MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.........................................................14..................................................308 TIMER CODE ... Adding a run of linear memory...............................................................................................................................316 Listing 20..........312 Listing 20.........................................................................................................13.........................................289 Listing 19....................................................316 Listing 20......................................................................... Code for the KillAlarm function.....................................................................................12.............................................................................................................................................305 Listing 19...........................................................13....307 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................316 Beep()................................................... Loop in timer ISR .............................................................................................................................................................317 MMURTL V1...................................301 Listing 19.......................................................................9.........................................................317 Listing 20.....................................25.... Code to alias memory ...........................................................................305 CHAPTER 20..........................................................................................................................24..............23............. Deallocating linear memory...................................................................303 Listing 19.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Adding a page table for user memory..........................291 AddUserPT ...........................................303 QueryMemPages....................................................................307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL ...309 Sleep() ............317 Listing 20..................................................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to produce a tone .............................................................................................................................................................................................................307 TIMER DATA ............. External functions for timer code .................................................................313 GetCMOSTime() .................................................................................................................................................. Adding an operating system page table .....................................314 GetCMOSDate() ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................313 Listing 20.................. Code to remove alias PTEs.........................................................................................................................................................................................................315 GetTimerTick()............................................. Adding entries to the IDT ................ TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE ...............................309 Listing 20......................................................................................................291 Listing 19................................................................................................315 Listing 20..................................................309 The Timer Interrupt ........................................................ Code to read the CMOS time.............................................307 Listing 20...............................................................................................................................................................314 Listing 20..................299 Listing 19............................................................................................... Code to find a free run of linear memory.........5..............297 Listing 19.......298 AliasMem ......11.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ........................................311 Listing 20..................312 Listing 20............................................................316 Beep_Work() .................................... Allocating a page of linear memory........... Code to find number of free pages.....................................293 AddOSPT ......... Adding a call gate to the GDT .................................7.......16.... Code for the Sleep function ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code to read the CMOS date ............................................290 AddAliasRun ..................288 Listing 19...................................317 Tone()..............312 KillAlarm()................................................ Code for the MicrDelay function .........................................17............296 AddIDTGate.........................................................................................................................................................................293 Listing 19............................18................ Public for linear to physical conversion..299 DeAliasMem...................................................... Code to return the timer tick ............................................................................................15...................................................................................................304 GetPhyAdd ......................................................................................21.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................296 Listing 19....................... Code for the Alarm function ..........294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ........................................................................................................................297 AllocOSPage..................1.................................................................................. Code to produce a beep..............................................FindRun ....................................20.................................311 Alarm().....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................296 AddGDTCallGate ..............2.......304 Listing 19............................................................................................22..............................................................................................................................3.........................................................................301 DeAllocPage ...........................313 MicroDelay() ..........294 Listing 19.....................19....... The timer interrupt service routine ................................................... Data and constants for timer code......8.........10.......................................................................................................................308 Listing 20...................................14.....................................4.........0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS ..........................................................................................309 Listing 20....................................................................................298 Listing 19...................................................................................................................................................................288 AddRun .............6............

............................................................................................................................................ 410 Listing 24.........................................................12...... 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ..................................................................................................... Initialize call gates amd the IDT........................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) ........................................... Keyboard Data and Tables ......... 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ........................................................................... 365 Listing 23............................................... DEBUGGER CODE ...................................... OS Initialization Code and Entry Point................................................................................................................................................................................. 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING ....................................................................................................................................................................................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) ...................................................................1..................................................................... 413 Listing 24...... End of Initialization Code................ KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE............................... 389 Listing 24... 398 Listing 24................................................................................ 395 Listing 24............................................................................... 393 Listing 24.................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS .................................................................................... 344 Listing 22.......... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) ................................................................................................................................................5.........c source code............... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ................... 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ............... 390 Listing 24....... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ...........................................10............... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE .................................4........................................................ Job Management Subroutines........................................4.............7................................ 438 Listing 25...6.................. Main Operating System Data ........................................................................................ 328 Listing 21.............. 409 Listing 24...........1................................................................................................................................................................................ 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT .................................. 344 CHAPTER 23...................5.............................. 319 Listing 21............................................................................ 326 Listing 21.................................................................. Continuation of OS initialization................... 337 INTRODUCTION ..........................................11..... Keyboard Translation Code.................... 429 Listing 25................................................................................... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA .............................................................................................................................. 415 Listing 24................................................................................................................................................ 337 Listing 22................. 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES .....................................................................................................................2.....................................7............................... 389 Listing 24......... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Initialization Subroutines..................2...................................14...... 321 Listing 21................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ...............2............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 319 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 389 INTRODUCTION .......... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)........................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ........... Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger............................................................... 438 Reading the Final Buffer ................ 424 CHAPTER 25................................................................. 429 INTRODUCTION .......................3............................................. 321 Listing 21................................................................................................... 331 CHAPTER 22.... 417 Listing 24.9...................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) .4.................... 442 MMURTL V1....3................................................... JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ............................. Continuation of OS initialization........ 366 CHAPTER 24....1..................................................................................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ...... 409 Listing 24.................................................................................................. Keyboard ISR Code.................................... 366 Listing 23.................................................0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ......... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ............................................................................................................................................................. 436 Keyboard ISR.............................................................................................................h Header File ........................................................... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER......................................................... 436 Listing 25.....2.................. 325 Listing 21.........................................................................8.......................... 442 Listing 25................. 365 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................3.......................................................................................................1...................................... Debugger Data and Code......................2..........CHAPTER 21.................... 429 KEYBOARD DATA...... RS-232................................................................................6............................................................................................................................................................................................................. SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE.............. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) .... 436 Keyboard Translation..................................................... 327 Listing 21.............................................................................................. 429 KEYBOARD CODE .........1............................. 415 Listing 24.....13................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Read Keyboard Buffer Code ... Jobc................................................ INITIALIZATION CODE .. 414 Listing 24..........................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................5..........................................................................................................457 THE VIDEO CODE .........................468 Listing 26........... Code to Set Cursor Position..............................................541 Errors Only Option ................................................................................................................................458 Listing 26..........................10.........................................................................................................................6.............................................................................................450 Listing 25................................................................................................... Keyboard system service code............................................0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ...10..................................541 Command Line Options ................................................................458 Listing 26....................................... Code to set Normal Video Attribute ........................................................................................................................................... FILE SYSTEM CODE..474 Listing 27.................9.............1.....................474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ...................................................................1......................................................................................................................................The Keyboard Service ...............................................................466 Listing 26................................................... Code to Clear the Screen ..6..............................................................................................473 Logical Block Address (LBA)......540 Listing 28..7......................457 Listing 26........ Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ................................................................................................................................. Video constants and data ...................5........ Code to Edit a Line on the Screen...........469 Listing 26.............................................................................13..................................................... VIDEO CODE ............................................................................ Code to Initialize Video ..... Code to Get the Current Video Owner......................................................443 Listing 25.................................................................................1...........................464 Listing 26................................................................... Code to get the Normal Video Attribute..............................................................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization ........................................................................... Code to Screen Video Attributes ........................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up......4.........................................542 MMURTL V1.......................................................................................16.............................................................................................................................539 DASM CONCEPTS ..................................................................9..........................................................................................................457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT .472 CHAPTER 27.............................................15......................................................................................................452 Hardware Helpers ....542 Device Drivers .....................................................................................................540 Listing 28...................................................452 Listing 25..........................................................................................................................................................448 Debugger Keyboard............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position.........................3.......................................459 Listing 26...................................................................................................................473 INTRODUCTION ................................. Debugger Read Keyboard Code ......................................460 Listing 26..473 MS-DOS Boot Sector ........................464 Listing 26....................................................... Simple Application Template File .................. Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen .....................................................................................................................................12.............................. MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ..........................453 CHAPTER 26....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Low-level Keyboard Control Code............................................................................................................................................................................................................451 Listing 25...........................................................................................................................................................8...457 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................11........................ Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen................................................................................................................................ Code to Return Current Cursor Position ..............................462 Listing 26.......................................474 File System Initialization ....................................................................................................................................443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ..............................448 Listing 25.....473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers....................................................................................................................................2...539 USING DASM...........7................8......................................................................................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT ...............................................................................................2............................... Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ..............................460 Listing 26........................................ DASM.....................453 Listing 25...................................................................................14...................................................... Code to Set the Video Owner ..................................................................................................542 Dynamic Link Libraries .....................541 List File Option ................... Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call ..........................................................................................................................................................................................473 Hidden Sectors......... A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................540 Application Template File............................................................................. Code to Get a Character and Attribute........................................................................ A More Complicated Template File ..................................................................................................................................................474 CHAPTER 28........461 Listing 26...........................................................................................................................................468 Listing 26...465 Listing 26.................................461 Listing 26........................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ......................................................539 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................... Keyboard Service Initialization ...................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................... 562 Variable Length Argument Lists ...... 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS ..................................... 565 Structure Limitations .....................................................................................................................................................................................3............................................................................................. 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ............................................................................................................................ 542 DASM Program Structure ................................................................................ 543 DOT Commands ................................... 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ......................... 570 Listing 29................................................................................................. 548 Labels and Address.............................................. 569 Library Code Examples ...................................................................................................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations .................. 568 Command Line Options .................................................................. 568 USING CM32..................... Supported Library Functions ......................CD-ROM CONTENTS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 570 Listing 29............3 .............................................................................................Supported Instructions ................................. 562 Interrupt Functions... 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES .......................... 563 Library Header File Access................................................................................................................................... 545 Storage Declarations..................................................................... CM32.. 579 INDEX ................................................................................................................ Standard file I/O for MMURTL ..................................2........ 547 DF (Define Far Word) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 559 CHAPTER 29......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 542 Memory Model.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 547 DW (Define Word) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Alternating data and code in a template file ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 545 Table 28................................... 566 Initialization of Static Variables ......................................................................... 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ................................................................................................................................................................Tag Usage ......................... 569 Listing 29...........2 ......................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ...................................................... 561 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DB (Define Byte)......... 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 558 Your Own Assembler? .......... 565 Far External Functions ......................... 548 PUBLIC Declarations............................................................................................................................................ 565 Type Conversion and Pointers.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 548 EXTRN Declarations................................................. 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ...................DASM Source Files ................................................................. 556 Tag Descriptions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 FAR Calls ............................................. 555 Table 28.......................................................... 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information............................................................................... A 32-BIT C COMPILER ................................................................1 ............................................................................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ........................ 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses .................................................................................................................1................................................................... 543 Listing 28............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET ....................................................................... 552 Table 28............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 581 MMURTL V1....................................................................................................... Standard String Functions for MMURTL ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 545 DASM Addressing Modes ............................... 575 APPENDIX A -... 568 Library Functions ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ..............................Specifying Memory Operands...............................................................................................................................................................................3................ 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ...........................................................

MMURTL V1.0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .

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Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. In the early days. code. but very light on specifics. they work with them. as viewed by the outside programmer. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. When I started out. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. IBM. I determined the specifications for the final product. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. They use them. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. As coding began." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. I have documented what it takes to really write one. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. I set the ground rules. But I wanted a small API. however. The most obvious of these. portability issues size and speed. or Sun. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. If you're an experienced programmer. not his IQ. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. and the programming interface. are the tasking model. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the.Chapter 1. MMURTL V1. and begin coding. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. Realizing this. You don't need to design your own. I decided what stayed and what went. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. NOT SO FAST THERE. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. It's up to you.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . I would just make a list. That was part of my wish list. When OS/2 was first developed. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. Unfortunately. it's unlikely they'll use it. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. In the case of my own operating system. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. If you write something that no one can use. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. it's a complete system. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. do some research on each of the desirables. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. memory model. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. You. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either).

and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. the memory model. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. programming interfaces. 80486 (486). Priority Interrupt Controller Units. In fact. or all of it if you wish to write your own. and some serious "turbo" modifications. Serial and Parallel Ports. The source code. The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. For this reason. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented. For instance. real-time. This was completely intentional. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). would help me write better application software for it. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. modify. Hardware Timers. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. change it to suit your needs. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. Once again. portability issues. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. or write your own. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. But that's not what this book is about. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. redesign it to meet your requirements. multitasking.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. In my opinion. You may or may not want to do this for your system. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. but it was a "must" for me.0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . I'm sure it won't. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. so I've removed the mystique. Even though they have added speed. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. This was the 16. which I felt. You can use pieces of it. ideas from it. your goals may be different. It clouds far too many real issues these days. size and speed. Throughout this book. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. along with all the tools necessary to build. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. MMURTL V1. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. hardware interface. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). and then finally discuss my code in great detail. a few more instructions. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. they are effectively super-386 processors.to 32-bit jump. message based. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386).

We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks.” Simplicity .” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . If it is another processor. Chapter 5 covers memory management. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. We. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). “Programming Interfaces.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network).Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded. but not all the options. and also what I decided on. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. and for a very good reason. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems. and most of them are grossly under used. Extended. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. I'll discuss some of your options.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . “The Hardware Interface. Power without BLOAT. Real-time operation . is with a procedural interface. you may have a different platform in mind.Not just task switching between programs. We want the system to react to us. MMURTL V1.The ability to react to outside events in real time. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. If you're going to write your own. I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. Client/Server design . I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. Easy programming . A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. If you don't have this requirement. the humans. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. You may start with my list and modify it. How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. the right mix of capability and simplicity. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). Message agents could be added to any platform. but real multi-threading .Keep the system as simple as possible. hardware paging. or start one from scratch. yet powerful enough to get the job done. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). UMBs. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice.” Protection from other programs . I also wanted to maintain a small..The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry. but I don't recommend it. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). “The Hardware Interface.But not the programmer.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. “Programming Interfaces. calling conventions. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking .” and chapter 8. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model).. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed. I discuss this in chapter 6. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. General Discussion and Background. such as C or Pascal. and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. or maybe a little less? Of course. LIM. are outside events. I use the stack. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems. YOURMOTHERSMEM. I didn't want to do this. Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . and what my end result was. Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed .The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. HIMEM.My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. if we knew how. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. LOMEM.

If you don't want to start from scratch. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. nor is it intended to directly replace them. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. I'm sure. In the educational field. and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. If you don't like my acronym. I put together my own operating system. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. but only a distant cousin. or use any of the tools I included. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. no doubt. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. Dedicated. and the initialization entry point jumped to.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. expand it to your heart's desire. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. be of value in your other programming projects as well. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. Then again. MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. or for general reference. x86/Pentium processors. If you intend to run MMURTL. If you're not worried about memory consumption. even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. Real-Time. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. and 64K of data). Message based. the code. Multitasking. Real-Time. And of course. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). the tools. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). make up your own! But. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. kerneL. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry. MMURTL V1. Sections of the source code will. Yes. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities.

80486. MMURTL V1. The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. and more importantly. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. This includes Cyrix. Pentium.x (IBM). One Megabyte of RAM is required. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver.5" are supported. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required. not at all the same. based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). but a few are not). 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). If yours isn't. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. via the keyboard serial controller (most are. you can change the code as needed. IBM and other clone processors. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). Hence. Note: PCI bus designs work well. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). 2 MB (or more) is recommended. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. IDE is preferred.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. EISA (Ed. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). but only out of convenience. that is. (or even MS-DOS). If you want to run DOS.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. you can ignore this section. eases the development burden. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. No reformatting or partitioning your disks.25" and 3. AMD. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). but still. 8250. Both 5. also – 2000). It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. The processor must be an Intel 80386.

.

MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. and just make it better if you have the desire. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. That was 1989. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. I might add). my reading of various publications and periodicals. I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years.k. has had an effect. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. In Chapter 1. merged). as well what may influence your design. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. client server designs. Borrow from mine. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. I would not let this happen. As you can see. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). improve. however.000. and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. you might not want to).a. Five years later. a. here it is. It does. write your own operating system. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. take away. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. etc. simplified memory management. MMURTL V1. It was a 32-bit system. make a lot of sense. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20.Chapter 2. Every little thing you've run across will. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). In fact. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. It whet my whistle. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system.” I covered what my final design goals were. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. my schooling. for no apparent reason). and borrowed with great respect. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. That worked out just about right.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . Far too often. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. affect its design. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. Burroughs and Sperry.). My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. add. “Overview. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system. no doubt. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here.

Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. and utilities . but as you well know. popular platform. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . I'm not a Borland salesman. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. and a few others.. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms.including assembler.1. but the tools worked. people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. It is just now becoming popular. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. It was limited to the small memory model.0) and later moved to 5. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. maybe. there was no such thing. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's. was a must.. As you may be aware. Again. I really do hate reinventing the wheel. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. or even OS/2. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series.x assembler and 2. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors.x linker. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools. MS-DOS was everywhere. however. There was no turning back. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. Then those were the 2. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. Memory access was limited. I really had no choice. Message-based. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. like a bad virus. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). but the tools just worked better. It can be a little confusing and frustrating.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. however. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. a lure that could not be suppressed. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. The next major decision was the software development environment. in the process of using these other tools.After I got involved with the IBM PC. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. Operating system developers. Of course. In fact. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. I thought about other processors. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems.all but ancient history now.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . at times it was quite difficult. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. but it worked nonetheless. I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. or ported to a system. Once again. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. compiler. It's the place to start.

. To fully understand this. It's simply not needed. That's right. Parameters are passed left to right. and a few other minor utilities. want or need. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller.some tools from the major software vendors. There is no linker. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. TTL. or even port MMURTL to it. as you may understand. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. which is 32 bits for the most part. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. These documents are usually free. IBM published theirs. in which case. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. or may not.). BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. Computer chip manufacturers. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. I plead the "Fifth" on this. It is tied to the internal bus. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. which is fed to the assembler. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. interface design. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. such as Chips & Technologies. DC. but another port is in the works. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. as well as the software control of these devices. Besides.” Assembly language has its place in the world.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . DMA. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". Many different books. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. no linker. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire.. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). Developing this assembler was. documents. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. articles. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. at least. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. SX MMURTL V1. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work. I do so because its bus. etc. in itself. In fact. but I pretty much built from scratch. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. The C compiler produces assembly language. Communications controllers. etc. That set me back four months. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. Needless to say.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. a major task. I think many people started there.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. a disassembler. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. you will need to read chapter 28. and the called function cleans the stack.

I discuss several options you have. I had to meet my design goals. aliasing is also required. But as you may be aware. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait).g.two segments per program and two for the OS. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. no way to get test programs into the system. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. but not a fully segmented model . This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . This easily consumed the first six months. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. OS/2 version 2. If you use Intel-based platforms. It has turned out very nicely. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). This made the IBM designs the natural place to start. All of the early test programs were in assembler. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers. There was no loader. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. This was timeconsuming. etc. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). anyway (e. all implementations of UNIX). but it presented several serious complications. but this is transparent to the programmer.and 16-bit code and data.). The thought was rather sickening. During this time. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. as well as the stack storage. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. even the operating system writer.).machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. you'll be ahead of the game. gentler" environment I was after. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines).x.x. this is a year you won’t have to go through. The segmented memory idea was canned. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. "Thunking" was out of the question. of course. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside.. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. etc. but instead a lean. from a 16-bit code segment. Memory Management. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). anyway. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. This simple model could allocate and manage memory. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. [Thunking is when you interface 32. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. EISA. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. but it's not at as complicated. MMURTL V1. Windows version 3. powerful. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. If you write your own system. all based on their own selectors. It was a "kinder. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. In a paged system. timers. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. as you will see. In chapter 5.

the actual application may not be so important. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. For example. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. It may be RISC. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. Select your hardware platform. the discoveries . and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. Know your desired application. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. memory model and basic programming interface. or how much time you really have to invest. I envy you. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. The Critical Path Along your journey. It will be worth the time spent. but whatever you decide on. But I'll try. But.anything that you think you'll need to remember. Get to know your assemblers. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. If this has never happened to you. "You start here. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. how much knowledge you have. but I'm very serious. and there will also be background noise. you know that certain items in a project must work. and overall program management – as you see fit. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it. but there wasn’t. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. but they just didn't say. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). The level of complexity. you know that it can be a very daunting task. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. will depend on the memory model you choose. get to know it very well.A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. Go for the kernel. This includes the tasking model. This is called the critical path. Investigate your tools. of course. Decide on your basic models. I say this from experience. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. Of course. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. Memory management is next. do it." It is difficult for me to do this also. I have provided such an operating system with this book. You can then “port” the prototype. compilers and utilities. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. Or at least when you get it working. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. There are so many platforms out there. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . you'll NEVER really be done with it. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. garbage collection. Document the problems. This may sound a little humorous. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. I was really interested in communications. you will no doubt find bugs. it may be CISC. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory). In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. hints are about all I CAN give you. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. I'll tell you the easiest. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. MMURTL V1. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. the rest is real work.

Document as you go. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance. It will be blood. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. I write the documentation. Sounds backwards? It is. I moved on from there. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows.” Once satisfied. easily digestible chunks. Good luck. MMURTL V1. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. But really. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two.Working Attitude Set your goals. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. As I mentioned above. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. Work with small. it's worth the time.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . These tools include documentation for the hardware. I lay out my notes for what I want. dependable pickup truck. But don't set them too high. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. it won't be luck. compilers. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. sweat and maybe some tears. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. I had my wish list well in advance. and then I write the code. all the way.

I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. but it is. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly). save its state. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications. MS-DOS TSRs . Generally. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks.This term is not disputed very much. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. If you write your own. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). It shouldn't be. CPU utilization. or at least coming to agreement on them. When a task is suspended from execution. I admit some guilt here too). I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. KERNEL . My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. You may not agree with the definitions. But this is not cast in stone either. however. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. TASK . and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. at least temporarily. Some operating systems call a task a “process." which means communications between tasks. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives.” while others call it a “thread. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. then start another task running.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. coffee and soda spilled on them. This makes it a very small kernel. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system.g. An operating system that you use may be preemptive. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. but doesn't expect the interrupt. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. be specific about it. it’s PREEMPTIVE.Chapter 3.. MMURTL V1. and more specifically. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. After all. Tell the programmers what you mean. Hence.Terminate and Stay Resident programs).” In most instances I call it a TASK. but I hope you will accept them. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING . and most people refer to. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. In other words. In its executable form. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. Some documentation. and I'm not talking about programming languages.

One of my friends suggested the motto. memory management. execute programs as the new users desire. Managing these resources in a simple. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). disk." but needless to say. I deal with one user at a time. It may have memory assigned to it. comms programs). These are the real resources. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. when the mission was accomplished. You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. "Everything should be as simple as possible. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. This is its only real purpose in life. In each case. then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. But in almost all of these systems. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. Input/Output (I/O) devices. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. Consider your resources when planning your operating system.In other words. Interrupt Controller Units. On the other hand. rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. but it may not be so easy for you. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . Single vs. keyboard. you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. and some are user-oriented software. each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). keeping track of tasks is no simple “task.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). etc. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run. and why. Quite obviously. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users.). Tasks crash. In other words. including video. Task Management Tasks begin. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. Multitasking. or even network connections for logons. Nor did I want it to be. Tasks end.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. When I wrote these programs.” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. it didn't sit too well with me. Single User. and hardware (Timers. but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). or the user was done. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. How tasks are handled. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. You may MMURTL V1. If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. "simple software for simple minds. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. good old Albert). Some are communications programs (FAX software. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. DMA. These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment.

Then I asked. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. We were each getting a piece of the pie. The CPU takes care of it for you. Yet. MMURTL V1. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. but an important one. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. It was crude.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. it was a breeze. The software state can consist of almost nothing. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. albeit not a very big piece it seemed. This is where the hardware-state is saved. I had my very own processor. This will be the heart and brains of the system. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system. When you change tasks. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program. this is usually a no-brainer. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing.want to deal with many. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. It's actually easier than it sounds. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. but effective. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. When you restore a task. In a multitasking operating system. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. In the case of hardware interrupts. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. it would seem to return at its leisure. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. If you must do it yourself. My first programs were written with that attitude. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. Microcomputers spoiled me. "It's 11:00PM. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch.

there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. however. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. or to pause when it has nothing to do. In a single tasking operating system. They can. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. if necessary. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). interrupt servicing. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. management of CPU time is easy. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. 10ths of seconds or even seconds. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available." From there. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs. It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. In this case.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution.I'm done with the CPU for now. Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. and basic input/output. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. For instance. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. In fact. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. "Hey . An important point here is that in a cooperative system. Cooperative and Preemptive. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day.Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. This can be for a number of reasons. And yes. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. Meanwhile. do an adequate job in many cases. This may be in milliseconds. and in some cases. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. which I cover in this chapter. In many single tasking systems. It may not always be obvious when it happens. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). With these calls. you basically have a hardware manager. or a combination of the two. These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal). he then monopolizes the CPU. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. the screen and everything else looks frozen. however. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. you are cooperating with the operating system. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. A task that has the processor gives it up. a single threaded system may be the best solution. MMURTL V1. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task).

the scheduler.. and maybe memory context. As I also mentioned earlier. To expand on that definition. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver. or it may be for something extremely critical. The timer can help determine when to preempt. The currently running task is preempted.g. and maybe (if we're nice) the user. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. On most platforms. quite often. outside events. hardware timer. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. or even a requirement. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. When do we switch tasks. communications device. this adds the requirement of timing. after the interrupt is finished. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). or the operating system from an external device (e. the task that's running. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. the scheduler simply determines who's next. As you can see. Generally. to which task do we switch. or monitoring. connected to the outside world . This is where the scheduling fun really begins. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. it doesn't expect it. In a preemptive system. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O. controlling. is a preemptive system. Most of the time. It does nothing to prepare for it. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. These parties include the programmer. and how long does that task get to run? Who. The next section is the tricky part. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM). However.communicating. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor.). such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). In fully cooperative systems. Also. etc. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. a program. there is going to be a desire. we must now decide which task runs next. When. the entire "state" of your task is not saved.0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. For the preemptive system. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted. MMURTL V1. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. or a few other hardware-related things. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). disk drive. They are also. This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. or after a set period of time. when a task is preempted.

otherwise.all tasks will get the same slice . the one with the highest priority will be executed. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. A simple queuing system suffices. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. When a task's time is up." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. The others may see a slow down. For example. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. Who determines which task gets more time. "a slice of time. it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. This gives the scheduler something to work with. each task gets 25 milliseconds. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. In the simplest time sliced systems. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). This also implies that some may not be ready at all. Time slicing is an old technique. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. it can serve admirably. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. For example. but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. Not quite that simple.and they will be executed in the order they were created.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. But it has some major drawbacks. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. In some systems. In a time sliced preemptive system. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. but it won't be on their terminals. each task will get a fixed amount of time . Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. or how much time there is MMURTL V1.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable.000 burgers. and if a user interface is involved. This is usually not very effective. In a cooperative system. (the others will be flipping 8. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). its complete hardware and software state is saved. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. and the next task in line is restored and executed. only the very highest would ever get to run.

and we want our machines responsive to us.. dependable. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time. We want good.g. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. Thus. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. or the user. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are.to go around on the system. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). The buffer will overflow. come do something with this data before I lose it"). For instance. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. This IS real-time stuff. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. but one channel is handling five times the data. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. clean communications. These are communications and user interface issues. but it makes the point. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. Now. But I opted to "get real" instead. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. Therefore. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. computers are everywhere. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. but it's not dramatic enough. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. In a message based system. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. things are never as simple as they seem.

Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. No doubt. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. although such systems exist. See what works for your applications. you have a few ideas of your own. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. Fully Time Sliced. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. however. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. Time Sliced. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!). More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). all tasks will be scheduled for execution. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. In addition. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. even though these methods are very important. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities.Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. MMURTL V1. all tasks will get to run. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks. But even when the task has nothing to do. A very simple. the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. In this type of system. This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . Users on a larger. it would still be scheduled to execute. Primarily Cooperative. based on the number of tasks scheduled. To be honest. I can't picture a system without it. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. Some Cooperation In this type of model. A task may. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. and even help define the tasking model. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU.

To me. prioritization of tasks is VERY important.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . goes into a "waiting" state. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. Other processors may offer similar options. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted. multitasking. and the next task with the highest priority executes. It's faster – actually. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. This could have presented some protection problems. The timer-interrupt routine. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. I wanted a priority based. which provides a piece of the scheduling function. Go for the fastest option . A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL.Primarily Cooperative. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. timer services. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. real-time operating system. and limit the functionality if at all possible. The less time the better. To briefly explain my tasking model." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. monitors the current task priority. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. file access. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. Keep them short. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time.PERIOD. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. This is a speed issue. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. and no. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. much faster. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. and in reality. For instance. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. or whatever. Limited Time Slicing category. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. After all. In such a system. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time. "Experience is a wonderful thing. preemptive. if you have 256 priorities. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. The task based ISR is slower. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. I never wanted to miss outside events. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium.

(PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. MMURTL V1.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. In a cooperative environment. the problems didn't surface. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes.only the user knows. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. After a period of time has elapsed. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. or Ms. or even possibly the users. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing.management headaches. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. On systems that are primarily time sliced. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. you switch tasks. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. For instance. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. who's to say when Mr.

You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. if it's being allocated). portions of the code will not be reentrant. or is suspended when it can't run. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. nor should they have to. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. Of course. As you will see in this chapter. perform operations on the semaphore structures. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). In other words. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. However.0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system." MMURTL V1. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. On a single CPU. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. As I described in earlier chapters. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. As the name implies. This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. what operation you want to perform. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. where it waits. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. only one task can execute at a time. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). it could cause some serious problems. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier). I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. In operating systems that use semaphores. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important.Chapter 4. An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine.

OpenPipe(). They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). and WritePipe(). These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). but I used a second form of messaging instead. destroy tasks. you should study how they are used on other systems. ReadPipe(). I didn't. tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). such as MMURTL. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. tasks are not wholly independent. As you can see.In most cases. In fact. you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. which will consist of one or more tasks. In fact. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. ClosePipe(). In my system. I refer to a program as a “job. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). or similar ones. a program is made up of one or more tasks. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. In my humble opinion. such as those procedures that create new tasks. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. If you intend to implement semaphores. or schedule tasks for execution. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. In a message-based system. Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you. He or she will make a system call for some resource. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities.). I have added a second. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). etc. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. OS/2. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. OS/2 is one such system.0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . on most real-time operating systems. You will see these commands. public pipes are very handy. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. But once again. This is much more efficient. more powerful.

long dMsgPart2). You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). You can send one way messages to a person. but large enough for a couple of pointers. I called it an Exchange. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. a bin. Now I have some very important terms and functions . Note that my messages are two 32 bit values.it sends a message. for which you expect no response. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. You tell it what exchange. a task is born. and VIOLA. In an operating system's case. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. the message is received right away. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. Zork to forget it. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. but enough that we can talk about them. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. only one task is actually executing instructions. It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). or whatever you call it. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. give it the message and away it goes. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg().functions. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. char *pMsgRet). Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. Not too large to move around. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. SendMsg(). It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. request() and respond(). the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier." This is an example of a one way message. MMURTL V1. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. provide some other pieces of information. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. an exchange point. Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. char *pMsgRet). and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. It returns 0 if all goes well. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. dExch is the destination exchange. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. Now. it's a little more complicated than that. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. long dMsgPart1. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). It does just what it says . The task is the human. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept. I have implemented this as SendMsg(). In MMURTL's case. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. WaitMsg(). If you're lucky. The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. his offer is the pits. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. Consider the phone again. the answering machine is the exchange. Yes. You also need a way to send the message. CheckMsg(). dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. You point to a piece of code. "Tell Mr. such as. In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. SpawnTask().not in detail yet. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. or just about any other name you like. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages).

it's not called the kernel zone. Task2 is higher.. Task2 is still running. I'll try to liven it up some later on. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. Task2 allocates Exch2. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. What it's doing isn't important. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. None are waiting. very small.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. None found.I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task.. Task1 is ready to run. Table 4.). As we move down the table in our example. Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. Just kidding. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running. In this example. Kernel makes Task1 run. It's still task 2. time is passing.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. Table 4. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next. Kernel attaches message to Exch1. You start with a single task executing. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1.

A fully loaded system may have 5. Each time an interrupt occurs.. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. . Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference).1. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. The name must be unique on the machine. The functions and what they do are defined by the service.. They are dedicated types. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system. but the name will always be the same. From the example you can also see that when you send a message.. They are ideal for things like file systems. BBS systems. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. each service installed is given a name. MMURTL V1. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. This can simplify the scheduler. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). unsigned int wSvcCode. If there is a task at the exchange. If there is one. It gives task2 the message. 10 or even 15 system services. When the service is first installed. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. the list could go on and on. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. the receiving task is made to run. In some systems. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. With MMURTL. the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. keyboard input. Each service can provide up to 65. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. This may not work on all types of processors. FAX services. I didn't do this with MMURTL. From the simple example in table 4. This way. e-mail services. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. In fact. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural.0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . there should be a task sitting on the ready queue.the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do.. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. it will be made to run. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. The processing is carried out by the service. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. queued file management. printing services. only the service name. they must be waiting for something.

If you remember. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service.Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. These are documented independently by each service. If this is the response.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. this would be the size (length) of the filename. *pData2 . This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code). long dData2 ). long *pdRqHndlRet. or pData2 to send data to the service. Two questions arise: 1. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). long dData0. In many functions you will not even use pData1.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code). dnpSend would be 1. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . Second. long dStatRet). The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0. The service already knows this. if the request was serviced (with no errors).is the number (0. in the file system OpenFile() function. If it is 80000000h or above. These can never be pointers to data.0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS . dnpSend . *pdRqHndlRet . and dData2 . dcbData1 . There's still a little work to do. Zero (0) usually indicates no error. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). The service name is eight characters. char *pData2SR. long dData1. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). Where is the response data and status code? First. then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill. and spacepadded on the right. They are described below: dRqHndl .This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. dStatRet . Second.Number of the specific function you are requesting. the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. but network transport mechanisms do not.This is the same as dcbData1. you'll need to know which one is responding.How many bytes the pDataSend points to. *pData1 . although its exact meaning is left up to the service. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg(). The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. For instance. wSvcCode .Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). the second dword is the status code or error from the service. This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. long dnpSend char *pData1SR.the status or error code returned to the requester. but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. At first glance. If you made more than one request. it is NOT a response. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). dData0.Pointer to the service name you are requesting.the handle to the request block that the service is responding to. If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. long dcbData1SR. dData1. But. dRespExch . Using the Open File() example. long dcbData2SR. all capitals. The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). dcbData2 . Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl.long dRespExch. This will be explained later in memory management. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something.

Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. As you know. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. but still very important. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX.to read or write data. When each task is done with the allocation routine. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem().it's crash time. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time. but this would slow things down a bit. it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. MMURTL V1. Also. it's a mess. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . it sends back the message so the next task can get in. Not very big. To really understand this issue. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. and show you what can happen. For the sake of understanding this. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. checks the semaphore. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. Not as difficult as you expect. It's really quite simple. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. only one task can really be running at a time. An exchange is a small structure in memory. pointers are off the ends of arrays. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. So. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. So the code goes in. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. it is preempted. Each task that enters the code. or pauses in the middle of them. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. The buffer is gone. there was only one buffer left. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. task1 gets to run again. Now. and WHAMO . I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. As you can see. Now. Semaphores are used on many systems. right? But let me guess . even in a multitasking system. But when it reaches PointX. lets look at an example. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange.

Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. In theory. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel.” MMURTL V1. Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory.x? You will lose data. you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. it will simplify IPC greatly . I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. It will be the only way. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19. You will lose data. You didn't disable interrupts. let's look at a real-world example. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. I started with one and abandoned it early on. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods. but my testing shows I did OK. “Memory Management.000 * 3).400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). WHOA THERE . it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. Also.task switches. and maybe even not often enough. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time.000. In the kernel code.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often.If the instruction sequence is short enough. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL).200 baud in Windows 3. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. The next sections discuss this. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores). Don't blame Windows though. This is 1/38. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. and also "the biggie" . You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS .

I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Address 0 is the first.0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . or another complicated applications. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. The memory model you choose. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application.Chapter 5. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. Instead. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. Basic Terms Once again. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. For instance. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. Either way. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. There are some major differences though. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. Some do it with internal paging hardware. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. it's all basically the same. if available. This greatly affects the next three items. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. so does an operating system. With the Intel processors. MMURTL V1. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. I do make some assumptions about your processor. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. Whether or not you use paging hardware.

different memory allocation schemes (top down. and bad. MMURTL V1. As programs are loaded. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. As programs are loaded. You may be restricted from using some of these options. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. With this scheme. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there.). Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). No address translations take place in hardware. Figure 5. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. This can be good. Figure 5. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. chunks of physical memory called pages. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level.1. bottom up. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. and possible partitioning for each program. In this type of system. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement. the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. etc. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. at least for the operating system.1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement.

Figure 5. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. For instance. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. Figure 5. or even 64 MB).3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. more than likely a hard disk drive.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. With paged memory. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits. direct access storage device. Figure 5.Figure 5. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate.2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory. With this scheme. For example.2 .The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. With demand-paged memory. MMURTL V1. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed.

but it sure looks like it is. and the hardware allows it. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired. Look at Figure 5. With paging hardware.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS . My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one). as in virtual reality.3 . Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware.4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique." Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory.Figure 5. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. it means that you're lying to your programs. all the programs still use the same linear space. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL. MMURTL V1. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use. The minute you apply this term to memory management. and indeed you are.

Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. In order to allow multiple. the memory management hardware must support it.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. MMURTL V1. Note also the disadvantages. yet. there are many possible variations. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. and implement some of your own. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. you will think of. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. memory is NOT flat. Note the advantages here. No doubt. parallel linear spaces.Figure 5.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . The options here are almost mind boggling. different data or code). A way around this to use a shared memory area. Once again. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space.4 . In Figure 5. which is the idea.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space.

The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. and the popular Zilog Z80). The most common. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. MMURTL V1. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. and generally the most efficient. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. one for code and several for data access. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. They allowed multiple sequential. The LRU schemes have many variations.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is a very handy feature. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). When this was a 16-bit world. They are not limited to 64K. It's just what it sounds like. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes.. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. or even an 8-bit one. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. To make this work.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. they needed to identify and manage those segments. In fact. They used something called a segment register. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. All of the Intel products are very well documented. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. Likewise." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. When you use a selector. However. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. and you need to understand the implications. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space.g. 20 to be exact. OS/2 or Windows). 8088. 80186. This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. so I won't go into further detail.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. This means you can save the time rewriting it. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). it is usually termed as "dirty. This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. This was actually several registers. the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. we had some pretty limited address spaces. and 80286). What they came up with is called Segmentation. When a page has been written to. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. When the 80286 came on the scene.

It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. the type of applications you cater to. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. If you do. I learned this the hard way. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. This way. it usually takes the whole system down. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. and it will be based on many factors. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. Allocating memory to load applications and services. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time. Remember. you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. I'll discuss each of these things. They are “linked lists” and “tables. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management.” Before you decide which method to use. MMURTL V1. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. But in many systems. This can be a real hassle. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. How you store the links in this list can vary. Other factors include how much memory you have. Allocating memory for applications. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. which will be defined by the paging hardware. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. I will give you a good idea what it's like. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. Tracking client linear memory allocations. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. but not in the order I listed them. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms. one person). if your hardware supports it. you ARE the operating system. You'll have to make a decision. and Handling protection violations. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. when one application crashes.With a 32-bit system. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. You make the rules. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. With this scheme. each block holds its own link. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . when one application crashes. This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications.

16. pLink->pNext = 0. which means you can't honor the request. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data. pMemInUse.pNext = 0x100000. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. No next link yet. } When a client asks for memory. struct MemLinkType pFree. /* " " */ long Client = 0. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS .size = 0. Of course.pNext until pLink. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. pFree. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. pMemInUse. pLink->owner = 0. pFree and pMemInUse. MMURTL V1. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. you must remember that pLink. you would set up the two base link structures. pFree. /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size. long owner. or you reach a link where pNext is null. pMemInUse. For my description.owner = 0.size = 0. }. let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). This is done by following pLink. pMemInUse. In the following simple linked list scheme.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. These are the first links in your list. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. In the process of memory management initialization.pNext = 0. char *pPrev. struct MemLinkType *pLink. This is another topic entirely. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse). but I'll touch on it some.pPrev = 0. I haven't disassembled their code.size is large enough. You now have an idea where they went. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space.pPrev = 0.owner = 0. pFree. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink.

} } return(0).WantSize . I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language.pNext = &pLink. char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. pLink->size = WantSize. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. pNewLink->owner = 0. And believe me. The function returns the address of the new memory.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext.no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink.16. Client is the owner of the new block. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16)..pNext. it WILL get fragmented. } /* Sorry . /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. WantSize is the size the client has requested. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer.0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. If you use this code. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list. The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). The following example code is expanded to show each operation. or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request.. Granted. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink.

*/ pNewLink = MemAddress . Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. and you insert it there. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree.pNext. change its owner. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. But we can't add our size to pFree. but cleanup will be a snap. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. This is where the fragmentation comes it. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. which returns memory to the free pool. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. or you can do it all after the fact. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. This makes the most sense to me. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . This will be useful in the following routine. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. There are several thoughts on cleanup.16. then move it to the pFree list. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. if at all possible. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. validate the link. This provides instant cleanup. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. } pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev. You have the linear address. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. depending on the order of deallocation. This will add time to deallocation routines.deallocate. But you can't depend on this. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. /* scan till we find out where we go. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. In other words.

or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. you can decide how you want them setup. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . there are physical pages assigned to it. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. you will have two memory spaces to track. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. You can expand on them if needed. In the case of the paging hardware. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. The two must be synchronized. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. return(0).0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. we couldn't be combined with the previous.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). MMURTL V1. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. It should give you a great number of ideas. If you don't use the paging hardware. } } /* If we got here. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. */ /* In this case. */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables. pNewLink->owner = 0. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway.

You must set up tables. it will generally be in a block of addresses. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. “the Hardware Interface. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. and you should take that into consideration. From there. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. It will be the page’s size. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. You must consider where the operating system loads. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. “OS Initialization. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. If you use paging. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. But it's up to you. You will be allocated these up front. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. you will have independent tables for each application. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. In some cases. This can get complicated.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . and turn on the paging hardware. Batteries fail. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. For instance. add the translations you need and are already using. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. Wherever you load it. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. If your processor gives you these types of options. trap. you will have to move it all. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. MMURTL V1.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. it becomes allocated memory right away. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage.When you work with paging hardware. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management.” but once the operating system is loaded. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system.

This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. It can be very complicated to use on any system. and even larger with demand page memory. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors. but will have no effect on applications. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. Small. Compact. and one data segment for all programs and applications. uninitialized data segment. and many others. and I even use the Intel segment registers. This greatly simplifies every program we write. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. The selector values must be a multiple of eight. For instance. The user code segment is 18h. but in a very limited fashion. If you have no desire to use them. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. the application code segment. Large. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. I use almost no segmentation. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. The operating system code segment is 08h. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. The common data segment is 10h. the initialized data segment. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. but nice to have. I wanted only one program memory model. the concept of program segments is an old one. set them all to one value and forget them. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. This could change in future versions. This was too complicated for me. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. 32-bit offset).An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. If you are familiar with segmented programming. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. and one or more code segments. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. Medium. you know that with MS-DOS. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer.

Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. its not magic. No. the kernel . but most of the operating system code – specifically. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each PDE is also four bytes long. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. Every Job gets its own PD.967. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it. If you get our calculator out. Each of the PDEs points to a PT. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. it has code and data and a task or two. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). but it’s close. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5." huh?). which can have 1024 entries. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). is that you really do need most of this capability. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?).294. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. Each PTE is four bytes long. each representing 4Kb of physical memory.runs in the task of the job that called it. Because of this.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Besides. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. but you need it in pieces. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. Sure. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory. The operating system itself is technically not a job. It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. Right? Wrong. For instance. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. If you want just a few bytes. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). What you don't see.memory. MMURTL V1. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. and each application the same thing. because I haven't explained it yet. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space.1.

Sure. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. Now that it knows where the PD is. Of course. Besides. but it wasn't needed. yes. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. the secret is out. Well. When I started the application. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). If you remember. each PDE has the physical address of each PT. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses.1 . The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. and it needs it fast. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. Likewise. MMURTL V1. 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. but when you start talking 10. However. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it. but it does this with very little overhead. possibly several for each application. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). I could have built a separate table and managed it. Code. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. 20.MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. Sounds like a lot of work. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD.Table 5. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. Now it's got the PTE. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). Finding the PD for an application is no problem. In the scheme of things. certainly less overhead than this explanation). But it was for a good cause (No. in a word. This is fine for one address per job. I wanted to keep the overhead down. Read on and see what I did.

The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary.2. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. but you get the idea.. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. This is 0 to 1Gb. AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time.. AllocPage(). 512 513 . Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. As shown... If I decided to do it... AllocOSPage().. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. in fact. 256 257 . AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors.. is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. MMURTL V1. it would be transparent to applications anyway. in Table 5. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. all the shadow entries are marked not present. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. That would really be a waste. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write. Table 5.1.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind.0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 . Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. If I desired. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present. 768 769 . This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum).

They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. It is not important. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. initial stack. only that number will be deallocated. Now comes that easy part . or will return an error if it's not available. System Services. which is also my sister's name. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095). but only from this caller's memory space. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. Each application (job) gets it own PD. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. They are simply new jobs.Managing physical memory. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. If the physical memory exists. along with the number of pages to deallocate. Device drivers. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). the caller passes in a linear address. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). and DLLs. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use. but no stack. nor should it try to find out. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. but the memory will not be available for later use. If it does. Device Drivers have code and data. If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. MMURTL V1. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. from a previous AllocPage() call. you allocate physical memory from the top down. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. With a 1Gb address space. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. nor do you even care. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. The caller will never know. If so. It's loaded into these initial pages.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . and data. The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. and whether or not it's currently in use. then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. it will create a new PT. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). Loading Things Into Memory Applications. there will be no error. It does not tell you whom they belong to. I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses.

Instantly. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. When an application requests a service. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. They are there to be used as shared code only. but that's trivial (a few instructions). There is no new allocation of physical memory. With a page based system such as MMURTL. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. They have only code. If it tries to deallocate them. and no stack. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. They share physical memory. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block.Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. an error will occur. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. Of course. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications). The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. This will make more sense if you do. the second job has access to other job's data. how could they be swapped?). If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. But this gets away from memory management. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job.0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. you should do it before you read this section. no data.

Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). Places the message on the caller's response exchange. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. use it. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). For MMURTL. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. How they see the interface is very important. The programmer tracks his own memory usage.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. When it's done its work. One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. One or more PTs for the OS. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. it responds.

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I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly).how it is accessed in memory. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. to interoperability with other systems. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. however. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. and the most significant at the lowest. The most common. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. there are drawbacks to this idea. MMURTL V1. and speed. You provide a common. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. Therefore. The two that are obvious are code size. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). or for specific timing requirements. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. As good as it sounds. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS . One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. It executes your instructions. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. although I never thought so. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. in theory. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes.Chapter 6. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. but that doesn't mean that you won't. and it simply runs. is the interrupt or trap. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging. But there's always more than meets the eye. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. jumps where you tell it. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. aside from the instructions you give it.

just to name a few.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. Quite honestly. I've tried both methods. Finally. in that case. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. This is called the main bus. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. but in some of the processor documentation. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them. PCI. including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. The first set is the data bus. address. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. This is handy. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. On smaller systems. such as those dealing with interrupts. For instance. Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist.some proposed. The second is the address bus. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. no matter which device you must code.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts. They are actually very forgiving devices. MMURTL V1. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. The most common is the relatively low-speed. and some that are available now. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). There are many extensions to this bus . or CPU bus. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. and most useful. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. ISA. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. internal bus. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. and especially the interface bus. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. EISA. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. Multibus. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. On the PC-ISA platforms. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. or ISA Bus. but I found the most valuable. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. I read many books about my target processor. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices.

to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. in many cases. Unlike UART devices. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. which is available on some processors such as the Intel series.Less commonly found. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle. to name a few. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. Parallel buses can move data faster. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. and tape drives. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). but is really a device connected to the bus. Therefore.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. or HDLC. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals.g.25 (an international link and network layer standard). even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical.. Another way is programmed I/O. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method. and on some systems. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. SDLC. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. In fact. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). If you intend to design a true multitasking system. They have no way. but still very important. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. the infamous Centronics interface). MMURTL V1. except for the hardware clock timing. network frame handlers. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. They work with frames or packets of data. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. or even memory to memory. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. or network card). Quite often.

There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. This consumes the least amount of your address space. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. This is known as planar pixel access. This requires an interrupt service routine. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters.g. In character-based systems. If you want 16 colors for each bit. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. but you must realize the importance of this device. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. On the PC-ISA platform. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform.On many systems. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. On an 80-column-by-25-line display. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS . All the output would be via a serial port. Each bit array is on its own plane. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. If this is the case. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. Quite often. is worth more than I can indicate to you. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays.500 bytes of memory space. this only consumes 4000 bytes. In fact. However. Video Like the keyboard. or Unicode. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes.. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. This could consume a vast amount of memory. this video memory will contain character codes (e. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). and MMURTL V1. Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. In most cases.

but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. MMURTL V1. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). This includes cursor positioning. DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. I did. Chapter 26. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. except maybe an embedded system board. Even though they have paralleled access to this memory. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. this would be 16 planes at 37. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. and your tasking model. and GetDMACount(). In many cases. These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. I was interested in character-based. This is known as packed pixel access. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. The code for these two calls is shown below. interprocess communications. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. multiple. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware.000 bytes. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. have to research hardware cursor control.allow you to switch between them. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System).500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). In some cases. “Video Code. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming.. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. That equates to 600. “Memory Management. I took this into consideration also. non-overlapping video users. For a 256-color system.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users. Your requirements will more than likely be different. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. and to query the status of the move. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working.g. you'll have no problems. I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. and timing when you write to the video display area. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. however.

Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . but the standard include file MOSEDF.The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers. DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh . Optimize it as you please.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .CODE With 8-bit DMA.Ch 0 Word Count .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah . This is called a cascaded device.Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .Ch 0 Address .Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .Read/Write Mode register . etc.Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .Ch 3 Word Count .Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h . One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller.Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h .Read Status/Write Command .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h . There really is no data segment for DMA.Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h . DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h .INC . Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh . DMA moves (channels 5-7).Read/Write DMA Rq Register .Ch 2 Word Count .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h . DACK1 (etc. and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16). address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers. With word.DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware.========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch .INCLUDE MOSEDF. .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .Read Command/Write Single bit mask .) MMURTL V1.0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS . There are two 4-channel DMA devices.Ch 1 Word Count . etc. The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed. .DATA . the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.DMA DACK0 Page register .Ch 1 Address .Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h .Ch 3 Address .Ch 2 Address . while 23-17 are put in the page register.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .

AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. AL RETN .CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 .CH 0 DMA 2 . 40h DMA1Mode. even on word moves. If they do. or 128K boundaries for a word move. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . . Verify). which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. 43h OUT DMA1Mode. the segment is wrapped around. 41h OUT DMA1Mode.CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . 0C0h DMA2Mode. as you might assume).0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL OUT DMA2Mode. AL . AL MOV AL. AL AL. I do this for the caller. AL XOR AL. sdMem. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL.DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use.6 and 7.CH 0 DMA 1 . . AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers. AL MOV AL. This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. AL OUT DMA1Clear. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. dChannel. dType. The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. . AL OUT DMA2Clear. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. .CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . . AL OUT DMA2Mode. This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. AL XOR AL.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. Out.Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd.All commands set to default (0) .MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . . 04 . and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment. . 42h OUT DMA1Mode. . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. so they always specify byte count for the setup call. . AL XOR AL. AL OUT DMA2Mode. For channels 5. .Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels .Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. . we do math) MMURTL V1. I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule.

OR with MODE . 0C0h . 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. 8 DMA10Add. . [EBP+12] . AL .6. 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . 00000000b AL. 6 . AL DMA1FF.Jump table for channel selection .5. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. dChannel (0. 2 = Out (Read memory) . AL AL.ESP .0 = Verify. Put it in BL MOV EAX. get dType AND BL. dMode . MOV EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . 1 . [EBP+20] CMP EAX. 3 Cascade . 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. 1 = In (Write Mem). 0 . dMode CMP EAX.7) . dPhyMem . AL .3. CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. BL DMA1Mode. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. Hi Byte . 00001000b . dType . 1 Single Cycle. AL EAX. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. MMURTL V1.. 04 . Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. Lo byte address . OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. 2 Block.0 Demand Mode. 00000100b . MOV EBP.1. Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect .0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. AL EAX. [EBP+16] . . Yes CMP EAX.2. [EBP+28] DMA10Add.

channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. 8 DMA12Add. [EBP+28] DMA11Add. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. dPhyMem . AL EAX. AL AL. AL . 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. AL DMA1FF. 8 DMAPage2. CH1 . 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. 8 DMA10Cnt. AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL.0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL EAX. [EBP+28] DMA12Add. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. 00000001b AL. BL DMA1Mode. sdMem . 8 DMA11Cnt. BL DMA1Mode. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. AL DMA1FF. Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . Hi Byte . AL EAX. AL AL. AL EAX. CH2 . channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 8 DMA11Add. AL EAX. 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. AL EAX. 00000010b AL. Highest byte (to page register) . 8 DMA12Cnt. 8 DMAPage1. AL AL. Lo byte address . OR with MODE . 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. sdMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL AL. Highest byte (to page register) . Lo byte address . AL AL. OR with MODE/TYPE . [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . EAX DMAEnd . EAX DMAEnd . dPhyMem . AL EAX. 8 DMAPage0. AL EAX. AL EAX. Hi Byte .SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX.

EBX EAX.NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . . Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. AL EAX. sdMem . channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address . [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. AL DMA1FF. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . . AL DMA2FF. AL AL.XOR EAX. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . . AL EAX. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. 8 DMA13Cnt. [EBP+24] EAX. Hi Byte . 00000011b AL. 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. 8 DMAPage3. Hi Byte . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . AL AL. AL EAX. CH1 on DMA 2 . AL EAX. AL AL. AL AL. 0FFFFh EAX. 8 DMA21Cnt. AL EAX. EAX DMAEnd . EAX DMAEnd . . 15 DMAPage5. . . AL EAX. CH3 . [EBP+28] EBX. 8 DMA21Add. EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. BL DMA1Mode. . OR with MODE . [EBP+28] DMA13Add. OR with MODE . . Lo byte address . 1 DMA21Add.0 AL. 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. dPhyMem . AL EAX. MMURTL V1. EAX EAX. 00000001b AL. BL DMA2Mode. 8 DMA13Add. 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. . AL EAX.

Lo byte address . OR with MODE . [EBP+24] EAX. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX EAX. EAX DMAEnd . 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. Rid of all but lower 16 . Rid of all but lower 16 . AL EAX. AL AL. OR with MODE . sdMem . [EBP+28] EBX. [EBP+28] EBX.DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . 0FFFFh EAX. 1 DMA23Add. AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . EAX EAX. 1 DMA22Add. 0FFFFh EAX. 00000011b AL. AL DMA2FF. AL AL. AL EAX. 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. AL DMA2FF. 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 00000010b AL. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Hi Byte . Hi Byte . AL EAX. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. 15 DMAPage6. Highest byte (to page register) . dPhyMem . sdMem . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. AL EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. Lo byte address .EBP MMURTL V1. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. EAX . 8 DMA23Cnt. 8 DMA23Add. CH2 on DMA 2 . BL DMA2Mode. BL DMA2Mode. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Highest byte (to page register) . EAX EAX.0 AL. dPhyMem . 15 DMAPage6. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL AL. AL EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . EBX EAX. CH3 on DMA 2 . 8 DMA22Add. 8 DMA22Cnt. DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . [EBP+24] EAX. AL EAX.

DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. . To move 64K. dChannel (0. .3. For channels 5 through 7.g. . DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX. [EBP+16] MOV ESI. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where . .POP EBP RETF 20 . . For channels 0 through 3. you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. . In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. you may not always be moving a fixed-size block.7) . You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX.2. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX.Channel . EBP+ 16 12 . . you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. . .ESP MOV EAX.5. The count is number of WORDS-1 . DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. 7 MMURTL V1. This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. pwCountRet) . 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX. this will be the number of words. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. . PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 . [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX.535: ..6. On some devices.1. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . this is bytes. GetDMACount(dChannel. GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. you actually set the channel byte count 65. no error from the floppy controller). 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. In this case.Return address for count . . . the count will be returned.

One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again. program. Your job is to know how to program the PICU. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. . Quite often. The operating system may.No such channel! . many devices interrupt the processor. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system. EAX MOV ESP. . but it is critical that it's done correctly. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization.CX has words/bytes left in DMA . A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort.DX MOV CL. The PICU takes care of this for you. or at set intervals. ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. Internally. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). or even hours in some cases. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. .0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal. . A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. and read as required. 20 bytes of junk to dump . . This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. which determines the interrupt interval.DX MOV CH. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. however. . This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. . Usually. This is not very complicated.JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. Therefore. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. In the process of an interrupt. MMURTL V1. No Error . the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. . these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. CX XOR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. . but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. be responsible to program these dedicated timers.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access.AL IN AL. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. As you can imagine (or will have realized). You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly.

All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses. MMURTL V1.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . You will need the hardware manual for code examples.

" that's exactly what I mean. and important structures. memory.Chapter 7. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system. The question is. In the PC world. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. If this is true. tasks. This can be done in more than one step if required. more complicated. This device will. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't . This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. it executes from a reset state. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. and it's not exactly easy. be organized with a file system.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS .at least not as a file from the file system. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. To be honest. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. When I say "just enough code. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. If you're using another platform. In other words. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. you'll have to do some research. I've done all your homework. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. then jumping to the first address of the sector. where boot ROMs usually reside. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. then go through each section of the basic initialization. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. MMURTL V1. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. we start with loading the operating system. This is known as a multistage boot. the boot sector code may load another. For this reason. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. no doubt. In this chapter. then execute it. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. including hardware. because this address is executed by a boot ROM.

The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). and where you stored it. But it gets more complicated. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. MMURTL V1. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. then life is easy. This lead to two relocation efforts. because they provide the BIOS. then Drive C. You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. so you can begin execution. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. 1. 7. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. 8. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. 6. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. This was the case with my system. 5. Second. then executed the next instruction at the new address. First. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. 4. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). 5. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. 2. and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. In an ISA system. 2. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). 3. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. such as a whole track). I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. 3. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. 7.g. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. This was a double problem. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory).. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose. the hardware commands. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. Where your operating system will reside in memory. which they store in a small work area in RAM. such as a fixed track or cylinder. In my case. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. 6. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. 8. 4. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A.

Used for temp storage of Sector to Read . (worthless) .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system.The . .media desc. . The OS must .nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors. Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h .needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.nBytes/Sector . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG. One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.Padding to make it 3 bytes . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing. There's no operating system here now.8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) . DS:CSEG.0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots . Why not? I do own it. I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.Resvd sectors .Drive boot sector came from .386P directive is required because I use protected .disks.This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .nTotalSectors if > 32Mb .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads .stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as .386P .Root Dir entries max .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors. Examine the following code: .This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single .BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1. Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) .nFATs .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk.11 bytes for volume name .nSectors/track .on this disk that the operating needs to know. (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible . The boot sector code also .nHeads .instructions.nSect in FAT .BASE (Linear) .Sect/Cluster . This contains additional information about the file system .LIMIT 768 slots . and are not part of the above boot sector data structure. ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG .

Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX. nSectPerTrack . at the beginning of this code CLI .Clear interrupts . Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS .0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . SI CX. 0078h .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX. 7C0h DS. some of the parameters to it from the boot sector.Offset to new location (Next PUSH) .Make DS correct again .Source segment . that I calculated after assembling it once.The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt .This is done by finding out where it is and writing . Push the . AX MOV DS. Its pseudo jump ..9000h SS. MOV AX. AX SI. 09000h ES. DI AX.This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . 512 MOVSB . MOV CX. AX MOV BX.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: . return address. vector location. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF .Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1.Segment for new location .Destination segment . It works. AX SP. AX DI. table so it can read the disk for us.Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . 8000h .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9]. 0Fh . then "return" to it. DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4].

AX is at sector for cluster 0.0020h . cluster because the first 2 are unused). now let's read some stuff!! .Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) . MOV CX. nBytesPerSect BX AX. MOV SI. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated . . WORD PTR nHidden . AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot . FATS (1 or more) .Must set interrupts for BIOS to work .We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file . bBootDrive XOR AX.really IS the OS.stage one of the a two stage loader should be)..on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in .STI MOV DL. nOSSectors . OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .The layout of the Disk is: ..What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster .logical sector order.Reset failed. OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1. nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX. but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist .Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX. CX .Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot . Hidden Sectors (optional) . AX MOV AL. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) . POP DS .Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX.0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS .The controller is reset. WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX.so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be. We need the space for other code. nRsvdSect MOV CX.Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it .Save in CX .Required for Disk System Reset .waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root .to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or . Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. ADC DX. AX .

XOR INT INT AX.Read 13h . 06000h MOV ES. 20h ES. Drive to DL CX. 2 . DX . but works well. . 6 .BX will be zeroed at top of loop . Read a .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH. MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC . ES BX.AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH.0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS .512 bytes for segment . CH . bBootDrive DL.Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads . nSectPerTrack SI .Number of sectors AH.I increment ES and leave BX 0 .0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX.Cyl into CX CL. Hi 2 bits to CL CL.This is segment where we load the OS. AX has . Cyl in AX DH. OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX.Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI.OR with Sector number AL. ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI. BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX.Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL .Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte. 0Eh MOV BX. BX .Sector to read DX.This is a single sector read loop . BX AX . .Next Sector MMURTL V1. before we move it down to 0000h . BYTE PTR ResvdByte .Head to DH. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL.AX 16h 19h . AX . DL . 1 .Leaves Head in DL.Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL. DH . It's slow.Wait for keystroke .

07000h DS.0DFh OUT 60h.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL.64h TEST AL. DX MOVSW .0 . 06000h DS. SI AX.from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear.the OS down to address 0.1000h ES. 8000h .0D1h OUT 64h. . move . turn on the A20 line.WORD move .At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section . BX SI.LOOP NextSector .CX IBEmm2: IN AL. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS. Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX. DX XOR SI.AX DI. SI MMURTL V1. DX MOVSW .So move the OS MOV DX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL. SI AX.64h TEST AL. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX. AX ES. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.WORD move .Now we disable interrupts.AL XOR CX.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 .CX IBEmm1: IN AL.AL XOR CX.AX DI. BX SI.64h TEST AL.DI CX.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS .DI CX.A20 line should be ON Now .

and a map file from the link (Bootblok.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS . To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok.We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually . 00h '. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh.'.map).BX ES.EXE header. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX.BX FS.Set up segment registers . BX XOR EDX.1 MOV CR0.Set protected mode bit .EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX.Load Processor ITD Pointer . The first 512 bytes is the .EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.Load Processor GDT Pointer . you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.lst).asm <Enter> This will make a .BX SS. The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry . As you change and experiment with the boot sector.DI CX.CR0 OR AL.call JMP FAR 08h:10000h.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump . To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector.referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction. 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END . EDX MOV DL. 0Ah.BX . use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok. I left it in. 10h DS. 00h 0Dh.Clear prefetch queue with JMP . 0Ah. 9000h MOV DS.bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are .AX DI. The segment and code size escape .Control Register . 'Bad Boot Disk!'.2000h ES. DX MOVSB . 'Loading MMURTL'. such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).BX GS. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1.BYTE move MOV BX.MS-DOS used this. It's worthless.

To find where Debug loaded it. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it. logical sector number. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. and Name commands. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. or after the fact. This is easy to do. Register. C:\>Debug BootBlok. and number of sectors following it. The results can be disastrous. From the MS-DOS prompt.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. you can use Debug to load it as a . Keep in mind.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms. After you have assembled your boot sector. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. Then copy the operating system image to the disk. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk. you should not do this to your active development drive. They may do this as they format the disk. and WITHOUT the /S (System) option.bin in the root directory of drive C. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. To read the boot sector from a disk. If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. then write it to the disk.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. It's quite easy to do with the Load.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. you can use the Dump command to display it. This will show you a segmented address. Write. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc.

Good luck. Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. understands. If so. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. “The Hardware Interface. With MMURTL. All of the hardware that is resident in the system . Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. the Direct Memory Access hardware.asm on CD-ROM.c) to properly build it. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). I have provided a utility called MakeImg. This single source file program (MMLoader.C:\> Copy OS. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers. it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk.must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state).” MMURTL V1. I couldn't. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. Hopefully.00 loader. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file). If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. At this point. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. This includes setting up the OS stack. It should help give you a picture of what's required. but it's not necessary. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance. It does everything that the boot sector code does.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. and basic timers . I'm happy. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. It is all contained in the source file Main.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. If it is in an executable format from a linker. up to the point we jump the monitor program. Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. “Initialization Code.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . Chapter 21.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. Additionally. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6. They must simply be initialized to their default states. It is called MMLoader. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this.

Either way. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. In all of the cases that were discussed. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. This depends on the platform. setting up for multitasking. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. While in real mode. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. For instance. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. Chapter 3. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. Being a little conservative. or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware. is not trivial. MMURTL V1. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. This leaves you with a few options . because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. you just learn to live with it. and also some basic variables. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. the A20 address line serves no purpose. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space. you can address above 1Mb. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task. I just left it alone. or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. The option is usually up to you. as well as one to switch to. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). “the Tasking Model. but you may also be performing your own tasks management. you've got your job cut out for you. If you use one more bit. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. If you want to eliminate it. on the Intel processors. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls).0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design. One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. It's not that big. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. If you desire. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19.

To make a transition to a paged memory environment. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. some which didn't work on all machines. but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. and you can't manage or allocate it. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't).” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). or any number of things. If your machine doesn't support this method. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . or maybe even load up your windowing environment. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. It's not that much of a headache. The following list is not all-inclusive. If you chose not to do this. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. “Memory Management Code. Meanwhile. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. or is at least loaded. At this stage of the initialization. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. I tried several methods. Chapter 19. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. set up the basic tables that will manage memory. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. although some people may still have problems with it. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. MMURTL V1. where the address match will occur. otherwise.My goal was not to discover why it existed. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. The point is. This piece of code may have a lot to do. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up. but one I'm glad I didn't face. back to the initialization (already in progress). This seems to work on most machines. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. You don't know how much you have. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). It is explained in a fair amount of detail.

you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. “API Specification. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. public distribution. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. life was easy in this respect. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. If this happens to me. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. Quite often though. may be similar to another documented call on the system. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me. UNIX was written with C. This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. because the call they add. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). This may sound like a no-brainer. No kidding! With UNIX. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. If the parameters are on the stack. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. The call is made. they do. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. what order are they in? If the stack is used. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. In any and all of these cases. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. that on occasion. I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. I'm still not entirely happy with it. an embedded system. In the following sections. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. or your own consumption and enjoyment. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. Chapter 15. the function does its job and returns. What could be easier? I can't imagine. and leave undocumented.Chapter 8. I found.” shows you how I documented my calls. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same.

Pascal . and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. This device is extremely hardware dependent. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt.Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. There are two reasons this library may be required. or at least every time it's rebuilt. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct.junkies). Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. Many systems use an intermediate library. especially when it comes to speed. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. It's up to you. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue. and it required a fixed number of parameters. First. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. Execution speed. OS/2. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. for example. However. support several conventions. If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. but the stack is not used for parameters. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e. Second. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. some use the stack. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. In other words. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. I'm sure you know of several. I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions. no doubt. this is MMURTL V1. has three or four calling conventions. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system. as if you couldn't guess).. some use both. Your opinion may vary on this. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. the interrupt vector table). It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). Some use registers. The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only).g. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. code size.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. faster. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C .

the hardware will be obsolete. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. For the operating system source. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. right. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. then execute the interrupt instruction. the procedural interface is the key. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. However. I really hope not. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call. The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. MMURTL V1. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). However. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. When you need to return data from the call. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. The intermediate library would fill in this value. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds." Yeah. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed. This may be a personal issue for me. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. and the call gates are really not a problem. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. For application source code portability. If portability is near the top of your wish list. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal). I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses.

but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. Do you see what I mean? Internally. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. You more than likely will. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. and Statusing the driver. I set out to design the simplest. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. and this wasn't my original plan. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. If this is the case. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. that it's almost impossible to separate them. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. timers. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. Suddenly. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. For instance. They work with the hardware. and certain memory-management functions. You need to consider these requirements in your design. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer.

16 MOV EAX. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system.ESP SUB ESP. pDCBs. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. InitDevDr().” I provide detail on the use of these calls.InitDevDr(dDevNum. .Set up local vars .Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. so I won't go over it here. EAX MOV EAX.0 . I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. when one user is doing serial communications. nDevices MMURTL V1. pInitData. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX. This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. . dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . This will give you a good place to start in your design. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. dOpNum. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. EAX MOV EAX.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). dLBA. In a multitasking system. You'll see certain validity checks. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). ndBlocks. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. EBP+20 nDevices. “Systems Programming. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. For example. The first call listed in this section. This is a common requirement on many systems. pStatRet. . EBP+24 . . InitDevDr(dDevNum.ASM. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. When you look at the code. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. nDevices.

Next devnum .dDevNum MMURTL V1.All went OK so far.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 . 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12].Not valid DCB number InitDev01: .Yes . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .OK to replace existing driver? .NONE left .All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: . ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: .Empty.JB InitDev01 MOV EAX. ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd . rgpDCBs EAX. 2 ADD EBX.Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs.Now check to see if device is already installed .error exit . dDevX SHL EAX.dDevNum . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX]. 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: .No .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX. . [EBP+20] . we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX.If we got here. [EBP+16] nDevs. OK to use .device IS reentrant! LEA EAX. and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.12 .Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].Next caller DCB . dExchTmp .Set nDev to number of devices again .Decrement nDevices . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX.pDCBx = 0 if not used yet . 2 .Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX .Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX. rgpDCBs MOV EAX. prgDevs . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX. [EBP+24] EAX.Point EBX to rgpDCB . 0 . EAX EBX.nDevices .EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName].

MOV EBP. or reset it after a failure.If the device driver was NOT reentrant . and . . 2 . . DeviceInit(dDevNum. ADD EAX.also place Exchange into DCB. ErcBadDevNum . pInitData. SHL EBX. EAX MOV EAX.next p in rgp of DCBs . [EAX] .for all devices that one driver controls. MOV EBX.DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it.Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX. EBX . The other two calls.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . and are not presented here. . A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. PUBLIC __DeviceInit: .EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . dExchTmp . 0 .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . are almost identical to DeviceInit(). This is the same exchange .now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. rgpDCBs MOV EBX. [EBP+20] . 4 EAX. ECX [EBX]. 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX.Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP. . nDevices .device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX . EAX and ECX are set up. EAX EBX.Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX.Now that EBX. PUSH EBP . -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .ADD EBX.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB.ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh .ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: .Set up for no error .ESP .the first customer to use. 0 JNZ InitDev06 . sdInitData).0 .EBX now points to correct pointer .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. . MOV EBX.next DCB . EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . EAX .EAX points to first DCB . loop through each . DeviceOp() and DeviceStat(). MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch]. [EBP+20] MOV ECX. CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20].Any more DCBs?? . [EBP+20] .

Device IS reentrant . 0 DevInit02 EAX. ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd .YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP.Yes .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] .Get semaphore ticket .Is there a physical device? DevInit02: . but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.Get DCB ptr back . CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]. [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX. If not we . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX .0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .NO driver! .Bogus Message . It you use assembly language and provide code examples.Ptr to message area ..dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.save ptr to DCB . MMURTL V1.Get device error back .Push exchange number .Get ptr to DCB back into EBX . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType]. adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX. Send semaphore message to Exch . This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.Ignore kernel error .All looks good with device number . 0 . .. . The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . .Push all params for call to DD .Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 .so we check to see if driver is reentrant.Save ptr to DCB .save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].No.

usually passed on the stack. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values).a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . “Interprocess Communications. and a dword is also accessed at the same address. Look at the table 9. It may even be entertaining. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes). or a Procedure in Assembler. Terminology Throughout this section. but alas. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. I think you will find it useful.Chapter 9. or a Procedure in Pascal. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. Call . One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. If I were a perfectionist.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word . The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD. WORD.Same as Procedure. Byte .Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1. and DWORD. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0.g.1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4. This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure .” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management.. “Memory Management.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS . These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application.” and Chapter 5.1 . MS-DOS).A Function in C or Pascal. Argument . All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. Function . Before writing your first MMURTL program. though.A value passed to a function or procedure.Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e.

and assembly language. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. MMURTL V1.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. even the assembler or processor itself. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values. But the address is really a call gate. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. In some C compilers. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. not the real address of the SetXY function. Most return a value that is a an error or status code. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. All parameters are pushed from left to right. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes). This will be done by the compiler. The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. and are expanded to 32-bit values. and in some cases. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files).0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some do not. or dError. Pascal. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate).) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. or simply convey information that may. “API Specification. It may indicate an error. erc. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language.

. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096).. If you need a 2Mb array.” describe this in great detail.. When you are done with it. Chapter 3. you allocate it.g.Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh . There are no far data pointers. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0. but she would much rather that you did it.2: Table 9. you should deallocate it.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span.2 . MMURTL V1. In fact. Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. . The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once. MMURTL is a Paged memory system. She may pick up your dirty socks. “The Tasking Model. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages. The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . malloc() in C).. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. The operating system resides at address 0. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e.” and Chapter 4. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it. . they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector.. “Interprocess Communications. Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another.. The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management.. when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. you simply allocate it. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory.. MMURTL is kind of like your mother. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS ..

so long as you know it can't be addressed. pData2. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. Address 40100000h is returned to you. SendMsg (dExch. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. cbData1.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. This means that in a multitasking environment. however. MMURTL does NOT. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) .The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks). However. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. Data. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). dData1. You allocate 5 pages. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K). This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. The operating system Code. This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection.0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . pRqHndlRet. cbData2. pData1. Of course. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. npSend. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. protect programmers from themselves. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. dRespExch. The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. This is not a problem. Now you allocate 4 pages. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. dMsg1. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. dData0. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. wSvcCode.

The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. but you don't want that either. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. only your program will be trashed. For instance. Messaging is very powerful. char sbJobName[14]. and user interaction. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB. Other than that. such as data communications.Normally.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. /* User Name . In order to use the GetpJCB() call. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. printing. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. you need to know your job number. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. MMURTL is not a mind reader. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData. In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. This eats all of your link blocks. The pointer is read-only. If you do.LString */ MMURTL V1. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution.

char JcbSysOut[50]. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum. char JcbCmdLine[80]. long nCols. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS .” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. To change data in the JCB. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. }. long CrntX. char JcbSysIn[50]. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet.char sbPath[70]. The keyboard interface is a system service. long ExitError. with unused portions padded.LString */ std input . There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. They include: SetJobName(pJobName. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. “Keyboard Service. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. long CrntY. char *pVidMem. For most applications. char fVidPause. long nLines. char fCursType. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. unsigned char ScrlCnt. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. char *pVirtVid.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. and special keys. editing. long NextJCB. MMURTL V1. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line . char JcbExitRF[80]. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. Chapter 13. long NormVid. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric. char fCursOn. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. long VidMode.LString */ std output . This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). you must use the calls provided by the operating system. pPathRet. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data.

3 . only the least significant byte is used. Tables 9. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24.4. and Blink if desired to form a single value. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color.4 . Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). The colors for TTYOut(). PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. Background colors describe the attributes. and 9. In this byte. the high nibble is the background. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. logically OR the Foreground.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. and cursor positioning. Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes).4096 bytes). The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted.Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . and low nibble is the foreground. Foreground colors.3. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs. Background.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS .Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls. character placement. is the intensity bit. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. Table 9. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. The high bit of each.

You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. "This is a test. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field.". or system calls. This is done by calling the Chain() function. BGBLUE|WHITE). The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. MMURTL has to hunt for them. and other things allocated while you were running. Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. 0. Remember.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. exchanges. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. This includes any memory. If no file is specified. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. 17. MMURTL V1.

Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. MMURTL V1. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. such as: Additional memory. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. if needed. as well as for other services. Additional tasks if required. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. and Assembly language programmers. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. Additional exchanges. if required. or provide services to application programs. then Respond. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. the service does the processing and Responds. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. use messaging. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. Pascal. Wait for messages. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS .1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system.Chapter 10. It's not very useful. This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services. Client programs make a Request. service them. and memory management operations. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. Service names are casesensitive.

Message). long dData1. long RQBRsvd1. char *pData2. long RqOwnerJob. MainExch). long dData2. char npRecv. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). long RespExch. MainExch. NextNumber = 0. long cbData2. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. long RQBRsvd2. ErrorToUser. }. long cbData1. int ServiceCode. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk.1. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". char npSend. else if (pRqBlk. long RQBRsvd3.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk. /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . char *pRqHndlRet. Message[2]. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. long ServiceRoute. while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. char *pData1. long dData0.Listing 10.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK.pData1 = NextNumber++. /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0].

when you receive a Request. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. The operating MMURTL V1. or any data movement back to the caller. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. As a system service. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. For larger data movement to the service. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used. another CloseFile. For example. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. The memory address of the Request Block. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. For all other values of the service code. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. The service must never attempt to write to the request block.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. These items are dData0. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. in the File System. This is the number 1 (one). and dData2. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. one number represents OpenFile. the service only defines one service code that it handles. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. They are 32-bit values. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. and how much information a program must pass to you.The Request Block As you can see. because the operating system does not alias them as such. cbData1 and cbData2. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. dData1. This is called the service code. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. In fact. As a system service writer. and another RenameFile. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. The complexity of your service. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. you define the data items you need. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. and what service you provide. In the simple example above. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs.

If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. cbData2. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. communications ports (serial and parallel). If this happens. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. In each of these cases. This is the easiest way to handle requests. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. the file may not exist. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. However. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. before responding to any other requests you are holding. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. RAM disks. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . Disk drives. cbData1 and pData2. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. If so. When you write system services. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. MMURTL is built in layers. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. MMURTL uses this concept. tape drives. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. and moves it to another exchange. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. but carries it one step farther. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. In the keyboard service. until you respond. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. Synchronous services wait. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. which is a valuable system resource. The first is the request block handle. receive a request. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. If so. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. then respond before waiting for the next request.system is “aware” of this. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. you must respond to it immediately.

and sequential-oriented. multitasking. The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. I have made it rather painless to build fast. network link layer devices). which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. With InitDevDr(). Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. interrupt vectors. Block Size. SCSI ports. Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e.0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code. or is included in the OS code at build time.g. paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. MMURTL V1. or a processor protection violation will occur. keyboard. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. It does not directly access hardware. Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. For example. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr().or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all.. as well as where the data is on the device. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). timer hardware. The interface is non-specific. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB).) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. RAM DISK). and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. the PICUs. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. basic video. This means message. the file system is at user level (3).. If a device driver controls more than one device. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device.g. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. or network frame handlers (i. Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. to handling complex devices such as hard drives. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention. multi-threaded environment. or any OS structures. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system.e. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. Sequential devices are things like communications ports. Things like Device name. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3). C and Pascal). and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. powerful. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). hard disk. keyboard. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions.

It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. The device driver looks. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. or in Pascal. Allocate exchanges. At this point. Call InitDevDr(). MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Set up interrupt service routines. InitDevDr() never returns to you. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. The main entry point will never be called again. In C this would be main(). if required. if needed. like any application in MMURTL. and is programmed. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. Check or set up the device’s. if needed. just like any other program. Do anything else you need before being called. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly.0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS . In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. You can name them anything you want in your program.Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. it's the main program block. The generic steps are described below. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. This layer of code performs several functions for you. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need.

Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). MMURTL uses paged memory. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. Timer Facilities Quite often. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. Two calls provide these functions. This is accomplished with GetDMACount(). This is often called an interrupt vector. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. or how much was transferred. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. and size of a DMA move. If you use MMURTL V1. This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage().”API Specification. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions.” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. device drivers are very close to the hardware. Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage(). Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. mode. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. In other operating systems. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. specifically DOS. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete. direction. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. although it’s not a requirement. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. especially if the driver controls two devices. The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware.

Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. but easy to figure out. a structure in C. this is job ALLOCATE and 0. Alarm(). you can use SendMsg(). each of the three PUBLIC device calls. The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory.0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. or assembler to construct the DCB. IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. Table 10. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device. DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls. and KillAlarm() functions. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there).Alarm(). so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. Table 10. Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0.) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. and how to implement them in your code. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. If you use SendMsg(). You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt). See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep().1-. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. or you only need to send one message from the ISR.

The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. For devices that are not re-entrant. but this is not much of a limitation. and WaitMsg() primitives.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. sector zero. In other words. fDevReent . where several devices are controlled though one access point. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). if you are on track zero.When a driver encounters an error. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. Some names are standardized in MMURTL. then this should contain a 2. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters). non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant.Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . For instance. sbDevName . DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. ndDevBlocks . and handle device conflicts internally. Disk drives are divided into sectors. the SendMsg(). Each device name must be unique. MMURTL V1.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . This reduces disk arm movement which. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them.Each driver names the device it serves. If the device is sequential.number of bytes per block. znBPB . Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. DevType . then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1.This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). RETN is the proper instruction. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device.This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. pDevOp. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. usually an unexpected one. For example. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. increases throughput. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. pDevInit. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). The Hard disk driver operates the same way. but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName . not the next track. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. this is device dependent. and you read one sector past the end of that track. In assembler. dLastDevErc . we then move to the next head. If it is another device. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver.this indicates whether the device is addressable. Each sector is considered a block. head zero.

dnBlocks.fSingleUser . The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. verify. dLBA.dLBA.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr.6 . pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32). no job is currently assigned the device. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS .If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time.4. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here.pData). dOpNum. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. write. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it. They equate to standard device operations such as read. pStatRet.If the fSingleUser is true.2. pInitData. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. Your function implementations must do the same. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls.3. this flag should be true (non-zero). and format. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session. If this is zero.dOpNum. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset. wJob .5. OSUseONLY1. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored. ndBlocks.

pStatRet. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. parity.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate. and so on.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices.pInitData.dStatusMax. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified.pdStatusRet). The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice.dInitData). The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Not all devices will return status on demand. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status. this will simply be the number of bytes.

the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. such as a disk or SCSI controller. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. This is because one controller. If this is not the case. nDevices. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. After the Device driver has been loaded. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. this is the first number of the devices. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the driver controls more than one device. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. pDCBs. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. MMURTL V1. If more than one device is controlled. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. This means the devices are number consecutively. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. fReplace If true. and one DMA channel if applicable. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. and so on. the second at pDCBs + 128. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory.

Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status.Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. then use it.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.

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Comment lines begin with a semi-colon .This is the initial jobs file.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line .after each entry. or terminate. Sample Initial. This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up. Drive:\DIR\NAME. .You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon . Even when a Job is not being displayed.the run file name are ignored. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system.1 shows a sample INITIAL. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . .this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1.. The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen. When the user presses these global keys. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. (e. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. .to the run file. tabs or comments after .RUN) . If it's displaying video data. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want.JOB .Job file . No spaces. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing. as well as the video display. Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. The name must start in the first column of a line. The file name must contain the FULL . The format is very simple.JOB file. Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file.1. Any spaces.file name including path.g. the keyboard. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line. No parameters are passed .run C:\MMSYS\CLI. Listing 11.INITIAL. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input.system boot in this file. is assigned to the new job or is terminated. If you intend to write an operating system. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete.Chapter 11. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change. C:\MSamples\Service\Service. a buffer in memory. Listing 11. One run file name per line. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication. the job he is currently viewing. Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. In future versions of MMURTL.RUN <---.Maximum line length is 80 characters total.JOB.

and the parallel port (LPT) driver. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. and access to the built-in debugger. RS-232 serial communications. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display.1 describes the function of each assigned key. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second. They are displayed as typed. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk. job display. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code.1.RUN.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 11. Task switches total . Once the initialization is complete. any errors returned are displayed.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI.1. MMURTL V1. Table 11. This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly..This is the total count of task switches since boot up. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. During this process. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized. The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. priority task.

CPU idle ticks (no work) . even in the same job. Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor.h" "MKbd.h" "MData. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory. Free Task State Segments . Free Job Control Blocks . The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated.h" "MTimer. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. Tasks Ready to Run . Response is made by the service. including requests.h" "MFiles. the C library code can be used.h" "MDevDrv. Each new task uses one of these.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated.These are task-management structures.h" "MVid. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time. but have a fixed count at OS build time. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel.h" "MJob.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run. Free Link Blocks . but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks. Each job uses one.A small structure used by all messages sent and received. you will see the preemptive task switch count increase.2. that don't get picked up right away.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ". If this number is greater than zero. Listing 11. the request block is returned for re-use. There were no tasks ready to run.This is the number of free job control blocks left. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval.h" "MMemory. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. Free Exchanges .0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . but the count is fixed at OS build time. See listing 11. MMURTL V1. This number may seem a little high.2.

U32 blocks_done. Burgess. static unsigned long GPMsg[2]. fIntOnReset. LastErcByte0. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. MngrHndl. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. U8 type_now. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. KillJobNum. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot".0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS .Message based. static long time. 1990-1995. LastRecalErc1. date. MngrExch. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. Real-Time kerneL". LastSeekErc1. unsigned long KillExch.A. tick. MMURTL V1. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". MngrMsg[2]. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. LastStatByte0. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. fKilled. static unsigned long GPHndl. LastSeekErc0. All Rights Reserved". MUltitasking. U8 fNewMedia. static unsigned long GP1Exch. LastStatByte1. gcode. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc.static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". U32 BlocksMax. LastErcByte1. KillError. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n".

nLBLeft. #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. hdisk_setup(void). static unsigned long nMemPages. BootDrive. xsprintf. nSlices. char *pJCBRet). fdisk_setup(void).U8 ResetStatByte.c */ HardIDE.h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . nEXCHLeft.c */ Fsys.c */ Parallel. char *ppJCBRet). /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . nSwitches. coms_setup(void). nRQBLeft. /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256]. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. InitFS(void). extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void).c */ RS232. nTSSLeft. #asm MMURTL V1.asm */ Floppy. /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf.c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch. U32 resvd1[2]. nHalts. lpt_setup(void). nReady. /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. static long StatStack[256]. nJCBLeft. /* out to 64 bytes */ }.

} if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. ptr = &numstk[32].No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. width = value = i = 0.[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI].0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. total = 0. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr. chr. *ptr. char *fmt. justify. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0).0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . zero. total. #asm XOR EAX. long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { .MOV EAX. unsigned long width. JLE isdigit1 . 39h . *ptr = justify = minus = 0.[EBP+8] CMP AL. chr = *fmt++. zero = ' '.0 JL isdigit0 .EAX .No CMP AL. i. EAX MOV ESI. 30h . value. minus.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify.

} /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. } value = *--argptr. case 'b' : i = 2. case 's' : ptr = value. ++argptr. default: *--ptr = chr.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7. break. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. chr = *fmt++. break. break. case 'c' : *--ptr = value. } while(value /= i). if(width) --width.'0'). break. } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. break. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. break.width = (width * 10) + (chr . ++minus. case 'o' : i = 8. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. ++total. } case 'u' : i = 10. *--ptr = chr.

) { va_list ap. fmt. ++i. return total. } /************************************ MMURTL V1.. } /* move in data */ i = 0. fmt). } } *outptr = 0. long total. i < width. Color). value = width . ++total. ap). /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer. ++i. fmt). . ++total. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. just move into string *outptr++ = chr. } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt.1. return total. ++total.{ for(i = strlen(ptr).. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. va_end(ap. } } } else { /* not format char. va_start(ap. strlen(buffer). TTYOut(buffer. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. char buffer[S_SIZE]. ++total.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS .

"%d".1). Msg[2]. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen. rgMonMenu1.) { va_list ap. 24. long total. MMURTL V1. 26. it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. &iLine). *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr().1). fmt). fmt). return. rgMonMenu2. ap). } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . fmt. BLUE|BGWHITE). it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. va_start(ap.80. 25. When it gets one. va_end(ap. rgStatLine. 24.. rgMonMenu3. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. GetXY(&iCol. i. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. 24.23.22). char *fmt. PutVidChars(0.. PutVidChars(0. tick). . PutVidChars(27. SetXY(0.0. 26. iLine. SetXY(0. total = _ffmt(s. Exch. PutVidChars(54. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. return total.1. BLUE|BGWHITE).Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s. WHITE|BGBLUE). 80. BLUE|BGWHITE).

Error: %d\r\n". "%d".0.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70].0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS .0.U8 *pPD. /* sleep 0. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]..*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. Sleep(50). KillMsg). ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). PutVidChars(0. rgStatLine. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. PutVidChars(0. *pVid. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. The message has Error. 0x0f).5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. /* month */ 0x0f). tick). xprintf("Job number %d terminated. KillError). pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. rgStatLine. WHITE|BGBLUE). /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. 80. &pJCB). 0x0f). GetTimerTick(&tick).5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). CheckScreen(). (time & 0x0f). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). /* sleep 0. KillJobNum. Sleep(50).. if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate. tick). TSSExch in it. /* year */ 0x0f). /* Day */ 0x0f). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). 80. rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date).50). for(. "%d". Tone(440.. WHITE|BGBLUE). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f).

we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). */ DeAllocPage(pPD. j. 1). 2. 1. 0. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. Also. Exch. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 4.GetVidOwner(&i). 0. 0. i. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). DeAllocPage(pVid. MngrExch.. &i. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. &gcode. MMURTL V1. /* We're done (and so is he... DeAllocJCB(pJCB). 0.) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. if the debugger has the video. Msg). 0). 0.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0.. fKilled = 1. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. erc = WaitMsg(Exch. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. &MngrHndl. fDone. /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). 0. 2). We don't actually switch jobs. char *pJCB.

0. 0. i = j. &MngrHndl. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. MngrMsg). 0. 0). *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . fDone = 0. &gcode. while (!fDone) { i++. &MngrHndl. 0. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. 0). 4. 0. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). &pJCB). for(.4. erc = KillJob(j). 0. 0. erc = GetpJCB(i. 0). MngrExch. 0. 2. #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. i. MngrMsg).. } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD".) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0. 0. MngrExch. 0. erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. if (i==2) i = 3. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. else if (i>34) i = 1. 4. 0. } } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j). 0. 0.0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i).

do MMURTL V1. sdisk &= 0x7F.0FEh OUT 64h. sjobfile. fcli.JOB\0".return. cbrunfile. fh. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. /* 0=A. 1. 20). &fh). CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. #asm CLI MOV ECX. sdisk += 0x41. &ajobfile[1]. fcli = 0.AL STI #endasm return. } .Read Status Byte into AL . erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. job = 0. char arunfile[80]. 1=B. Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli. if (!erc) { fdone = 0.check port up to 64K times . job.first we clear interrupts .Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . i. sjobfile. char ajobfile[50]. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command. char fdone.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file. */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk.02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. 0.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. j. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. 2=C etc. *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { .64h TEST AL. while (!fdone) { i = 0.0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char sdisk.run and the last job loaded. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile).

Sleep(50). else fcli = 0.. Sleep(50). cbrunfile.run". "cli. &GP1Hndl. CheckScreen(). erc). &job).0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS .') continue. if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". CheckScreen(). 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. CheckScreen(). &j). GP1Exch.{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. &arunfile[i++]. 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile. arunfile). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". job = 0. assign the keyboard and video to it. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. } } } else fdone = 1. 1. 0. 4. } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. erc = 0. xprintf("Loading: %s. } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++.\r\n". MMURTL V1. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job).. job). /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. } CloseFile(fh).

job). if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. 0.". } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. /* 0=A. 0. unsigned long ccode. acli). CheckScreen(). i. CheckScreen(). iLine. InitScreen(). job.. 0. MMURTL V1. xprintf("Loading: %s. iCol. 0.. 0. 0. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. Sleep(50). *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc.RUN\0". j. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". 0. unsigned char c.JOB file not found in system directory. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). unsigned char sdisk. } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. job. 2=C etc.\r\n"). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. } return erc. 0).0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 0). &acli[1]. 1=B. erc = LoadNewJob(acli. GP1Msg). SetVidOwner(job). char text[70]. ccode1. sdisk += 0x41. */ acli[0] = sdisk. &job).0. GP1Exch. job. acli[40]. 16). 4. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. strlen(acli). GP1Msg). 0. sdisk &= 0x7F. &GP1Hndl. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. 0. k.

xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". erc). xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". 24. /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch). erc = InitKBDService(). xprintf("Init hard disk device driver.. xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". xprintf("Init floppy device driver. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". erc = AllocExch(&KillExch)..Burgess. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". erc). xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK.A. Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. erc = fdisk_setup().. i = (oMemMax+1)/1024.Message based. xprintf("%d\r\n".33). erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. erc = lpt_setup(). Error: "). erc). Error: "). c). 1 ). erc).15). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". i).Tone(250. Tone(1000. 0. xprintf("Copyright (c) R. erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). i). c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). erc). erc). erc). MUltitasking.0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS .. erc). erc = coms_setup(). erc). if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". erc = hdisk_setup(). &StatStack[255]. if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. erc).

. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. &MngrStack[255]. 13). &pJCB). */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". /* Col offset */ for (i=1. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1].j). xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". /* Line */ k = 0. xprintf("File System. c = ccode & 0xff. text. /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. GPExch. erc = GetpJCB(i. 1. SetXY(k+10. GPMsg). Error: %d\r\n". xprintf("Name: %s\r\n".j). 1. 0. i<nMaxJCBs. erc). /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. erc). case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen().) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. 0. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". break. j++. for (..xprintf("Initializing file system. 0. if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n". 0. j = 2. 4.. /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask. MMURTL V1. pJCB->JobNum)..0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS .\r\n").. &GPHndl. Tell it to wait for a key. 0). 10. erc). /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). &ccode. 0. 1 ). */ LoadJobFile(). erc). text). if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". erc = InitFS(). i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40.

. erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. PutVidChars(29. while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. " ". Sleep(9). "-". xprintf ("\r\n"). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. nLBLeft). GREEN|BGBLACK). 1). xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. 1. SetXY(0. nRQBLeft).1). 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0. nSlices). xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". 1. nHalts). "/". GREEN|BGBLACK). Sleep(12). "|".0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). "\\".. \r\n").future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. PutVidChars(29. 1. nJCBLeft).} } break. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. Sleep(9).12). 1.. PutVidChars(29. Sleep(9).. xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". nTSSLeft). case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). 1. 1. "\\". 1. PutVidChars(29. nMemPages). "-". xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". 1. break. 1. xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n".Cancelled\r\n"). nSwitches). 1. case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). 1.1). case 0x12: /* F4 . Sleep(9). break. 1. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. nEXCHLeft). PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n". any other key to cancel").loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). Sleep(12). xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf(". if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). 1. } SetXY(0. PutVidChars(29. "/". Sleep(9). case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot. GREEN|BGBLACK). "|". 1. nReady). xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". 1. case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . PutVidChars(29. break. 1. Sleep(9). GREEN|BGBLACK).

2. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.1).22). else TTYOut (&c. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1. 1.23. WHITE|BGBLACK).TTYOut (CRLF.0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS . &iLine). SetXY(0.80.1. } } GetXY(&iCol. WHITE|BGBLACK).

.

Chapter 12. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again. function keys are across the bottom. MMURTL V1. along with the exception number that caused it. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. It is not a separate run file. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. non-symbolic debugger. and a red banner is displayed. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges. and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. and why. the debugger is an assembly language. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. the debugger is entered. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur. Certain debugger display functions. such as dumping data. When this occurs. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. will clear the screen for display. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. If the debugger was entered on a fault. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger.

The task number. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3.Clear Breakpoint. This is an array of 512-byte structures. This becomes the active address. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. This requests a linear address. This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. IDT . RdyQ .Set Breakpoint.Job Control Blocks.Global Descriptor Table.This is the address of the array of currently registered services. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right.Change Current Address. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries.Address Information. The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. without executing them. the address of the TSS. RQBs .First TSS. This returns to the application and executes one instruction. GDT . The address is displayed on the left. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. F8 CrntAdd . You may move down through the instructions. MMURTL V1. next. a linear address.Display Tasks. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution.Goto CS:EIP. TSSs are numbered sequentially.Single Step. with the down arrow key. next.Link Blocks. the associated Job number. This requests a linear address. low order).Dump Bytes. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order.Dynamic TSSs. F3 ClrBP . The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. The GDT contains many items. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. TSS1 . TSS3 . The address is displayed on the left. F12 AddInfo . This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. F6 Tasks . These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. Each TSS is 512 bytes. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. F2 SetBP . These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address. F10 . the address of the task's JCB. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling). These values are hard coded at system build. This clears the single breakpoint.Interrupt Descriptor Table. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. as most of them are. and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. F5 Exch .Dump Dwords.Ready Queue. and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. and then dumps the bytes located at that address. . The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address.Services Array. F4 CS:EIP . F9 DumpB .Request Block Array. This is the address of the Monitor TSS. This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table.Display Exchanges. LBs .0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS . The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right. that will be somewhere in this array. This displays all active tasks on the system. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. JCBs . “Application Programming.” SVCs . This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented. The abbreviations are given in the following list.

In MMURTL. but for right now.Exchanges. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. and also how local variables are accessed. aTmr . Lots of code here MOV ESP. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. With near calls like you would make inside your program.START in an assembly language program. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. entering the debugger. There are four debug address registers in the processor. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code. or at the beginning of any instruction. In some cases. actually a trap. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. listed in your ATF file. When it occurs. The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. MMURTL V1. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. or for . The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer. locking up. For applications. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. like the older processors.Exch . without having to fill in special registers. You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. it is the index of that exchange in the array. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future.and displayed as an unsigned number. This is the address of the array of timer blocks.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS . such as [EBP+12]. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . its down and dirty troubleshooting. and placing an INT 03 instruction there.ASM files. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task. It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function).Timer Blocks. Each exchange is 16 bytes. ESP . Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. or whatever). The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints.

1. The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger.0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. The debugger cannot debug itself. or faults. No other task operates at a priority that high. MMURTL V1. you will see that there are many interrupts. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. When the debug interrupt activates. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1). that can occur.. but not quite. is saved by the debugger. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. you must be able to access all of its memory. including allocated memory. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. usually a blank screen and nothing else. Traps. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. Instead. the current pRunTSS. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. just like applications do.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. a page fault is fatal to a task. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. If you look through the 386/486 documentation. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news. The debugger becomes the active job. It almost. If you are going to debug a task. called exceptions. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done.Processor exceptions. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status.. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right.1. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. a pointer to the currently running TSS. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. Table 12. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. When writing an operating system. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it.

it displays the registers from the interrupted task. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. you should kill the offending job and restart. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place. MMURTL V1. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. To do this. While you are in the debugger. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). When the debugger is entered. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. This makes the debugger transparent. These contain the address of the exception handler. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . which is exactly what you want. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem.

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this is true multitasking). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . 0. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). but not as powerful.0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0). “system programming. 0 0.1 shows the services provided by the service code.Chapter 13. It's easier to use. &MyRqhandle. &KeyCode 4. As described in chapter 10. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive. Available Services Table 13.fWait for Key */ dData1 . The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes. Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. MyExch. Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time.not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters.Not used (0) */ dData2 .Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. 1. 0. Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service. 1.

This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys.Not used. Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 .Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS . fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 . This allows for "hot-key" operation. and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications.Not used = 0 . In this case. described in detail later.Return with error if no key waiting 1 .Not used 0 .Count of bytes in the code 0 .Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys.1. Unlike regular keystrokes. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available. you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. even if a key is not available. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available.Table 13. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. If you have an outstanding Notify request. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. the error should be 0. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes.Wait for Key = 0 .

The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys. Num. shown in table 13. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. etc.4. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes.2. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. this cancels it. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later. as shown in table 13. If you have an outstanding Notify request.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS .). The low-order byte is the actual key code. To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. Locks. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. Alt & Ctrl. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C).3. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. as shown in table 13. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. and Scroll). The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps.

LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad.If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. Table 13. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. Table 13. Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps. Alt or Shift). you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned.3 shows how the bits are defined.Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read. shows how the bits are defined.2. Table 13.2 .. Num or Scroll).3 . Table 13. This bit (Bit 0.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1.

0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS .4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard. Alt. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc.4 . Table 13.main keyboard. the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. Key Codes Table 13. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . If a shift code is not shown. A description is given only if required. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned.1h to 7Fh). or Locks).. For example. Ctrl.

bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1.5 shows the key code value returned. Table 13. Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality. comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert. . ' .5 . Table 13.Y Z [ \ ] ` CR . / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS .

6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active.7.0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS . The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13. Edit. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 . Table 13.7. (Period) Cursor.Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. Caps lock does not affect these keys. 13.6 .

Chapter 25.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS . I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. if you desire. such as international key translations. or you may want more. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system.”Keyboard Code.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided. MMURTL V1. the programmer will read the documentation. when all else fails. as I have tried to do in this chapter. You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. Pieces of it may be useful for your system. Remember.

filename. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions.Chapter 14. MMURTL V1. The third part is the filename as described above. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. and optionally. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters. a network name. there isn't anything new about the format. but none as wide spread. When a network file is opened. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS .and finally the filename itself. then up to three more characters. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). the network service receives the request from the file system. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. will be routed to the service with the same name. the default name NETWORK is used. The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter. a period. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations. There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. and a node name is specified. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else.txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. This ties its hands so to speak. just how we access it. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character . For example.

These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. Make no assumptions about this number. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. When a file is opened in Read mode. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. 4096 byte buffer. The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. or just reading alone. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). MMURTL V1. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. This is a one page. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user. in any mode or type. a number called a file handle is returned to you. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode.File Handles When a file is opened.

0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA). It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system. All message-based services use the same request-based interface.1 shows the service codes the file system supports. &FileHandle 4. 1. For Stream files. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language.Block Type Access */ dData2 -. MyExch. 1. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. You can make a request. 0).not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. 1. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ". Table 14. This is called a file pointer in some systems. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. Listing 14. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive. The file system actually runs as a separate task. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. &MyRqhandle.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA).returned handle */ cbData2 -.1 .1.ptr to name */ cbData1 -. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking).may be needed */ nSendPtrs -.Size of a handle */ dData0 -. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service.ModeRead */ dData1 -. Table 14. It meets all the requirements. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. or file pointer. &"AnyFile. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -. Listing 14. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA.doc". no matter what Mode the file was opened in.size of name */ pData2 -. 11.

It is easier to use because it has less parameters. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. KBD and VID devices only. MMURTL V1.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Request interface will not allow device access. but only through the procedural interfaces. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. The request is transparent to the caller. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. Table 14.2 .Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. Table 14.

a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). dAccessType.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . If a file is open in ModeRead. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType . Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file.Block = 0. all buffers are flushed and deallocated. Procedural parameters: dHandle . Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1.pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. If stream access type was specified. Stream = 1.READ = 0.pointer to the filename or full file specification. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead. dOpenMode. pdHandleRet . it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users. pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName. dcbName .DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . Procedural parameters: pName . dcbname. Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened.

DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. dLFA. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. nBytes. dLFA. Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed. This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512). pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS . dLFA . Procedural parameters: dHandle . The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. See the SetFilesize() section. One Block = 512 bytes. nBytes . pData . This will always return a multiple of 512. MMURTL V1. This must always be a multiple of 512.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned.Logical File Address to read from. Procedural parameters: dhandle . This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. pdnBytesRet . dLFA .DWord with number of bytes to write.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. nBytes. pdnBlkRet . This must be a multiple of the block size. pDataRet. pData. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file.pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned.Pointer to the data to write nBytes . SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size.Logical File Address to write to. pDataRet .DWord with number of bytes to read.DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs.

The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs.0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . pDataRet . Parameters: dhandle . = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. pDataRet.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. pdnBytesRet . GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA. The bytes are read from the current LFA. nBytes . The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote.Dword with number of bytes to read. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. pData.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. nBytes. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. nBytes.

Pointer to the data to write.Dword with a valid file handle.Dword with a valid file handle. Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle. Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword with number of bytes to write.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C).a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). Procedural parameters: dhandle . An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. nBytes . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet .Procedural parameters: dHandle . pdnBytesRet .0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF). dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files. pData . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access.

Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1.a Dword with the LFA you want to set.Dword with a valid file handle.dLFA . pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. as returned from OpenFile() dSize . 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. Procedural parameters: dhandle .a Dword with the new size of the file. will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify. Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files. and allocated space on the disk. as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet .Dword with a valid file handle. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically. Procedural parameters: dHandle . Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle. The file length.a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS .

Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .pointer to the new filename or full file specification.Dword with length of the filename dAttributes .A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden. dcbName. dcbName .pointer to the filename or full file specification to create. The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. The file is closed after creation. dcbname. dcbName . System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. Procedural parameters: pName .pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName.pointer to the current filename or full file specification. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. and ready to be opened and accessed.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1. empty file in the path specified. Procedural parameters: pName . dcbNewName .0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS .

The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access).pointer to the path (directory name) to create.Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. specified in the Job Control Block. as opposed to a full path.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. and the filename is available for re-use. Procedural parameters: pPath . Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist. the directory is created in your current path.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS . empty directory for the path specified. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. No further access is possible. If only the new directory name is specified.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system. Procedural parameters: dHandle . dcbPath .

Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . and files in subdirectories will be deleted. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. the path in your JCB will be used. This call returns one sector from a directory. all subdirectories.pointer to the path. dcbPath. or directory name. If only the existing directory name is specified. The directory must exist in the path specified. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. Procedural parameters: pPath .If set to non-zero. Procedural parameters: pPath . dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. dcbPath .0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS .pointer to the path. Each sector contain 16 directory entries.Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1. the name is appended to the path from your job control block. pSectRet. If no path is specified. or directory name to delete. as opposed to a full path. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero. The path must contain the directory name as the last element. to read tj sector from dcbPath . You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1). all files in this directory. dcbPath.

and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. Because it is a pointer. MMURTL V1. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. If the file is opened in Stream mode. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. Some structures are dynamically allocated. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. it's not allocating files.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. is what links the user of a file to the FCB. FCB. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. while others are part of the operating system data segment. The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. Each opened file is allocated an FCB. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. When it reaches 0.pSectRet . This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. Quite a few of them use this same name. the open mode.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . buffer pointers.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. Each FCB is 128 bytes. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. The FUBs contain the file pointer.

The fourth entry points to the fifth. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). source files for compilers. Usually. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. That's a lot of FAT (or file). This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. This is in itself is time-consuming. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. inside of a 400 Mb file. and the sixth is marked as the last. and raster image files. If so. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. they use what is called a FAT16. Large database files are the major random users. MMURTL V1. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. Directories are stored as files. or three entries. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where. Load FAT buffer if required. However. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk. L = Last entry in your file. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. From this. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. On most hard disks. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. allocate an FUB and attach it. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. That's 128Kb.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . the user will strike next. which is cluster size. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. the fifth points to the sixth. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). If it's open in ModeWrite. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. A great number of files are read and written sequentially. The list could go on and on. because of the design of the FAT file system. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory.The disk is allocated in clusters. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. vector. X = not your file. The file is open. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. If opened in Block mode. In this example. you can usually do it quite rapidly. Run files being executed. return an error ErcFileInUse.

Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. but much overhead is involved. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. MMURTL V1. then write the data. attach them to the chain. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . If opened in block mode. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. It sounds simple. If the file is being extended. you must find unallocated clusters. Both copies must be updated. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. and depends on how the file was opened. Close This is the easy part. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT.

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The offset should be 0.1 .0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes . The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call. Table 15. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). I might add.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword . then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use.g. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. Table 15.2 lists these additional prefix characters.2 . Chapter 14.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present. Table 15. These are known as compound descriptions. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls. “File System Service”). The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. They are listed by functional group first.. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address. Table 15. or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. An improperly.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter.1 lists the prefixes.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. If you are going to write your own operating system. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names. The call address consists of a selector and an offset.Chapter 15.

accurately describes the provided or expected data types. Pascal. grouped by type. dcbFileName . This information is provided for the assembly language programmers. a colon with the returned value. dMsg1. Table1 5. and Min means Minimum. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch.and optionally suffixes .Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. pdDataRet . dcbDataRetMax .a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. the most common returned value shown. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function. dMsg1. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. Ret means Returned. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. and finally. If a parameter is a byte. The function name is followed by the parameters. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15.3. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. if a value is returned by the function. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. It is processor (hardware) enforced. or should be.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters.3 . Each compound set of prefixes .or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically. Bytes and words (8.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. be returned. The dError. Max means Maximum. or Assembler.

dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. pStack. dJobNum. pPathRet. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. dOpNum. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. pS2. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. pData1. pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. pStatRet. pData2. cbData1. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine.Request( pSvcName. LinAdd. wCodeSeg. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. dcbAliasBytes. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. wSvcCode. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. pDestination. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dLBA. pDestination. pS2. pInitData. dnBlocks. dData0. dBytes) MMURTL V1. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. dData1. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. fDebug. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. dcbFileName. dcbFileName. ppMemRet. dESP. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. npSend.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem. nDevices. dExch. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. pRqHndlRet. dcbMem. dPriority. dPriority. pDCBs. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. cbData2. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dfDebug. dRespExch. cBytes. dStatusMax. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName.

pbExitChar. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. fdRead. pDataIn.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. ddLine. dCrntLen. pDataOut. pdLenRet.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. dTextOut. dLine. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. dLine. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. sdMem. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. nCols. dPort) OutWord(Word. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. pbChars.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. nChars. pbCharRet.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. Speaker. nLines. nChars. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. dPort) OutWords(dPort. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. dMaxLen. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. dULline. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. dChannel. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet.

AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. and interrupts. They are passed in registers.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI . the parameters are not stack based.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI . or 0 if all went well.Returns an error. The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number).Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. Unlike most other operating system calls. exceptions.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX .0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS . but can be used by experienced systems programmers. They are passed in registers. and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate. exception gates and interrupt gates. Parameters: AX .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . the parameters are not stack-based. EAX Returns Error. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there. This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. Parameters: AX . AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. Unlike most other operating system calls. This must be zero (0) for task gates.

dJobNum.Dword (4 BYTES). This means you can set an alarm. even though it's very close. In fact. each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1).a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned.Job number from the other application. It will always begin on a page boundary. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. The overhead included in entry. ppRet . and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. This would be for the time-out function described above. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. except you provide the exchange. except it can be used asynchronously. ppMemRet. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. WaitMsg. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use). and don't get placed in a waiting condition. ppAliasRet . The larger dnTicks is. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications. dcbMem. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned. Alarm() can be used for a number of things. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. dJobNum . Each application has its own linear address space. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. do some other processing. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space.0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . the more precise the timing. Parameters: dnTicks .Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. If you do. dcbMem . This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use.). Parameters: pMem . etc. Parameters: nPages .A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. The message that is sent is two dwords. AliasMem AliasMem(pMem. pdPhyMemRet . MMURTL V1.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. and the memory required to run code.pointer to the filename to run.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbFileName . You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state. although longer periods will work. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file. but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. MMURTL V1. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. pdJobNumRet . but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. so the time could be much longer. and data pages.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask.length of the run filename. The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. Page Descriptor.Parameters: dAlarmExch . Virtual Video.A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. precise. initial Task State Segment. Parameters: dn15us . DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. Parameters: pFilename . MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. Parameters: dIRQnum . MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. Interrupts are not disabled. dcbFileName. and you call this often enough. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. stack.

Parameters: Byte . No error is returned. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution.The byte value to write to the port.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug . Paramters: Dword . dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: MMURTL V1. Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. dfDebug. OS=8 or User=18 Priority . dCodeSeg. DPort . else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. dPriority. dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function. dESP. DPort . OutWord OutWord(Word.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS .handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch . Parameters: JobNum . dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address. dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS).Which code segment. NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl .Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg .exchange where the Request is to be sent. The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.The dword value to write to the port.The address of the port. dExch.Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte. Exch .Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution.The address of the port.Exchange for TSS. OutDWord OutDWord(DWord. ESP .This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. it is made to run.

Parameters: pdnPagesRet . PdataOut .The count of bytes to write to the port address.column to start on (0-79) dLine .0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS . DPort . This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. dLine.line (0-24) dnChars . “Application Programming.” describes all of the attribute values. You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2).Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to.Word .number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib . nChars. Parameters: dCol . dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen.column to start on (0-79) dLine . dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9.pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . MMURTL V1. Each page of memory is 4096 byte. pDataOut. PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. dnChars. or virtual screen.a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned.color/attribute to use during display. DBytes . The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values.The word value to write to the port.A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. OutWords OutWords(dPort.number of characters pbChars is pointing to.line (0-24) pbChars .The address of the port. PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol. pbChars.The address of the port. This is the number of Words * 2. dLine. It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. Parameters: dCol . if not displayed. Parameters: DPort . dAttr . dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort.

The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet.the exchange to be associated with the service name.A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. and padded with spaces (20h). the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning.If true (non-zero).0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . Service names are case sensitive. If fWait is true (non-zero). RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. Request Request( pSvcName. or on what machine the request is being serviced. cbData2. The string must be left justified. dRespExch.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. Parameters: BAddress . dData0. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. If fWait is false (0).a pointer to an 8-byte string. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. pRqHndlRet. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. npSend. pData2. This call blocks your task until completion. pData1. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. If no key was available. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . cbData1. the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. fWait . Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. dData1. wSvcCode. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. Parameters: pSvcName . Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . if forwarded across a network. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes.

otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned.the size of the data being sent to the service.same as pData1.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. This may be data sent to the service. 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service.dData0. It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. of the message sent back to the requester of the service. pRqHndlRet . With all kernel primitives. Parameters: dRqHndl . This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. dMsgLo. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. space padded.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbData2 . Respond Respond(dRqHndl. The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. pData1 .This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service. service name. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service.This is the operating system Request primitive. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. The use of dData0. dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. dError. A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). MMURTL V1.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. This error is not the error returned by the service. dData0. 1 and 2. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. the value returned from the Request() call itself.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. are sending data to the service. Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. pData2 . dData1. For example.The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. 65534 (0FFFEh). This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed. or received from the service.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified. Function Codes 0.a number (0. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. cbData1 . See Respond(). Parameters: pSvcName . dData2 . wSvcCode . Always assume it will be network-routed. dRespExch . is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. Zero will be returned if all was well. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. npSend . The service must be registered with the operating system. dError. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network. With all kernel primitives. dStatRet . then npSend would be 2. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService).

MMURTL V1. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter.1). dMsgHi.The number of columns to be scrolled. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. linked with that task. The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi. Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. Parameters: dExch . and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . dMsgLo . The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine .ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol.80. In this case the top line is lost.Points to an array of bytes. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum.dULline. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB.The upper dword of the message. and the bottom line would be blanked. DnLines . Parameters: pCmdLine .dnCols. in C this is unsigned long msg[2].dnLines. which is the first dword pushed. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0.The count of lines to be scrolled.25. This is an agreed-upon convention.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application. If it were a Response from a service. This call stores the command line in the JCB. dcbCmdLine . and is not enforced by the operating system.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . it will be into an array of dwords. the message is associated. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. the new command line string. dMsgHi . you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . DfUp . SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. If there was a task waiting at that exchange.The lower dword of the message.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. msg[0]. msg[1]. Parameters: DULCol . the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. and it is moved to the Ready queue.The length of the command line string to store. Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange.a polite term for crashed.0. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines. and while Chaining to another application. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line.

of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. Parameters: dIRQnum . Parameters: pExitJob .Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . these should follow ISA hardware conventions. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system. dcbExitJob . Table 15.If installed. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. Built-in device drivers assume these values. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses.4 . pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task. MMURTL V1. pVector . This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Table 15. After the interrupt vector is set. When a job exits. and its ExitJob is zero length. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. Initially. which will happen most often. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS .SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet. The filename must not longer than 79 characters.

Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default. the color of the characters themselves. and background colors may be changed by an application. If no job name is set by the application. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. Parameters: pJobName . Parameters: bPriority . you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background. The maximum length is 13 bytes. This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . Typically. The default foreground color. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. If you SetNormVid() to Black On White.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. Parameters: pPath . Parameters: dNormVidAttr . MMURTL V1. dcbPath . a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path.SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. will clear the job name from the JCB.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. Longer values will be truncated. then call ClrScr(). The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. This is a maximum of 13 characters. dcbJobName . The path is 79 characters maximum. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. A zero length. Refer to the file System documentation).This is the new priority (0-31). dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. SetPath SetPath(pPath. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. a text string.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real.

A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. dcbFileName . Only ASCII data is saved to the file. If the SysIn name is set to KDB. is VID.points to a text string. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes(). The default name. which is the one to be displayed. Parameters: pFileName .SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. SetXY SetXY(dNewX. Parameters: DJobNum . if none is set. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system.is the length of the string to store.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the SysOut name is VID. SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block.The job number for new owner of the active screen. dcbUsername . WriteBytes(). which is the user's name. and Chaining to another application. SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. Only ASCII data is returned from this call. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. if none is set by the application. The default name. dcbFileName . The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. Parameters: pUsername . you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. dNewY): dError MMURTL V1. is KBD. This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). Parameters: pFileName . SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName.

lower numbers. This applies to the virtual screen. and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it. The timer interrupt sends the message. DNewY . fOSCode):dError This creates a new task. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. Parameters: pEntry . fOSCode . Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12. but testing will be required to ensure harmony. Parameters: DNewX . Parameters: dnTicks . dPriority. it is made to run. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region.The new vertical cursor position row. Tone Tone(dHz. such as the file system and keyboard. 1 is accepted. and clears the block when it reaches zero. fDebug. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. otherwise.This is a number from 0 to 31. or the real video screen if currently assigned. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. pStack.This is a pointer to the function. Application programs should use priority 25. fDebug .0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS . which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. and may cause applications to appear sluggish.The new horizontal cursor position column. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. dPriority . Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message.A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. Certain system services are higher priority. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function. should use priorities above 25.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value. If your task is a high enough priority. or make it sleep.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task.

next active character placement. dTicks10ms . Backspace will have no effect. DTextOut . UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum. no characters are changed. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job.The cursor.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. if the cursor is in the last column of a line. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line.The number of characters of text. Parameters: PTextOut .Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. If this line is below the bottom of the screen. from 30 to 10000. For character placement.A pointer to an 8-byte string.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. Parameters: dHz . They will receive an error. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. dTextOut. Parameters: pSvcName . The backspace is non-destructive. Parameters: dIRQnum .The cursor will be moved one column to the left. Service names are case sensitive. DAttrib . Examples: "KEYBOARD" .A near Pointer to the text. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. it will be moved to the first column of the next line. will be moved down one line. The string must left justified. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. 08 backspace .A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. and padded with spaces (20h). The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . A value of 100 is one second. The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. If already at column 0. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled.The attribute or color you want.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone.

an array of two dwords. This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. you would have had to make the request in the first place. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. You've got to send mail to get mail. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. Parameters: DError . so this would be obvious to you.A pointer to where the message will be returned. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . dExch .0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . Of course. MMURTL V1. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. the task will be placed on the exchange specified. less than 8000000h.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task. If no message is available. At that time.

it does work and it's useful in its own right. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.Set file access path (New path e.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS . see Appendix A. “What's On the CD-ROM. It has been expanded.Directory listing Debug .Make Directory Path .Delete a file Dump .Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD . One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter.g. It provides information such as date.Copy a file Dir . time. The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line.RUN files). and your current path.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. CLI version. I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. The CLI screen is divided into two sections. To see what has been included on the CDROM. but it's a good start.Chapter 16. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself. use. The internal commands are: Cls . The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt. MMURTL V1.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you.Enter Debugger Del .Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. However. The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me). and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL.Remove directory Rename .Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help .Rename a file (Current name New name) Run . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. The top line is the status line.Clear Screen Copy . The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system.Hex dump of a file Exit . job number for this CLI.Display list of internal commands Monitor . D:\DIR\) RD . MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL. is described in the following sections.

The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. If a file exists with the same name.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. “The Debugger.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device. If the character is not ASCII text.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . Pressing Esc will stop the listing. a period is displayed instead. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. >Copy THISFILE.TXT THATFILE. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. Both names must be specified. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. MMURTL V1. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set. or the same name in a different directory. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file.

if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive). or external command that is executed for this CLI. the tree will only be extend one level. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. In other words.) MMURTL V1. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. and .0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist. listing. Unlike a single tasking operating system. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job.). The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. With any file-system operation (opening. The path must end with the Backslash. etc. This CLI will still be executing. Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen.. renaming. Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help. Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. In MMURTL. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed.

Additional spaces and tabs are ignored. There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. pausing after each page. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below. MMURTL V1. The first item on the line is the command name. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM.CLI Commands. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands. EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit.0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS .Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file.TXT Run (Execute a .Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME.End of Command.run . Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time. The file must not be open by any other job.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk.CLI File The file COMMANDS.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME. It is a simple text file with one command per line. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number).run New. The File COMMANDS. The contents of the file COMMANDS. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk.RUN).run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix .TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.CLI follows: . An example of COMMANDS.

1. CLI Source Code Listing .0 of the Command Line Interpreter. CTRL-ALT-DELETE .h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.h> #include <ctype.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN . In this case.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.CLI.Terminates the currently displayed job. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down. Listing 16.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command.h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS.CLI file. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions.h> #include <string. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys. but other application might.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer.1.Ver.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.

long cbPath. unsigned char bigBuf[4096]. date. /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. /* "Exit". /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. /* "Debug".0 Job Path: ".0 { 0 external */ 1 . /* "Ren". /* "Dump". /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. /* "Help". /* "xxxxx". /* MMURTL V1. /* "Del". char text[70]. char fUpdatePath. /* "MD".not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* "Copy". long JobNum. /* "Cls".#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. syspath[50]. /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. char aCmd[80]. char char char char sdisk. /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. /* "RD". /* "Monitor". /* "Dir". clipath[60]. unsigned char Buffer[512]. unsigned long GPExch. unsigned long GPMsg[2]. long cbCmd = 0. unsigned long GPHndl. iLine. hlppath[60]. cmdpath[60]. char ExitChar. /* "Path".

16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. U16 Time. It updates the status line which has the time and path. U8 Attr.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . char *apParam[13]."Run". "Type". U16 Date. U8 Ext[3].) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1. U16 StartClstr. }. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. long acbParam[13]. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. } dirent[16].. U8 Rsvd[10]. U32 FileSize.

aStatLine. 0x0f). case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)".cbPath = 30. break. aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). PutVidChars(0. case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). break. /* year */ 0x0f). case 208: pSt = "File in use". break. 80. 0x0f). cbPath). fUpdatePath = 0. STATVID). case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". FillData(&aStatLine[47]. /* Day */ 0x0f). FillData(st. break. CopyData(aPath. &aStatLine[47]. case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. break. ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). 0). MMURTL V1. break. break. break. case 201: pSt = "No such drive". ' '). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). break. case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". break. case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". } GetCMOSDate(&date). break. Sleep(100). case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". /* month */ 0x0f). case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". char st[40]. case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". 30. break. break. aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time).0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. switch (erc) { case 0: return. case 1: pSt = "End of file". break. break. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f).0. + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". break. case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". (time & 0x0f). 40.

0. addr). fNew is used to determine is we do or not. } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. return. &iLine). &iLine). 80. #asm INT 03 #endasm return. pSt). } printf("%s\r\n". i.default: sprintf(st. } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger).0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetXY(&iCol. j. STATVID). while (cb) { printf("%08x ". pSt = st. ClrScr(). MMURTL V1. If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. break. } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . if (fNew) { iCol = 0. iLine = 2. erc). aStatLine. unsigned char buff[17]. "Error %05d on last command". *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). KeyCode. long cb. GetXY(&iCol. } SetXY(iCol. iLine). erc = 0. PutVidChars(0.

printf("%s\r\n". for (i=0. 512.1. else j = cb. 512. erc = 0. SetXY(0. /* ReadKbd. buff[i] = *pb++. addr+=j. 1). ReadKbd(&KeyCode. erc. printf("ESC to cancel.if (cb > 15) j=16. i++) { printf("%02x ". &dret). wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4.1). k.0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetXY(0.. dret. 1. } return erc. fh. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. } InitScreen(TRUE). /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh.80. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E..23. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. ModeRead. } buff[i+1] = 0. if (!erc) { j=0. i<j. if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. l. any other key to continue. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. iLine =1.*pb). } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1].1). erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. 0)."). &k). This expects to find the filename in param[1]. &fh). &buff[0]). if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. else cb=0.23). ++iLine.23). MMURTL V1. acbParam[1]. Buffer.

&dret).1.80.23. } erc = OpenFile(pName. *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. 1. dret. erc. iLine.1). return erc. MMURTL V1. } CloseFile (fh). j. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. dret. SetFileLFA(fh. i = 1. cbName. fh. 0). 78. &fh). long cbName) { long i. if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. } for (j=0. j). j<=i. SetXY(0. 0. erc = 0. 512. Buffer. } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen. lfa. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. dret = 1. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). erc = ReadBytes (fh. NORMVID). KeyCode. if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.23). else l=k-j.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. j+=512. i.iLine). while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. &lfa). lfa+i).0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . iLine++. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. Buffer. } SetXY(0.

char st[15]. iLine =1. SetXY(0.").mi. fhFrom. CloseFile (fh). mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. pTimeRet. 8). erc). printf("ESC to cancel.mo. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11.se. sprintf(st. This uses a conservative 4K buffer. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer.hr.da.da. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time.hr. char *pTo.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.mo. Use block mode for speed. CopyData(st. U16 date.mi. U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.se).23).1900. This is used by the directory listing.1). char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). erc. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). "%02d-%02d-%02d".yr).. if (yr > 99) yr -=100. char *pTimeRet. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n". ReadKbd(&KeyCode. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. 8).if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. CopyData(st. bytesLeft. sprintf(st. ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom. any other key to continue. bytesWant. return erc.. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . InitScreen(TRUE). U32 cbFrom. /* ReadKbd. 1). "%02d:%02d:%02d". bytesGot. da = date & 0x001F. pDateRet.

bigBuf. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). else bytesWant = bytesLeft. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. KeyCode. if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. dLFA = 0. cbFrom. if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. } return(erc). if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. ModeRead. size. cbTo. 0). dLFA. } dLFA += bytesGot. bytesLeft = size. } MMURTL V1. bytesGot. size). if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. 0. &fhTo). dLFA. &bytesGot). } CloseFile(fhTo). bytesWant. &size). else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. &bytesOut). cbTo. 1). dLFA. bigBuf. 0. ReadKbd(&KeyCode.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. ModeModify. /* ReadKbd.bytesOut. &fhFrom). erc = OpenFile(pFrom. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n").

dirent[i].FileSize.. SectNum). U32 SectNum. *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone.23). i++) { if (!dirent[i]. st). acbParam[1]. i. char st[78]. iLine++. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. KeyCode. iLine =1.Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. } fDone = 0.Name[0]) { erc = 1.80.Time."). dirent[i].Ext.StartClstr). fDone = TRUE.Attr. 1).Name. dirent[i]. any other key to continue. SectNum = 0. erc. /* ReadKbd. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". &st[33]. } if ((dirent[i]. } InitScreen(TRUE).Date. } } } MMURTL V1. &dirent[0].. if (!erc) { for (i=0.1).1).1.23). dirent[i].Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st. dirent[i]. 512.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS ./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1]. printf("%s". CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]. SetXY(0. dirent[i]. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. fDone = 1. &st[24]). i<16.23. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. SetXY(0. printf("ESC to cancel.

/* ptr to param */ i = 1.. for (iPrm=0. i.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0]. fdone. rawline[90]. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. iPrm.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. MMURTL V1. iPrm<nParamsMax. j. SectNum++.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS .} else fDone = TRUE. iCmd++. /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0. cmdline[90]. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. } return(erc). If it finds it. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands.. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. The format for a line entry in Commands. k. *f. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd.

/*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. } } else printf("Commands.\r\n"). /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0. f = fopen(cmdpath. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. return(0). /* now move arguments if any. while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. "r"). cmdline).cmdline[0] = 0. runfile[k] = 0. /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. return(1). /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. acbParam[0]). /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. cmdline[j] = 0. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. rawline.CLI not found. } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd).') /* a comment line */ continue. /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. if (f) { fdone = 0. 89.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS .

ModeRead. cbCmd). SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(runfile). ModeRead. SetExitJob(clipath. erc. strlen(clipath)). } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile. strlen(runfile).CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. CopyData(apParam[0]. strlen(clipath)). we go to the system directory. 1. syspath).When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command.0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS .RUN"). 0). strlen(runfile). SetCmdLine(aCmd. cbCmd). erc = Chain(runfile. 1. we then go to COMMANDS. SetCmdLine(aCmd. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. 1. runfile. If we don't find one. we first look for a . runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. ModeRead. cbCmd). acbParam[0]).RUN file in the current path. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n"). long i. /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. SetExitJob(clipath. erc = Chain(runfile. &fh). erc = Chain(runfile. strcat(runfile. &fh). 0). strlen(clipath)). &runfile[i]. If so. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). fh. runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. strlen(runfile). 0). /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. ". if it's not there. we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it.RUN"). strlen(runfile). strlen(runfile). acbParam[0]). SetCmdLine(aCmd. erc = OpenFile(runfile. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). erc = OpenFile(runfile. i = strlen(runfile). } MMURTL V1. &fh). ".

"COMMANDS. syspath[1] = ':'. syspath). /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. iLine). if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. syspath). "%02d". syspath). SetXY(0. SetJobName("CLI V1. erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). strcpy(cmdpath. &cbPath). command file. j. &StatStack[255]. 24. 8). */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). } else { strcpy (aPath.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . strcat(clipath. strcat(cmdpath. ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc. sdisk += 0x41. InitScreen(FALSE). strcat(hlppath. and help file. strcat(syspath. strcpy(clipath. aPath. sdisk &= 0x7F. strcpy(hlppath./********************************************** Main function entry point. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. 2=C etc. fh."HELP. &iLine).0". "\\MMSYS\\"). i. 0. /* 0=A. */ cbPath = 0. GetJobNum(&JobNum).RUN"). SpawnTask(&StatTask. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. 1=B. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. JobNum). syspath[2] = 0."CLI. syspath). MMURTL V1.CLI").CLI"). Note: No params to CLI. 0). erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). GetPath(JobNum.

EDVID). NORMVID). 1. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1].0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . SetPath(syspath. GetXY(&iCol. CmdNum = 0. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). break. acbParam[0] = 0. strlen(syspath)). while (1) { FillData(aCmd. &iLine). TTYOut (">". acbParam[2]). apParam[0] = 0. 79. &fh). strlen(clipath)). ' '). 2. if (!erc) MMURTL V1. break. cbCmd = 0.cbPath = strlen(syspath). else erc = ErcBadParams. cbCmd. switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. &ExitChar. InitScreen(TRUE). if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). 1. break. paCmds[i]. if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. apParam[2]. 79. acbParam[1]. acbParam[1]. TTYOut ("\r\n". 0. iLine). break. } i++. NORMVID). EditLine(aCmd. SetExitJob(clipath. } erc = 0. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. &cbCmd. case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). aCmd[79] = 0. } fUpdatePath = 1. SetXY(0.

case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. break. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. fUpdatePath = 1. 0. break. break. &cbPath). break. acbParam[1]. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("". apParam[2]. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. SetExitJob(clipath. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. GPExch. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). ExitJob(0). SetVidOwner(1). break. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i]. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1]. break. if (!erc) printf("Done. 4. acbParam[1]). 0. break. cbCmd-i). &GPHndl. if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum. strlen(hlppath)). case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). acbParam[1]). while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. break. break. break. aPath. else erc = ErcBadParams. 0. 0). 0.0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . strlen(clipath)).\r\n"). break.erc = DeleteFile(fh). default: break. acbParam[2]). acbParam[1]. acbParam[1]). 0. 0). } break. MMURTL V1. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). 0). 1. case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. erc = Chain(apParam[1]. acbParam[1]). break. 0. GPMsg).

} CheckErc(erc). The top line provides continuous status information. What's On the CD-ROM. } GetXY(&iCol. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line).80.2.1. File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. Table 16. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). SetXY(0.1. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM. The last line is used for data entry. current filename. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . status and error display. The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. The next 23 lines are the text editing area.23. &iLine). Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands.1). See Appendix A.23). The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns.

0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 16.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel.h> #include <ctype.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.2.h" MMURTL V1. Listing 16. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.4 . Editor Source Code /* Edit.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.2 is the editor source code.c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.h> #include <string.

1 */ U32 iColMin.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS . char fModified. unsigned char b. 0..sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. char *pBuf1. fh. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. /* cursor. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]. 0. *pBuf2. /* cursor. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. char aStat[80]. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. void clearbuf(void). U8 bSpace. char aCmd[80].h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. b1.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. U32 sLine. U32 iAttrNorm. U32 oBufBound. U32 iAttrMark. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. struct EditRecType *pEdit. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. long cbFilename. U8 *pBufWork.cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. U32 iTabNorm. /* sBuf . U32 iRowMax. U32 iColMax.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast. char fOvertype. char *apParam[13]. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. long erc.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. U8 fVisible. struct EditRecType EdRec. unsigned char filler[100]. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX].h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. char aStat1[80].. }.

PutVidChars (0. "Error break. default: sprintf(st. } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. 40. NORMVID). 24. "Error break. erc). %05d occured on CreateFile". %05d occured on OpenFile". STATVID). 80. If fClose.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. %05d occured on SetFileSize". FillData(st. "Error break. case 3: sprintf(st. long i. case 5: sprintf(st. "Error break. erc). "Error break. *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. } for (i=0. this will prompt you to save. %05d occured on WriteBytes". case 4: sprintf(st. If fPrompt is true. erc). "Error break. erc). "Error break. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". case 6: sprintf(st. Beep(). st. 0). erc). switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. %05d occured on last command". %05d occured on ReadBytes". 0). 39. 24. "Error break. long erc) { char st[40]. 80. i<40. PutVidChars (40. erc). i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. case 7: sprintf(st. %05d occured on ReadKbd". } return (erc). the file will be closed MMURTL V1. erc). case 2: sprintf(st. } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . erc). st. if (erc) { FillData(st.

WriteBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. pEdit->oBufLast)). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). SetFileLFA(fh. fModified = 0. ClearStatus(). ClearStatus(). ".. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. 43. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. } } MMURTL V1. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. "DONE. keycode. 24). ReadKbd(&keycode. ClearStatus(). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. Sleep(150). BLACK|BGCYAN). pBuf1. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. SetFileSize(fh. } fYes = 1. fYes. cbFilename = 0. 1). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. pEdit->oBufLast. 0)).. &i)).0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char *pBuff. 10. int fClose) { U32 i. 24. } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. clearbuf(). STATVID). PutVidChars (0. SetXY(0.and the buffer will be closed. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". fh = 0. TTYOut("This file has been modified.

SetXY(0. &filesize). 60. SetXY(50. erc = 0. &b1. 1). } else { b1=0x0d. BLACK|BGCYAN). } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). If not. fh = 0. CreateFile(Filename. if (!name) { SetXY(0. it will prompts to create. /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). EditLine(Filename. BLACK|BGCYAN). keycode. ReadKbd(&keycode. cbFilename = strlen(Filename). strncpy(Filename. 26.". name. 29. cbFilename. cbFilename. filesize. ModeModify. if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. 1. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. cbFilename = 0. TTYOut("File is too large to edit. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. BLACK|BGCYAN). "Filename: ". 13). &fh). dret. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4.24.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . &cbFilename. TTYOut("Doesn't exist. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. 1)./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. erc). pEdit->oBufLast = dret. BLACK|BGWHITE).0). ReadKbd(&keycode. 10. 0. Create?? (Y/N)". 24). pBuf1. cbFilename. ModeModify.24). SetXY(50. 0)). 1. Beep(). MMURTL V1. OpenFile(Filename. else erc = 0. } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. &dret). 24). &fh)). PutVidChars (0. SetXY(10. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh.24).

} /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. unsigned char *pBuff. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. i. ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. cbFilename = 0. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . return(nEols). even though we word wrap always.if (erc) { fh = 0. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). nEols = 0. i = 0. iEolMax. } } else CheckErc(1. ClearStatus(). erc). } } else { cbFilename = 0. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. *pBuff.

while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++. } } return(iEol). char *pBuff. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--.. i = 0. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. j. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR.1.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. iEol = iBuf. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.. /* now find first non-space . *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . */ iEol = iEolMax. } } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1.

pEdit->iAttrNorm).iColStart +1. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . iColFinish .1. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. iLn.pEdit->Line[iLn]. pEdit->iColMax . iMarkLoc.0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . } while (i < oBufStart).pEdit->Line[iLn] . iLn. } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. iLn. else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin.iColFinish. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark.pEdit->Line[iLn]. pEdit->iAttrMark).i--. else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. iBoundLoc. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. return(j). iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. iColFinish. PutVidAttrs (iColStart. pEdit->iAttrNorm). if (i) i++.

pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. *pBuff. cb). } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->sLine. } return (fOK). pEdit->oBufLast++. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. pEdit->iAttrNorm). CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn.0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . Beep(). if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. char fOvertype. erc = 40400. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. cb). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1].iLn. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer. *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1.pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. char fOK. pEdit->pBufWork. } } } else { fOK = 0. fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufInsert++.

pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. i<=iMk . char *pBuff. iBd.1.1. i<=iBd-iMk.void moveData (void) { unsigned long i. iMk. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.iBd . pEdit->oBufInsert . } } } else Beep(). if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. for (i=0. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . *pBuffWork. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i].iBd + iMk . if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd.1. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .pEdit->oBufInsert . i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. MMURTL V1. for (i=0. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i].0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . i <=iBd-iMk. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert.iMk. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. iBd.

&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. iBd-iMk+1).iMk + 1. } } } else Beep(). *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. (hides it). pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->sLine. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff.char *pBuff. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd . } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block. pEdit->oBufLast+1). *pBuffWork. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file.iMk. pEdit->oBufLast . pBuffWork. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. MMURTL V1. for (i = pEdit->iRowMin.pEdit->oBufInsert+1). iBd = pEdit->oBufBound.iMk + 1. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk].0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. pEdit->iAttrNorm). i. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert.

iBd + iMk . CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. *pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. j. this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. char fProb. char *pBuff. iBd. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd). if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . } nullMarkBound (). iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. } } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling).if it is. i = pEdit->iRowMin. &pBuff[iMk]. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk.might be off screen . pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert .1. else fProb = FALSE. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark.iBd + iMk. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed.normAttr ().

oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol . If oBufInsert is not onscreen. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. } } MMURTL V1. j = pEdit->iLine. find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. if prev char <> CR. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1. } i = pEdit->iLine. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. i. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. pEdit->iLine = i . if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.pEdit->iColMin.is. /* if bogus line.1. i = pEdit->iLine. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert .i++. /* get to potential insert . j = pEdit->iLine.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1.

oBuf. else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. j. i<=k. else for (j=i+1. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. k. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. */ for (i = k. j<NLINESMAX. MMURTL V1.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . k = pEdit->iRowMax. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. cb. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). iLn.

pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. /* oBufInsert on screen . MMURTL V1. if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. 80. iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. cb = i .0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY.1. iLn. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.oBuf + 1. pEdit->iAttrNorm). /* Make size. cb. 0x20). } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. makeOnScreen (). oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. Called before use and after closure.char *pBuff. char *pBuff. i = pEdit->iRowMin. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. pEdit->sLine-cb. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. i<NLINESMAX. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. for (i=0. FillData(filler. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->iAttrNorm). else i = pEdit->oBufLast. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. doMark (iLn). if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pBuff+oBuf. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. iLn. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. pFiller.

i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. key. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. fOvertype = FALSE. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor ().0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . *pBuffWork. fScreen = TRUE. erc = AllocExch(&exch). pEdit->oBufLast). k. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->oBufLast = 0. normAttr (). char *pBuff. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". i. normAttr (). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. 0x20). nullMarkBound(). pEdit->iCol. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them. unsigned char b.fModified = 0. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). for (i=0. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. FillData(aStat. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. fScreen = FALSE. long exch. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. sprintf(aStat. char fSpecInsert. 80. pEdit->iLine). fDone = FALSE. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. j. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol.

/* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. i = pEdit->iLine.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . coordCursor_oBuf (). } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. 3).CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. else CopyData("INS". i = pEdit->iLine. 1)). &aStat[40]. STATVID). case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow . break. if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0.Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. break. break. break. &aStat[77]. aStat. 80. &aStat[77]. break. fScreen = TRUE.Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine.CopyData(Filename. PutVidChars (0. coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . ReadKbd (&key. 3). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. fScreen = TRUE.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. 0. break.Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. TRUE).0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. fSpecInsert = FALSE. cbFilename). b = key & 0xff. case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR".

} break. i = pEdit->iLine+1. TRUE). pEdit->bSpace = 0x07.SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast . break. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. } break. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. } fScreen = TRUE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. break. fDone = TRUE. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. case 0x53: /* ALT S . FALSE). fScreen = TRUE.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). default: break.pEdit->Line[i]. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20.0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. OpenAFile(0). break. } else { for (i=0. break. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1.

0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . MMURTL V1. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (!(putInBuf (b. else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. fOvertype.} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). fSpecInsert))) Beep(). if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). fScreen = TRUE. default: break.1. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). findCursor (). if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. break.1. break. case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . pEdit->oBufLast+1). pBuffWork. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0.5) pEdit->iCol += 5.

Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. fScreen = TRUE. for (i=1. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast . } break. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--.(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm).1. break. FALSE). if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. fScreen = TRUE. i = pEdit->iLine.End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x17: /* F9 . break. fScreen = TRUE.1. fScreen = TRUE.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. case 0x11: /* F3 -. FALSE. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). i = pEdit->iLine. j = pEdit->iTabNorm . case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. case 0x12: /* F4 -. case 0x10: /* F2 -. i <=j. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. } break. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast .Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 0x06: /* Home . moveData (). MMURTL V1. } break.if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark .UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace.1. fModified = TRUE.

pEdit->oBufInsert = i. i = pEdit->iRowMax. /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k].pEdit->iRowMin. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. j--. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0.COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). } break. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax. k = pEdit->iLine. break. k--. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). i = pEdit->oBufLine0. coordCursor_oBuf (). fScreen = TRUE. j = pEdit->iRowMax . pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.break. break. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). CopyIt (). fScreen = TRUE. case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). fScreen = TRUE. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x18: /* F10 . } } break. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i].

pEdit->iLine = j. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). break. else fOvertype = TRUE. case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. pBuffWork. i = pEdit->iCol.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . fModified = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLast--. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. } break. } } break. coordCursor_oBuf (). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. pEdit->oBufLast+1). case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. } break. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. } break. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). default: MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. pEdit->iCol = i. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. j = pEdit->iLine. } fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. fScreen = TRUE.pEdit->iLine++. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert).

erc = AllocPage(32. 0. 6). FALSE. &pBuf1). fh = 0. &pBuf2). SetFileLFA(fh. fModified = 0. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. 23. return. &i)). pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. ClrScr(). 0)). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. } *pbExitRet = b. 131071. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). pBuf1. 79. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin.break. 1.1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. 80. cbFilename = 0. U8 *argv[]) { long i. pBuf2. erc = AllocPage(32. SetJobName("Editor". /*sBuf . i <=pEdit->iBufMax. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. i. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. i <=pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->oBufLast.pEdit->oBufLast)). WriteBytes (fh. 0).0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. pEdit->sLine+1. SetFileSize(fh. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. pEdit = &EdRec. 0x20. } CloseFile(fh).

i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. EDVID.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. i. MMURTL V1. 0x20). /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. 80. It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]).pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID).cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler. fOvertype = FALSE. i<NLINESMAX. 0.3.. EMPTY. 0. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc.. ExitJob(0).0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232. for (i=0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. } Editor(&b).h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob. i = pEdit->iRowMin.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. 0. 0. Listing 16.h> #include <ctype. 0. EMPTY. 0. pEdit->Line[i] = 0.sLine-1 */ cursor. struct statRecC com. 0.h> #include <string. 4. fModified = 0. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID.

%d\r\n". ClrScr().h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. 64. dnBlocks. ClrScr(). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. char fOK.RTimeOut). /* View other params which we could set.parity = com.XTimeOut). printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". } /* set the params in the block */ com. CmdOpenC. we open the comms port */ /* device. Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). %d\r\n". dLBA.RBufSize). com. &i). com. com. com. 0. 0.databits com. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. dOpNum. = 1. ExitJob(erc). &com. printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". ClrScr(). lastb. but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. SetNormVid(NORMVID). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n").0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /* If device init went OK. erc). 64). NO_PAR. erc). &i).unsigned char b. = 8. printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB.IRQNum). %d\r\n". if (erc) { MMURTL V1. */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". ExitJob(erc). &com.XBufSize).stopbits = 9600.Baudrate com. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). The structure is defined in commdrv. %d\r\n". com. /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). %d\r\n".IOBase). com.

&b). break. ClrScr(). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. } } } } /* device... 0. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". 0. erc = DeviceOp(6. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. ExitJob(erc). /* This is it. CmdWriteB. CmdCloseC. NORMVID). 1. } } } MMURTL V1. ExitJob(erc). erc). 0. SetNormVid(CLIVID). 0. dLBA. dLBA. /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. CmdWriteB. ClrScr(). default: break. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". &b). lastb = b. dnBlocks. 0. dOpNum. dOpNum. CmdReadB. NORMVID). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. dnBlocks. 0. fOK = 1..0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. &i). 0. else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. erc). dLBA.SetNormVid(CLIVID). */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key. 0. dnBlocks. dOpNum. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n". /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. 1.\r\n").. } } else { /* device. &b).

0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS . FILE *f. char name[80]. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.h" "\OSSource\Parallel.h> <string.2. struct statRecL lpt.h> <ctype.Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver. NoFF = 0. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device.h" "\OSSource\MVid. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n . Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF.Binary print.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key. Listing 16.h> <stdlib.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B . /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1.h> <stdio.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1.h" "\OSSource\MJob. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device.4. fBinary = 0.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv.4.h" "\OSSource\MKbd.Display the file while printing \F . That's the intention of the design. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No. col = 0. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. Send with no translations. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). long long long long long tabstops = 4.h" "\OSSource\MTimer.4 or 8) \D . In listing 16. fDisplay = 0.

SetJobName("Printing". char fdone. printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). no FF\r\n\n"). 8). 79). break. lastb. } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. } MMURTL V1. name[0] = 0. break. printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr .0x30. *ptr. printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . printf("/B Binary print. case 'B' : /* BINARY . printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). erck. break. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++.0\r\n"). i < argc. ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). exit(1). case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. i. exit(1). break.void main(long argc.Tab stop translation value\r\n").No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. break. Version 1.0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . for(i=1. unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. NO translation. cl. case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. argv[i]. unsigned char b. default: printf("Invalid switch").

} /* If device status went OK. dnBlocks.. ExitJob(erc). } else { MMURTL V1. CmdCloseLU. CmdOpenL. } col = 0.. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. b = 0.. } printf("Printing %s . erc). dOpNum. erc). cl = fgetc(f). lastb = b. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. -236- RICHARD A BURGESS . "r"). dOpNum. /* This is it.h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. ExitJob(erc). 64./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. &i). if (!f) { /* device. dnBlocks. &lastb). */ erc = DeviceStat(3. ExitJob(erc). dLBA.. &i). if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". The structure is defined in parallel. if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". fdone = 0. } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. */ f = fopen(name. 0. &i). &lpt. i = 0. dLBA. b = (cl & 0xff). 0. 0. we open the printer port */ /* device. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n".0 1. 0. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3.\r\n". name). name). CmdWriteB.

0. col++. erc). if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". 0). 1. if (fDisplay) printf(" "). 0. b). /* reset */ break. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. } fclose(f). 0. CmdWriteB. erc = 4. %d\r\n". } } &b). /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. &lastb). erc = DeviceOp(3. } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. CmdWriteB. dLBA. dOpNum. 0. &i). " "). -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. 1. break. if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. "\f"). CmdWriteB. case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. &b). CmdCloseL.0 1. 1.switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. } erc = DeviceOp(3. col++. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. } while (col % tabstops). CmdWriteB. 1. break. dnBlocks. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". CmdWriteB. col = 0. if (erc) MMURTL V1. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. &b). 1. lastb). 0. CmdWriteB. erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. /* device.

ExitJob(erc).C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. printf("Done\r\n"). long *pDataRet. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0. The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. ErrorToUser. The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). erc). MMURTL V1. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2].h" "\OSSource\MJob. Service.h" "\OSSource\MVid. Listing 16. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. Error: %d\r\n".5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen.” It has been expanded some.RUN program to exercise the service. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. “Systems Programming. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. While this program is running. keycode. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10.h> "\OSSource\MKernel.printf("Can't close LPT. run the TestSvc.

if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ErrorToUser). printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service. OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". } pRqBlk = Message[0].\r\n"). /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1.\r\n".) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. OSError). ErcNoSuchSvc). ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). 4. &rqHndl. Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.\r\n"). 0. *pDataRet = NextNumber++. MainExch). } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode.. ClrScr(). MainExch.0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. 1. NextNumber-1). while (!CheckMsg(MainExch. 0. 0. SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). 1. &keycode. 0). Message). } DeAllocExch(MainExch). /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. Respond(pRqBlk..

C Listing The program in listing 16.\r\n". else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service. 4. Message[1]).6 exercises the sample system service listed previously. &rqhndl. Error = AllocExch(&Exch). Listing 16.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. Error).\r\n". TestSvc. 0. if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1. /* No Send ptrs */ &Number.0. unsigned long Exch.\r\n". rqhndl. Exch. Also try it when the service is not running. 0. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch.h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel.0). Error = Request("NUMBERS ".h" unsigned long Number. Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. 0. } } DeAllocExch(Exch). Execute this from a CLI while the service is running.\r\n".6. Error). Number). Error).\r\n". void main(void) { unsigned long Error. 1. 0. Message). You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. unsigned long Message[2].0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS .C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange.

ASM . Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion.). This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. There are also header files for the C source. because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors.. with the called procedure cleaning the stack. and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. MOSIDT. MOSPDR.ASM . Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. common variables. MOSGDT. and structures together. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor. Quite a few of them. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it.ASM . which means its data will be at the lowest address. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. MPublics.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . It helps me think. I just expend the time up front instead of later. however.This is the first assembler file that contains code. as you look through the code. In fact. All source files are located in one directory. Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files). use the stack just as a compiler would. This is the first file in the source. By including the comments. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. The ordering for MMURTL V1. In fact.This is also a table.Chapter 17.This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. You may find some of the source files rather large. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. The GDT is 6K in size. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (.. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. the human becomes a compiler of sorts. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. and used by the processor. I hope I’ve met this goal.ASM . The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. The caller cleans the stack in this convention.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function.ASM . it ends up at physical and linear address 0. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). Also some data is defined here. This file should be left in the order I have it in. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. but it is not used by the processor. MAIN. some of the things that tie all of the source files together. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did.

Keyboard. It drives two channels.C . MiscCode.ASM .In many systems. MemCode.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. It think it still works with MFM drives. TmrCode.C . as well as port I/O support. On the other hand.ASM .ASM . but only to enable the input buffer (which helps).The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service. Video. You only need to know the channel. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level. RS232. FSys. but I don't have any more to test it. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people. and the mode.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write. RQBCode.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS .The simple parallel port driver is contained here. but it's effective and accurate.C .C . is in this file.The code memory allocation.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() .This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic.the remainder of the modules is not as important. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either. how much to move.C . If you have MFM drives. you're on your own.ASM . This file has routines that handle DMA for you.This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa. MMURTL V1. NumCnvrt.ASM . You have to see what you're doing. but can be modified for four.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain.ASM . Floppy. HardIDE. Debugger. JobC.C . It has only the necessary calls to get the job done.This file is the debugger disassembler. Debugging a debugger is even less fun.ASM . Parallel. The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled. JobCode.ASM .ASM was one of the first files written.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger.The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file. DevDrvr.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. Keyboard. address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file. IntCode. even in the earliest stages of a project.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system. they must handle it themselves. It provides stream access as well as block access to files. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. when a device driver writers need DMA.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers.ASM .C are contained in this file. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. DMACode. undoubtedly. and it works rather well.ASM . This is one complicated driver.C . Highspeed string manipulation and comparison. It supports the 16550. but you never know where to put. Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer .Request block management code is in this file.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver. someday). Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work. if needed.ASM . It's not very pretty.ASM . UASM.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. I was surprised. Device driver writers will appreciate this. SVCCode.are in this file.

6K) . An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as .5 Pages.ASM .DATA .5 minutes on a 486/33. you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL. DASM produces the operating system RUN file.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions.INCLUDE MOSGDT. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. but it really isn't part of the operating system.ASM .Kernel.Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file.All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. specify /E on the command line after the name. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM.ASM .C . Keyboard ISR and Service .INCLUDE Keyboard. Except.1.ASM .INCLUDE MOSIDT.Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.ASM . If you want an error file.The monitor program is contained in this file.ASM . Listing 17.ASM . You could replace quite easily.ATF It's truly that simple. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1.INCLUDE MPublics.C After all the C source files are compiled. It provides a lot of the OS functionality. Video code and data MMURTL V1. If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses.ASM . Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces). . and the DASM assembler (also included). This takes about 1. Indirect calling address table . The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28. /L on the command line after the name.INCLUDE MAIN. Main OS code and some data & START address . Assembler Template File . InitCode. Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. . a C source file and must be compiled first with . Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! . Monitor. .0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS . Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code.BAT) will build the entire operating system.” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM.0 .ASM .INCLUDE Video. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) .INCLUDE MOSPDR. An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor.ASM . Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table . One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28. CM32 (no switches needed). Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF). “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler.

C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort.ASM NumCnvrt.ASM IntCode.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one. .* .INCLUDE . the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.ASM DMACode. CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding.* . Otherwise.ASM Except. . Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files. but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM.INCLUDE .ASM MemCode.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM . You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments .ASM TmrCode. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular.* :* . The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location.INCLUDE .ASM DevDrvr. In fact. and they will work fine.INCLUDE . .* .ASM InitCode.ASM Kernel.INCLUDE . For instance.ASM FSys. .INCLUDE . . The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.* . I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way. . use another compiler for your project.ASM JobCode. .INCLUDE .array.INCLUDE .* . you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. it is placed into the code segment in that order.END Debugger.INCLUDE .ASM Parallel. You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures. you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier).INCLUDE .ASM JOBC. . The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language. you can take the file system code (FSYS.ASM Floppy.ASM MiscCode.* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc. You will. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. .INCLUDE . The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files. .ASM SVCCode. This is one thing you should watch. no doubt.INCLUDE . . If your C compiler allows it.INCLUDE . . The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies.INCLUDE .ASM UASM.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM Monitor. CM32 packs all structure fields completely.code and data. .ASM RQBCode.INCLUDE . MMURTL V1.INCLUDE .INCLUDE .ASM HardIDE. ..ASM RS232.INCLUDE . This is because DASM doesn't support structures. code (string. As each piece of code is assembled.

I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts).INC RQB. local helper functions. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications.INC TSS. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes.ASM. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). Listing 18.INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF. job control blocks. Kernel data segment source .Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. the scheduler.1.INCLUDE . I think it will make more sense to you. See listing 18.Chapter 18. and kernel publics functions. and offsets into structures and tables. The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches). If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS .INC JOB. Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines.INC DD 0 . and memory management tables. These are things such as the task state segments.INCLUDE . the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). so I could get to them with the monitor program. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. a single underscore will be prepended to the name. Being an old "structured" programmer. These all change with respect to the task that is running. The actual message handling functions.INCLUDE . internal public functions. The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. The bulk of them are in the file Main.DATA . two underscores will be prepended to the name. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady). For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables.1.

0 .EAX . 0 .2. .0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX .2. it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). Listing 18. link blocks. and if a task is waiting there. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. which means interrupts must be cleared. The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. and therefore. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. pLBin^. REGISTERS : EAX. pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead]. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). XCHG ESI.Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. and exchanges. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy. is coded in-line.MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. . if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. pExch => EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. This is important. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . pointed to by the ESI register. if . The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message.FLAGS . for example. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. In MMURTL. This is strictly a speed issue. OUTPUT : NONE . It's not that the routines are called so often. JZ eqMsgDone . such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken. MODIFIES : EDX . See listing 18. and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. INPUT : ESI. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order. This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. .EAX .. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. OR EAX.ESI. This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources. When a message is sent to an exchange.EDX.Next <= NIL. A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: .

You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there. .msg.. deMsgDone: RETN . MOV [ESI+EHead].FLAGS .NextLB <= pLBin.ESI .head and EBX .MsgHead. exchanges can hold messages or tasks. then MOV [EAX+EHead]. . deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there. . This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the . Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.3. MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX. . MOV [EAX+ETail]. deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. .4. EAX . REGISTERS : EAX.ESI . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. but not both. 1 .ESI . Put pExch Back in ESI RETN . if pLBout = NIL then Return.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS . .MsgTail <= pLBin. MOV EBX..[EAX+ETail] . OR EAX. MOV EAX.[EAX+NextLB] . If not. . else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX.EBX . OUTPUT : EAX .EBX.Next.ESI . 1 . If not.[ESI+EHead] . If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it.MsgTail^.3.JNE eqMNotNIL . EAX . See listing 18..ESI. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone .ESI . Get Msg Flag OR EAX. No! (return 0) MOV EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX. Listing 18.ESI . . JZ deMsgDone .MsgTail <= pLBin. MMURTL V1.MsgHead^. De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: ... pLBout <= . As stated before.MsgHead <= pLBin. If not. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. See listing 18. you return NIL (0). MOV [EDX+NextLB]. INPUT : ESI .[ESI+fEMsg] . MOV [EAX+ETail]..MsgHead <= ..

JZ deTSSDone . OR EAX.[ESI+EHead] . MODIFIES : EAX.TSSHead <= . EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI .Listing 18. . 0 .5.[ESI+fEMsg] . The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists. one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL.[EAX+Priority] .EDX .Next. Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. Listing 18. . register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. . XOR EBX. REGISTERS : EAX.EBX .5.EBX.TSSHead.0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS . . deTSSDone: RETN .EBX.FLAGS .. ..EBX . Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. pTSSout <= . This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue.Next <= NIL. get the priority MOV BL. See listing 18.ESI. Priority => EAX. MOV EBX.EBX. JZ eqRdyDone . pTSSin^. EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head]. . if pTSS = NIL then return.TSSHead^. EBX JNZ deTSSDone .RdyQ . The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers.EAX . if pTSSout = NIL then Return.[EAX+NextTSS] . .FLAGS .4.EAX . De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . . pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: .EBX . algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority. It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX. EAX . INPUT : ESI . OUTPUT : EAX . REGISTERS : EAX. INPUT : EAX .. Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. head & tail per QUEUE). 0 . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS]. This . This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI . 3 .EDX. Set up to return nothing MOV EBX.EBX . if Head = NIL MMURTL V1. . MOV [ESI+EHead]. INC _nReady . MODIFIES : EAX. XOR EAX. OUTPUT : NONE . OR EAX.EDX . in EBX XCHG EAX.

REGISTERS : EAX.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX]. De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . .. . INPUT : NONE . . . EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX.ECX. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ.0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX. . . OUTPUT : EAX . queued on the RdyQ. .6. See listing 18.FLAGS .Tail <= pTSSin. . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX.RdyQ . If none is found.[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS]. IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ. MMURTL V1.Tail <= pTSSin. RETURN Otherwise. . this returns NIL (0).EBX. .[EBX] OR EAX. that 0 is the highest priority.6.. deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . .ECX deRdyDone: RETN . Keep in mind. and 31 is the lowest. .. .NextTSS <= pTSSin. MOV ECX. If there was no task queued.nPRI . else .JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head].EBX MOV [EAX+Tail]. . . deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. then . This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . . EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX.. . MODIFIES : RdyQ .Tail^. .EBX eqRdyDone: RETN .Head <= pTSSin. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. EAX is returned as NIL. . . . The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list.EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX. Listing 18.

7. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . . . Listing 18. OUTPUT : EAX . . It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers. Point to the next Priority Queue . . This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1.0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. Listing 18. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue . IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and .RdyQ .8. . either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation.[EBX] OR EAX. INPUT : NONE . This why it's specified as PUBLIC. See listing 18. RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. If there was no task queued. . Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . EAX is returned as NIL. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that .EBX. Get pTSSout in EAX . MODIFIES : RdyQ .7. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX.sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN . MOV ECX.ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. . They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures.nPRI .FLAGS .8. They are located in Kernel. REGISTERS : EAX.ECX. . "It's a nasty job. When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. is queued to run. without actually removing it from the queue.ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. but someone's got to it. check the next priority." See Listing 18. .

. Make EAX point to new head TSS . Yes. MOV EBP.nPRI .EAX . Procedureal Interface : .EBX .pFreeTSS . . . MODIFIES : RdyQ . EDI PUSH EBX .. pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . POP EBX MOV EAX. EAX OR EAX. EDI ADD EBX.EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . Fix link in Queue list . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .RdyQ .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . All done (clean stack) .ESP . EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1. 0 . Is it Zero? . pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. Point to the next Priority Queue . . .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. OUTPUT : NONE .Next <= pFreeTSS. . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . No error .0 . pTSSin^. .Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX. [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. MOV ECX. Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail]. INC _nTSSLeft . . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . . deQueue the TSS . Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. a job. REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . No MOV EDI. PUSH EBP . EDI OR EAX. .

Yes. Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No. Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes.Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) .Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX. char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1.Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . Next TSS .pFreeTSS . OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. 0 . [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX.back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified. ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. ESI PUSH EBX . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI. GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI.Jump the removed link . ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . . Finding the owner of an exchange . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. pTSSin^.EAX points to crnt TSS .This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS].0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX . . This function is used with the next one. . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. Next Queue please .Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange.9.Next <= pFreeTSS. SetExchOwner(). EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX. deQueue the TSS . This is not so if it's for a new job.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. INC _nTSSLeft . back to check next at head of list . [EAX+NextTSS] . No. A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned. This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block. . POP .9.Yes. . . . . Listing 18.EDI points to prev TSS .JMP RemRdy0 . . See listing 18. . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated. .EBX . These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). Trash it. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. . .

This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS).0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .10. char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. MMURTL V1. This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call.ESP MOV EAX. . [EBP+12] CMP EAX.prgExch ADD EDX.nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. . . .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX.ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX. . Exch . SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). . No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch. . EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. .Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. . . . . Listing 18. ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. . EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified.10. pJCBRet the exchange number. [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . .EAX MOV EAX.. EAX XOR EAX. Valid Exch (Allocated) . continue Yes. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . . See listing 18. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. mentioned previously. . Exch is . not allocated . . . is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. pJCBRet . No. Changing the owner of an exchange . . .

. .prgExch ADD EAX. . See listing 18. If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. . . It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead). . . . Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. . . the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. . [EBP+12] MOV EDX. . . pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX.EDX MOV EBX. other services.. EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. The error it returns is of no consequence. telling them that a particular job has died. If a service is holding a request from the job that died. Listing 18.ESP MOV EAX. .11. . SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. If a program sent a request. . . then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. .ESP MOV ESI. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). . . . . or the operating system itself. . EBX XOR EAX. The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. Get the address of rgSVC . We ignore the kernel errors. . Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Notifying services of a job’s demise . . ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . . .sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] .11. . .nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1.

12. The procedural interface to Request looks like this: . [EBP+12] . A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications.12. NO. Request kernel primitive code . These are functions such as GetPriority(). Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] . Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates.Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI .dData1 PUSH 0 . except this function requires several more parameters. sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX.cbData0 PUSH 0 .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS . .dData0 PUSH 0 . Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive. Listing 18. next service PUSH ESI .Next Service name .pHandleRet PUSH 0 . A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it. The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block. EAX MOV ESP.pName PUSH 0 . The function that searches the array is GetExchange(). They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel.Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI.cbData1 MOV EAX. These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate.pData1 PUSH 0 .Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . [EBP+8] .JobNum PUSH EAX . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.npSend PUSH 0 .Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX .dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request . wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.pData0 PUSH 0 . Valid name? . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model.Abort Service Code MOV EAX. . and code for it is in the file SVCCode.CMP DWORD PTR [ESI]. 0 JE SAB05 .asm. See listing 18.

JMP ReqEnd .put .No. .ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: . EAX MOV EAX. . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX.Get . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2]. .ESI still has the exchange for the service .Get . . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. ..No JMP ReqEnd . .Get . . return error Req02: . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0].Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB . Sorry.EBX .ESP .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. EAX MOV EAX. dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .Yes.nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX. ESI MOV EAX. [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1].Get . AX MOV [EBX+RespExch]. EAX MMURTL V1.Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 . EAX .Put . Error in EAX register .Yes.Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX. Set up New FramePtr .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX.. EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch].Validate exchange MOV EDX. .EDX still has the response exchange .Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 .EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.. .Get .Get . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+56] . [EBP+48] CMP EDX. continue Yes.Put . Save the Previous FramePtr . Req04: . [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1].put . .0 .EAX .put . ErcNoMoreRqBlks .pServiceName CALL GetExchange .Put . .put .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX. [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode]. EAX MOV EAX. . .

sEXCH EDX EDX. 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend].Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk . . Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . .Number of Send PbCbs . . EAX MOV EAX.EDX .Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . AL [EBX+npRecv].Get cbData1 .Data PUSH EAX .Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) . EAX MOV EAX. pLB^.The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it.Get pData2 . . Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. No interruptions from here on .Give it to them . 2 CL. RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi]. .prgExch EAX.Next <= NIL.ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX. .EBX DEC _nLBLeft . pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.At this point the RqBlk is all filled in. . Store zero in upper half of pLB^. [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2]. MOV [EAX+DataLo]. [EBP+44] MOV [EDI]. DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS .Ptr to return handle to . 0 . .pFreeLB OR EAX.ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1.Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. . 0 ..Leave in CL . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. .Next . EBX . This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. EAX <= pFreeLB.EDX ESI. AL CL.ESI EDX.The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use . . [EBP+40] CMP EAX. .. Save pLB on the stack .[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB.put in RqBlk .Put npRecv in RqBlk . EBX MOV EDX.Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX. . free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. CL .EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX.EAX . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX.0 . EAX MOV EAX.Get cbData2 .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI.MOV EAX. .put in RqBlk .REQLB .put in RqBlk .ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.Must be 2 or less . . . [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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. the return to caller with error MOV EAX. pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX.EBP . As with WaitMsg(). CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX.nExch . . . message should be sent. . . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 . . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI. in the EAX register.18. .ESP . . See listing 18.prgExch . ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . Procedureal Interface : .REQLB MMURTL V1. A result code is returned in the EAX register.EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the .0 -270- . . CheckMsg(exch.ChkExchange . MOV EDX. in the EAX register. return to the caller with error MOV EAX.EDX . PUSH EBP .18. Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return . . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. Chk01: MOV EAX. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . 0 . Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . POP EBP . . MOV ESI. . return with erc no msg . .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. MOV ESP.ercNoMsg MOV ESP. MOV ESI.ercNotAlloc MOV ESP. Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner].ercOutOfRange . If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . Listing 18. . MOV EBP.We can be interrupted again .ESI .sEXCH . CheckMsg kernel primitive code . .EAX . RETF 8 . .pdqMsg):ercType . . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories.

[EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. Treat it as a data link block . dJobNum. [EBX+pData2] OR EAX.No...Error?? . EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS .Return Error. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.Offset to pData1 in RqBlk .JNE Chk04 .cbMem . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP. .cbMem .dJobNum .dJobNum . . MMURTL V1.Linear Address of pData1 . . No.. continue . ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX.Error?? . ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX. EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP. continue .Restore ptr to Link Block .Yes . [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX.is pData1 NULL? ..Second Pointer (pData2) . .Make stack right .Return Error. Get pRqBlk into EBX .pMem .pLB. . Save ptr to Link Block . [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX.Yes . pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .Set up params for AliasMem .is cbData1 0? .Make stack right .Save again . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX.[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX. Get pRqBlk into EBX .pMem .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX. dcbMem.is cbData2 0? . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.Offset to pData2 in RqBlk . .Set up params for AliasMem . . .Linear Address of PData1 .Now we set up to alias the memory for the service . (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) . [EBX+pData1] OR EAX._AliasMem(pMem.Yes .[EAX+DataLo] .is pData2 NULL? . .No.Yes .

Exch.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.EAX MOV ESP.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . EIP): dErcRet . stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive.Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] .EAX . pFreeLB <= pLBin. . . . .Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1. . Procedural interface: . NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] .Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX.ESP MOV EDX. INC _nLBLeft . The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs. The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job.19.pFreeLB . MOV pFreeLB. . .Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] .ECX .EBX [EDX+4]. For MMURTL version 1. XOR EAX. STI . or page fault. NewTask(JobNum. NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter.Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution.EBX . See listing 18. .8 for OS.ErcOK! (0) .[EAX+DataHi] EDX. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. . Get pLB^.19.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] .Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] . . ESP. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation. 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] .x. CodeSeg. MOV [EAX+NextLB].Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pLBin^. . fDebug. . In future versions.Restore Ptr to Link Block .pCkMessage [EDX]. Priority.[EAX+DataLo] ECX. The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection.Next <= pFreeLB. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in. .Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. .Data in specified memory space (EDX) .0 . NewTask kernel primitive code . Listing 18.

. NTS_EIP .Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .0 .we can't be interrupted . NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. NTS_Exch ECX.Put pJCB into TSS . NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.0202h .ECX now has pJCB .pFreeTSS OR EAX.Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0].CX .No.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.DL . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.JBE NT0000 MOV EAX.EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI .ercOutOfRange NTEnd .EAX now has pJCB .mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS]. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. . [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX. .Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch]. ..Save pNewTSS again .mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].Restore pNewTSS to EAX .EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority].mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP].EBX .Next .Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .Set up to call LinToPhy .ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX. 0 MMURTL V1. ECX. NTS_ESP .EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. ECX.EBX EBX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].ECX MOV EBX.Exch in range? PUSH EAX .. .ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX. .get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX. IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return. nExch NT0001 EAX.Save pNewTSS . NTS_CS .Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 . ECX .pNewTSS into EAX .Set up to call GetpJCB .

pStack.20.JE NT0004 .Save time of this switch for scheduler .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. 1 NT0004: MOV EBX.EAX .Move new TSS into pRunTSS . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick. . .We can't be interrupted MOV EDX. .EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space. See listing 18.ercOk JMP NTEnd .ErcOk MMURTL V1.Save New TSS .Get priority of new task CLI . Listing 18. dPriority.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] .CrntTSS -> EAX. .20. SpawnTask(pEntry. . As with NewTask(). .0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP.EAX MOV BX.Yes .[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. . .New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority]. . SpawnTask kernel primitive code . fDebug. EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. New TSS -> EDX .Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX.BL . Procedural Interface: .New TSS -> EAX . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs.Jump to new TSS .Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 .pRunTSS . fOSCode). the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it. .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX. NTS_Pri .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.

JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX.EDX MOV EDX. NewExchST .Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].pEntryST . nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX.No..Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX.0 . NewTSSST.two local DWORD vars .Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS .0202h .Priority OK? . OSCodeSel .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. .EBX MOV EBX. .see if we got an error . move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. .ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX.we can't be interrupted . .Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST. 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. [EBX+TSS_CR3] ..Yup. bad news .EDX . . 0 .EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.Debug on entry? JE ST0004 .EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].pFreeTSS OR EAX.ercNoMoreTSSs .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX. EAX . NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX.ESP SUB ESP.mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. pRunTSS MOV EDX.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX.Save new TSS EBX.Next .EBX MOV EBX.EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1. 8 CMP dPriST.Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].Allocate exchange . JobCodeSel . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. pStackST . .Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST. 1 . EAX JNZ STEnd . .

. dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority].[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.Who got the highest Pri? . Listing 18.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . New TSS -> EDX . EBX <= ADR rgExch .ESP XOR ESI. . just put new guy on Q. . . The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES).BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX. .Move new TSS into pRunTSS . New guy does (lowest num) .Old guy does.we can't be interrupted .EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. . Zero the Exch Index .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.21.Place crnt TSS on Q .0 .CrntTSS -> EAX.nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.mov priority into BL . . Procedural Interface : . See listing 18. It is property of a Job (not a task). .21.put in TSS . 0 MMURTL V1. .BL CLI MOV EDX.ercOk .Return to caller .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() . This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange. PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX. Get number of exchanges in ECX .MOV EBX.pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority]. .Get who's running . The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages.Jump to new TSS .EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP.If crnt >.New TSS -> Stack . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- . .ErcOk .ESI MOV EBX. Allocate exchange code . . .Save time of this switch for scheduler . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.New TSS -> EAX . AllocExch(pExchRet):dError . . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .prgExch MOV ECX. returned.EAX MOV BX.

ESI . . Deallocate exchange code . and link blocks. . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX]. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges.ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI.EBP .pRunTSS EBX.sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX. This function has a lot more to do. If we found a Free Exch. POP EBP . . Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. TSSs. . .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] .0 . . however. Listing 18. . .pRunTSS . . Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange.22.[EBP+0CH] . it may have left over link blocks hanging on it. .[EBP+0CH] EAX.[EAX+Owner] EBX. Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . .ercOK (0) MOV ESP.EDX .22. Procedural Interface : . MMURTL V1. . . DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. . . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. .EDX ECX. PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . and request blocks are freed up as necessary.0 . .sEXCH EDX EDX. See listing 18. JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX.EAX . .prgExch EAX. RETF 4 . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector.0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . Messages are deQueued. Stats XOR EAX.EAX EDX. Make the Exch owner the Job STI . . .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP. Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner]. DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). .ESI EDX.EAX .JE AE001 ADD EBX. . Those link blocks may also contain requests. . DEC _nEXCHLeft .

is this the OS??? . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. 0 .pFreeLB . CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg].EBP . .0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS . Reset msg Flag.pFreeTSS .EAX . Go And Check for more. MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. INC _nTSSLeft . Yes.with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will .0 .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . XOR EAX. No. INC _nLBLeft . MMURTL V1.EBX . MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. RETF 4 .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. . pFreeLB <= pLBin. JMP DE001 .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. CLI . ECX .Next <= pFreeLB. If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers. . pTSSin^.instructions or a service crashes! .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. EAX JZ DE002 . Nothing there. MOV pFreeLB. . OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX. . Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 . DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. Free up the exchange.Next <= pFreeTSS. NIL = Empty. 0 . See if a message may be queued JE DE001 . DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX. Stats STI . if not owner. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB].JE DE000 CMP EBX. See listing 18. JMP DE000 . Get the TSS off of the Exchange .23. Go free the Exch. INC _nEXCHLeft . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. pLBin^. 0 .EAX . ECX . JUMP MOV ESI.EBX . POP EBP . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS.EAX . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. 0 .ercNotOwner MOV ESP. yes .only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow . yes . Go And Check for more.

pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle .Put it in the TSS XOR EAX.[EBP+0CH] . . GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . PUBLIC __SetPriority . EAX . . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. ErcOK POP EBP . . GetTSS exchange code . 01Fh .23. ErcOK . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. PUSH EBP .pRunTSS . . .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EBP.pRunTSS . . If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority.24 Listing 18. MOV EAX. returned. This doesn't really affect the kernel. the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. PUSH EBP . [EAX+TSS_Exch] . Procedural Interface : . RETF 4 . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. .Listing 18.This sets the priority of the task that called it . SetPriority . EAX . Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. MOV EBP.ESP . to the priority specified in the single parameter. .24. MOV EAX. RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. MMURTL V1. bPriority is a byte with the new priority.ESP .No error. . SetPriority(bPriority):dError . See listing 18. The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). . Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority].[EBP+0CH] . PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. Procedural Interface : . BL . POP EBP . Set priority code .EBX . . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX.

25. ErcOK POP EBP . priority returned. RETF 4 . SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . PUBLIC __GetPriority . EAX . bPriorityret is a pointer to a . MOV EAX. Get the MOV EBX. BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX].This gets the priority of .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task. MMURTL V1. and passes it to bPriorityRet.ESP . . MOV EBP.pRunTSS . the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error. See listing 18. Listing 18. DL . . PUSH EBP . Procedural Interface : .[EBP+0CH] . . . Get priority code .0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetPriority . .25. Get the MOV DL. . XOR EAX. Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over.

Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .Max is 2048 (64Mb) .Number of free physical pages left . page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs).INC .INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h . I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code. As with all assembler files for DASM.Default to 1 MB .1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code.CODE command. Listing 19. The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access.INC . The task state segments are also used extensively. I call these internal support code.User Writable (Data) .System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections.0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS . The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.1.DATA . MMURTL V1. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM).in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language.User Writable . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .INCLUDE TSS.2048 bytes = 64Mb . Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode. The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .User Readable (Code) .Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt . the code section must start with the .INCLUDE JOB.Page Allocation Map .1 bit/4Kbytes .Chapter 19. Memory management constants and data . 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU . It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.INCLUDE MOSEDF.We alloc the "next" page table . Listing 19.ASM.

1 Mb of pages = 256 . EAX . It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have. 0FFFFF000h .Next table entry MMURTL V1.Move in test string .0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS .0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. Memory management initialization code .ECX MOV EBX. Now you must fill in bits used by OS. 0001h . MOV EDX.EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX. 32 CMP EAX. oMemMax must be last byte .top of 2 megs (for DWORD) . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree.'mrtl' test string value for memory . . We assume 1MB to start.Set it to zero intially .Set oMemMax . Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.3 MOV _oMemMax.DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX.100000h ADD _nPagesFree.Yes.OUT: .2.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX].Another megs worth of pages .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .See if we got it back OK .EAX SUB EAX.Supervisor. This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used .Next Meg . EAX CALL MarkPage .Are we above 64 megs .1FFFFCh XOR EBX.Increase PAM by another meg . Present MOV EBX. neither of which you consider free. which was just loaded.USED: . 256 ADD sPAM.ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX.3 ADD EAX. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM.Yes! .EBX MOV ECX.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. 4 .InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory.Read test string into EBX . by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test. 256 MOV EAX.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX.NO! . and makes PTEs. which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh). in megabytes.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX].Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed. Continuation of memory management init. you have.3. See listing 19. Listing 19.06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. . PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED. InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree.3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX. It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax. The code in listing 19. Its the law! Listing 19.Make it the last DWord again . EAX . . OFFSET pTbl1 .2.IN: .

CR0 .Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses. and then writing it again. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh.No. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. EDX. such as the 82C30 C&T.Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) . Several chip sets on the market.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . 80000000h .0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS .Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage .5.EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . ANDing it with 8000000h. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX]. go back for more . EAX . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte.Physical address of OS page directory CR3.6. EBX. See listing 19.Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. EDX. then reading CR0. EAX .Get Control Reg 0 EAX.1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . EBX.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . Turning on paged memory management EAX. EAX . allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX .Next PTE entry ADD EAX. 100000h . The initial page directory and the page table are static. The routine in listing 19. but I can't be sure everyone can do it. 4096 EAX. OFFSET PDir1 . Listing 19.Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 .4.Store in Control Reg 3 EAX. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM.Next page please CMP EAX. 4096 .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. SHL 2) . 0101b . See listing 19.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. C0000h –FFFFFh. nor can I provide instructions to everyone. 0FFFFF000h . 4 . Continuation of memory management init. Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used.Set paging bit ON CR0.Make it index (SHR 12. Now we can go into paged memory mode.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. Listing 19.5. . EAX . EAX. This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory.

IN : .8. sPAM DEC EAX . FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. Of course. assuming that you will allocate it. OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX. See listing 19. Allocation of memory management exchange .Done initializing memory managment . It also marks the page as used.7. I'm afraid. 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX.Page Allocation Map .no memory left.0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 19.No EAX..OUT : .Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX. 0 . Finishing memory management init. PUSH 1 . MemExch . this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it.Where we are in PAM .EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. Find highest physical page code . This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated. See listing 19. LEA EAX.0FFh . Get 'em! RETN . This reduces nPagesFree by one.7. OFFSET pNextPT .USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.6. MMURTL V1.Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn .8. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage . Listing 19.All 8 pages used? FHP2 .Listing 19.. or 0 if error EBX. .Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD.

Start at first byte in PAM . EBX FHPf EBX. sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX.Add page number in byte . .\ Listing 19.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. This reduces nPagesFree by one.At the bottom of the Byte? . . 7 XOR EDX.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . Once again.Another Byte lower .IN : . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].One less available . . Find lowest physical page code . we must call UnMarkPage to release it.OUT : .Test bits .Set the bit indexed by EBX .No .Page Allocation Map . .Get the byte with a whole in it.0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Next bit . assuming that you will allocate it.Error (BAD CPU???) .Set page in use . DL SHL EAX...Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 . EAX SHL EBX.Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller. or 0 if error EBX.DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX. It also marks the page as used.Another Byte lower . if we call FindLoPage and don't use it. 3 ADD EBX..Back for next byte . EAX . EDX MOV DL. See listing 19.All 8 pages used? .Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.9.0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX. OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX.Are we past at TOP of PAM? ..no memory left. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX.9.

Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree . .Next bit .Error (BAD CPU???) . .Get the byte into DL BTS EDX..Page Allocation Map AND EBX.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .FOUND ONE! (goto found) .10.XOR EBX. This reduces nPagesFree by one. EAX SHL EBX.BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX].ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX. DL .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX.0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX. Code to mark a physical page in use .Test bits . See listing 19. 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX. EBX FLPf EBX EBX. 3 ADD EBX.. EDX MOV DL. [EAX+ECX] . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. Listing 19.Add page number in byte .OUT : . EBX XOR EDX.Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX.End of the Byte? . OFFSET rgPAM .Get the byte with a whole in it.IN : . EBX .One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1. 12 .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX. 15 .10. 8 FLPn FLP3 . .Set the bit indexed by EBX .EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . DL SHL EAX. EBX SHR ECX.Set page in use . MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. 07h . 0FFFFF000h .One less available . This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.

etc. This function supports the similarly named public routine. 15 SHR EBX.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in. [EAX] BTR EDX.BitReset instruction . This increases nPagesFree by one. . UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. USED: EAX. 12 AND EBX. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. Listing 19. 07h ADD EAX. OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. EBX -.Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . ECX MOV DL. ESI -. DMA operations. .11. Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. INPUT: EAX -. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1.Page Allocation Map .POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address. EBX. . See listing 19. Listing 19.12. DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN . . The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. Code to free a physical page for reuse .Linear address .ECX is now byte offset into PAM .Round down to page modulo .12. See listing 19. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . . OUTPUT: EAX -.IN : . EBX SHR ECX. This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it.USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. EFlags . ESI. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages.Linear Address of PTE for this linear address .0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS .11.OUT : . EBX MOV [EAX].Physical Address .

22 SHL EBX. OUT: EAX . The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory.mask off lower 12 . IN : EAX .Copy number of pages to ECX.0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX RETN FindRun .Leaves pJCB in EAX . in which case we return 0.Index into PD for PT we are working on . 003FFFFFh SHR EBX.Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset .Save Linear .Physical base of page is in EAX .Get original linear . FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS.Keeps count of how many free found so far . 2 ADD EBX. . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1. [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX. EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . EAX MOV ESI. This is either at address base 0 for the operating system. EAX MOV EAX. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. Listing 19.EAX now has ptr to PD! .Move to shadow addresses in PD .EBX/EAX now points to shadow . . The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist.get rid of lower 12 to make it an index .*4 makes it byte offset in PT . Save in EBX .13.Save it again . EBX MOV EAX. [EBX] AND EAX.Save this address for caller . .EBX now points to Page Table entry! .Address of PD saved here .Get rid of upper 10 bits . 2 ADD EBX. or the 1Gb address mark for the user.Index into shadow addresses from EAX . Code to find a free run of linear memory . 2048 SHR EBX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing. USED: EAX.Cut off upper 22 bits of linear . See listing 19.*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow . EBX . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables. The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX.Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. 00000FFFh OR EAX.EAX now has Linear of Page Table . 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX.Get original linear back in EBX . EBX . EBX MOV EDX. .ESI now has ptr to PD .PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX. .13. 12 SHL EBX. EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.

Next PTE Please. go for it XOR EAX. . 12 SUB EAX.Times size of page (* 4096) .go INC MOV JMP FROK: . . or tables.EAX is next 10 bits of LA . 12 OR EAX. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. .One less page (0 offset) . EBX .We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 . EAX.From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX .Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT . next PTE please ECX. EAX .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS .EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4]. .Not empty. This is the way FindRun left them. If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system. . .14. and the count of pages should be in EBX.Not done yet. keep testing . The linear address of the run should be in EAX.Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI. EDI . .empty (available) .Yes. Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. . 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: . EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX. See listing 19.If .No.EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1.In use . The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add. 22 SHL EAX.Next PT! .This is the linear address we ended at . while EAX was index into PT.The starting linear address is equal to number of the last .One more empty one! .EDX was index into PD.If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and .EBX still has count of pages. .Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 . 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 .MOV EDI.we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request.Are we past last PTE of this PT? . [ESI+EDX*4] .PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) . EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table.Zero means it's .We found enough entries goto OK . FR1: XOR EAX. . SHL EDX. if the run spans two or more tables.

Get index into PD for first PT .Restore linear address .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . 10 AR0: MOV EDI. go do next PTE ADD ESI.0 . IN : .LinAdd to EDX .Next PTE please.SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.Offset to shadow address of PD . . User ReadOnly . . 003FF000h SHR EDX.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . EAX AND EDX.EDX .EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) .then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .ESI now has ptr to PD! . .Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 . CMP EDX. . .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) . ARDone: MMURTL V1.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .and OR in the appropriate control bits. EDX MOV EDX. .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . .Set PTE to present. [ESI] . . 4 . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX. EDI is pointing the next PT. EBX EAX 22 2 .EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). OUT: .Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX. 4 .(save for caller) .At this point.Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX. MEMSYS CMP EAX. AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX. . EBX . EDX. [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX. MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. THEN store it in PT. EDX. 4096 . EDX.Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Make it index to DWORDS . USED: . 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX. Adding a run of linear memory .Listing 19. 2048 ADD ESI.LinAdd into EDX again .Yes.14.See if it's a user page .No.

IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries .(save for caller) . EBX EAX 22 2 .ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. and the count of pages should be in EBX. Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span. EBX Number of Pages to alias . ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) . . See listing 19. The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. (from find run) . USED: EAX. . EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI .15.adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. if the run spans two or more tables .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call . AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.or tables.0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table . . EDX.15. Once again. OUT: Nothing . . The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1. .LinAdd to EDX . . 8 MOV AliasLin. EDX. .This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . . .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). this is the way FindRun left them.we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX. Listing 19. EFlags .POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun .Get index into PD for first PT . . . .Make it index to DWORDS . ESI MOV AliasJob. EDX. .ESP SUB ESP.

Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .Restore linear address .Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI. . 003FF000h SHR EDX.This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE.EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1.EAX now has physical address for this page .ESI now points to first PT of interest . 2048 ADD ESI.Next PTE please. 0FFFFF000h OR EAX. go do next PTE . . ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX.Address we are aliasing . next PDE (to get next PT) .Set system bits as ALIAS .Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) .Job we are aliasing .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI . .POP EAX ADD ESI.mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT.cut off system bits of PTE . AliasLin ADD AliasLin.Are we done?? .Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum .No. EDX MOV EDX. EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . 4 CMP EDX. .LinAdd into EDX again . MOV ESP.Are we past last PTE of this PT? . . . [ESI] . AND EAX. . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX.At this point.Yes. to get a physical address into EAX. .EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX .get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Start at the entry 0 of next PT . MEMALIAS POP ESI . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . EAX AND EDX. 4 XOR EDX. 10 ALR0: MOV EDI. . .Offset to shadow addresses in PD .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) .Set up for next loop (post increment) . AliasJob MOV EBX. .SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do.EDX is index to exact entry .

ESI now points to PD . . as shown in the following.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . EAX MOV ESI. Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. [EDI] ADD ESI.ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD . .Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) .16. 2048 MOV ECX. IN : Nothing .16. . MEMUSERD [ESI]. EFlags .Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX.EDI points to UserPD Address . [ESI] OR EBX. AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . pNextPT [ESI]. . EAX ESI. JcbPD ADD EDI. 2048 EBX. This will be in user address space above 1GB. See listing 19. .EAX will have Physical address . 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code.Linear add back into EBX . PUSH EDX .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS . because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs.Offset to PcbPD in JCB . and sticks it in the user's page directory. PUSH EDI . EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . Listing 19.pJCB in EAX . PUSH ESI . Adding a page table for user memory .Move to shadow . USED: EAX.no free phy pages!) . EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX.AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table. 4 MOV EBX. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .Set user bits (Read/Write) .Sorry. EBX . Next possible empty entry . ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow). pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . Is it empty? .See if have enuf physical memory .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. . MOV EAX. initializes it.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. This is easier than AddOSPT. No! (Try again) .Physical address in lower half . out of physical mem . _nPagesFree OR EAX.

. ESI points to OS Pdir .OS Job Number (Monitor) . USED: EAX. .next time. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX.(save for caller) PUSH ECX .save pNextPT (the linear address) . MOV EAX. it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . _nPagesFree OR EAX. 511 MMURTL V1. PUSH ESI . 1 MOV EBX. 1 XOR EAX..17. .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . PUSH EDI . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow). AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . See listing 19. .size of request . You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories. Listing 19. .EAX will have Physical address . PUSH EDX . in many cases.17. IN : Nothing .no free phy pages!) . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. .See if have enuf physical memory .Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. EFlags .Sorry. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error . Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS . Find first empty slot MOV ESI. out of physical mem .0 .was there an error (0 means no mem) . Adding an operating system page table . . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX.

[ESI] OR EBX.Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX .Destination 1024 . Get back JCB number .Move to shadow .Physical address in lower half . . . # of dynamic JCBs .Source EAX .Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX .EAX now has pointer to a job's PD . . . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI]. Next possible empty entry . . JcbPD MOV EBX.EAX NOW points to PD of JCB .No. nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX.0 .Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX.Set present bit . .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) . 2048 . Not a valid JCB (unused) . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX.See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) .AOPT02: ADD ESI.Save nJCB we are on .Next JCB .Linear add back into EBX . 2048 .Save values on stack MOV EDX.Get values from stack ADD EBX. ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX. pNextPT MOV [ESI]. EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. . EBX . Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all. EAX ADD ESI.Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 . 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1. No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 . 2048 MOV EBX. Is it empty? .Source of Copy . 4 MOV EBX. ESI EAX Get and . The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) .

ESI. ..Set ErcOK (0) .AddRun . DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate. Listing 19. The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. EFLAGS MMURTL V1. EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number.18. USES: EAX.save pNextPT (the linear address) . Adding a call gate to the GDT . . EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN .size of request . .We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . EBX. DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) .next time. . DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) . ECX. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. IN: AX . See listing 19. Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: . . CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. . . 1 XOR EAX. OUT: EAX Returns Errors. .At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! .0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS . allowing access to OS procedures.was there an error (0 means no mem) . else 0 if all's well .18. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . . ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. .

16 . AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4].Extend INT Num into EDX . . ESI. for a task gate. ercBadGateNum .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. CX . ECX.make index vice selector CMP EBX. SI . . AX . The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap. .19. USES: AX . Adding entries to the IDT .see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . .Put Offset 15:00 into gate .EDX now points to gate . AX SHR EAX. nCallGates . BX MMURTL V1.Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 . AX MOV EAX. 8 .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . GDTBase .not too low.0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap. CX SUB EBX.0 . MOV EAX.Yes. 3 ADD EDX. EBX. . SI .No. .Put Offset 31:16 into gate . 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. 40h . EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX. ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX]. IN: .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS .Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) . EAX . See listing 19. RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. CX SHL EDX. MOV EAX.PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX.19.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. 3 .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04].Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. . 40 . Listing 19. . .Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. or task gate.Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX.Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI . .call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX.Put Gate ID into gate . . interrupt. the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. .0:15 of call offset SHR ESI. EDX.

but not close enough to easily combine their code.See if have enuf physical memory . n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] . See listing 19.Sorry boss. . The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.Yes .No Error! EAX. Allocate each physical page. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.size of request . PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ppMemRet): dError .These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit .(0 = No Runs big enuf) .n4KPages XOR EAX. we're maxed out EAX. AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space. Allocating a page of linear memory . Procedureal Interface : . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate. we add another page table to the operating-system page directory.More than 0? .Yes . pRunTSS ADD EAX. _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX. .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . . The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree.EAX ALOSP00 EAX. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage. .Kernel Error?? . EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 .20.0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX.20.Can't be zero! . This allows runs to span table entries. . AllocOSPage(dn4KPages.size of request .0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Yes! Serious problem.If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit . .n4KPages EAX. A result code is returned in the EAX register. If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries.RETF . .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request. Listing 19. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.

CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . See if they are available. . This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. . No alias is needed. . POP EBP .See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) .Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around. Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed. . ppMemRet . Procedureal Interface : . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . PUSH EAX .Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX].ERROR!! . This wastes no physical memory.Save last error PUSH MemExch . EAX .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to. you need two pages.dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] .0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . . Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller.CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. . Even if the address is only two bytes. AliasMem(pMem.ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] .pMem EQU [EBP+24] . Code to alias memory . POP EAX . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. ppAliasRet): dError .Go back & try again . The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. RETF 8 . If so.EAX now has linear address .EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP.EBP .Only an entry in a table.21. dcbMem.Does not return error . dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. dJobNum.EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: . Listing 19.Add a new page table (we need it!) . Exit. EAX . pMem is the address to alias. . MMURTL V1. . .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . if it crosses page boundaries. The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. .No error ALOSPExit: . however . .

EAX.Yes .Number of pages we need into EBX . . EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX.Yes .Puts Current Job Num in EAX . EAX ECX.No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX.dcbMem EBX .See if it is OS based service . . EAX.MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] .EAX is now nPages we need! EAX .EBX still has count of pages OR EAX. EAX. pRunTSS ADD EAX.EAX has 0 or 256 . [EBP+16] CMP EAX.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX. .Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] . we're done ALSPBegin: .Add to dcbMem 12 . [EBP+24] . . EBX.Exit. PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Yes .Now wait our turn with memory management .Yes! Serious problem.Yes.OS Job? . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough .0h JNE ALSPDone . . EAX. 0 for OS .0 .No.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX. 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.Kernel Error?? . . ECX CALL FindRun .EAX is 256 for user space.Get Job number for pMem .OS Job? . No Error .EAX is nPages-1 . . 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX.Save nPages in ECX .Are they the same Page Directory?? .No.Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias . EAX JMP ALSPDone .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX. alias it . . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.Was there enough PTEs? .Wait at the MemExch for Msg . . We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX.PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.pMem into EAX 0FFFh .See if it is OS based service . User memory .Set up for OS memory space .

.original pMem . PUSH EAX . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP.Go back & try again .22. [EBP+24] EAX. . DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call.pAliasRet .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX.Get remaining bits .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) .We are done ALSPExit: . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines.Save alias page address base . . 0FFFh EDI.ERROR!! .Set to 0 (no error) .Address to alias .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS .0 = NO Error .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . EAX MOV ESI. EDI EAX. Procedureal Interface : .22.No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI. dcbAliasBytes.EBX . .Set . you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time.EAX . [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun . DeAliasMem(pAliasMem.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing . JobNum):ercType . EAX ESI. .and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. . . PUSH MemExch . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1. [EBP+12] [ESI]. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Now.Save last error . EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: . . [EBP+24] MOV EDX. Listing 19. pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" . See listing 19.Returned address to caller! . Code to remove alias PTEs . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . EAX . .Job number . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address .

EAX MOV [ESI]. 12 .Is page an ALIAS? . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) . EDX MOV EAX.but less than you asked for! ECX.dcbAliasBytes . [ESI] TEST EBX. EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.We did some. .ECX . .If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI.Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX.Linear Mem to DeAlias . ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX.DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX.None at all! . it's page is present . EBX .0 . if so just ZERO PTE. .Next linear page .Is page present (valid)??? .ZERO PTE entry .Address of next page to deallocate . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .Get PTE into EBX . .so we zero out the page.EAX is now nPages we need! ECX.and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS). [EBP+20] .Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX.MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX. [EBP+20] . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP. . EDI DALM011 EAX.NO! (did we do any at all) .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] . [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy .Add the remainder of address EAX. ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 .pAliasMem . . XOR EAX. [EBP+16] . DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .pMem into EAX EBX. .DO not zero it! .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX. EAX .EBP MMURTL V1.Add to dcbMem EAX.ESP . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX..If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already .See if PTE is an alias.We dealiased what we could. 0FFFh . PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.NO .EAX is nPages-1 EAX .dcbMem EAX. .Yes.

See listing 19. n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX.Number of pages to deallocate .23. Deallocating linear memory . .See if PTE is an alias.POP EBP RETF 12 . . . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy .Yes. if so just ZERO PTE.Wait at the MemExch for Msg . pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] .Get PTE into EBX . . . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias.Yes! .Error?? .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area .Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy . [ESI] TEST EBX.23.else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX. its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS .Is page present (valid)??? . Listing 19. . PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored . .Now we have Physical Address in EAX . n4KPages):ercType . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. providing it is valid. pOrigMem AND EDX. n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX. DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls. deallocate. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. . pRunTSS ADD EAX. It will always free linear memory.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) .and pointer to PTE in ESI. . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be . because we deallocate 4K pages. . Procedureal Interface : . Even if you specify more pages than are valid.Linear Mem to deallocate . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem. . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX.0 . .Address of next page to deallocate .

0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP.We did some. ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . . .but less than you asked for! .get rid of OS bits .We deallocated what we could. .get Memory error back . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX. Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left. so next guy can get in . 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX. pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.Yes.NO! (did we do any at all) . EAX MOV [ESI].24. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.Send a dummy message to pick up . ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit . Code to find number of free pages .ZERO PTE entry . ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX.. Listing 19. n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX.None at all! MOV EAX.Next linear page . . . . .24. over memory error .If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . EAX ADD EDX. .save Memory error . AND EBX.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. .Kernel error has priority . See listing 19.Is page an ALIAS? .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS .If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias . . it's an Alias . Procedureal Interface : .so we must unmark (release) the physical page.

Listing 19. EAX XOR EAX. Linear Address . .END OF CODE MMURTL V1. .25. . Job Number .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . . . See listing 19.ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. No Error . EAX EAX. GetPhyAdd(JobNum. be returned . Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page.EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . . LinAdd. pMemLeft EAX. . . pPhyRet):ercType . . _nPagesFree [ESI]. PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. .ESP MOV EBX. [EBP+16] MOV EAX. pPhyRet . . .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. EAX MOV ESP. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will .25.LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for . left available returned .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . Public for linear to physical conversion . MOV ESP. pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . . [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. . This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes.. EAX . Procedureal Interface : .No Error .

.

2 percent of available bandwidth. Two of them will come in at 260us. was the effect on interrupt latency. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. But even with these calculations. I was consuming less than 0. along with a piece of the kernel. Even more important than total bandwidth. memory wait-states. See listing 20. As you well know.1. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. In a 10ms period we have 200. It was 0. I experimented with several different intervals. Listing 20. because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing.2 percent. which works out to about 1. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. etc. Back when I started this project. I ended up with 10ms. with 100-MHz machines around. The average really depends on program loading. It's at the end of the timer ISR. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. my worries were unfounded.. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. as well as the fastest one possible. a slow machine. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. Somewhere between these two was the average. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. or 3000 clocks. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period. especially synchronous. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. A single communications channel running at 19.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. divided by the total clocks for the same period.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly. which is very conservative. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. actually the scheduler. The average is was far less. MMURTL is no exception.1.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us.6 percent for the worst case. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt.Chapter 20. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead. preemptive multitasking. however.

Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup).2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Listing 20. The odds of this are truly astronomical.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop.DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 . See listing 20. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium. EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. or 20us. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt. and finally with test programs.INCLUDE TSS.0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . . These are the offsets into the structure . The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone. SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time. or one that has requested an alarm. But.INC . The Timer Block is a structure that contains . 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400. That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine.DATA . TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . This doesn't cause a problem at all.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 . .2. Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long .2.INC . Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions.FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. including the 10 percent overhead. PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . the exchange number of a task that is sleeping.DD 00000000h . Data and constants for timer code .320 clocks. A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1.ALIGN DWORD .INCLUDE MOSEDF. This I could live with. sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 .

priority than the task that is now running. the first things defined in this code segment.No . .Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 .goto decrement it PUSH EAX .INTS are disabled automatically .Timer Tick. It is a small.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR . PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 .FALSE .. The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it.nTmrBlks CLD .ASM. See listing 20. The timer interrupt service routine .. The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs.Yes! .Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] .Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? .ECX has count of Timer Blocks .4. At all times on the system. you switch to it.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS . yet very important part. See listing 20.EAX has addr of Timer Blocks . 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX.3. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches. It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested. allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel. External functions for timer code . You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more.0h . -1 . only one task is actually executing. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.ASM. or higher. If so.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. They may have been placed there by other ISRs.Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.Yes . You have now interrupted that task. Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do.4.3. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative. which is the one you interrupted. INT 20 . The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement.Yes .save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX . Listing 20.ISend Message MOV EAX.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX. If it is the same or higher. Listing 20.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1. and they may be of an equal.No . The three external near calls.No.

Compare current pri to highest queued . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL. That means .We will now check to see if this guy has been running . MOV ESI. Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX. Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. MMURTL V1.. TimerTick . Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices .bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.DL is pri of current . ESI CALL enQueueRdy .Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX.get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. EAX MOV EAX. Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX.Is there one at all?? . PUSH 0 . Put current one in EAX .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed . EAX .or Equal. Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .number was higher and we DON'T .BX . .for more then 30ms (3 ticks).empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.YES.. MOV EBX.current pri. Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick. EAX JZ TaskCheckDone .is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX. we want to Switch. If so.get count back POP EAX . EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX. JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone . and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS. dfHalted OR EAX.If current is higher(lower num).0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS .Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 .FALSE .. SUB EAX.No.Change this to change the "time slice" .if we got a CARRY on the subtract.next block please! ..switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri .10ms more gone. CMP EAX. If the Queued Pri is LOWER .[EDI+Tid] .PUSH EAX . pRunTSS MOV DL.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 . and save in EDI . no need to check tasks .keep going . Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .EDI .skip decrement .Is this from a HALTed state? .unless were done .Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ .tell him his times up! POP ECX . his .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . we will ..bogus msg PUSH EAX .Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .

out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP.can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].EBP .[ECX+TSS_Exch] .DelayCnt .nTmrBlks .ErcNoMoreTBs .ErcOk .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX. The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.goto next block MOV EBX.all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX.sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 .JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .5.FALSE .Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX. The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero.put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].Must do this before we switch! .pRunTSS .Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg . The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task. POP EBP .EBX . Sleep() .Count of timer blocks CLD .rgTmrBlks .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX. MOV EAX. MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].unless were done MOV EAX. RETF 4 .Sorry.Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX.See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.TRUE . IRETD .EBX . PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) . TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD .No .FAR return from publics MMURTL V1.5.0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .ESP .TSS_Msg .Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX.clear direction flag Delay01: CLI .Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed . MOV EBP. DelayCnt CMP EAX. See listing 20. 0 . . This requires an exchange.Empty block? JNE Delay02 . Listing 20.

rgTmrBlks . . MOV EAX. MMURTL V1. PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP .EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.EBX .Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed . DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].6.FALSE .nTmrBlks . which means the message has already been sent.put it in timer block! .EBX . -312- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EBP.ESP .Empty block? Alarm02 . .sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX. AlarmCnt):dErc .7.Up the blocksInUse count EBX. See listing 20.unless were done .TRUE . KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. . It must be set up each time. nothing will stop it. The message is not repeatable.6. AlarmCnt CMP EAX. See listing 20. If the alarm is already queued through the kernel.0 .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX.ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP. Alarm(nAlarmExch.all is well Alarm03 .Count of timer blocks CLD . Listing 20.goto next block EBX.can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX. out of timer blocks . Code for the Alarm function .Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.Get delay count [EAX+CountDown].Sorry. 0 . AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] .No .ErcOk . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed. Procedural Interface: .It's OK to interrupt now EAX. The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].It's OK to interrupt now .AlarmCnt .

No . .sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX.EAX points to timer blocks . Code for the KillAlarm function .Block in use? KAlarm02 . The count is in 15us increments.nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .Get exchange for killing alarms to .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled. KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] .KAlarmExch LEA EAX.ErcOk .EAX MOV ESP.It's OK to interrupt now . The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator.TRUE .ALl done -. Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1.8. so we get out! . . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers. The task is actually not suspended at all.Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed .Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX. .Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Listing 20. This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds).7. which drives the processor clock. See listing 20.clear direction flag .FALSE . PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Code for the MicrDelay function . . Procedural Interface: . But it's still very much needed. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port. -313- RICHARD A BURGESS . KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc . .8.unless were done . 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX.0 . This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port. Listing 20.No blocks in use .ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.EBX .rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.Count of timer blocks .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. .

. EBX MMURTL V1. EAX MOV ESP.71h MOV BL.9. 10h CMP AH.9. 61h AND AL. the next byte is the Hours in BCD. pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI].71h MOV BL. The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).No toggle yet .ESP MOV ECX.Toggle! Move to AH for next compare . Code to read the CMOS time . AL SHL EBX.Get delay count .Get system status port .MOV EBP. and the high order byte is 0.Check toggle of bit .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . the next byte is the minutes in BCD.check refrest bit .AL IN AL.ESP XOR EBX. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL. .71h MOV BL. Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.AL IN AL. .02h OUT 70h. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.00h OUT 70h. AL JE MDL00 MOV AH. EBX MOV EAX.0 . AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX. Listing 20.get out if they came in with 0! .Clear time return . GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines.04h OUT 70h. [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.Seconds . See listing 20. 8 MOV EAX. .AL SHL EBX. 8 MOV EAX.Hours . .AL MOV ESI.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS .AL IN AL. . MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally.Minutes .

EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD. AL SHL EBX. EAX MOV ESP. Procedural Interface: .71h MOV BL.Give 'em the time . EBX .AL SHL EBX. MOV EBP.10.AL IN AL. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31).Day of week .Clear date return MOV EAX. the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12). .ESP . pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP .Day of month .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . No Error . 8 MOV EAX.09h OUT 70h. MMURTL V1. Listing 20. XOR EBX. . .08h OUT 70h. AL SHL EBX.AL MOV ESI.Year . Code to read the CMOS date .XOR EAX. and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99).Month .10. See listing 20. 8 MOV EAX.06h OUT 70h. GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0-6 0=Sunday). . GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword.71h MOV BL. 8 MOV EAX. EAX MOV ESP. .71h MOV BL. pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI].71h MOV BL. . .07h OUT 70h.AL IN AL.AL IN AL. No Error .AL IN AL. EBX XOR EAX.

. AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h. See listing 20. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror .ESP MOV ESI.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS . MSB. which is connected to the system internal speaker.1.193182 Mhz . Listing 20.193182Mhz . EAX XOR EAX.12.No Error . Listing 20. Helper function for Beep() and Tone() .11.12.11. .Timer 2. With a 10ms interval. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h. 61h MMURTL V1. The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord).The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1.193182Mhz by Desired Freq. See listing 20. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down. AL XOR EDX. The procedural interface: . AL IN AL. .800. Hardware timer number 2. Binary . The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency.DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . . . The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter. . This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. LSB. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs.This does all work for BEEP and TONE . pTickRet MOV EAX.0 . Code to return the timer tick . AL MOV AL.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ . Because it is a dword. . TimerTick MOV [ESI].To find the divisor of the clock. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep(). 10110110b OUT 43h.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. this amounts to 262. is used to generate tones.000 ticks per month. EDX MOV EAX.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. . pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. divide 1.

See listing 20. . MMURTL V1. I would have called it Beep_Beep().Freq . . 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL.14. 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() . (Sorry.350ms .ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker.0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS . .ESP MOV EBX. This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. See listing 20. Code to produce a tone . CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL.OR AL. . AL RETN Beep() . Listing 20. . I couldn't resist. . Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq.13.13. Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . . 800 MOV ECX.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. . AL PUSH ECX . 11111100b OUT 61h. . Code to produce a beep . Listing 20. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. . if it had.14. This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h.

MMURTL V1. ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 . . ToneFreq MOV ECX.PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . .ESP MOV EBX.

Initial OS Page Directory (PD).ALIGN DWORD . It is the entry point in the operating system.======================================================= .ALIGN command. Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) . The first file is Main. Kernel Structures . The second file is InitCode.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main. Main Operating System Data . and Public Call Gate table.ASM which is presented later in this chapter. .0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 21. the first instruction executed after boot up. The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary. OS Global Data Listing 21.INC . Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the .ASM.ASM. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin. and I don't worry about the rest of it. Global Descriptor table (GDT). The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).1.INCLUDE TSS. ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 . Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process. It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. I generally try to align data that is accessed often.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files. For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) .DATA . Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 . Initial OS Page Table (PT). “OS Initialization. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are.INC .INC . In chapter 7.See MOSEDF.INC for structure details. The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical.Chapter 21. access to the data is faster if it is. Initial TSS for Debugger NIL . Periodically you will see the . The assembler does no alignment on its own.INCLUDE MOSEDF. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files. a workhorse for Main.INCLUDE JOB.ASM.ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler.

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
MMURTL V1.0

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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;InitMemMgmt allocates an exch so

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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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Single Step MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. MOV ESI.Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX. software and hardware interrupt handlers. AX . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. GDTBase . . CX . EAX.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.SUB EBX. 1 .DPL 3. 4 . 255 . SI . Out : Nothing . inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . . InitIDT . Trap gate MOV EBX. 40 . SI . 16 . PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX.call DPL & ndParams RETN . First.DPL 3.0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 3 . Second. handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. 8 .Overflow 08F00h .========================================================================= . . OSCodeSel MOV ESI.Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector.sub call gate base selector SHR EBX. 0 .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. 08F00h . OSCodeSel .DPL 3.Divide By Zero MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate .Breakpoint MOV EAX. OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. . 3 . adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . IN : Nothing . ESI.DPL 3. 08E00h . EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 . 08F00h .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX].Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. Used : ALL registers and flags .move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. 08F00h .

MOV ESI.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Dh . 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3.DPL 3. OSCodeSel .Seg Not Present MOV EAX.Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel .Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h . 0Ah . 0Ch .Double Exception MOV EAX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . 8 . OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h .DPL 3. 08F00h . 21h . ESI. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Int TIMER MOV EAX.DPL 3. 08E00h . EBX. 08F00h . OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int Page Fault MOV EAX. 0Eh . MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . 0Bh . 08F00h . 20h . OSCodeSel . 6 . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . MOV ESI. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI. 08F00h . OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.GP fault MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08F00h .Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 08F00h . OSCodeSel . OSCodeSel .Invalid TSS MOV EAX. MOV ESI.DPL 3.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . EAX.

29h .... INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI.. MOV ESI. 25h ..Int .. 08E00h ....Int ... MOV ESI. OSCodeSel ... OSCodeSel .DPL 3. 08E00h ... MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int COM1 MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE . 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ . 23h . OSCodeSel . 26h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.... MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ . MOV ESI. 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..... OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. EBX. EAX.. MOV EAX... 08E00h . 08E00h . 08E00h . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. 2Ah . ESI. OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV ESI.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08E00h ....DPL 3. OSCodeSel ..Int .. 2Bh ...DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int LPT2 MOV EAX. 08E00h .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. MOV EAX. 27h . IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1.Int COM2 MOV EAX. 08E00h .DPL 3. MOV EAX. 24h .DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.DPL 3..Int ... 28h . MOV ESI. OSCodeSel ..Int .. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI..FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI.DPL 3...IntLPT1 MOV EAX..DPL 3. .0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.

OSCodeSel . 58h MOV DX.. 50h MOV DX. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. IN : Nothing . MOV EAX. 40h MOV DX.. Used : ALL registers and flags . MOV ESI. 08E00h .ISendMsg -.. MOV ESI.. MOV EAX... DPL 3 MOV ECX. before initcallgates.. MOV EAX.0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS .. 2Dh .DPL 3. 08C03h ... OSCodeSel MOV ESI.Int . . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 48h MOV DX.3 DWord Params. MOV ESI.. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! .1Dword param.. 08E00h . OSCodeSel . 0EC01h . This can't ... but MUST be called before the first far call to any .SendMsg -. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! .. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.Set Priority .DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX... OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates... DPL 0 MOV ECX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..Int ...========================================================================== . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 . 0EC02h . 2Fh . Out : Nothing . OSCodeSel . DPL 3 MOV ECX.3 DWord params.2 DWord Params.. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1.Int . 2Eh . 0EC03h . DPL 3 MOV ECX. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX.DPL 3.WaitMsg -. 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..

RETN MMURTL V1.The rest of the call gate set ups go here.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS ..

the monitor.Chapter 22. The process of allocating all the resources. exchanges. TSSs.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management.INCLUDE TSS. Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . PUBLIC InitNewJCB: . are used by almost every module in the operating system. Job Management Helpers The file JobCode.Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1.================================================================ . From Main.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs .1. I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. Pieces of related code in the kernel. EBX -.INCLUDE JOB.INC . making sure that each was correctly set and filled out. can be a complicated scenario.INCLUDE MOSEDF. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD . this is the where you'll end up.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. request blocks. and finally starting the new task. Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader.1 Listing 22. I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.Begin Code ================== .DATA . For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB .InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two . the JCB. These calls. The program loader is in this chapter. Before I wrote this code. INPUT : EAX -. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. and finally the operating system memory.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) . The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources. See listing 22. Job Management Subroutines . it is usually quite a mess.======= End data.CODE .INC . In the functions ExitJob() and Chain(). many of them public functions. When things don't work right.Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in .asm . link blocks. JCBs are in allocated memory .

.Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB].ESI EFLAGS .Video number is in JCB . . 3 .Move it in .Put Ptr to PD into JCB . 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. . . EDX. EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols]. in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger). . CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. . EAX .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX. . . MOV [EAX+JcbPD].first byte of name . EAX ADD EDI. sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI].EDX .EDI points to JCB .EBX MOV EDI.EBX.EAX . ESI -. . EDX is size of each JCB. .Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. . PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. ECX is count of JCBs.EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX. . The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL).Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum]. [EAX+JobNum] RETN . . .EAX . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs.1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI. MODIFIES: pFreeJCB.Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX. USED: EAX. EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information.Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop . ESI. OUTPUT : NONE . EBX . ECX..Make last one NIL RETN .0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS .Now to JobName . INPUT : EAX . .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB]. EDX . 7 MOV EAX. . . EBX. Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs.EDX.Size of JCBs . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. We can't use its position .ECX. EDI. others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated.Address of JCBs to be initialized . MMURTL V1.pbJobName ECX -. The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. pJCBs . 0 . . . This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run.size is filled in . ECX . .cbJobName EDX -.Count of JCBs . .EAX . InitFreeJCB . .============================================================================= . while . This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). EAX points to the first JCB. .

. EAX ECX. OUTPUT : NONE .============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: . . CMP EAX. 0 . INPUT : EAX . MOV EBX. nJCBs MOV EDX. INPUT : NONE . pJCBs STOSD . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) .pFreeJCB . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. 0 . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . JE DispJCBDone . . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . . . . JE NewJCBDone .FLAGS . REGISTERS : EBX. This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . . . . . REGISTERS : EAX.Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . pJCBs MOV ECX.DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. 4096 EDI. Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX. .================================================================ .EBX. If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return. .FLAGS .Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1.0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . NewJCBDone: RETN . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb.============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD.IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return.. . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in . OUTPUT : EAX . The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB). . . . This routine will also .0 .Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). MOV EAX. .EBX . then EAX will contain NIL (0).Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX. pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 .[EAX+NextJCB] . If none exists. the free pool. This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. Get 'em! . .

. OUTPUT: EAX -. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . . USED: EAX. EFlags . EFlags .Linear Address of current JCB .Current JCB RETN . [EAX+JobNum] . 2 MMURTL V1. INPUT: EAX -. Many OS functions deal with the Job number. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. .Job Number of desired pJCB . OUTPUT: EAX -. OUTPUT: EAX -. assigned to a Job. . .Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. All TSSs are . pRunTSS . All TSSs are assigned to a Job. . GetCrntJobNum . INPUT: Nothing . This is based on which Task is executing. . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX. Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX. .0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS . is a field in the JCB structure. PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. . This is based on which Task is executing. . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . INPUT: Nothing . . PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX. The Job number . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX. All TSSs are . in EAX.EBX MOV pFreeJCB.EBX has OS ptr to free list .EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX.MOV EBX.pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB]. assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task.============================================================ . USED: EAX.============================================================ .Current Job Number . USED: EAX. .Pointer to JCB RETN . EFlags .Move it into newly freed JCB . A Job may have more than one Task. GetpCrntJCB . . .============================================================ .Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . GetpJCB .

. .Within range of JCBs . . The Job number . EFlags . . Many OS functions deal with the Job number.Current JCB RETN . . 3 MOV EDX. INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. languages. OUTPUT: EAX -. . AllocJCB (NEAR) . sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. . . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. We got one! .Times size of JCB . pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB. . EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. This is a NEAR . ppJCBRet):ercType . .============================================================ . USED: EAX. Procedureal Interface : . out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. . . . . is a field in the JCB structure. This allocates a new JCB (from the pool).Now points to desired JCB .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . . EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX.Add in two static JCBs . call to support the public job management calls in high level . Sorry. pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Get a new JCB . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] .Current Job Number . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX.ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. .============================================================ . pJCBs POP EDX RETN . .0 . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. .JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. GetJobNum . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. [EAX+JobNum] . .

. . . . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. . call to support the public job management calls in high level . GetpJCB(dJobNum.Job Num . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . . . . . . .MOV ESP. [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. . Get a new JCB . . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI]. EAX MOV ESI. . you specifiy. ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble.No error . Procedureal Interface : . pJCBRet):ercType . .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== .============================================================ . .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV ESP.============================================================ . .============================================================ . . . .pJCBRet . . languages in the OS code. . . DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. pJCB . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. This is a NEAR . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated. . . dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). . EAX MOV ESP. This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . . GetpJCB . .ESP MOV EAX. MMURTL V1. EAX XOR EAX. Procedureal Interface : . .EBP POP EBP RETN 4 .

MOV EAX.JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP.============================================================ .EBP . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. . EAX XOR EAX. RETF 8 .EBP . . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. RETF 8 .Leave jobnum in EAX .ESP . dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. EAX JZ GetpJcbBad . ErcInvalidJCB . POP EBP .Job Num OR EAX. . This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job. GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . or 0 will be returned with the data. . POP EBP . . .. This is . GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . . MMURTL V1.0 is invalid CMP EAX. . POP EBP . GetJobNum . .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI. [EBP+16] . .EBP . . 0 . [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 .pJobNumRet . . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . [EBP+12] . ErcBadJobNum . .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . nJCBs + 2. . . RETF 8 .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI. pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned.pJCBRet MOV [ESI]. pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . EAX MOV ESP. Procedureal Interface : . the job that the task that called this belongs to.No Error . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . MOV ESP.

. .ESP . contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. Procedureal Interface : . XOR EAX. [EBP+12] . . MOV EAX.2. Listing 22. Jobc. This code is here for lack of a better place. the number representing the system disk is returned. ending jobs.============================================================ . PUSH EBP . GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . 7Fh . MOV EBP. . still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. Functions for starting new jobs. .pJobNumRet MOV [ESI]. EAX . loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk . Jobc.c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. _BootDrive AND EAX. RETF 4 . GetSystemDisk . It's really not a filesystem function either. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . .================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file. .0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job. pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where .No Error POP EBP . and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. . And will ..get rid of high bits MOV ESI.asm.c. . disk that the system booted from. AL . variable _BootDrive defined in Main. This is from the public . .

h" "MKbd. long Exch).h" "MMemory.. extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb.h" "MVid. char *pNewJCB).0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" "MData. */ static long TmpStack[128]. . static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. char *pJCBRet).). MMURTL V1.h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB).h" "MJob. SendAbort(long JobNum.ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. long cb).h" #include "runfile. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB.h" "MFiles.Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel. /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it. /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt.. SetExchOwner(long Exch. char *ppJCBRet).h" "MTimer. GetExchOwner(long Exch.

erc.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. iE. k. BogusMsg[2].static long JobNum. offData = 0. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. sStack. When all PTs have been cleaned. static char aFileE[80]. ercE. we eliminate the user PDEs. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. 0. 0. job_fhE. for (i=768. static unsigned long oCode. *pData. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. 0. 0. *pStack. 0. static struct tagtype tag. i<1024. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. static long offCode = 0. unsigned long *pPT. 0. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. i++) { MMURTL V1. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. static long sCode. 0. sData. filetype. j. static long cbFileE. oData. ExchE. *pPDE. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD. extern unsigned long KillExch. char *pMem.

char fDone. &filetype. offData = 0. &dret). if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. nDDFIX = 0. nCCFIX = 0. junk. it leaves it open and returns the file handle.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . nDCFIX = 0. MMURTL V1. &fh). The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. *pfhRet = 0. for (j=0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. oDCFIX = 0. 5.id = 0. long *pfhRet) { long erc. oCDFIX = 0. 1. i.id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. &tag. reads and validates the run file. cbFileName. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. long cbFileName.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. If all is well. 0. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. j<1024. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. &dret). /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). oCCFIX = 0. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. fh. while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. oDDFIX = 0. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. dret. nCDFIX = 0. k). 1. switch (tag. offCode = 0.

/* skip it break. oDCFIX+tag. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret).len). default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCDFIX+tag. &sCode. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* skip it break. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile.len). break. if (tag. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh.len/4. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. nDCFIX = tag. break. 4.len).len/4. &dret). oCCFIX+tag. /* skip it break. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. nCDFIX = tag. oData+tag.len). &oCCFIX). case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh.len). &sStack.len). /* skip it break.break. 4. MMURTL V1. &offData. /* skip it break.len/4. break. 4. 4. nDDFIX = tag. break. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE.len/4. &oData). break. i+tag. &offCode.len). case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &dret). case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. oDDFIX+tag. &sData. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &oDDFIX). 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i). &oCDFIX). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. &pStart. &dret). &oDCFIX). &dret).0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . &dret). /* skip it break. &oCode).len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. nCCFIX = tag. oCode+tag.

long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. i). long dcbPath) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB). else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. return (erc). &pTmpJCB). pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. dcbRunFile). if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". else { CopyData(pRunFile. } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. &pTmpJCB). i. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. MMURTL V1. return(0). erc). } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh).0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetJobNum(&JobNum). } return(0).break. GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. *pdcbRunRet = i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. pRunRet. GetJobNum(&JobNum).

pPathRet. long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. long dcbUser) { long JobNum. *pdcbCmdRet = i. char *pPathRet. dcbPath). pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. pCmdRet. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbCmd). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. long *pdcbPathRet) { long i. MMURTL V1. long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. i). &pTmpJCB). erc. i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). &pTmpJCB).else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0). GetJobNum(&JobNum). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. } return(erc). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. else { CopyData(pCmd. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. i). else { CopyData(pPath.0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. return(0). pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. *pdcbPathRet = i.

if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1].0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). pUserRet. GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pUser. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. &pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNum. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbName) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. &pTmpJCB). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). pFileRet. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. } return(0). else { CopyData(pName. &pTmpJCB). *pdcbFileRet = i. dcbUser). i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet.GetJobNum(&JobNum). return(0). pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. return(0). i). long dcbName) MMURTL V1. GetpJCB(JobNum. pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. dcbName). i). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. *pdcbUserRet = i.

return(0). pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. fh. &pTmpJCB). } return(0). GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbName). *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). return(0).0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . else { CopyData(pName. &pTmpJCB). erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetpJCB(JobNum. *pPT. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. i. *pdcbFileRet = i. i). &pTmpJCB). cbFileName. *pOSPD. pFileRet. *pVid. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. dret.{ long JobNum. dcbName). nPages. long dcbName) { long JobNum. long cbFileName. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. unsigned long *pPD. &fh). GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). U32 PhyAdd. i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. long *pFix.

*/ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD)./* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0.0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. 1). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. /* Job's PD. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. &pNewJCB). erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. 0). xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". MMURTL V1. pNewJCB = 0. &pCode). nPages = sCode/4096. &pPD). if (sData%4096) nPages++. nPages = sData/4096. pVid = pPD + 8192. &pStack). pPT = 0. &pData). 0). /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. &pTmpJCB). 4096. pPT. pOSPD[768] = pPT. pPT = pPD + 4096. /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". FillData(pVid. /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. pVid = 0. pPD). 4096. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". pPD = 0. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. GetpJCB(1. &PhyAdd). pPT). sStack = nPages * 4096. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. PhyAdd).

pCode. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pData + i. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oCode). /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pPD. oData). */ CopyData(pOSPD. sCode. &i. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.offCode + pCode. 4. &i. oCCFIX). &i. &i. pFix = pData + i. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oDDFIX). We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD. sData.offData + pData. &dret). /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. 4. &dret). &dret). 4096). so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCDFIX). pFix = pCode + i.0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS .offCode + pCode. pFix = pCode + i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret).offData + pData. 4. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh./* Right now. oDCFIX). &dret). } MMURTL V1. 4. &dret). pData. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh.

pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . pNewJCB). pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. 1024. 0). if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. 25.} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. 3). pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. pNewJCB->nCols = 80. 1024. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD". if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. pNewJCB->nLines = 25. 0x18. /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). /* Size */ CopyData("VID". /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. i. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. 0. 3). 0). pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. /* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. pStack+sStack-4. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. pStart+pCode-offCode).

oData). pData. &dret). nPages = sCode/4096. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. long *pFix. sData. /* All Job memory is now allocated. (CleanPD left the first PT for us). oCode). if (sData%4096) nPages++. i. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. &pData). oCDFIX). nPages = sData/4096. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. long fh) { long erc. /* Allocate user memory for Stack. nPages.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. sCode. Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. &dret). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. pNewJCB = pJCB. pCode. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &pStack). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &pCode). erc = AllocPage(nPages. erc = AllocPage(nPages. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1. return(erc). if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. sStack = nPages * 4096.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . The PD. dret.

/* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. &dret). /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. return(erc). } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. MMURTL V1. 4. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. its exchange. 4. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData.offData + pData.offCode + pCode. &i. &dret). pFix = pCode + i. This task. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &dret). } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. &i. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. 4.offCode + pCode. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &i. pFix = pData + i. &i.PT and video. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &dret). pFix = pData + i. pFix = pCode + i. oDDFIX).offData + pData. oDCFIX). } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . oCCFIX).erc = ReadBytes (fh.

BogusMsg). while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. WaitMsg(ExchE. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. ercE = 0. Debugger or the current job. ErcOpCancel). */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. ExchE. It results in a violent death for the job specified. /* Make sure it's not the Monitor. SetPriority(31).0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . &pTmpJCB). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. CleanUserPD(pPDE). &pTmpJCB). */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. BogusMsg). ISendMsg(KillExch. if (erc) return(erc). GetTSSExch(&ExchE). This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. This is used to kill run-away jobs. if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum). /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum.GetpJCB(JobNumE.

while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. &_KillTask). The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). CodeSeg. ESP. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. 3. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). pTmpJCB).ercE = 0. &pCrntJCB). If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. iE++. GetpJCB(JobNumE. return(erc). /* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. fDebug. } ercE = 0. &TmpStack[127]. 0. Priority. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. We send "Abort" messages to all services. Exch. &pExchJCBE). /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. ExchE. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. ExchE). /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. 0x08. iE = 0.

*/ GetExitJob(aFileE.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . If no exit run file. EBP. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. iE++. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). &cbFileE). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. Send Abort messages to all services. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). ercE = 0. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). ExchE). OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. ESP. ercE = 0. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). EAX. CleanUserPD(pPDE). &pExchJCBE)./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. */ SendAbort(JobNumE. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ercE = 0. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. iE = 0.

if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. ADD EAX.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV ESP. Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). SetPriority(31). Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. cbFileE. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. ercE). MOV EBP. SUB EAX. &job_fhE). if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done. ExchE. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . MOV EBX. */ #asm MOV EAX. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. BogusMsg). if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. WaitMsg(ExchE. and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. job_fhE).

} CloseFile(job_fhE). The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). cbFileE = cbFileName.0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). cbFileName. */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user.error loading the Job. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. iE = 0. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). aFileE. Send Abort messages to all services. */ MMURTL V1. In other words. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. ercE = 0. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. &pExchJCBE). long cbFileName. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. cbFileName). GetpJCB(JobNumE. iE++. /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &pCrntJCB). &job_fhE). long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE).

if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). ExchE). CleanUserPD(pPDE). EAX. EBP. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). ESP. /* Try to load the Chain file. we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. job_fhE). OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. &cbFileE). If no exit run file. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. ercE = 0. &job_fhE). } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode.SendAbort(JobNumE. */ MMURTL V1. The original user's job is destroyed. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg).0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbFileE. cbFileE. job_fhE). The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. &job_fhE). if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. ercE = 0.

SUB EAX. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. PUSH 18h MOV EAX.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. #asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31).#asm MOV EAX. WaitMsg(ExchE. MOV EBP. BogusMsg).0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . ADD EAX. MOV ESP. MOV EBX. ercE). /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . ExchE.

are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). but is still very immature. Listing 23. one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based .Enter debugger .Enter debugger . entry from the current job into the debuggers job. which are all debug exceptions. . This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. See listing 23. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. The debugger is a separate task. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. then copy the CR3 . Next. . and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger .1. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. It has grown substantially.ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. Breakpoints. task (without going through the kernel).1.EnterDebug .===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . I have left them as individual procedures. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger .Chapter 23. Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. If we get here. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. While writing the operating system. on which exception is was. code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks). They are made to match those of the interrupted task. . . . Get Flags . First we copy the Page Dir .0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS . I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually.===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . Get EIP of offender for debugger . Get CS . debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS. Get EIP of offender for debugger . This makes the . All of the debugger's . . . Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address.

caller's registers them before the into the debugger .INC .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS .pDebuggerTSS -> EDX . pRunTSS.we MUST save PUSH EBX .Save the current pRunTSS . .2.Put the stack back the way it was . .pDebuggerJCB -> EDX . EAX EAX.INCLUDE .When the debugger exits. Debugger Data and Code .Set up debugger selector . then jump to the debugger's selector. with the exception of the disassembler.Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23. OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3].DATA . pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave. EBX EAX.INC RQB.current CR3 -> EBX . [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD]. EBX EAX. BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . and restore PUSH EDX . [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel. . You'll see much of it is display "grunt work. EAX This switches tasks. OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.Page Dir -> Debugger JCB .INCLUDE MOSEDF.INC TSS.Switch tasks to debugger .INCLUDE ..2 presents the debugger code in its entirety.0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS .External near Variables MMURTL V1. task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX. [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX. EnterDebug: PUSH EAX . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. pRunTSS EBX." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code. we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD . Listing 23.pRunTSS -> EAX .make his registers right! .INC JOB. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX.ALIGN DWORD .Install Debugger's as current .pCrntJCB -> EAX .INCLUDE .

dbgExchMsg .Address of instructions we are displaying . . .flag 1 = Msg.Boolean.'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'.'ClrBP'.0B3h.'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.Active bytes in buf2 .Address we are dumping .0B3h.are we dumping DWORDS? . 0Ah DB 0 .CR LF for Dump etc.40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .0B3h.0B3h.For ReadDbgKbd .General purpose DDs (used all over) ..'Tasks'.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh.TO save the TSS we interrupted .'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1.0B3h.To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 .0B3h.0B3h.debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .'DumpD'. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .' '..' '.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB . 0 = Exch .0B3h.Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .Address we are setting as next . dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'.General use buffers DB '0000000000' .Has Dbg Video been initialized? .' ' ' . .0B3h.ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .'SetBP'.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS . ESC to quit. .

'TSS: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.'EAX: 0B3h.'EBP: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1. Begin Code ========================== .For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .'EBX: 0B3h.==================== End Data.'ESP: 0B3h.'EFL: 0B3h. OFFSET DbgVidSave .' GS: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.' DS: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.' ES: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.'ESI: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS .'EIP: 0B3h.

The debugger . 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.the Instruction Pointer. the values of . Code Seg.Display fault message and .PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit.REF . But we do.Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 . and number at 0 . is always entered as a procedure. DbgpTSSSave .0FFh .. I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. so we shouldn't have to reset it.way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the . . EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Dbgr is Job 2 .the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS. .dbgOldEflgs .procedure was entered.Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].0 .dbgOldEIP . . This only applies if . MOV EBX.EBX .EBX .EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX.0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags]. (we chanage the tasks) . when the handler is entered.NO .We make them the same by putting the values we got from .NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! .We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .BX MOV EBX.Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX. 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX..dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.dbgOldCS .[EAX+TSS_EFlags] .0 .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS]. the handler is a procedure (NOT a task). and flags are not the .See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX.interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger.Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS . MOV EBX. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT. .Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].EBX . .When a fault or debug exception occurs.

MOV EAX. 0FFh . 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .ESCAPE (Exit) . EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.Display menu PUSH dbgX . [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX.Set BP (Current Address . EAX .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX.00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Fall through to keyboard loop .reset fault indicator . 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1.This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX.dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX.CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.Get USER pUserTSS .Reset X & Y to 0.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.=========================================================== .Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX.Color White on black .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Single Step (F1) . 0FFh LEA EAX.Set TF in flags for single step .1 . EAX MOV dbgX.Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX.0 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.DbgpTSSSave .Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .

Full display .Task array display (F6) .Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX.Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS .BP0 Set global . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL.Set Disassembly Address (F8) . EAX dbg00 EAX.Save it so we know where BP is . 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX.See if we need to scroll up . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. .This puts the instruction on the line . EAX DR6.Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 . EAX dbg00 .Sets NextEIP . 00 MMURTL V1.Clear BP (Current Address . EAX EAX. 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.0 . 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX.See if we need to scroll up . . dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Return to CS:EIP (F4) . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. 00000002h DR7.Display Exchanges (F5) . . 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX. .F3) . .This puts the instruction on the line .Address displayed .Clear BP saved address .Not used yet . EAX DR7. EAX dbgBPAdd.DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX. 11h dbg04 EAX.Back to where we were . EBX DR0. 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. . EBX EAX.MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX.

EAX must be preserved MOV EBX.Return saved pRunTSS .we are about to display. .============================================================== dbgShowBP: .Query XY . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner .Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) .we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD. If they are the same.Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.MOV dbgfDumpD.Back to begining .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) . EAX BX. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . .This puts the instruction on the line .0 . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL. DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS.See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .This compares the current breakpoint the address . dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1. . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL. BX .Info Address dump (F12) . [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel.

EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.EAX Display . dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.EBP Display MMURTL V1.EBX Display .[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX. ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX.06 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.MOV ECX.EDI Display .05 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .03 MOV ESI.04 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .ESI Display .Number of this TSS .07 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.3 params to TTYOut .[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ECX Display .============================================================== .OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.Save EAX across call .00 MOV ESI.This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .BP Address .[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.EDX Display .[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.02 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.TSS Display .01 MOV ESI.

[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.16 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.GS Display .EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.ES Display .[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.SS Display .19 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.08 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ESP Display .CR3 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.CR2 Display .11 MOV ESI.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.EAX MOV AX.EFlags Display .CS Display .[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.15 MOV ESI.17 MOV ESI.10 MOV ESI.MOV ECX.18 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.DS Display .EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.13 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.12 MOV ESI.EIP Display .EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.0 .OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.20 MOV ESI.09 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.CR0 Display .OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.FS Display .14 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.

ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut . This is for Debugger Register display .========================================================================== .============================================== .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .CALL DispRegs RETN . ECX loaded with number of text line to display on .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1.

PUSH EAX .ptr to string ..Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. dbgChar CMP AL.Goto Query Line . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX. dbgChar . DbgBuf2 . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX. .ptr to destination DD . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Max size LEA EAX.Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1. 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .=========================== .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . PUSH EAX .=========================== . .Convert String to DD . PUSH EAX . 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.length of string .PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX.Ignore error if any MOV AL. EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN . dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.did they exit with CR? .Go home. cbBufLen2 ..ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Crnt size PUSH 8 .

cbBufLen2 .pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. 6 LEA EAX. .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h .PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd . 4 . 0 JNE DumpDone .did they exit with CR? .Goto Query Line . DbgBuf2 . PUSH EAX . dbgChar CMP AL.byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS .Convert String to DD . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.ptr to string .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .Ignore error if any MOV AL.ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Go home. LEA EAX. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.. dbgChar .line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3.Crnt size PUSH 8 . dbgSpace MMURTL V1.0 .length of string . PUSH EAX . dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Max size LEA EAX. 24 . PUSH EAX .ptr to destination DD .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.convert address to text LEA EAX.

Display First byte . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.go to display bytes LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. [EBX] . dbgBuf ADD EAX.Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX . dbgDumpAdd . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.display 2st byte . dbgBuf . display 1 space . 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgfDumpD .ignore error .NO .ignore error .get dump address MOV EAX.PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL.Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX.point to second 2 bytes . dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.0 .display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 JE DumpB . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1. dbgBuf ADD EAX.Display 1 spaces .

ignore error .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . DEC dbgGPdd1 . dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX.NO .go back for next 4 bytes .done with 4 quads?? .Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .Display 2 spaces LEA EAX.23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 . dbgCont . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .Query XY PUSH dbgX .ignore error . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut .ignore error LEA EAX. 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . LEA EAX.Yes .size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1.a space . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgCRLF .CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS .display 4th byte .NO .

line we are one . PUSH 54 .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS .=========================== . 1 . sEXCH EDX EDX. 1Bh . . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. 0 RETN . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. 0FFh . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1.Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .prgExch .Col PUSH 0 .MOV EAX. MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX.Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.Exch# we are on . .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .Do CR/LF 0 .Convert Exch number for display .Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. Exch number . dbgGPdd2 EDX.messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.

. EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX. . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.No.Col dbgGPdd1 . 0 .Flag to indicate we are doing messages .Get dMsg2 back POP EDX . [EAX+EHead] . [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5. but would be confusing later. .For next msg in chain (if it exists) .Convert dMsg1 .Save dMsg2 . [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX. [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . Go check for tasks . .0 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . Go to next Exch .Get dMsg2 . . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.Save for loop . EAX MOV EAX.pExch -> EAX .Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS . EAX MOV EBX..ADD EAX.Col dbgGPdd1 .MsgFlag -> EBX .Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. MOV EAX.Is is NIL (no msg or task)? . .pMsg -> EBX 20 . .Could have left it on stack. . EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5.pMsg -> EBX . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .EDX MOV dbgGPdd3.Convert Job Number 10 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .Get dMsg1 . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX.Yes. . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .See if there is a first message MOV EAX.Is is 1 (a message)? . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. EAX OR EBX."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX.

dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX. Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone . .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. INC dbgGPdd1 .Convert Task Number 1 . MOV EAX.Line OFFSET dbgCont . EAX AX.Lop off key status bytes .Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 23 .Col . . MOV EAX. [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.Next line please . [EBX+TSSNum] . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save ptr to next task if it exists . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 .Line .Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. 0FFh CMP EAX.Is is 0 (no TSS)? . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5.Get Number of Task at exch . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. 1Bh JE dbgDEDone .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX. nDynEXCH . EAX EAX.Col 24 .No . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .pTSS -> EBX .pExch -> EAX .Clear pNextTask . 31 . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.Col dbgGPdd1 .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 .Line OFFSET dbgBuf .0 .

First we get pTSS and see if it is valid . .If not.NonZero if we are doing tasks . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX. Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. 1 . 2 dbgDT03 EBX. Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX. we increment TSS number and go back .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 .Set up to loop for next msg/task . Task number . 0 RETN . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX. We are on line 1 again . 1 .for the next one dbgDT01: . OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: .Displays Tasks that are active along with . .No . MMURTL V1. Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Line for labels .=========================== . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Tasks .Another pointer in the link? .PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. nDynEXCH . 1 dbgDT02 EBX.line we are one . dbgGPdd2 EAX.pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.line.0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg .Col PUSH 0 . PUSH 54 . OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . . dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX.Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) .Col . EAX.Length of message .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX.If so.

dbgGPdd2 . EAX . 8 .of TSSs . . EAX MOV EBX. JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf . [EBX+Priority] . dbgGPdd4 . 8 .back for next one dbgDT05: .Col dbgGPdd1 .Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array . DDtoHex 20 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. ECX . EAX .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 512 ECX EBX.Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 . go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4. pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX.0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6.Col dbgGPdd1 . ECX MOV EAX.Save pTSS for display XOR ECX. DDtoHex 10 .Job number is first DD in JCB EBX.EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Not used. EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . MOV CL.EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5. [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .EAX has pJCB OR EAX. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . dbgGPdd3 . EBX . nTSS .Col dbgGPdd1 .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .Save pJCB for display .

length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line OFFSET dbgCont .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . 0FFh . 1Bh . continue prompt dbgDT01 . 23 . 8 .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf .Yes.Col dbgGPdd1 .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. This is for Debugger Address Info display . EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgGPdd6 . DDtoHex 40 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. . dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . go back for next 0 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. Call with: . .Col 24 . 31 .====================================================================== . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.go for next Task number .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Save it for the top MOV EAX. EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .No.Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. MOV EAX. We save all registers cause the vid calls don't . 8 . 0 RETN .Col dbgGPdd1 . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf . DDtoHex 30 . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display .Save number to display MMURTL V1.Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .

GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS .=============================================== . pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM8 .OFFSET DbgM3 .pTSS3 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM7 .Exchs MOV EAX. prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgPA .RdyQ LEA EAX.Do it .GDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM1 .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .DbgInfo .OFFSET DbgM4 .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM5 .PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .LBs LEA EAX. OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.IDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM2 .Vid Attribute .PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM0 .SVCs LEA EAX.MonTSS MOV EAX.ptr to line .Length of line . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.RQBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM6 .JCBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM9 . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1.

0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS . rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .Yes. Line 0-24) 0 66 . .MOV ESI.Timer Blocks LEA EAX.fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .Clear the query line (Line 23.between colums 0 and 66.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. go back for next key 0 .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.No. Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN . Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .======================================================= . we scroll up the text area by one line.and the register display. . The other .Col 0.All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .OFFSET DbgMB .ignore error RETN .Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . Scroll test area (Col 0-64.===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1. dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.Lines 0-23 1 . and line 0 to 24.Got to Column 0.If so. .Columns 0-65 24 .This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23. query line. 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 .areas are resrved for the menu. 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .======================================================= .Query XY (See what line and Col) . .

.

but I try not to. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. in addition to those in the code itself.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). Listing 24. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. Even some of the ISRs are done in C. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). All of the hardware commands are well documented.1. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. They were designed that way.Chapter 24. All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. S8 *pDCBs. unsigned long int).1. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. There are no include files. though I would rather have done them in assembler. In fact. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. U32 nDevices.g. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. this device driver should work with MFM drives. The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. Comments. but I think you're OK. If you have MFM drives. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet).. many device drivers are written in C. you're on your own. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. Time was the deciding factor. extern far U32 MMURTL V1. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. This seems to be the best. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. U32 dfReplace). The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. See listing 24. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers.

static U32 check_busy(void). U32 count). . MMURTL V1. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void).2. U32 *pMsgRet). static void hd_reset(void). U16 wPort).extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U8 *pDataOut.2. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA).. U32 dBytes). Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. See listing 24. U8 *pDataIn. U32 dBytes). void OutWord(U16 Word. static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). static U32 hd_wait (void). /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataRet). U32 *pMsgRet). I needed a method to get data to the screen. Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. U32 nBlks). It's called xprintf(). U32 msg2). U32 dnBlocks. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataOut). U32 dnBlocks). InWords(U32 dPort. U32 dBytes). U8 *pDestination. static U32 send_command(U8 parm). U16 wPort). U32 dOpNum. void OutByte(U8 Byte. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address). static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). While writing the operating system. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. U8 *pDataIn). void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dnBlocks. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. U32 HdSect. U32 Sleep(U32 count).). S8 *pIRQ). U32 msg1. U32 msg2). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void).0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 dLBA. static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. Listing 24. OutWords(U32 dPort. U16 InWord(U16 wPort). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C. U32 dnBlocks. U32 msg1..

U32 dStatusMax..0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 sdInitData). static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. U32 *pdSatusRet). S8 * pStatRet. hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. S8 *pInitData.. bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1.U8 static U32 *pData).

Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit . This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.sector number (1F3h) 4 . then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag. Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six. wait 50us. */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .Set.0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy. Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1.sector number (1F3h) 4 ./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver.error register (1F1h) 2 .sector count (1F2h) 3 . head and Sector number.16 bit) 1 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 . and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks.read data (1F0h .high cyl (1F5h) 6 .pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .16 bit) 1 .sector count (1F2h) 3 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 ..write data (1F0h .

hd0_cyls. hd_control. hd1_heads. /* Calculated from LBA . /* Current control byte value */ hd_command. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. /* Current Command */ hd_drive. If I did one member.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. hd0_secpertrk.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller. hd0_heads. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. hd1_type. /* Current Physical Drive. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. /* Calculated from LBA .3. statbyte. cylinders. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. fDataReq.which head */ hd_nsectors. */ /* Current number of heads. hd1_secpertrk.3. Listing 24. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. /* Calculated from LBA . Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. See listing 24. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type.n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS .

LastRecalErc1. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. ResetStatByte. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. U8 fDevReent. U32 nBlocks. fIntOnReset.static U16 hd1_cyls. LastStatByte1. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. LastErcByte0. U32 blocks_done. U32 OS5. U32 last_erc. /* Number of bytes per sect. U32 OS2. static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. S8 sbName. U8 fNewMedia.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . U8 type_now. S16 nBPB. U32 BlocksMax. LastSeekErc0. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. filler1. S8 *pDevInit. S8 type. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. S8 *pDevOp. }. }. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. LastSeekErc1. U32 OS1. S8 *pDevSt. 32 bytes out to here. U32 OS6. #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. MMURTL V1. U32 OS4. LastErcByte1. U8 fSingleUser. S16 wJob. U32 OS3. LastStatByte0.

3. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19).Name[1] hdcb[0]. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16.pDevInit hdcb[1].Name[0] hdcb[0]. 3. Listing 24. '1'. 524288.pDevOp hdcb[1].sbName hdcb[0].nBlocks hdcb[0]. this would be the main() section of the C source file. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch. In a loadable driver. hd1_heads = 16. /* largest disk handled . '0'. hd1_secpertrk = 17.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . &hddev_init. /* Random */ 512. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A). &hddev_stat.4. hd1_cyls = 1024.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.pDevSt hdcb[1]. 'D'. static long HDDInt. static U32 hd_msg2. 1.type hdcb[1].Name[0] hdcb[1]. 1. static U32 hd_msg. &hddev_init. MMURTL V1.sbName hdcb[1]. 'H'.nBPB hdcb[0]. &hddev_stat. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17.type hdcb[0]. /* largest device handled . /* Random */ 512. 'D'. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc.nBPB hdcb[1].4.Name[2] hdcb[0].pDevInit hdcb[0].pDevOp hdcb[0].Name[2] hdcb[1]. See listing 24.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op. 524288. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024.nBlocks hdcb[1].Name[1] hdcb[1]. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0].

*/ hd_reset().0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. MMURTL V1. but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. SetIRQVector(14. They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. We have to make this sucker work the hard way. /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. } } /* if we got here. hd1_type = 0. */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). &hdisk_isr). then try both physical drives. hd0_type = 0.erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). It seems like a lot of work. */ /* Reset the HDC . /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0). They vary from BIOS to BIOS. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). erc = hd_recal(0). /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0]. /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning.last_erc = erc. */ erc = hd_recal(0). If the second drive is not there. but they don't. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. We have to do it once. Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). /* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). UnMaskIRQ(14).last_erc = erc. */ hd_reset().

} /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller.fIntOnReset = 0. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12. &hdcb. HD_REG_PORT). This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). 2. and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. hdcb[0]. 0xfffffff0).ResetStatByte = statbyte. We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out. 0xfffffff0. Sleep(20). gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. HDDInt = 1. &hd_msg). ISendMsg(hd_exch. 1)).fIntOnReset = 1. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. if (i) hdstatus. /* 200ms . This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. It just waits for an interrupt. MicroDelay(4). This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup. } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . else hdstatus.erc = hd_recal(0). EndOfIRQ(14). HD_REG_PORT). UnMaskIRQ(14). The caller should call check_busy and check the error.seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. OutByte(4.last_erc = erc.

while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS). nSectors. See listing 24. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. hd_Cmd[3] = 0. sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange. check_busy(void) count = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte.5. hd_Cmd[4] = 0. } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. etc. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. return(erc). Sleep(5). even if the controller goes into Never-Never land.3 seconds. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk.). ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise.5. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. erc = hd_wait(). /* set max heads. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. Listing 24.0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR.

LastRecalErc1 = erc. if (drive) hdstatus. /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL).0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . Time-out and return if no interrupt. return(erc). hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0.LastRecalErc0 = erc. } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. 300). else hdstatus. KillAlarm(hd_exch). /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch). KillAlarm(hd_exch). } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. else return(ErcHDCTimeOut).Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur. /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch. hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. return(ok). ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. &hd_msg).

HD_PORT+3). hd_nsectors = nBlks. seek). OutByte(hd_control. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. verify.0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). msg[2]. For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. HD_PORT+4). if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. HD_PORT+6). HD_PORT+2). HD_PORT+5). U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. HD_PORT+7). *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. U16 cyl. HD_PORT+1). head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). format. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3].alarm or int messages before we send a command. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. MMURTL V1. /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. &msg) == 0). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). return(erc). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). write. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. setupseek(U32 dLBA. HD_REG_PORT). } erc = check_busy().

if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). /* cyl & 0xff. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. } = = = = = nBlks. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk. 1). /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder).0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . return(erc). /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1.. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc.. hdstatus. calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK)./* we now know what cylinder. /* hd_sector.LastSeekErc0 = erc. hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1. } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent.

0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS .U8 statbyte. default: break. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. else return(erc).LastErcByte0 = errbyte. After all. if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. else hdstatus. else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). } return(erc). case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. else hdstatus. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy. */ erc = check_busy(). else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek. errbyte. break. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. he interrupted us with status. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC. } else { erc = check_busy(). else return(erc). /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).LastStatByte1 = statbyte. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. MMURTL V1.

pDataRet. pDataOut+=nBPS. This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. nleft. erc = setupseek(dLBA. hd_sector. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. nSoFar.nBPB. } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1.else erc = ErcBadHDC. nBPS). } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read. nSoFar++. U32 dnBlocks. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. erc = check_busy(). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. nBPS. nBPS. dnBlocks). /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. nBPS). U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. pDataOut. } } return(erc). /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc.nBPB. nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. U32 dnBlocks. pDataRet+=nBPS. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). --nleft. dnBlocks). erc = setupseek(dLBA. hd_sector.

dnBlocks). pDataOut+=nBPS. hd_sector). /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. return(erc). /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff. erc = setupseek(dLBA. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. /* cyl & 0xff.erc = hd_wait(). U32 HdSect. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. head and Sector number. erc = hd_wait(). hd_head. if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. pDataOut. U16 cyl. nSoFar++. HD %d. cyl. This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder. /* hd_sector. SEC %d\r\n". return(erc). /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). nBPS). U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1.0 -404- . Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. cyl = Cylinder. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1.

erc = send_command(HDC_READ).6. 512). } Chapter 8. U32 dLBA. } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). erc = hd_wait(). pDataRet.” discussed device driver interfaces.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS . 12=0 and 13=1. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. “Programming Interfaces. U32 dOpNum. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. return(erc). /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch. &hd_msg). U32 dnBlocks. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use.6.blocks_done = 0. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. MMURTL V1. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next. Listing 24. erc = 0. For Hard disk. else hd_drive = 1. See listing 24.

0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData). break. */ break. break. U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok. break. /* Null Command */ break. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. dnBlocks. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA. pData). break. pData). break. dnBlocks. return(erc). } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. break. dnBlocks). case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported.last_erc = erc. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. erc = 0. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. U32 dStatusMax. pData). break.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. } } hdcb[hd_drive].nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. dnBlocks. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA). case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. dnBlocks. default: erc = ErcBadOp. S8 * pStatRet.

nBPS = hdcb[1].nHead = hd0_heads.0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS .nCyl = hd0_cyls.erc = hdcb[0]. hdstatus. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters.erc = hdcb[1].nBPB. hdstatus.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk.nBPS = hdcb[0].last_erc. hdstatus. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. hdstatus. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. i).type_now = hd1_type.type_now = hd0_type. hdstatus. CopyData(&hdstatus. hdstatus. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. The DCB values are updated if this is successful.nBPB. hdstatus. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. S8 *pInitData. pStatRet.{ U32 i. return ok.nHead = hd1_heads. else i = sStatus. hdstatus.). } else { hdstatus. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat).nCyl = hd1_cyls. hdstatus. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax.last_erc. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. } /* Calculate size of status to return. hdstatus. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. *pdStatusRet = i.

} hdcb[hd_drive]. /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.nHead. hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp. else hd_drive = 1. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . } /* If no error. } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.last_erc = erc.last_erc = 0. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive).{ U32 erc. /* If no error.nSectors * HDStatTmp. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp.type_now.nSectors.nHead.nCyl * HDStatTmp. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. &HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive. hdcb[hd_drive]. i. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive).nBPS. return(erc). else i = sdInitData.nCyl.nSectors. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. erc = 0.nHead. i).nBPB = HDStatTmp. CopyData(pInitData.nCyl. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive].type_now. hdcb[hd_drive]. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp.

unsigned long LastErc. which is a sequential byte-oriented device. as well as status. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file.. or 16550 UARTs. unsigned char IRQNum. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. the driver.38400 */ Parity for this port. unsigned long XBufSize.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. as well as by the driver itself. “MMURTL Sample Software.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. unsigned long Baudrate. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port.. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . It needs more work. unsigned char parity.. */ 150-38400 */ 0.7. 150 . The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. unsigned long XTimeOut. Unlike the IDE disk device driver. See listing 24. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. unsigned long LastTotal. 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. */ It's already open. other than that. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. it is a fully functional driver.. 0=none.7. but. unsigned char databits. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver. unsigned long IOBase. unsigned long RTimeOut.. MMURTL V1. unsigned long resvd[6]. unsigned char stopbits.. unsigned long RBufSize.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. */ It's opened by someone else. They are two different animals with the same basic interface. which is a block oriented random device. and this driver. 1=even. RS-232. 16450. Listing 24.

The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2). U8 **ppMemRet). extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum.0 *pIRQ). RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232. S8 *pDCBs.8. you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. U32 dfReplace). extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages. Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum).}. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum.8. Listing 24.h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). All other command are specific to this driver. See listing 24. S8 MMURTL V1. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 nDevices. U32 nPages). extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem.

U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U8 *pDestination.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U8 *pData). U32 Sleep(U32 count). extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 dStatusMax. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U32 msg1. These will be called form the device driver interface. */ #define CTS MMURTL V1.0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . set and reset signal line condition and functions. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 dLBA. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. U32 msg1. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. S8 *pStatRet. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). S8 *pInitData. U32 *pdStatusRet). U32 sdInitData). U32 msg2). static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. void OutByte(U8 Byte. */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. U32 dOpNum. U32 dBytes). U16 wPort). /* local prototypes. static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. S8 *pMsgRet). U32 count). U32 msg2). U32 dnBlocks.

tail_recv[2]. MCR[2]. head_recv[2]. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . stat_byte[2]. FCR[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. sRecvBuf[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. DLAB_LO[2]. sSendBuf[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. tail_send[2]. MSR[2]. *pRecvBuf[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2]. fExpectInt[2]. LSR[2]. mstat_byte[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. IER[2]. cSendBuf[2]. head_send[2]. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. int_id[2]. LCR[2]. IIR[2].

FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char.9. Listing 24.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS .TX data.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -.Interrupt Enable. RX data. FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 . \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.2 chars 10 . MMURTL V1. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code. 0.4 chars 11 .Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0.1 char 01 . Divisor Latch LSB IER -. I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion. \___________ = 0. 1 = Multichar 0.

10.0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 24. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -. static struct statRecC *pCS.H. MMURTL V1. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter. See listing 24.| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1.10.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2].Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.

11. = 'O'.0 = 'C'. S8 *pDevSt. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS . S8 fSingleUser. See listing 24. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12].12. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. U32 nBlocks. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600.Name[2] MMURTL V1. = 'M'. S8 *pDevOp. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. Listing 24. See listing 24. U32 OS4. 8N1. S8 type.11. U32 OS3. This means it's ready for business. It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts.Name[1] comdcb[0]. S8 *pDevInit. U32 OS2. static void interrupt comISR1(void). /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void). S8 sbName. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. U32 OS1. S16 nBPB. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. and they are contiguously defined.Name[0] comdcb[0]. S8 fDevReent. Listing 24. Note that there are two of DCB’s. U32 OS5.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers. U32 OS6.12. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. as is required by MMURTL. S16 wJob. One for each channel. U32 last_erc. }. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc.

0x2F8. 'M'.Name[1] comdcb[1]. 4. = 100.sbName comdcb[0]. 'C'. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. = 4096.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'. = 2.sbName comdcb[1].Name[2] comdcb[0].Baudrate comstat[1]. 1)). = 4096. = 9600.0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS .nBlocks comdcb[1].pDevInit comdcb[1].Name[0] comdcb[1].XTimeOut comstat[0]. 0x3F8. 2.Name[2] comdcb[1].IRQNum = comstat[1]. &comdev_init. = 4096. &comdcb. /* none */ = 8.databits comstat[1].IOBase = comstat[1].pDevOp comdcb[1]. &comdev_stat.comdcb[0]. 'O'. = 0.nBPB comdcb[0].Baudrate comstat[0]. &comdev_stat. MaskIRQ(4).parity comstat[1].XTimeOut comstat[1]. &comdev_init. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. 2.IRQNum = comstat[0].RBufSize sSendBuf[0] = 4096.XBufSize comstat[1].pDevOp comdcb[0].databits comstat[0]. sRecvBuf[0] = 4096.pDevInit comdcb[0].RB