUSH EAX .ERROR!! .dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] .21. . you need two pages. RETF 8 .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX.

EBX still has count of pages OR EAX.dcbMem EBX .See if it is OS based service .Yes. 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1. EAX JMP ALSPDone . . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. EAX. No Error .EAX has 0 or 256 .See if it is OS based service . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX.Get Job number for pMem . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX. 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX. .MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . .0h JNE ALSPDone . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .No.EAX is 256 for user space. pRunTSS ADD EAX.Set up for OS memory space . [EBP+24] . ECX CALL FindRun . User memory .PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Kernel Error?? .No.EAX is nPages-1 . EAX.Exit.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .Add to dcbMem 12 . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. .Yes .OS Job? .Save nPages in ECX . .pMem into EAX 0FFFh . EAX.Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .Yes .Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . .Yes! Serious problem. We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX.No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough .0 . EBX. EAX ECX.Are they the same Page Directory?? . we're done ALSPBegin: .Puts Current Job Num in EAX .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.Number of pages we need into EBX .OS Job? .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX . . alias it .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.Was there enough PTEs? . 0 for OS . [EBP+16] CMP EAX. . EAX.Yes . . .Now wait our turn with memory management .

.Set .Save last error . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . EDI EAX. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .We are done ALSPExit: .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . . . Listing 19.Go back & try again .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX. dcbAliasBytes.Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call.ERROR!! .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . See listing 19. EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: .EAX . PUSH EAX . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) . Procedureal Interface : .EBX . EAX .22. [EBP+24] EAX. .Get remaining bits . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines. [EBP+12] [ESI]. DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. .Set to 0 (no error) . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address . EAX ESI. Code to remove alias PTEs .22. pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" . PUSH MemExch . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP.0 = NO Error .and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX.Save alias page address base . . 0FFFh EDI. [EBP+24] MOV EDX. JobNum):ercType . EAX MOV ESI.Now.Job number .original pMem .Address to alias .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI.pAliasRet .Returned address to caller! .

EAX is nPages-1 EAX . [EBP+20] .dcbMem EAX. 0FFFh .We dealiased what we could. 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP. .We did some. EDI DALM011 EAX. .dcbAliasBytes . PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .See if PTE is an alias. [EBP+20] .Next linear page .Add to dcbMem EAX. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit . 12 . if so just ZERO PTE.Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX. .EAX is now nPages we need! ECX. [EBP+16] .0 .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.None at all! .NO .Get PTE into EBX .EBP MMURTL V1. EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.Linear Mem to DeAlias .so we zero out the page. EBX . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.Is page an ALIAS? .ECX . DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .ZERO PTE entry .NO! (did we do any at all) .AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) .pAliasMem . XOR EAX. .and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS). -302- RICHARD A BURGESS . [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy . .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX.Add the remainder of address EAX.If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias . ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX. EDX MOV EAX.DO not zero it! . EAX .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.but less than you asked for! ECX.Yes.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX. EAX MOV [ESI].Address of next page to deallocate .pMem into EAX EBX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . it's page is present .Is page present (valid)??? .Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX. ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 . . [ESI] TEST EBX. ..ESP . .

pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] . . . .Error?? .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. . . . its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now we have Physical Address in EAX .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX. n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX. The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored . [ESI] TEST EBX. Even if you specify more pages than are valid.Yes! . if so just ZERO PTE. because we deallocate 4K pages. pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be . . n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .Linear Mem to deallocate .Is page present (valid)??? . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. pOrigMem AND EDX. .Yes.Get PTE into EBX . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. Deallocating linear memory . DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls.Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias.See if PTE is an alias. n4KPages):ercType .Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) .POP EBP RETF 12 .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Wait at the MemExch for Msg . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem. Procedureal Interface : .and pointer to PTE in ESI. It will always free linear memory.23. deallocate.23. this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. .0 . pRunTSS ADD EAX. . Listing 19. providing it is valid. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy . . See listing 19.Number of pages to deallocate . .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX.Address of next page to deallocate . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.

pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1. Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left. Procedureal Interface : .Yes. . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .We deallocated what we could. .Next linear page .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. . EAX ADD EDX. . so next guy can get in .Kernel error has priority .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . . over memory error .CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX.so we must unmark (release) the physical page. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit .get Memory error back . 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP.0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . Listing 19.24..but less than you asked for! .Is page an ALIAS? .24. .None at all! MOV EAX. ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX. You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system.We did some.get rid of OS bits .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias . EAX MOV [ESI]. ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 .save Memory error .Send a dummy message to pick up .NO! (did we do any at all) . Code to find number of free pages . . . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX.ZERO PTE entry . 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. See listing 19. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX. it's an Alias . AND EBX.

pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . See listing 19. GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address.25. . pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. MOV ESP. . GetPhyAdd(JobNum.LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . . . pPhyRet):ercType . Procedureal Interface : .ESP MOV EBX. EAX .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . . .ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. Listing 19.25. . .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . No Error . Linear Address . EAX XOR EAX. This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. be returned . . _nPagesFree [ESI]. . .No Error . left available returned . PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .. Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. pPhyRet . Job Number . Public for linear to physical conversion . .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX EAX.END OF CODE MMURTL V1. LinAdd. [EBP+16] MOV EAX. EAX MOV ESP. [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. pMemLeft EAX.

.

1. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. I experimented with several different intervals.1.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . however. which is very conservative. actually the scheduler. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case.2 percent. with 100-MHz machines around. I was consuming less than 0. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. as well as the fastest one possible. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. preemptive multitasking.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. I ended up with 10ms. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt.6 percent for the worst case. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. was the effect on interrupt latency. MMURTL is no exception. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. Back when I started this project. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. especially synchronous. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. memory wait-states. As you well know. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. The average is was far less. But even with these calculations. or 3000 clocks. a slow machine. In a 10ms period we have 200. The average really depends on program loading. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. See listing 20. which works out to about 1..2 percent of available bandwidth. my worries were unfounded. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter.Chapter 20. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. Even more important than total bandwidth. etc. divided by the total clocks for the same period. Two of them will come in at 260us. Somewhere between these two was the average. It's at the end of the timer ISR. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. along with a piece of the kernel. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly. It was 0.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us. Listing 20. A single communications channel running at 19. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands.

TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . The odds of this are truly astronomical.2. The Timer Block is a structure that contains . sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16. plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. or one that has requested an alarm. including the 10 percent overhead. Listing 20. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 .ALIGN DWORD .FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.DD 00000000h .2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. . A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386.Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). See listing 20.INCLUDE TSS.INC .DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 .0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 .DATA .INC . This doesn't cause a problem at all. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. . Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long . and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop.2. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. Data and constants for timer code . and finally with test programs.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 .320 clocks. The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions.INCLUDE MOSEDF. or 20us. This I could live with. But.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt. the exchange number of a task that is sleeping. These are the offsets into the structure .

The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism.Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? .CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX.Yes . allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel. The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it. You have now interrupted that task. priority than the task that is now running.3. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds.4.4.FALSE . the first things defined in this code segment.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX . It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 .save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] . which is the one you interrupted.No.3.Yes . Listing 20.ASM.ECX has count of Timer Blocks . The timer interrupt service routine .Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 .. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. External functions for timer code .Timer Tick. If so.nTmrBlks CLD .ASM. It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. The three external near calls. yet very important part. Listing 20. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.0h .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more. INT 20 . or higher. -1 . only one task is actually executing. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs. At all times on the system. See listing 20.goto decrement it PUSH EAX .Yes! .. you switch to it.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. and they may be of an equal. They may have been placed there by other ISRs.No .0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS . .INTS are disabled automatically .ISend Message MOV EAX.No . See listing 20. It is a small. If it is the same or higher.

keep going .number was higher and we DON'T .get count back POP EAX .Compare current pri to highest queued . . Put current one in EAX . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL.BX . EAX . Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick.tell him his times up! POP ECX .unless were done .Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 . MOV ESI. [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.DL is pri of current .PUSH EAX . dfHalted OR EAX.10ms more gone.Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX. If so. MOV EBX. and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS. JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone .No. Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel.If current is higher(lower num).if we got a CARRY on the subtract. Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.YES. MMURTL V1.. SUB EAX..Is there one at all?? . no need to check tasks . EAX MOV EAX.Is this from a HALTed state? . we will ..next block please! .switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri . and save in EDI .We will now check to see if this guy has been running . PUSH 0 .sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . we want to Switch. pRunTSS MOV DL.Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg .EDI .empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. That means .bogus msg PUSH EAX . his .. TimerTick .Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ .. ESI CALL enQueueRdy .[EDI+Tid] . If the Queued Pri is LOWER .for more then 30ms (3 ticks). Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .current pri. Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices . EAX JZ TaskCheckDone .skip decrement .get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. CMP EAX.0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS .or Equal.is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX.FALSE .Change this to change the "time slice" . Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX. EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX.

MOV EBP. Sleep() . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .FALSE .FAR return from publics MMURTL V1. DelayCnt CMP EAX.EBX .0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBP .5.Count of timer blocks CLD . This requires an exchange. RETF 4 .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.rgTmrBlks . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD .TRUE .TSS_Msg .sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .Must do this before we switch! . MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].5. PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP . The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX. JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) . The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero. See listing 20.Empty block? JNE Delay02 .Sorry.[ECX+TSS_Exch] .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX. .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].ESP .DelayCnt . out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP.Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed . POP EBP .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .pRunTSS . MOV EAX.Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown]. Listing 20. The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.unless were done MOV EAX.goto next block MOV EBX.clear direction flag Delay01: CLI .No .Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg . IRETD .ErcNoMoreTBs .EBX .all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.nTmrBlks .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.ErcOk . 0 .put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .

goto next block EBX. -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX. The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.ESP . See listing 20. Alarm(nAlarmExch.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .AlarmCnt .Up the blocksInUse count EBX.Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed . PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP . AlarmCnt CMP EAX.put it in timer block! .ErcOk .No .Sorry.ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP.all is well Alarm03 .FALSE .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.nTmrBlks . . .It's OK to interrupt now EAX.7. MOV EBP.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].0 . DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].TRUE . AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch]. It must be set up each time. 0 .Empty block? Alarm02 .unless were done . out of timer blocks .Count of timer blocks CLD . AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .Get delay count [EAX+CountDown].It's OK to interrupt now .EBX . KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange.EBX . nothing will stop it.rgTmrBlks . The message is not repeatable. AlarmCnt):dErc . Listing 20. which means the message has already been sent. Code for the Alarm function . MOV EAX.clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. MMURTL V1. Procedural Interface: . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.6. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel.sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX. See listing 20. .6.Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.

KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . . This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds). The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled. . PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. -313- RICHARD A BURGESS .8.0 .clear direction flag . KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc .No blocks in use . 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.Listing 20. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator.FALSE . Listing 20. This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port. The count is in 15us increments. Code for the MicrDelay function . But it's still very much needed.unless were done . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers. The task is actually not suspended at all.No .EBX .7.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . which drives the processor clock.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch].Count of timer blocks . Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1. . Code for the KillAlarm function . Procedural Interface: .EAX points to timer blocks . See listing 20. .EAX MOV ESP. so we get out! .Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed . .sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX.ErcOk .Block in use? KAlarm02 .nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .KAlarmExch LEA EAX.Get exchange for killing alarms to .8.It's OK to interrupt now .ALl done -.Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].TRUE . .Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX.

EAX MOV ESP. Listing 20.ESP MOV ECX.check refrest bit . Code to read the CMOS time .Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS .9.Minutes . the next byte is the Hours in BCD. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH. and the high order byte is 0. . AL SHL EBX. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL.AL IN AL.Toggle! Move to AH for next compare . [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.MOV EBP. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).9.Check toggle of bit . .ESP XOR EBX. . MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally. Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.00h OUT 70h.get out if they came in with 0! . EBX MOV EAX.Get delay count .No toggle yet . . 61h AND AL.AL MOV ESI. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. See listing 20.71h MOV BL.04h OUT 70h.Clear time return . 8 MOV EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX. .71h MOV BL.Seconds . EBX MMURTL V1.Hours .AL IN AL. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI]. the next byte is the minutes in BCD.0 . The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.02h OUT 70h.Get system status port . 10h CMP AH. .AL SHL EBX.AL IN AL.71h MOV BL. 8 MOV EAX.

. EAX MOV ESP. Code to read the CMOS date . AL SHL EBX.Month .09h OUT 70h.AL IN AL.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .AL MOV ESI.71h MOV BL. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31).0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS .71h MOV BL.07h OUT 70h.08h OUT 70h. See listing 20. 0-6 0=Sunday). 8 MOV EAX.AL SHL EBX. 8 MOV EAX.06h OUT 70h. MOV EBP.Day of month . . .Day of week . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12). The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .XOR EAX. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99). EBX .AL IN AL.ESP .71h MOV BL. . Procedural Interface: . GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.10.10.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . EAX MOV ESP. XOR EBX. No Error .AL IN AL. MMURTL V1.Year . No Error . pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI].Clear date return MOV EAX. EBX XOR EAX.AL IN AL. . . Listing 20.Give 'em the time . .71h MOV BL. 8 MOV EAX. pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP . AL SHL EBX.

AL XOR EDX. 10110110b OUT 43h. . The procedural interface: . pTickRet MOV EAX. this amounts to 262. Listing 20. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter.11.Timer 2.193182Mhz .ESP MOV ESI. AL IN AL. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down.No Error . . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep(). .GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. . With a 10ms interval.0 .DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h. See listing 20. AL MOV AL. EAX XOR EAX.193182Mhz by Desired Freq. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. . Helper function for Beep() and Tone() . there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h.This does all work for BEEP and TONE . . Listing 20. Code to return the timer tick .12. is used to generate tones.12. The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency. EDX MOV EAX. LSB. which is connected to the system internal speaker. Hardware timer number 2. .193182 Mhz . .800.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror .To find the divisor of the clock. See listing 20. Binary . pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. divide 1. 61h MMURTL V1.11. The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord).ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL.1. Because it is a dword. TimerTick MOV [ESI].000 ticks per month. MSB.

Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq. This function has nothing to with the Road Runner.14. .14. . Code to produce a tone . . .Freq . .13. .0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS . 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . Listing 20. AL PUSH ECX . if it had.350ms . I would have called it Beep_Beep(). 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . Code to produce a beep . This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. 800 MOV ECX. . 11111100b OUT 61h. 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h. Listing 20. See listing 20. (Sorry. See listing 20. CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL.13. . Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ESP MOV EBX.OR AL. AL RETN Beep() .ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. . MMURTL V1. I couldn't resist. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker.

ToneFreq MOV ECX. . ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 .0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.ESP MOV EBX.PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .

the first instruction executed after boot up. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size.INC for structure details. Main Operating System Data . The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary. In chapter 7. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL . Global Descriptor table (GDT). Kernel Structures . The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) . The second file is InitCode. “OS Initialization.DATA .INCLUDE JOB.INC . It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 . Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process. and I don't worry about the rest of it.ASM.ASM which is presented later in this chapter. OS Global Data Listing 21.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) .======================================================= . Periodically you will see the .INCLUDE MOSEDF. Initial OS Page Table (PT).1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files.INC .INC .ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. It is the entry point in the operating system. Listing 21.INCLUDE TSS. The first file is Main. The assembler does no alignment on its own.ASM. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.1.Chapter 21. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main.ALIGN command. a workhorse for Main. The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).See MOSEDF.0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . Initial OS Page Directory (PD). Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files.ALIGN DWORD . I generally try to align data that is accessed often. . Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . and Public Call Gate table.ASM. access to the data is faster if it is.

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;InitMemMgmt allocates an exch so

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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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; Clear allocated memory for TSSs

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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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IN : Nothing .call DPL & ndParams RETN . Used : ALL registers and flags .DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.Single Step MOV EAX. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector.Divide By Zero MOV EAX.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX.make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. 1 . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. EBX. OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. Second.DPL 3. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . Trap gate MOV EBX. . 3 .DPL 3.SUB EBX. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. SI .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. 0 . . 08F00h . MOV ESI.Breakpoint MOV EAX. .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. First.Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. CX . 08E00h . AX .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . InitIDT . 08F00h . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. software and hardware interrupt handlers. 40 . GDTBase . SI . EAX. 8 . handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. 4 . OSCodeSel . ESI. MOV ESI. 08F00h . 16 .This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX.0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].Overflow 08F00h . 3 .========================================================================= .DPL 3. 255 .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. Out : Nothing .Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX.

Double Exception MOV EAX. 08E00h . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. EAX. 0Ch . MOV ESI.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. 08F00h . MOV ESI. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Bh .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 08F00h . 20h . MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.Int TIMER MOV EAX.0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . 21h . 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.GP fault MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.DPL 3. OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . 6 . 08E00h . 08F00h . 8 . OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Seg Not Present MOV EAX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. ESI.Int Page Fault MOV EAX. MOV ESI.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. OSCodeSel . 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 08F00h .Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. 08F00h .DPL 3. EBX.DPL 3. 0Dh . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Invalid TSS MOV EAX. MOV ESI.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h . IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . 0Eh . OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel .DPL 3. 0Ah . OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI.Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI.

. MOV ESI..DPL 3.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV EAX... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..Int COM2 MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int . 08E00h .... OSCodeSel ..Int .IntLPT1 MOV EAX.. MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3..Int ... 23h .Int . MOV EAX. 24h .DPL 3. 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ . 25h . OSCodeSel .. MOV ESI. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..Int LPT2 MOV EAX. 2Ah ... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h . EAX. 08E00h .. ESI.DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE . 27h ..DPL 3.Int COM1 MOV EAX. OSCodeSel ..FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. OFFSET IntQ . OSCodeSel .. MOV ESI.. MOV ESI. EBX. 08E00h .DPL 3... 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX.DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX..CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..DPL 3... 2Bh .. 08E00h ... 29h .. MOV ESI.. MOV EAX..Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX... 08E00h . 28h . 08E00h ..DPL 3. OSCodeSel . 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI....Int .0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS . IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1. . 26h .

WaitMsg -..Set Priority . OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! .1Dword param.. Out : Nothing . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! . OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX.. 08E00h ... DPL 0 MOV ECX. 2Eh . MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 . 08E00h . 2Dh .. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. 50h MOV DX. before initcallgates. 0EC01h .========================================================================== .Int . MOV EAX... 08C03h . 2Fh . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 0EC03h .. This can't ... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 40h MOV DX. OSCodeSel . but MUST be called before the first far call to any .2 DWord Params. OSCodeSel .. . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0EC02h .. OSCodeSel MOV ESI...DPL 3. DPL 3 MOV ECX. MOV ESI.Int . MOV EAX.0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS . 48h MOV DX..SendMsg -.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. Used : ALL registers and flags . InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates... OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. IN : Nothing .CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.3 DWord Params. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1. 58h MOV DX..Int .DPL 3.ISendMsg -.3 DWord params.DPL 3... DPL 3 MOV ECX.. MOV ESI.. DPL 3 MOV ECX.. MOV EAX. 08E00h .

The rest of the call gate set ups go here.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS . RETN MMURTL V1..

Job Management Subroutines . and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. the JCB. pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while.1 Listing 22. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . Pieces of related code in the kernel.CODE . it is usually quite a mess.INC . are used by almost every module in the operating system.Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1. and finally starting the new task.DATA . The process of allocating all the resources. INPUT : EAX -. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. From Main.asm . Before I wrote this code. link blocks.Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in . Job Management Helpers The file JobCode. In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). See listing 22. many of them public functions.INC .ASM provides many small helper functions for job management.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) . Ptr to free Job Control Blocks .INCLUDE TSS. JCBs are in allocated memory . Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. making sure that each was correctly set and filled out. exchanges. When things don't work right. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one. TSSs. The program loader is in this chapter. the monitor.1. request blocks.InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . this is the where you'll end up. EBX -. can be a complicated scenario.======= End data.Begin Code ================== .INCLUDE MOSEDF. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD . These calls.================================================================ .INCLUDE JOB.Chapter 22. and finally the operating system memory. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs . PUBLIC InitNewJCB: .

. .EDX. . ESI. EDX. .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX. OUTPUT : NONE .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX. EAX .1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI.Make last one NIL RETN . 7 MOV EAX. 3 . ECX. PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. while . . .EAX . EDX is size of each JCB. . This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run. EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information. ECX is count of JCBs. 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. . others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated.pbJobName ECX -.first byte of name .Size of JCBs . pJCBs . EBX.Count of JCBs . [EAX+JobNum] RETN . .EDI points to JCB . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines].ECX.Move it in . We can't use its position .0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS .. . EDI. .Video number is in JCB . . MMURTL V1. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs).Now to JobName . .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI].cbJobName EDX -.Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs.Put Ptr to PD into JCB . . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs.EDX . .============================================================================= .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. . .EBX MOV EDI. in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). ECX . . MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. .Address of JCBs to be initialized . InitFreeJCB .EBX. EAX ADD EDI. EBX .Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. . EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols]. Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs.ESI EFLAGS . .EAX . The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). . .EAX .size is filled in . USED: EAX.EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB].Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. ESI -. EAX points to the first JCB. INPUT : EAX . EDX . MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. 0 .

EAX ECX. . . MOV EAX. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB .pFreeJCB . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. Get 'em! .FLAGS . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . CMP EAX. OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX.FLAGS . pJCBs MOV ECX. .[EAX+NextJCB] . OUTPUT : EAX . .DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. This routine will also .0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. nJCBs MOV EDX. This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures)..IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. . 0 . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in .================================================================ . MOV EBX. This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. pJCBs STOSD . . 0 . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . .Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . INPUT : NONE . . This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free .Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB.Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. . If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return.============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX. MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . REGISTERS : EBX. NewJCBDone: RETN . JE DispJCBDone . INPUT : EAX . 4096 EDI.EBX . OUTPUT : NONE .EBX. . REGISTERS : EAX. JE NewJCBDone . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs .============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: .0 . the free pool. . If none exists. . . then EAX will contain NIL (0). . . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. . Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . . . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX.

.Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . USED: EAX. . OUTPUT: EAX -. is a field in the JCB structure. PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. This is based on which Task is executing. GetCrntJobNum . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. in EAX. .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . This is based on which Task is executing. All TSSs are .pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB]. EFlags . A Job may have more than one Task.Linear Address of current JCB .EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . . pRunTSS . . .Current JCB RETN . All TSSs are .EBX MOV pFreeJCB.Move it into newly freed JCB . EFlags .============================================================ . EFlags .Current Job Number . . INPUT: EAX -. INPUT: Nothing . OUTPUT: EAX -. INPUT: Nothing . All TSSs are assigned to a Job. assigned to a Job. GetpJCB . PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task.MOV EBX. . . . The Job number . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX.============================================================ . [EAX+JobNum] . 2 MMURTL V1. . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .Pointer to JCB RETN . GetpCrntJCB . assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. USED: EAX.Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number .============================================================ . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX.0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . OUTPUT: EAX -. USED: EAX. Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. . Many OS functions deal with the Job number.EBX has OS ptr to free list . .Job Number of desired pJCB . .

Procedureal Interface : .Current JCB RETN . USED: EAX. . . Sorry. The Job number . . EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. Many OS functions deal with the Job number. . . is a field in the JCB structure. ppJCBRet):ercType . [EAX+JobNum] .============================================================ . . AllocJCB (NEAR) . 3 MOV EDX. . EFlags . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool). languages. sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. . . GetJobNum . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet.Add in two static JCBs . INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from.Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . .============================================================ . . . OUTPUT: EAX -. EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. We got one! .JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. pJCBs POP EDX RETN . . ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1.Times size of JCB . . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB.Within range of JCBs . .0 .Current Job Number . . . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . This is a NEAR . Get a new JCB .Now points to desired JCB . out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble.ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. . call to support the public job management calls in high level .

. . . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool).ESP MOV EAX. DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . EAX XOR EAX.============================================================ . EAX MOV ESP.0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS .============================================================ . . EAX MOV ESP.Job Num . . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI.MOV ESP. . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . . . Procedureal Interface : . Procedureal Interface : . . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. . . . GetpJCB . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. call to support the public job management calls in high level . .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . pJCBRet):ercType . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . This is a NEAR . you specifiy. .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . . . . . [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . .============================================================ . pJCB . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . GetpJCB(dJobNum. Get a new JCB . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned.No error . EAX MOV ESI. . . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . MMURTL V1. . . . languages in the OS code. . .pJCBRet . .

MOV EAX.0 is invalid CMP EAX.No Error . This is . This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job. . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . or 0 will be returned with the data. GetJobNum . EAX MOV ESP.============================================================ . [EBP+12] . Procedureal Interface : .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . . .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 .EBP . .Job Num OR EAX. MMURTL V1. the job that the task that called this belongs to. .Leave jobnum in EAX .pJobNumRet . MOV ESP. POP EBP . . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. .ESP . RETF 8 . EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . . . 0 .. GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB .EBP .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. [EBP+16] . . . ErcInvalidJCB . . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType .pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX. EAX XOR EAX. nJCBs + 2. EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD].EBP . . RETF 8 . RETF 8 . ErcBadJobNum .JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. POP EBP . POP EBP . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned.

and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. 7Fh . . . .asm.============================================================ . . Listing 22. .c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services).No Error POP EBP . disk that the system booted from.pJobNumRet MOV [ESI].ESP . MOV EAX. _BootDrive AND EAX. MOV EBP. This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType .get rid of high bits MOV ESI. loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . PUSH EBP . contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. It's really not a filesystem function either. Jobc.c. ending jobs. And will . Procedureal Interface : . . still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. GetSystemDisk . This code is here for lack of a better place.0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. XOR EAX. . Jobc. . This is from the public . the number representing the system disk is returned. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk . pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where .. Functions for starting new jobs. EAX . . . variable _BootDrive defined in Main. RETF 4 . [EBP+12] .2.================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. AL .

ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it.h" "MData. char *ppJCBRet). /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB.h" "MKbd. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB. long cb). char *pJCBRet). /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB).h" "MTimer. MMURTL V1.Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB... char *pNewJCB).h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode.h" "MFiles. */ static long TmpStack[128]. .). long Exch).h" "MVid.h" #include "runfile.0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetExchOwner(long Exch.h" "MJob. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb.h" "MMemory. GetExchOwner(long Exch. SendAbort(long JobNum.

static long offCode = 0. BogusMsg[2]. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. 0. *pPDE. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. static long cbFileE.static long JobNum. 0. ExchE. *pStack. static char aFileE[80]. When all PTs have been cleaned. ercE. sData. i++) { MMURTL V1. i<1024. we eliminate the user PDEs. sStack. static unsigned long oCode. filetype. erc. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. for (i=768. char *pMem. extern unsigned long KillExch. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 0. 0. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. j. k. 0. job_fhE. 0. static long sCode. static struct tagtype tag. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. offData = 0. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. unsigned long *pPT. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. oData. *pData. iE.

*pfhRet = 0. &dret). 1. dret.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. offCode = 0. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. oDCFIX = 0. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. &dret). while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. MMURTL V1. char fDone. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. long cbFileName. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. fh. for (j=0. oCDFIX = 0. 0. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. If all is well. nCCFIX = 0. &fh). while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. reads and validates the run file. i. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. &tag. junk.id = 0.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . 5. long *pfhRet) { long erc. cbFileName.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. 1. nDDFIX = 0. oDDFIX = 0. offData = 0. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. k). switch (tag. &filetype. oCCFIX = 0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. it leaves it open and returns the file handle. nDCFIX = 0. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). nCDFIX = 0. j<1024.

&dret). oCode+tag.len/4.len/4. &oCDFIX). /* skip it break.len). i+tag.len). oDDFIX+tag.len). break. &dret). &sData. 4. &dret). 4. nDDFIX = tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &sCode. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.len). /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. 4. break. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len). 4. oCDFIX+tag. 4. &oData).len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. oDCFIX+tag.0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . &offCode. /* skip it break. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oData+tag. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. MMURTL V1. nCDFIX = tag. default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE. nCCFIX = tag. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* skip it break.break.len/4. &oCCFIX). break. &i). case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &oDDFIX). break. /* skip it break. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCCFIX+tag. /* skip it break. &dret). &sStack. &oCode). break. &pStart. /* skip it break. &oDCFIX). if (tag. &dret).len). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &offData. 4.len/4. nDCFIX = tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.

GetpJCB(JobNum. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. } return(0). else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. pRunRet. GetpJCB(JobNum. } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). GetpJCB(JobNum. long dcbPath) { long JobNum. i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. i). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. MMURTL V1. return (erc).break. if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB). dcbRunFile). &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. return(0). *pdcbRunRet = i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". else { CopyData(pRunFile. &pTmpJCB).0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc).

&pTmpJCB). } return(erc). pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. dcbCmd). pPathRet. char *pPathRet. } return(0). else { CopyData(pPath. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. pCmdRet. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. erc. dcbPath). GetpJCB(JobNum. i). MMURTL V1. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetpJCB(JobNum. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. i). &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pCmd. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). long dcbUser) { long JobNum. pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. } return(0).else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1].0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. &pTmpJCB). *pdcbCmdRet = i. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. *pdcbPathRet = i. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1].

GetpJCB(JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. &pTmpJCB). GetJobNum(&JobNum). return(0). GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pdcbUserRet = i. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet. else { CopyData(pUser. dcbName). *pdcbFileRet = i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbName) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB). i. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. } return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. else { CopyData(pName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. dcbUser). return(0). i). pFileRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). i. } return(0). GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB).GetJobNum(&JobNum). pUserRet. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. long dcbName) MMURTL V1. i). &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum.0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName.

*pPT. dret. pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. dcbName). } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. GetpJCB(JobNum.{ long JobNum. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). } return(0). return(0). long cbFileName. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. GetJobNum(&JobNum). if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. *pdcbFileRet = i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). i. dcbName). &pTmpJCB). pFileRet. else { CopyData(pName. long *pFix. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. *pOSPD. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. cbFileName. return(0). if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. long dcbName) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. &pTmpJCB). U32 PhyAdd. i.0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . &fh). *pVid. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. GetJobNum(&JobNum). &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. i). nPages. fh. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. unsigned long *pPD.

MMURTL V1. pPT). xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". &pPD). sStack = nPages * 4096. 0). if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. pPT = 0. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". &pStack). erc = AllocPage(nPages. PhyAdd). 4096. pVid = pPD + 8192. &PhyAdd). /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. 0). 4096. &pNewJCB). &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(1. pNewJCB = 0.0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . nPages = sData/4096. pOSPD[768] = pPT. if (sCode%4096) nPages++./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. pPT = pPD + 4096. &pData). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. FillData(pVid. /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". 1). &pCode). pPD = 0. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. pVid = 0. /* Job's PD. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. pPT. */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD). /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. pPD). nPages = sCode/4096. if (sData%4096) nPages++.

&dret). oDDFIX). /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .offData + pData. &dret). /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pData + i. oData). pData. 4096). pFix = pData + i. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. } MMURTL V1. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. sCode. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). &dret). &i.offCode + pCode. 4. pFix = pCode + i./* Right now. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCCFIX). 4. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. pCode. &dret). 4. oCDFIX). /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.offCode + pCode. sData. &dret).0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ CopyData(pOSPD. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pCode + i. pPD. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . 4.offData + pData. the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. oCode). oDCFIX). &i. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i.

pNewJCB->nCols = 80. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). 3). /* Size */ CopyData("VID". pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. 3). pNewJCB). pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. 0x18. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. 25. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. 0). pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). pNewJCB->nLines = 25. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. 0. i. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. pStart+pCode-offCode). 1024. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. 1024. pStack+sStack-4. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. 0). pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0.

dret. pNewJCB = pJCB. return(erc). &pData). This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. erc = AllocPage(nPages. nPages. &dret). oData).*pJobNumRet = JobNum. erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sData%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCode). /* Allocate user memory for Stack.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. The PD. nPages = sCode/4096. sData. oCDFIX). (CleanPD left the first PT for us). while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. &pStack). Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. i. long *pFix. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. sStack = nPages * 4096. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* All Job memory is now allocated. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. sCode. pCode. &dret). if (sCode%4096) nPages++. nPages = sData/4096. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. &pCode). long fh) { long erc. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. pData.

its exchange. pFix = pCode + i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). 4. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. oCCFIX). /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh.PT and video. 4. &i. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . oDDFIX).offData + pData. &dret). /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pFix = pData + i. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. &dret). This task.offCode + pCode. &i. &i. return(erc). 4.offCode + pCode. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. pFix = pCode + i. pFix = pData + i. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode.erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. &dret). } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). MMURTL V1. 4. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. oDCFIX). This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor.offData + pData.

It results in a violent death for the job specified. if (erc) return(erc). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. BogusMsg). ExchE. /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). WaitMsg(ExchE. &pTmpJCB). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE).GetpJCB(JobNumE. ercE = 0. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. Debugger or the current job. */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). ErcOpCancel). This is used to kill run-away jobs. while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. SetPriority(31). CleanUserPD(pPDE). &pTmpJCB). */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. BogusMsg). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum.0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. ISendMsg(KillExch. This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. GetTSSExch(&ExchE). or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor.

This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. &pCrntJCB). 3. &pExchJCBE). 0. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. CodeSeg. fDebug. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. Priority. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). Exch. &TmpStack[127].ercE = 0. ExchE. 0x08. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. iE++. return(erc). &_KillTask).0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . ESP. We send "Abort" messages to all services. /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. GetpJCB(JobNumE. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. iE = 0. pTmpJCB). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. } ercE = 0. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). ExchE). EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated.

/* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). iE = 0. ESP. iE++./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. ercE = 0. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. ercE = 0. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. EBP. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. CleanUserPD(pPDE). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. &pExchJCBE). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). Send Abort messages to all services. &cbFileE).0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercE = 0. If no exit run file. EAX. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. ExchE). */ GetExitJob(aFileE.

PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . SetPriority(31). */ #asm MOV EAX. MOV ESP. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. ExchE. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. &job_fhE). MOV EBP. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. ercE). Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). job_fhE).0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . WaitMsg(ExchE. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. MOV EBX. SUB EAX. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. cbFileE. ADD EAX.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. BogusMsg). if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter.

if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). cbFileName). /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. &pExchJCBE). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. */ MMURTL V1. long cbFileName. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. cbFileName. ercE = 0. iE = 0. cbFileE = cbFileName. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). Send Abort messages to all services.error loading the Job. iE++.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. GetpJCB(JobNumE. &job_fhE). The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). } CloseFile(job_fhE). pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). In other words. aFileE. &pCrntJCB). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE).

*/ MMURTL V1. &job_fhE). &job_fhE). &cbFileE). ExchE). if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. /* Try to load the Chain file. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). job_fhE). OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. ercE = 0. If no exit run file. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX.0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbFileE. ESP. cbFileE. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. The original user's job is destroyed. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE.SendAbort(JobNumE. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. EBP. CleanUserPD(pPDE). ercE = 0. job_fhE). EAX. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!).

MOV EBX. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1.#asm MOV EAX. ercE).0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . ADD EAX. ExchE.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. BogusMsg). PUSH 18h MOV EAX. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). MOV EBP. WaitMsg(ExchE. SUB EAX. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. MOV ESP.

Enter debugger . then copy the CR3 . . This makes the . Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. entry from the current job into the debuggers job. and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. If we get here.===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . .EnterDebug . You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. .Chapter 23. on which exception is was. Get EIP of offender for debugger . Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. Get Flags . but is still very immature. While writing the operating system. debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. task (without going through the kernel). It has grown substantially. I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted.1. so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. Next. Get CS .Enter debugger .0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). Get EIP of offender for debugger . The debugger is a separate task. This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. First we copy the Page Dir . then it jumped here to enter the debugger. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. which are all debug exceptions. . I have left them as individual procedures. They are made to match those of the interrupted task. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger . small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. . are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). All of the debugger's . Breakpoints. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based . . See listing 23. .1. register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. Listing 23.

INC TSS.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX ." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code.External near Variables MMURTL V1.INC RQB. OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.make his registers right! . pRunTSS EBX.INC JOB.ALIGN DWORD . EAX This switches tasks.INCLUDE . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD]. OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3]. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX.pRunTSS -> EAX .0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS .Switch tasks to debugger .Save the current pRunTSS . pRunTSS. . BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .2 presents the debugger code in its entirety. Listing 23. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX. [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. EBX EAX.DATA .2. You'll see much of it is display "grunt work.When the debugger exits. EBX EAX. [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX. and restore PUSH EDX .INC .Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . EAX EAX. then jump to the debugger's selector.INCLUDE .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX.Install Debugger's as current .Set up debugger selector .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX . . with the exception of the disassembler. task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX..INCLUDE . EnterDebug: PUSH EAX . pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave. .CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX . caller's registers them before the into the debugger . Debugger Data and Code .pCrntJCB -> EAX .we MUST save PUSH EBX . we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD .current CR3 -> EBX .Put the stack back the way it was .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS .INCLUDE MOSEDF.Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23.

' '.flag 1 = Msg.General purpose DDs (used all over) .TO save the TSS we interrupted ..0B3h.ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0B3h.Boolean.0B3h.To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .' '.Address we are dumping .For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) . dbgExchMsg .' ' ' . . .0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.'Tasks'.For ReadDbgKbd .are we dumping DWORDS? .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .Active bytes in buf2 .'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.Address of instructions we are displaying .'DumpD'.0B3h.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh. 0Ah DB 0 .0B3h. 0 = Exch .Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .'SetBP'.Address we are setting as next .Has Dbg Video been initialized? .General use buffers DB '0000000000' .0B3h. . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.. .0B3h. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .0B3h. ESC to quit.'ClrBP'.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB .0B3h.CR LF for Dump etc.'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.

'ECX: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'EFL: 0B3h. Begin Code ========================== .' CS: 0B3h. OFFSET DbgVidSave .sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .'TSS: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h.' ES: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .'EIP: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.'EBX: 0B3h.' DS: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .'ESI: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h.==================== End Data.'EDI: 0B3h.

the Instruction Pointer.EBX .NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 . MOV EBX. .dbgOldEIP .NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX.REF .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX..dbgOldEflgs . the handler is a procedure (NOT a task). DbgpTSSSave .PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit.Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt . 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX.EBX . Code Seg. EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.dbgOldCS .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .Dbgr is Job 2 .BX MOV EBX. and flags are not the .EBX . But we do. . MOV EBX. the values of .way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the .NO . when the handler is entered. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. The debugger .0FFh . .Display fault message and .0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].When a fault or debug exception occurs.See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX. 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.0 .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. is always entered as a procedure.dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! . .[EAX+TSS_EFlags] . and number at 0 .. (we chanage the tasks) .procedure was entered.0 .EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX. This only applies if .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger. . so we shouldn't have to reset it.the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS.

DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid .DbgpTSSSave .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.Set TF in flags for single step .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.Reset X & Y to 0. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .Get USER pUserTSS .Fall through to keyboard loop . 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.1 .Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX. MOV EAX. . 0FFh LEA EAX.CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX. 0FFh .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. EAX MOV dbgX.Display menu PUSH dbgX .=========================================================== .Single Step (F1) . EAX .Set BP (Current Address . EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.Color White on black . 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.reset fault indicator .ESCAPE (Exit) .F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .0 .

Not used yet . EAX dbg00 . EAX DR7.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.BP0 Set global . 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. 00 MMURTL V1.Set Disassembly Address (F8) . EAX dbg00 EAX.Full display . . .Save it so we know where BP is . 00000002h DR7.DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX.Clear BP saved address . EAX EAX. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd.See if we need to scroll up . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX.Back to where we were . . . 11h dbg04 EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL. 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Task array display (F6) . EAX DR6.MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX. EAX dbgBPAdd.F3) . 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX. 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX.Display Exchanges (F5) . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX.Address displayed . EBX DR0.Clear BP (Current Address .Sets NextEIP . .See if we need to scroll up . EBX EAX.This puts the instruction on the line .Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 .Return to CS:EIP (F4) . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX.This puts the instruction on the line . . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.0 .

.we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.MOV dbgfDumpD.we are about to display. EAX BX.Back to begining . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX. [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. .Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.This compares the current breakpoint the address .See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX. 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Query XY .============================================================== dbgShowBP: . If they are the same.This puts the instruction on the line . BX . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL.Info Address dump (F12) .Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 .EAX must be preserved MOV EBX.Return saved pRunTSS . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD.Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.0 .Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS . DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS. . . 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL.Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) .

ECX Display .EDX Display .ESI Display .MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.07 MOV ESI.02 MOV ESI.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EDI Display .TSS Display .[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EBP Display MMURTL V1.06 MOV ESI.00 MOV ESI.============================================================== . ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .01 MOV ESI.BP Address .[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.Number of this TSS .[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.03 MOV ESI.3 params to TTYOut .[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EAX Display .05 MOV ESI.Save EAX across call .This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.EBX Display .OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .04 MOV ESI.

MOV ECX.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.17 MOV ESI.15 MOV ESI.CS Display .ESP Display .ES Display .GS Display .[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.SS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.EIP Display .11 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.16 MOV ESI.19 MOV ESI.12 MOV ESI.CR3 Display .[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EFlags Display .[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR2 Display .09 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.DS Display .14 MOV ESI.10 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.08 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.FS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.13 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR0 Display .20 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.0 .EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.18 MOV ESI.

Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 .CALL DispRegs RETN .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .============================================== .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1. Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. This is for Debugger Register display .========================================================================== .

did they exit with CR? .Goto Query Line . PUSH EAX .Ignore error if any MOV AL.length of string .Max size LEA EAX.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . PUSH EAX .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Crnt size PUSH 8 .0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1.ptr to string . . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX. DbgBuf2 .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX... dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .Convert String to DD . cbBufLen2 . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. dbgChar .=========================== . 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX. 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone . dbgChar CMP AL. .ptr to destination DD .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Go home.=========================== .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. PUSH EAX .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.

dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h ..ptr to string . LEA EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS . 4 .Ignore error if any MOV AL. dbgChar CMP AL.Go home. PUSH EAX . PUSH EAX .convert address to text LEA EAX..did they exit with CR? . dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Crnt size PUSH 8 . DbgBuf2 . dbgSpace MMURTL V1.Convert String to DD . 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. PUSH EAX . dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. 6 LEA EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .length of string .0 .Goto Query Line . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. 24 .Max size LEA EAX.number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! .ptr to destination DD . dbgChar .PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. cbBufLen2 . 0 JNE DumpDone .

ignore error .make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.0 .display 2st byte . dbgBuf ADD EAX.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. dbgBuf . dbgfDumpD .Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 JE DumpB .get dump address MOV EAX.point to second 2 bytes . dbgDumpAdd . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.ignore error . display 1 space .go to display bytes LEA EAX.Display 1 spaces .Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.NO . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1.Display First byte . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL. [EBX] . dbgBuf ADD EAX.

ignore error LEA EAX.Yes .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 . 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .ignore error . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut . dbgCont .display 4th byte .Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX. dbgCRLF .Query XY PUSH dbgX .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 .go back for next 4 bytes . DEC dbgGPdd1 . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX. LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .done with 4 quads?? .NO .ignore error .0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS .Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.NO .a space .size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.

dbgGPdd2 EDX. 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . 1Bh .=========================== .line we are one . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Convert Exch number for display .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Col dbgGPdd1 .First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . PUSH 54 .Displays exchanges that are allocated along with . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 . .MOV EAX.Col PUSH 0 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. 0FFh . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch .Do CR/LF 0 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Exch# we are on .prgExch .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. . 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX.Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX.Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX. 0 RETN . sEXCH EDX EDX. Exch number . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1. 1 .

Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .EDX MOV dbgGPdd3.. Go check for tasks . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX.ADD EAX. [EAX+EHead] .pMsg -> EBX 20 . . .Get dMsg1 .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5. 0 . [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX. [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Convert dMsg1 . EAX MOV EBX. EAX MOV EAX.Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Get dMsg2 .Save dMsg2 . [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. but would be confusing later. . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .MsgFlag -> EBX .Yes. EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.0 . Go to next Exch .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) .Is is NIL (no msg or task)? . .pMsg -> EBX . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6.Is is 1 (a message)? .See if there is a first message MOV EAX.Could have left it on stack. . [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Flag to indicate we are doing messages . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. MOV EAX."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1.Save for loop .No.Convert Job Number 10 .For next msg in chain (if it exists) .Col dbgGPdd1 . .pExch -> EAX . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. . [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX.Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX OR EBX. .

pTSS -> EBX . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Col 24 . . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS .Clear pNextTask . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone . nDynEXCH . 31 . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 .No .See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. EAX AX.Col . .Next line please .Line OFFSET dbgCont . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX.Is is 0 (no TSS)? .Get Number of Task at exch .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. MOV EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Convert Task Number 1 .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . INC dbgGPdd1 .Line . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. EAX EAX. All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 . 23 .Save ptr to next task if it exists .pExch -> EAX . [EBX+TSSNum] .Lop off key status bytes . MOV EAX.Line OFFSET dbgBuf . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 .0 . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone . 0FFh CMP EAX.

EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: . We are on line 1 again .line we are one . .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX. Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.for the next one dbgDT01: . MMURTL V1. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 . 0 RETN .=========================== .Col PUSH 0 .No .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.If not. dbgGPdd2 EAX.Tasks . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX.Messages INC dbgGPdd2 . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) .Line for labels . Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.First we get pTSS and see if it is valid . OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .If so. 2 dbgDT03 EBX.Another pointer in the link? . Task number .Set up to loop for next msg/task . 1 dbgDT02 EBX. Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . nDynEXCH . EAX.We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. we increment TSS number and go back . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX.0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS .Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . 1 . PUSH 54 .line.Displays Tasks that are active along with . .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . .Length of message .NonZero if we are doing tasks .Col . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . 1 . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX.

DDtoHex 10 .Col dbgGPdd1 .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6.Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array . [EBX+Priority] . 512 ECX EBX.0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 . [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . MOV CL.Col dbgGPdd1 . EAX MOV EBX. JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. EBX . 8 .EAX has pJCB OR EAX. go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.back for next one dbgDT05: .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX. [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX. 8 .EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . . ECX .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf . DDtoHex 20 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf . nTSS .Not used.TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgGPdd4 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . EAX .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . EAX .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX.Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.of TSSs . ECX MOV EAX.EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5.Save pJCB for display . dbgGPdd2 .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: . dbgGPdd3 .

Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . dbgGPdd6 .Save number to display MMURTL V1. 0FFh . . 1Bh .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. Call with: .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .Line OFFSET dbgCont .Save it for the top MOV EAX. EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . continue prompt dbgDT01 .Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 .go for next Task number .No.Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. 31 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .====================================================================== . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. DDtoHex 40 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.Yes. DDtoHex 30 . 0 RETN . 8 . 23 . MOV EAX. We save all registers cause the vid calls don't . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. This is for Debugger Address Info display .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . . go back for next 0 . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf .Col 24 . 8 .

OFFSET DbgM8 .OFFSET DbgM5 . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.ptr to line .Do it .OFFSET DbgM9 .MonTSS MOV EAX. rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1.RdyQ LEA EAX.Vid Attribute . rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.SVCs LEA EAX.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS . prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.RQBs MOV EAX.Length of line .LBs LEA EAX.pTSS3 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM6 .Exchs MOV EAX.Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI. pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM0 .OFFSET DbgM1 .JCBs MOV EAX. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .OFFSET DbgM4 . IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.=============================================== .IDT LEA EAX. OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .OFFSET DbgPA .OFFSET DbgM3 . pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.GDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM2 .DbgInfo .OFFSET DbgM7 .PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX. GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.

All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.areas are resrved for the menu.OFFSET DbgMB .This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. and line 0 to 24. . query line. .Lines 0-23 1 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY. . The other .0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .Yes. .and the register display. 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . we scroll up the text area by one line.No.between colums 0 and 66.ignore error RETN .===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1.Timer Blocks LEA EAX.======================================================= . rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN . go back for next key 0 .======================================================= . Line 0-24) 0 66 .Clear the query line (Line 23. Scroll test area (Col 0-64.Col 0.Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 . 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 .MOV ESI.Query XY (See what line and Col) . Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN .Columns 0-65 24 .Got to Column 0.If so. Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .

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They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. in addition to those in the code itself. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. S8 *pDCBs. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. unsigned long int). In fact. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). U32 dfReplace). This seems to be the best. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. U32 nDevices.g.Chapter 24. They were designed that way. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. this device driver should work with MFM drives. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. but I try not to. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. many device drivers are written in C. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers.1. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers. See listing 24. Time was the deciding factor. The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. but I think you're OK. Listing 24. Comments. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . There are no include files. If you have MFM drives. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. All of the hardware commands are well documented.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). you're on your own.1. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway.. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. though I would rather have done them in assembler.

InWords(U32 dPort. U32 count). static void hd_reset(void). S8 *pIRQ). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. U8 InByte(U16 wPort).. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U8 *pDataRet). U32 dnBlocks. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. U32 HdSect. /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice.. U8 *pDestination. static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 nBlks). U32 dnBlocks).). U32 msg1. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 *pMsgRet). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. I needed a method to get data to the screen. U32 dBytes). U32 msg2). U16 wPort). static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U8 *pDataIn).2. U32 *pMsgRet).2. void OutWord(U16 Word. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U16 wPort). . U32 msg2). You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. U32 msg1. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dOpNum. static U32 send_command(U8 parm). static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 dLBA. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). See listing 24. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). While writing the operating system. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataIn. U32 dBytes). static U32 check_busy(void). static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U8 *pDataOut). U8 *pDataOut. /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U32 dnBlocks.0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 dnBlocks. OutWords(U32 dPort. U32 dBytes). MMURTL V1. Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. U16 InWord(U16 wPort).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). static U32 hd_wait (void). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. Listing 24. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). It's called xprintf(). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch.

S8 * pStatRet. S8 *pInitData.. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. U32 *pdSatusRet). U32 sdInitData). hddev_stat(U32 dDevice..0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. U32 dStatusMax.U8 static U32 *pData).

command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 . This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 . wait 50us. and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS . Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives.16 bit) 1 .Set. Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.error register (1F1h) 2 .sector count (1F2h) 3 . can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1. head and Sector number. then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag.16 bit) 1 ..pre-comp (1F1h) 2 . Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy.high cyl (1F5h) 6 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver.read data (1F0h .sector number (1F3h) 4 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .write data (1F0h .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 . Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.high cyl (1F5h) 6 .sector number (1F3h) 4 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .

Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller.which head */ hd_nsectors. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Calculated from LBA . hd1_type. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. If I did one member. /* Current Physical Drive.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 24. /* Calculated from LBA . Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. hd0_secpertrk.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. */ /* Current number of heads. fDataReq. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. statbyte. hd0_heads. hd_control. cylinders. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. hd1_secpertrk. See listing 24. /* Current Command */ hd_drive.3. hd1_heads. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. hd0_cyls.3.

#define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. fIntOnReset. U32 nBlocks. U32 BlocksMax. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. 32 bytes out to here. LastStatByte0. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. S16 wJob. LastStatByte1. ResetStatByte. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. S8 *pDevSt. MMURTL V1. LastRecalErc1. LastErcByte0. U32 OS6. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. }. S16 nBPB. LastSeekErc0. }. U32 OS4. filler1. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. U8 fSingleUser. U32 OS2. /* Number of bytes per sect. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. U8 type_now. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2].static U16 hd1_cyls. U32 OS5. LastSeekErc1. U32 blocks_done. U8 fNewMedia. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. U8 fDevReent. S8 type. S8 sbName. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. LastErcByte1. S8 *pDevInit. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. S8 *pDevOp. U32 OS1. U32 OS3.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. U32 last_erc.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS .

nBPB hdcb[1]. static U32 hd_msg2. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024.Name[2] hdcb[0].pDevOp hdcb[1].2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc. hd1_cyls = 1024.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . 'D'.nBPB hdcb[0].pDevInit hdcb[1]. 524288. 'H'. 1. 524288. /* largest device handled . /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17. /* largest disk handled .4. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read.4. &hddev_init. 3.sbName hdcb[0]. this would be the main() section of the C source file. 'D'. In a loadable driver.Name[1] hdcb[0]. hd1_secpertrk = 17. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A).2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. 3. '0'. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19).pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. 1.Name[1] hdcb[1]. /* Random */ 512. &hddev_stat.nBlocks hdcb[1]. '1'. static long HDDInt. static U32 hd_msg.nBlocks hdcb[0].Name[0] hdcb[1]. See listing 24. MMURTL V1.type hdcb[0]. Listing 24./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch.type hdcb[1]. &hddev_stat. /* Random */ 512. hd1_heads = 16. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0].Name[2] hdcb[1].sbName hdcb[1]. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver.pDevOp hdcb[0].pDevInit hdcb[0]. &hddev_init.Name[0] hdcb[0].pDevSt hdcb[1].

The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). &hdisk_isr).erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). They vary from BIOS to BIOS. */ hd_reset(). */ hd_reset(). but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah.last_erc = erc.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). erc = hd_recal(0).last_erc = erc. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning. hd1_type = 0. /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). but they don't. UnMaskIRQ(14). */ /* Reset the HDC . It seems like a lot of work. We have to do it once. then try both physical drives. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. } } /* if we got here. */ erc = hd_recal(0). /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0.0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). SetIRQVector(14. We have to make this sucker work the hard way. hd0_type = 0. MMURTL V1. If the second drive is not there. They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register.

/* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. MicroDelay(4). EndOfIRQ(14). 2. UnMaskIRQ(14). /* 200ms . } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. ISendMsg(hd_exch. } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple.ResetStatByte = statbyte. 1)). if (i) hdstatus. This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. hdcb[0]. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. OutByte(4. This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. It just waits for an interrupt.erc = hd_recal(0). HD_REG_PORT). else hdstatus. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1.fIntOnReset = 0. This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. 0xfffffff0). HDDInt = 1.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . &hdcb. HD_REG_PORT).seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i.last_erc = erc. The caller should call check_busy and check the error. &hd_msg). Sleep(20).fIntOnReset = 1. 0xfffffff0.

/* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady).5. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange.3 seconds. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. nSectors. Listing 24. Sleep(5). /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. hd_Cmd[4] = 0. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). /* set max heads. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk.).5. erc = hd_wait(). return(erc). } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). hd_Cmd[3] = 0. See listing 24. etc.0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). check_busy(void) count = 0. sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads.

if (!erc) erc = hd_wait().0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . Time-out and return if no interrupt. KillAlarm(hd_exch). 300). /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL). if (drive) hdstatus. &hd_msg). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1.LastRecalErc1 = erc. /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). KillAlarm(hd_exch). } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur.LastRecalErc0 = erc. hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. return(erc). else hdstatus. if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). return(ok). /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch.

if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. HD_PORT+6). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. HD_PORT+7). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). msg[2]. write. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). setupseek(U32 dLBA. HD_PORT+1). format.alarm or int messages before we send a command. /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). return(erc). *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. HD_PORT+4). HD_PORT+5).0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . &msg) == 0). if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. hd_nsectors = nBlks. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). seek). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. HD_PORT+3). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. HD_REG_PORT). verify. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). U16 cyl. } erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+2). MMURTL V1. OutByte(hd_control.

/* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk.. } = = = = = nBlks. j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk).. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff./* we now know what cylinder. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). /* hd_sector. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. /* cyl & 0xff. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. 1).LastSeekErc0 = erc. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . hdstatus. return(erc). if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent.

} return(erc). } else { erc = check_busy().LastErcByte0 = errbyte.U8 statbyte. After all. */ erc = check_busy(). else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). else hdstatus. else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. else hdstatus. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok.LastErcByte1 = errbyte.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (hd_drive) hdstatus. MMURTL V1. errbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. default: break. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. if (hd_drive) hdstatus.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. he interrupted us with status. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). break. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. else return(erc). else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. else return(erc).

0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . dnBlocks). erc = setupseek(dLBA. nSoFar. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc.nBPB. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). nBPS). and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. } } return(erc). erc = check_busy(). /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). U32 dnBlocks. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. --nleft. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. nSoFar++. pDataOut+=nBPS. pDataRet. } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. erc = setupseek(dLBA. nleft. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). dnBlocks).nBPB. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. hd_sector. pDataRet+=nBPS.else erc = ErcBadHDC. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. nBPS. nBPS). } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. nBPS. U32 dnBlocks. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. hd_sector. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. pDataOut. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0.

U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. return(erc). pDataOut. pDataOut+=nBPS. HD %d. hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. /* hd_sector. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. nBPS). erc = hd_wait().erc = hd_wait(). hd_sector). hd_head. U16 cyl. cyl = Cylinder. cyl. return(erc). nSoFar++. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. /* cyl & 0xff. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. dnBlocks). Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. erc = setupseek(dLBA. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. head and Sector number. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. SEC %d\r\n". Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. U32 HdSect. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT).0 -404- .

” discussed device driver interfaces. pDataRet. For Hard disk. U32 dOpNum. U32 dLBA. erc = hd_wait().erc = send_command(HDC_READ). erc = 0. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). Listing 24. “Programming Interfaces. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. return(erc). if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. } Chapter 8. else hd_drive = 1. See listing 24. 12=0 and 13=1. 512). /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface.blocks_done = 0.6. U32 dnBlocks. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. &hd_msg). *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. MMURTL V1. } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus.6.

/* Null Command */ break. default: erc = ErcBadOp. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). dnBlocks. break. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. S8 * pStatRet. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported.last_erc = erc.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. break. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. */ break. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. pData). case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. pData). break. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. break. dnBlocks. erc = 0. break.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. pData). dnBlocks). return(erc). This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. dnBlocks. break. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. pData). dnBlocks. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. U32 dStatusMax.

*******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice.last_erc. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat). hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[1]. hdstatus.type_now = hd0_type.nBPB.nCyl = hd1_cyls. The DCB values are updated if this is successful. hdstatus. pStatRet.erc = hdcb[1].last_erc. hdstatus. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.{ U32 i.erc = hdcb[0]. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.nBPB. } /* Calculate size of status to return. hdstatus. else i = sStatus.nCyl = hd0_cyls. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. hdstatus. hdstatus. hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[0]. return ok. i). CopyData(&hdstatus.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk.nHead = hd1_heads. hdstatus. S8 *pInitData. *pdStatusRet = i. hdstatus.nHead = hd0_heads. } else { hdstatus.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS .type_now = hd1_type.). Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax.

/* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. } hdcb[hd_drive]. hdcb[hd_drive]. else hd_drive = 1.nCyl * HDStatTmp.last_erc = erc.{ U32 erc. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp.nHead.nCyl. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.type_now. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive). update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive].0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS .nSectors. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp.nSectors. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. } /* If no error. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1.nSectors * HDStatTmp.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. hdcb[hd_drive]. CopyData(pInitData. /* If no error. &HDStatTmp. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. else i = sdInitData.nHead. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive).last_erc = 0.nBPS. i). return(erc).nHead. erc = 0.nBPB = HDStatTmp. i.type_now. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp.nCyl. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp.

the driver. as well as status. unsigned long RBufSize. */ It's opened by someone else. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. unsigned long Baudrate.7.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. unsigned long XTimeOut.. Listing 24. “MMURTL Sample Software. MMURTL V1. 150 . other than that. or 16550 UARTs. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. unsigned long IOBase. unsigned long LastErc. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file... unsigned long LastTotal. 16450. which is a block oriented random device. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned long XBufSize. unsigned char stopbits. unsigned char databits.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. and this driver.38400 */ Parity for this port. as well as by the driver itself. which is a sequential byte-oriented device. it is a fully functional driver.. See listing 24. 0=none.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. */ It's already open. They are two different animals with the same basic interface..0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. 1=even. unsigned long RTimeOut. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. It needs more work.. unsigned char IRQNum. but. RS-232. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. unsigned char parity. unsigned long resvd[6].7. */ 150-38400 */ 0. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port.

RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232.8. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. All other command are specific to this driver. U32 nPages). extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U8 **ppMemRet). U32 dfReplace).0 *pIRQ). S8 *pDCBs. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet).}. Listing 24.8. you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. S8 MMURTL V1. U32 nDevices. See listing 24.

U32 msg2). U32 sdInitData). U32 dLBA. U32 msg1. U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). U32 msg2). U32 *pdStatusRet). void OutByte(U8 Byte. static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 dOpNum. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. U32 count). extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). These will be called form the device driver interface. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dStatusMax. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. set and reset signal line condition and functions. */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. S8 *pMsgRet). U8 InByte(U16 wPort). #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. /* local prototypes. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). U32 dnBlocks. U32 dBytes). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDestination.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . U32 msg1. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U16 wPort). U8 *pData). S8 *pStatRet. S8 *pInitData.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum).

int_id[2]. LSR[2]. FCR[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. cSendBuf[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. sSendBuf[2]. IIR[2]. head_recv[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. tail_send[2]. MCR[2]. MSR[2]. fExpectInt[2]. tail_recv[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS .H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1.#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. IER[2]. LCR[2]. stat_byte[2]. head_send[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. cRecvBuf[2]. mstat_byte[2]. DLAB_LO[2].

\ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -. 0.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -. \___________ = 0.4 chars 11 .Interrupt Enable. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24. Listing 24. RX data. 1 = Multichar 0. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0.2 chars 10 .0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS . FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 .1 char 01 .9. Divisor Latch LSB IER -.TX data. MMURTL V1. I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char.

Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints.10. See listing 24. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2].Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1. Listing 24. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter. MMURTL V1. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -.10.H. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -. static struct statRecC *pCS.

S8 *pDevSt.Name[2] MMURTL V1.Name[0] comdcb[0]. U32 OS3.12. = 'O'. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. U32 OS1. U32 nBlocks. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. See listing 24. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver.11. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600. Listing 24. This means it's ready for business. and they are contiguously defined. = 'M'. U32 last_erc.Name[1] comdcb[0]. S8 *pDevOp. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. Note that there are two of DCB’s. U32 OS6. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12].This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. See listing 24. U32 OS5. S8 type. One for each channel. S16 nBPB.0 = 'C'. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc.11. U32 OS4. /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void). -415- RICHARD A BURGESS .12. static void interrupt comISR1(void). 8N1. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts. S8 fSingleUser. as is required by MMURTL. Listing 24. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. }. U32 OS2. S8 fDevReent. S16 wJob. S8 sbName. S8 *pDevInit.

'2'. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. comstat[1].Name[0] comdcb[1]. = 1.parity comstat[1]. 2.nBlocks comdcb[0]. 3. 'M'. /* none */ = 8.IOBase = comstat[1].Name[1] comdcb[1]. 4.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'.Name[2] comdcb[0].sbName comdcb[1]. &comdev_init. 'O'.stopbits comstat[0]. MaskIRQ(4). /* Sequential */ 1. SetIRQVector(3.pDevInit comdcb[0]. &comISR0). /* 1 byte per block */ 0. = 4096. = 4096. &comdev_stat.RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096. &comISR1).pDevOp comdcb[0]. &comdcb. = 0. /* 1 byte per block */ 0. /* none */ = 8. /* COM1 */ /* COM2 */ = 9600.XTimeOut comstat[0].stopbits comstat[1]. 4. 2. return(erc = InitDevDr(5.type comdcb[1]. 0x2F8.Baudrate comstat[1]. sRecvBuf[0] = 4096.RTimeOut comstat[0].0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS .IRQNum = comstat[0]. = 2.databits comstat[0].IOBase = comstat[0]. = 100. = 4096. 4. &comdev_init. &comdev_stat.Name[2] comdcb[1].sbName comdcb[0].XBufSize comstat[1]. = 0. 0x3F8. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. /* Set default comms params in stat records */ comstat[0].nBPB comdcb[1].pDevSt comdcb[1].Name[2] comdcb[1]. 'C'.parity comstat[0].XTimeOut comstat[1].RTimeOut comstat[1]. = 2. MaskIRQ(3). sRecvBuf[1] = 4096. SetIRQVector(4.XBufSize comstat[0].type comdcb[0].Baudrate com