MMURTL V1.

0

Richard A. Burgess

Sensory Publishing, Inc. 2000 Jefferson Davis Hwy Suite D Alexandria, VA 22301 USA www.SensoryPublishing.com

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MMURTL V1.0

ISBN 1-58853-000-0

Author: Richard A. Burgess Technical Editor: David McClarty, Atlanta, GA. Additonal editing by: Copyright © 1995 Richard A. Burgess, Copyright © 2000 Sensory Publishing, Inc. and Richard A. Burgess All Rights Reserved Third printing - Second formatted version - No content change Previously published by MacMillan Publishing/SAMS Computer Books as: Developing Your Own 32 Bit Operating System, ISBN 0-672-30655-7 Portions of the electronic and printed versions of this book may have been formatted with software produced by: Adobe Corporation for the PDF Acrobat Reader version, Overdrive Inc. for the Microsoft Reader version, Sensory Publishing, Inc. for the HTML, XML, and SGML versions. For the electronic version of this book: Please treat it as you would a printed copy of any book. You may pass a single copy of this text on to another individual or institution when you are through with it, and upon deleting your copy as if you no longer held a printed copy of the book. No portions of this book may be made publicly available by any electronic, or other means, to include but not limited to, web sites, ftp sites, Internet peer to peer sharing software, any other private or public existing networking software, or electronic methods not yet invented, without the express written permission of Sensory Publishing, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks are properly capitalized or noted as such with the symbols , or  as appropriate. Sensory Publishing, Inc. has attempted to validate this information with reasonable care but can not guarantee its accuracy. Use of a service mark or trademark in this text should not be regarded as affecting the mark, or claiming any rights whatsoever to the mark in question unless otherwise noted.

Limit of Liability Disclaimer
The publisher has made every effort to ensure that the information is this book is accurate. The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties as to the contents of this book. Neither the publisher or the author shall be responsible for loss of profit or any other commercial damages resulting from the use of the information contained in this book.

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Forward – 2000

irst of all, I thank all of you for the continued interest in MMURTL. When the first printed copies of this book (then named Developing Your Own 32 Bit Computer Operating System) hit the bookstands in 1995, 32 bit was the “buzz word” of the day. Five years later the buzzword is the New Millennium; 2000+. But it still seems that operating system development is a hot topic - look at Linux go! - You GO Mr. Penguin, you go! Many people have tracked me down in an attempt to find more copies of the original edition of the book and I can tell you they’re very scarce. Another printing was denied by the original publisher which turned the rights to this book back over to me. Of the 10,000-plus copies sold, I have 5 printed copies left (which needless to say, I'm holding on to for sentimental reasons). But if you're reading this, you now know that the book is back in full print (and electronically) available once again. I had initially intended to put up a web site for everyone to share their MMURTL interests and findings, but little things like "earning a living" - "kids in college, etc." kept getting in the way. A friend of mine (an entrepreneur at heart) was itching to start another online business (e.g., Dot Com Mania) and I had always been interested in publishing - the not so simple art of information dissemination - and I offered some technical assistance. Now I am part of Sensory Publishing, Inc., the new publisher of this book. Sensory Publishing has built and runs a bulletin board on their servers where MMURTL readers/users can exchange information and ask questions. I will try to make as much time as possible to answer questions there, and I would also like to see everyone that has something to share about MMURTL add their two cents. I hope you use MMURTL V1.0 to learn, enjoy and explore. And now, my gift to you, the owners of a proper copy of this book or the former version from SAMS): You may use any of the code (with the exception of the C compiler or samples from Mr. Dunfield) for any project you desire - public or private - so long as you have purchased a proper copy of the book in this or its previous printings. That is my way of saying thanks. The only requirement is that you give some visible credit to MMURTL for the assistance with your project. No, this is not the same as “public domain,” but it allows you to use MMURTL in your projects without fear of a lawsuit from me, or the publisher. The only thing you can’t do is place MMURTL or the MMURTL source code on a web site or other electronic retrieval system where the public can get to it (protect it as you would any copyrighted material).

F

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................... 1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT ................................................................................................................................................. 2 WHO SHOULD USE THIS BOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 2 MY BASIC DESIGN GOALS (YOURS MAY VARY) .................................................................................................................... 3 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF MMURTL ................................................................................................................................... 4 USES FOR MMURTL ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 SIMILARITIES TO OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................... 4 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2, GENERAL DISCUSSION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 7 WHERE DOES ONE BEGIN?.................................................................................................................................................... 7 YOU ARE WHERE YOU WERE WHEN .................................................................................................................................... 7 THE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM AND THE TOOLS .................................................................................................................. 8 THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG ................................................................................................................................................. 8 EARLY HARDWARE INVESTIGATION ...................................................................................................................................... 9 THE REAL TASK AT HAND (PUN INTENDED) ....................................................................................................................... 10 A STARTING POINT ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 THE CRITICAL PATH ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 WORKING ATTITUDE ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 3, THE TASKING MODEL............................................................................................................................ 13 TERMS WE SHOULD AGREE ON .......................................................................................................................................... 13 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................................................. 14 TASK MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................... 14 SINGLE VS. MULTI USER ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 THE HARDWARE STATE ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 THE SOFTWARE STATE ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 CPU TIME ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 SINGLE TASKING ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 MULTITASKING ................................................................................................................................................................... 16 COOPERATIVE MULTITASKING ............................................................................................................................................ 16 PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .............................................................................................................................................. 17 TASK SCHEDULING .............................................................................................................................................................. 17 WHO, WHEN, AND HOW LONG?.......................................................................................................................................... 17 SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................................................................................. 17 Time Slicing .................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Simple Cooperative Queuing.......................................................................................................................................... 18 Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling................................................................................................................................ 18 Variable Time Slicing ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 OTHER SCHEDULING FACTORS ............................................................................................................................................ 19 MIXED SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Fully Time Sliced, Some Cooperation ............................................................................................................................ 20 Time Sliced, More Cooperative ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Primarily Cooperative, Limited Time Slicing................................................................................................................. 20 Primarily Cooperative, More Time Slicing .................................................................................................................... 21 THE TASKING MODEL I CHOSE ........................................................................................................................................... 21 INTERRUPT HANDLING ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER 4, INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................. 23 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 23 MESSAGING AND TASKS ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 SEMAPHORES....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 PIPES ................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................................................................... 24
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Send and Wait .................................................................................................................................................................24 Request() .........................................................................................................................................................................27 Respond() ........................................................................................................................................................................28 Link Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................29 REENTRANCY ISSUES ...........................................................................................................................................................29 INTERRUPT LATENCY ..........................................................................................................................................................30 MEMORY MANAGEMENT ISSUES .........................................................................................................................................30 CHAPTER 5, MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................31 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................31 BASIC TERMS ......................................................................................................................................................................31 MEMORY MODEL ................................................................................................................................................................31 Simple Flat Memory........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.1, Simple Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................32 Paged Flat Memory ........................................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.2 - Paged Flat Memory .................................................................................................................................33 Demand-Paged Flat Memory..........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 5.3 - Demand Paged Flat Memory...................................................................................................................34 Virtual Paged Memory....................................................................................................................................................34 Figure 5.4 - Virtual Paged Memory ............................................................................................................................35 Demand Paged Virtual Memory .....................................................................................................................................35 Demand-Paged Memory Management ...........................................................................................................................36 Segmented Memory.........................................................................................................................................................36 MEMORY MANAGEMENT .....................................................................................................................................................37 TRACKING LINEAR MEMORY ALLOCATION .........................................................................................................................37 BASIC MEMORY ALLOCATION UNIT ....................................................................................................................................37 LINKED LIST MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................37 MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH TABLES ..............................................................................................................................41 TRACKING PHYSICAL MEMORY ...........................................................................................................................................41 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................42 MEMORY PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................................................42 AN INTEL BASED MEMORY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................43 A Few More Words On Segmentation.............................................................................................................................43 HOW MMURTL USES PAGING ...........................................................................................................................................43 Page Tables (PTs)...........................................................................................................................................................44 Page Directories (PDs)...................................................................................................................................................44 The Memory Map............................................................................................................................................................44 Table 5.1 - MMURTL Memory Map.........................................................................................................................45 Page Directory Entries (PDEs) ......................................................................................................................................46 Table 5.2 Page Directory Example ............................................................................................................................46 ALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY ......................................................................................................................................46 DEALLOCATION OF LINEAR MEMORY .................................................................................................................................47 ALLOCATION OF PHYSICAL MEMORY ..................................................................................................................................47 LOADING THINGS INTO MEMORY ........................................................................................................................................47 MESSAGING AND ADDRESS ALIASES ...................................................................................................................................48 MEMORY AND POINTER MANAGEMENT FOR MESSAGING ...................................................................................................48 SUMMARY OF MMURTL MEMORY MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 6, HARDWARE INTERFACE .......................................................................................................................51 HARDWARE ISOLATION .......................................................................................................................................................51 THE CPU .............................................................................................................................................................................51 THE BUS STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................................................................52 SERIAL I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................52 PARALLEL I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................53 BLOCK-ORIENTED DEVICES ................................................................................................................................................53 KEYBOARD ..........................................................................................................................................................................53 VIDEO ..................................................................................................................................................................................54 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) ......................................................................................................................................55 TIMERS ................................................................................................................................................................................63
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PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROLLER UNIT (PICU)............................................................................................................... 63 CHAPTER 7, OS INITIALIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 65 GETTING BOOTED ............................................................................................................................................................... 65 BOOT ROM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 65 THE BOOT SECTOR .............................................................................................................................................................. 65 OPERATING SYSTEM BOOT IMAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 74 OTHER BOOT OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 74 BASIC HARDWARE INITIALIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 74 STATIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................................................... 75 INITIALIZATION OF TASK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 75 INITIALIZATION OF MEMORY............................................................................................................................................... 75 DYNAMIC TABLES AND STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................................. 76 CHAPTER 8, PROGRAMMING INTERFACES............................................................................................................. 77 APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ........................................................................................................................... 77 Documenting Your API................................................................................................................................................... 77 Procedural Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 77 Calling Conventions ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 MECHANICAL DETAILS ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 79 ERROR HANDLING AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 79 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................. 79 INTERNAL COOPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 80 DEVICE DRIVER INTERFACES .............................................................................................................................................. 80 A DEVICE-DRIVER INTERFACE EXAMPLE ........................................................................................................................... 80 Announcing the Driver to the OS.................................................................................................................................... 81 A Call to the driver ......................................................................................................................................................... 83 CHAPTER 9, APPLICATION PROGRAMMING........................................................................................................... 85 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................................................................... 85 UNDERSTANDING 32-BIT SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................................. 85 Table 9.1 - Memory Alignment ....................................................................................................................................... 85 OPERATING SYSTEM CALLING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................... 86 STACK USAGE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86 MEMORY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 9.2 - Basic Memory Map ...................................................................................................................................... 87 OPERATING SYSTEM PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................................... 88 APPLICATION MESSAGING................................................................................................................................................... 88 STARTING A NEW THREAD .................................................................................................................................................. 89 JOB CONTROL B LOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 89 BASIC KEYBOARD ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 BASIC VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Table 9.3 - Foreground Colors (Low nibble) ................................................................................................................. 91 Table 9.4 - Background Colors (High nibble) ................................................................................................................ 91 TERMINATING YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................................... 92 REPLACING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER 10, SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING.................................................................................................................. 93 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 93 WRITING MESSAGE-BASED SYSTEM SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 93 INITIALIZING YOUR SYSTEM SERVICE ................................................................................................................................. 93 A SIMPLE SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................ 93 Listing 10.1. A System Service....................................................................................................................................... 94 THE REQUEST BLOCK.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 ITEMS IN THE REQUEST BLOCK ........................................................................................................................................... 95 THE SERVICE CODE ............................................................................................................................................................. 95 CALLER INFORMATION IN A REQUEST ................................................................................................................................. 95
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ASYNCHRONOUS SERVICES .................................................................................................................................................96 SYSTEM SERVICE ERROR HANDLING ...................................................................................................................................96 WRITING DEVICE DRIVERS ..................................................................................................................................................96 DEVICE DRIVER THEORY .....................................................................................................................................................97 BUILDING DEVICE DRIVERS ................................................................................................................................................97 HOW CALLERS REACH YOUR DRIVER .................................................................................................................................98 DEVICE DRIVER SETUP AND INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................................98 SYSTEM RESOURCES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................99 Interrupts ........................................................................................................................................................................99 Direct Memory Access Device (DMA)............................................................................................................................99 Timer Facilities...............................................................................................................................................................99 MESSAGE FACILITIES FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................100 DETAILED DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................................100 Device Control Block Setup and Use............................................................................................................................100 Table 10.1-. Device control block definition.................................................................................................................100 STANDARD DEVICE CALL DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceOp Function Implementation .............................................................................................................................102 DeviceStat Function Implementation............................................................................................................................103 DeviceInit Function Implementation.............................................................................................................................103 INITIALIZING YOUR DRIVER ..............................................................................................................................................104 OS FUNCTIONS FOR DEVICE DRIVERS ...............................................................................................................................104 STANDARD DEVICE ERROR CODES ....................................................................................................................................105 CHAPTER 11, THE MONITOR PROGRAM.................................................................................................................107 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................107 ACTIVE JOB (VIDEO & KEYBOARD) ...................................................................................................................................107 INITIAL JOBS ......................................................................................................................................................................107 Listing 11.1. Sample Initial.Job file ..............................................................................................................................107 MONITOR FUNCTION KEYS ................................................................................................................................................108 Table 11.1. Monitor Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................108 MONITOR PROGRAM THEORY ............................................................................................................................................108 PERFORMANCE MONITORING ............................................................................................................................................108 MONITOR SOURCE LISTING ...............................................................................................................................................109 Listing 11.2. Monitor program source listing ...............................................................................................................109 CHAPTER 12, DEBUGGER .............................................................................................................................................127 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................127 USING THE DEBUGGER ......................................................................................................................................................127 Entering the Debugger..................................................................................................................................................127 Exiting the Debugger ....................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Display .........................................................................................................................................................127 Debugger Function Keys ..............................................................................................................................................128 DEBUGGING YOUR APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................129 DEBUGGER THEORY ..........................................................................................................................................................129 Table 12.1.Processor exceptions. .................................................................................................................................130 CHAPTER 13, KEYBOARD SERVICE ..........................................................................................................................133 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................133 AVAILABLE SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................................133 Table 13.1.Available Keyboard Services ......................................................................................................................134 Read Keyboard .............................................................................................................................................................134 Notify On Global Keys ..................................................................................................................................................134 Cancel Notify On Global Keys......................................................................................................................................135 Assign Keyboard ...........................................................................................................................................................135 KEY CODES AND STATUS ...................................................................................................................................................135 Alpha-Numeric Key Values...........................................................................................................................................135 Table 13.2 - .Shift State Bits..........................................................................................................................................136 Lock-State Byte (third byte) ..........................................................................................................................................136 Table 13.3 - Lock State Bits ..........................................................................................................................................136
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Numeric Pad Indicator ................................................................................................................................................. 136 KEY CODES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 137 Table 13.4 - .Keys Values ............................................................................................................................................. 137 Function Strip Key Codes............................................................................................................................................. 138 Table 13.5 - Function Key Strip Codes......................................................................................................................... 138 Numeric Pad Key Codes............................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 13.6 - Numeric Pad Key Codes........................................................................................................................... 139 Cursor, Edit, and Special Pad Key Codes .................................................................................................................... 139 13.7.Additional Key Codes ........................................................................................................................................... 139 YOUR KEYBOARD IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................ 140 CHAPTER 14, THE FILE SYSTEM SERVICE ............................................................................................................. 141 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 141 NETWORK FILE REQUEST ROUTING .................................................................................................................................. 141 FILE HANDLES ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 FILE OPEN MODES............................................................................................................................................................. 142 FILE ACCESS TYPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 142 Block Mode................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Stream Mode................................................................................................................................................................. 142 LOGICAL FILE ADDRESS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 FILE SYSTEM REQUESTS .................................................................................................................................................... 143 Listing 14.1. Openfile request in C ............................................................................................................................... 143 Table 14.1 - File System Service Codes........................................................................................................................ 143 PROCEDURAL INTERFACES ................................................................................................................................................ 144 DEVICE ACCESS THROUGH THE FILE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 144 Table 14.2 - Device Stream Access............................................................................................................................... 144 FILE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS IN DETAIL ................................................................................................................................. 145 OpenFile ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 CloseFile....................................................................................................................................................................... 145 ReadBlock..................................................................................................................................................................... 146 WriteBlock .................................................................................................................................................................... 146 ReadBytes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 WriteBytes..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 GetFileLFA................................................................................................................................................................... 148 SetFileLFA.................................................................................................................................................................... 148 GetFileSize ................................................................................................................................................................... 149 SetFileSize .................................................................................................................................................................... 149 CreateFile..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 RenameFile................................................................................................................................................................... 150 DeleteFile ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151 CreateDirectory............................................................................................................................................................ 151 DeleteDirectory ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 GetDirSector................................................................................................................................................................. 152 FILE SYSTEM THEORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 Internal File System Structures .................................................................................................................................... 153 File Control Blocks................................................................................................................................................... 153 File User Blocks ....................................................................................................................................................... 153 FAT Buffers.............................................................................................................................................................. 153 File Operations............................................................................................................................................................. 154 Read.......................................................................................................................................................................... 154 Write ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Close ......................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CHAPTER 15, API SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................................................ 157 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 157 PUBLIC CALLS ................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Parameters to Calls (Args)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 15.1 - Size and Type Prefixes ......................................................................................................................... 157
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Table 15.2 - Additional Prefixes ...............................................................................................................................157 Table1 5.3 - Compound Prefixes ..............................................................................................................................158 Stack Conventions.........................................................................................................................................................158 Calls Grouped by Functionality....................................................................................................................................158 Messaging .....................................................................................................................................................................158 Job Management...........................................................................................................................................................159 Task Management .........................................................................................................................................................159 System Service & Device Driver Management .............................................................................................................159 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................................................159 High Speed Data Movement .........................................................................................................................................159 Timer and Timing..........................................................................................................................................................160 ISA Hardware Specific I/O ...........................................................................................................................................160 Interrupt and Call Gate Management...........................................................................................................................160 Keyboard, Speaker, & Video.........................................................................................................................................160 ALPHABETICAL CALL LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................161 AddCallGate .................................................................................................................................................................161 AddIDTGate..................................................................................................................................................................161 Alarm ............................................................................................................................................................................161 AliasMem ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocDMAPage .............................................................................................................................................................162 AllocExch ......................................................................................................................................................................162 AllocOSPage.................................................................................................................................................................163 AllocPage......................................................................................................................................................................163 Beep ..............................................................................................................................................................................163 Chain.............................................................................................................................................................................163 CheckMsg .....................................................................................................................................................................163 ClrScr............................................................................................................................................................................164 Compare .......................................................................................................................................................................164 CompareNCS ................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyData ......................................................................................................................................................................164 CopyDataR ...................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAliasMem..................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocExch .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeAllocPage .................................................................................................................................................................165 DeviceInit......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceOp ......................................................................................................................................................................166 DeviceStat .....................................................................................................................................................................166 DMASetUp ....................................................................................................................................................................167 EditLine.........................................................................................................................................................................167 EndOfIRQ .....................................................................................................................................................................167 ExitJob ..........................................................................................................................................................................168 FillData.........................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCmdLine ..................................................................................................................................................................168 GetCMOSTime..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetCMOSDate ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetDMACount ..............................................................................................................................................................169 GetExitJob ....................................................................................................................................................................169 GetIRQVector ...............................................................................................................................................................170 GetJobNum ...................................................................................................................................................................170 GetNormVid ..................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPath .........................................................................................................................................................................170 GetPhyAdd ....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetpJCB........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysIn ........................................................................................................................................................................171 GetSysOut .....................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTimerTick ................................................................................................................................................................171 GetTSSExch ..................................................................................................................................................................172 GetUserName................................................................................................................................................................172 GetVidChar...................................................................................................................................................................172
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GetVidOwner ................................................................................................................................................................ 172 GetXY............................................................................................................................................................................ 172 InByte............................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InDWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWord.......................................................................................................................................................................... 173 InWords ........................................................................................................................................................................ 173 InitDevDr...................................................................................................................................................................... 173 ISendMsg ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 KillAlarm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 174 LoadNewJob ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 MaskIRQ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MicroDelay................................................................................................................................................................... 175 MoveRequest................................................................................................................................................................. 175 NewTask ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutByte ......................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutDWord .................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWord ....................................................................................................................................................................... 176 OutWords...................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidAttrs ................................................................................................................................................................... 177 PutVidChars ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 QueryPages .................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ReadCMOS ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 ReadKbd ....................................................................................................................................................................... 178 RegisterSvc ................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Request ......................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Respond ........................................................................................................................................................................ 179 ScrollVid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SendMsg ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetCmdLine................................................................................................................................................................... 180 SetExitJob ..................................................................................................................................................................... 181 SetIRQVector................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Table 15.4 - Hardware IRQs..................................................................................................................................... 181 SetJobName .................................................................................................................................................................. 182 SetNormVid................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPath.......................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetPriority..................................................................................................................................................................... 182 SetSysIn......................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetSysOut...................................................................................................................................................................... 183 SetUserName ................................................................................................................................................................ 183 SetVidOwner................................................................................................................................................................. 183 SetXY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 183 Sleep ............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 SpawnTask.................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Tone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 184 TTYOut ......................................................................................................................................................................... 185 UnMaskIRQ.................................................................................................................................................................. 185 UnRegisterSvc .............................................................................................................................................................. 185 WaitMsg........................................................................................................................................................................ 185 CHAPTER 16, MMURTL SAMPLE SOFTWARE........................................................................................................ 187 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 187 COMMAND LINE INTERPRETER (CLI) ................................................................................................................................ 187 Internal Commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 187 Cls (Clear Screen)..................................................................................................................................................... 188 Copy (Copy a file) ................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dir (Directory listing).............................................................................................................................................. 188 Debug (Enter Debugger)........................................................................................................................................... 188 Del (Delete a File) .................................................................................................................................................... 188 Dump (Hex dump of a file)....................................................................................................................................... 188
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Exit (Exit the CLI) .................................................................................................................................................189 Help (List internal commands) .................................................................................................................................189 Monitor (Return to Monitor).....................................................................................................................................189 MD (Make Directory) ...............................................................................................................................................189 Path (Set file access path) .........................................................................................................................................189 RD (Remove Directory) ............................................................................................................................................189 Rename (Rename a file)............................................................................................................................................190 Run (Execute a .RUN file) ........................................................................................................................................190 Type (View a text file on the screen) ........................................................................................................................190 EXTERNAL COMMANDS .....................................................................................................................................................190 Commands.CLI File......................................................................................................................................................190 Global "Hot Keys" ........................................................................................................................................................191 CLI SOURCE LISTING ........................................................................................................................................................191 Listing 16.1. CLI Source Code Listing - Ver. 1.0..........................................................................................................191 A SIMPLE EDITOR ..............................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Screen ................................................................................................................................................................207 Editor Commands .........................................................................................................................................................207 Table 16.1. File Management and General Commands ..............................................................................................207 Table 16.2. Cursor and Screen Management Commands............................................................................................207 Listing 16.2. Editor Source Code..................................................................................................................................208 DUMBTERM .......................................................................................................................................................................231 Listing 16.3. DumbTerm source code ..........................................................................................................................231 PRINT .................................................................................................................................................................................234 Listing 16.4. Print source code .....................................................................................................................................234 SYSTEM SERVICE EXAMPLE...............................................................................................................................................238 Service.C Listing ...........................................................................................................................................................238 Listing 16.5 Simple Service Source Code ....................................................................................................................238 TESTSVC.C LISTING ..........................................................................................................................................................240 Listing 16.6. TestSvc.C.................................................................................................................................................240 CHAPTER 17, INTRODUCTION TO THE SOURCE CODE ......................................................................................241 COMMENTS IN THE CODE ..................................................................................................................................................241 CALLING CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................................................241 ORGANIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................241 BUILDING MMURTL ........................................................................................................................................................243 Listing 17.1. Assembler Template File..........................................................................................................................243 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN YOUR OS.........................................................................................................................244 USING PIECES OF MMURTL IN OTHER PROJECTS ............................................................................................................244 CHAPTER 18, THE KERNEL..........................................................................................................................................245 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................245 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................245 KERNEL DATA ...................................................................................................................................................................245 Listing 18.1. Kernel data segment source .................................................................................................................245 LOCAL KERNEL HELPER FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................246 ENQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................246 Listing 18.2. Queueing for messages at an exchange................................................................................................246 DEQUEUEMSG ...................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.3. De-queueing a message from an exchange ..........................................................................................247 DEQUEUETSS....................................................................................................................................................................247 Listing 18.4. De-queueing a task from an exchange .................................................................................................248 ENQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................248 Listing 18.5. Adding a task to the ready queue.........................................................................................................248 DEQUEUERDY ...................................................................................................................................................................249 Listing 18.6. De-queueing the highest priority task ..................................................................................................249 CHKRDYQ .........................................................................................................................................................................250 Listing 18.7. Finding the highest priority task ..........................................................................................................250 INTERNAL PUBLIC HELPER FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................250 RemoveRdyJob..............................................................................................................................................................250
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Listing 18.8. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue ............................................................................. 250 GetExchOwner ............................................................................................................................................................. 252 Listing 18.9. Finding the owner of an exchange....................................................................................................... 252 SetExchOwner .............................................................................................................................................................. 253 Listing 18.10. Changing the owner of an exchange.................................................................................................. 253 SendAbort ..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 Listing 18.11. Notifying services of a job’s demise ................................................................................................. 254 PUBLIC KERNEL FUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 255 Request()....................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Listing 18.12. Request kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................... 255 Respond()...................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code .......................................................................................................... 258 MoveRequest() .............................................................................................................................................................. 260 Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code.................................................................................................. 261 SendMsg()..................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 262 ISendMsg() ................................................................................................................................................................... 264 Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code ........................................................................................................ 264 WaitMsg() ..................................................................................................................................................................... 266 Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ......................................................................................................... 266 CheckMsg()................................................................................................................................................................... 269 Listing 18.18. CheckMsg kernel primitive code...................................................................................................... 270 NewTask()..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 Listing 18.19. NewTask kernel primitive code......................................................................................................... 272 SpawnTask() ................................................................................................................................................................. 274 Listing 18.20. SpawnTask kernel primitive code ..................................................................................................... 274 AllocExch() ................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Listing 18.21. Allocate exchange code ..................................................................................................................... 276 DeAllocExch() .............................................................................................................................................................. 277 Listing 18.22. Deallocate exchange code ................................................................................................................. 277 GetTSSExch() ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Listing 18.23. GetTSS exchange code...................................................................................................................... 279 SetPriority() .................................................................................................................................................................. 279 Listing 18.24. Set priority code ................................................................................................................................ 279 GetPriority() ................................................................................................................................................................. 280 Listing 18.25. Get priority code................................................................................................................................ 280 CHAPTER 19, MEMORY MANAGEMENT CODE ..................................................................................................... 281 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 281 Memory Management Data .......................................................................................................................................... 281 Listing 19.1. Memory management constants and data............................................................................................ 281 INTERNAL CODE ................................................................................................................................................................ 281 InitMemMgmt ............................................................................................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.2. Memory management initialization code ............................................................................................ 282 Listing 19.3. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 282 Listing 19.4. Continuation of memory management init. ......................................................................................... 283 Listing 19.5. Turning on paged memory management ............................................................................................. 283 Listing 19.6. Allocation of memory management exchange .................................................................................... 284 Listing 19.7. Finishing memory management init. ................................................................................................... 284 FindHiPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Listing 19.8. Find highest physical page code.......................................................................................................... 284 FindLoPage .................................................................................................................................................................. 285 Listing 19.9. Find lowest physical page code ........................................................................................................... 285 MarkPage ..................................................................................................................................................................... 286 Listing 19.10. Code to mark a physical page in use ................................................................................................. 286 UnMarkPage ................................................................................................................................................................ 287 Listing 19.11. Code to free a physical page for reuse............................................................................................... 287 LinToPhy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 287 Listing 19.12. Code to convert linear to physical addresses ..................................................................................... 287
MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

..................................................................19..........316 Listing 20.......303 QueryMemPages.....................4............................296 AddIDTGate.......................309 Listing 20.................................... Adding a run of linear memory....................................................................................................................313 GetCMOSTime() ................................305 CHAPTER 20..............................................307 INTRODUCTION .......................................................315 GetTimerTick()...........................................0 -xiii- RICHARD A BURGESS .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................299 DeAliasMem................................................................... Adding entries to the IDT ........................................................................................................................................................................317 Listing 20............................................................................................316 Listing 20...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2.............................................. Public for linear to physical conversion..................................22.......309 The Timer Interrupt ......................................................................................................14...............................................313 Listing 20..............................................................................................................8.........297 AllocOSPage................................................................................................................................291 Listing 19........................................................................312 Listing 20.......... Code to alias memory ...307 CHOOSING A STANDARD INTERVAL .....................................................................................307 TIMER DATA ........................................ TIMER MANAGEMENT SOURCE CODE .....311 Alarm()....................................................................316 Beep_Work() .........................................314 GetCMOSDate() .............................................................................................................308 TIMER CODE .....23........................................................................................................................................ External functions for timer code ............ Helper function for Beep() and Tone() ......................................................................................................................................... Code for the Sleep function .......................................298 AliasMem .............14.......314 Listing 20..................... Allocating a page of linear memory.....................................1........................................................296 AddGDTCallGate ..................................................................................................5............316 Beep().....................................................293 Listing 19.......311 Listing 20.............................................309 Listing 20........... Adding an operating system page table ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................307 Listing 20........................ Deallocating linear memory............................................................................................................................................ Code for the MicrDelay function ......20.....................................................................................................................................................................290 AddAliasRun .......................17..............6.........................12...........................................................................................................................13....................... Adding a page table for user memory................................................................................................................................................................................................... Code for the Alarm function .......................7.............................................................................................................18................................................312 Listing 20....................317 MMURTL V1......................................................309 Sleep() .....................................................................................................................298 Listing 19......................................................................................................................................21......................................................................................................................................................................15.......296 Listing 19...........................................................297 Listing 19.................................. Code for the KillAlarm function.................................................................................................................................................................303 Listing 19...................................... The timer interrupt service routine ........................................................FindRun .................................................................................................................................................................................24....................................................................288 Listing 19.........................................................25.............................................................................293 AddOSPT ..........305 Listing 19.................................................................. Code to read the CMOS time....................................................317 Tone().......................................................................................................................................................301 DeAllocPage ........................................ Adding a call gate to the GDT .................................................................................................... Code to remove alias PTEs.......................................294 PUBLIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT CALLS ......................................... Code to produce a tone ................................................3..........................................................................13.........................................................................................................................................313 MicroDelay() ...................312 KillAlarm().........9...........................299 Listing 19............................................................................315 Listing 20........... Code to find number of free pages............................................................................................................................................................................................ Code to find a free run of linear memory...................291 AddUserPT ....................................308 Listing 20.......................................304 GetPhyAdd ........................................................................................................................................ Code to produce a beep...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................301 Listing 19........304 Listing 19...............................................317 Listing 20................................................................... Adding an aliased run of linear memory............................... Data and constants for timer code............................................. Loop in timer ISR ................288 AddRun .......................................................289 Listing 19........16.....................................................294 Listing 19........................................................................................................................................................................................ Code to read the CMOS date ........................... Code to return the timer tick ...........................................11........................................................10.........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................2....... 319 OPERATING SYSTEM ENTRY POINT ......... 429 KEYBOARD CODE ..................................................................................................................2...........................................................................................8............11........................................................................................................................6........2.................................6... RS-232........................... Read Keyboard Buffer Code ....................................................................................................................................... 327 INITIALIZATION HELPERS ...............................4............. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point..................................... 325 Listing 21.......................................................................... IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) ...............................................4............ 389 Listing 24.........................................................................................................................................................................................c source code............................................................................................................................................ 442 MMURTL V1.................................................................................................................................................1.......0 -xiv- RICHARD A BURGESS ............................................. 366 Listing 23.... 413 Listing 24............ 337 Listing 22...................................................................... 438 Listing 25........ 442 Listing 25................3..................................................................................................... Debugger Data and Code.............................................................................................................. Keyboard ISR Code........................................................................................................................... 365 DEBUGGER INTERRUPT PROCEDURE .............................................................................................................. 409 Listing 24....................................................... Keyboard Data and Tables ..................................................................................... 429 Listing 25...................................................... 415 Listing 24.............................................................................................................................................. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) ..............CHAPTER 21.........................................1..... INITIALIZATION CODE ...................... 436 Keyboard ISR........1................................................. 389 INTRODUCTION ............................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT HELPERS .. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) ...........................................................................h Header File ..10................................... 344 Listing 22.. 410 Listing 24.............................................................................................................................................................5...................................................... 424 CHAPTER 25............. Initialize call gates amd the IDT.................................................. 390 Listing 24............................................................................................................................................................................................ 327 Listing 21........................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (interface) .................... IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) .........................................................2............................................................................................... Jobc................................................................. 415 Listing 24.............1... 405 THE RS-232 ASYNCHRONOUS DEVICE DRIVER........ 344 CHAPTER 23........................ RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (ISR and code) ................................................................................................................. DEBUGGER CODE ....................................................................... End of Initialization Code................................................................................................................ 417 Listing 24............................. 389 IDE DISK DEVICE DRIVER ............ 395 Listing 24.......................................... 438 Reading the Final Buffer ....................... 321 Listing 21........................................... 393 Listing 24.......................................................................................................................................................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) ............................................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) ................. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) . 319 Listing 21.................................... 337 RECLAMATION OF RESOURCES ............................... 409 Listing 24...................................................... SELECTED DEVICE DRIVER CODE......................... JOB MANAGEMENT CODE ............................3........................................................ 365 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 436 Listing 25..................................... 436 Keyboard Translation.....3............................................................. Continuation of OS initialization......................................................... RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) ............... 331 CHAPTER 22............................................................................................ 389 Listing 24.. 326 Listing 21...... 365 DEBUGGER SOURCE LISTING .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Keyboard Translation Code............................. Main Operating System Data .................. 429 KEYBOARD DATA...7.............. Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger.............................. 321 Listing 21.......................................... Initialization Subroutines................................ 337 INTRODUCTION ...4.............................................................................................................................................. 366 CHAPTER 24......2..13............................................................................................................................ 398 Listing 24.............................12................................... 365 Listing 23.................................................................... Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) ....9.................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init)............ 414 Listing 24.............................................................................. 328 Listing 21............................................................................. RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) .....................5.............................................................................................................. 337 JOB MANAGEMENT LISTING ..................................................................................................................... 429 INTRODUCTION ..................................................... KEYBOARD SOURCE CODE. 319 INTRODUCTION ....................................................... Continuation of OS initialization..............................7... 319 OS GLOBAL DATA .....1...............................................................................................................14.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Job Management Subroutines..........................................................

................................................14..........6.......7...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................5.......................................................................................................................................................................................450 Keyboard Hardware Set Up..........0 -xv- RICHARD A BURGESS ...............................................................................................11.......................................................................................................................................................15............................................................470 RELATING MMURTL’S VIDEO CODE TO YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM ...................................8...................................................................................................451 Listing 25..............474 FILE SYSTEM LISTING ...........................................................................461 Listing 26...................................................... Code to Screen Video Attributes .............................................................................................. Code for Blocking Read Keyboard call ..............................................................469 Listing 26....539 DASM CONCEPTS ........ Simple Application Template File .................................................................................448 Debugger Keyboard....................... Code to get the Normal Video Attribute...........5...... Keyboard system service code.................................................462 Listing 26....................448 Listing 25........................................................................................................................................457 THE VIDEO CODE .. Code to set Normal Video Attribute ................. Code to Edit a Line on the Screen..............473 MS-DOS Boot Sector ................The Keyboard Service ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................457 VGA TEXT VIDEO ....................................................................................................................................451 Keyboard Service Initialization .460 Listing 26.453 Listing 25.................................................458 Listing 26............................. Code to Set Cursor Position........................................................................................................................................ A 32-BIT INTEL-BASED ASSEMBLER ............................................474 Listing 27................................................452 Listing 25............................................................................................................................473 Physical (Absolute) Sector Numbers............ Keyboard Service Initialization .............................453 CHAPTER 26....................... Code to Return Current Cursor Position ......6............................................. Video constants and data ..................................................................... Code to Initialize Video ........................................... VIDEO CODE ...............9................................................................................................................................................................... Code to Place Video Chars Anywhere on the Screen ...........................................................................466 Listing 26............. Code to Get the Current Video Owner...............540 Listing 28....................................................................................539 USING DASM.542 MMURTL V1................................................................................. A More Complicated Template File ............................................................................................................................................................................................... Debugger Read Keyboard Code ...............................13..540 Listing 28............................................................. Code to Initialize the Keyboard Hardware ................16............................................................................................................................................................ Support Code to Set Hardware Cursor Position....................................452 Hardware Helpers .....................................................................................................................................4............450 Listing 25.......464 Listing 26....................473 Logical Block Address (LBA)......................468 Listing 26......................................................................................................................................12..........................................................................................................................................................461 Listing 26.......................... Code to Get a Character and Attribute..............................473 Hidden Sectors.......... DASM......................................................................457 INTRODUCTION ......474 File System Initialization .........457 VIRTUAL VIDEO CONCEPT ................................................................. FILE SYSTEM CODE.....................................................10..............464 Listing 26.......................................................................................................... MS-DOS FAT-Compatible File System Code ..............................................472 CHAPTER 27.................................................................................................................540 Application Template File......................................................................................................................................................................................2.............443 Keyboard Procedural Interface ....................473 HOW MMURTL HANDLES FAT .......8.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Code to Set the Video Owner ...........................................................541 Errors Only Option ..................................... Code to Scroll an Area of the Screen ...............................................................................................................................541 Command Line Options ................459 Listing 26..............................541 List File Option ...1....9.................................458 Listing 26.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................473 INTRODUCTION .........................................................................542 Device Drivers ........................................................................................................................................468 Listing 26...................................................................................................................................................................................542 Dynamic Link Libraries .......... Low-level Keyboard Control Code................... Code to Clear the Screen ...................................................1..........................474 CHAPTER 28.................3....................................................................................................................................................7.........................10............2.............................................460 Listing 26...................................................................... Code for TTY Stream Output to Screen..................539 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................465 Listing 26..............................................................................443 Listing 25.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................457 Listing 26.....................................................1..........................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 559 CHAPTER 29.........................................................................................................................................................................Tag Usage ............................................... 569 Library Code Examples ........... 562 CM32 LANGUAGE SPECIFICS .......................................................................................................... 549 Segment and Instruction Prefixes ............................................................................................. 558 Your Own Assembler? ........... 548 PUBLIC Declarations.................................. 548 Labels and Address..... Alternating data and code in a template file ........................................................................ 561 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 542 Memory Model.......................... 549 CALL and JUMP Addresses ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 542 Local (Non-Public) Declarations .......................... Standard String Functions for MMURTL .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 543 Listing 28................................................................................................................................ 547 DASM Peculiar Syntax ..............................................3.................................................................................................................. 561 IMPORTANT INTERNAL DIFFERENCES ..................................................................................... 563 Library Header File Access............................................................. 566 Other Implementation Dependent Information....................................................................................................Supported Instructions ........ CM32............................................................ 547 DW (Define Word) .... 565 Type Conversion and Pointers..................................................................................................................................... 555 Table 28............................................................... 568 Command Line Options .... 545 DASM Addressing Modes ............................................3............................................................ 542 DASM Program Structure ........................... 561 MEMORY USAGE AND ADDRESSING ...................................................................... 565 Structure Limitations ............................................................................................................................................. 562 FAR Calls ............................................................................................................................................................................. 547 DB (Define Byte)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 545 Table 28.......................... 548 EXTRN Declarations......................... 545 Storage Declarations........................................... 570 Listing 29............................ Standard file I/O for MMURTL .................................................. 566 Initialization of Static Variables ...........................................DASM Source Files .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 579 INDEX .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 543 DASM versus DOS Assemblers ............................................................ 556 ERROR CODES FROM DASM ............................................................................................CD-ROM CONTENTS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 569 Listing 29................................................................................... 565 Far External Functions ............................................. 552 Table 28... 564 Limitations (compared to ANSI) ......................... Supported Library Functions ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1........................................................................3 ...................................................... 556 Tag Descriptions.................. 575 APPENDIX A -....................2 ........................................................................ 547 DF (Define Far Word) ......................................................................................................................................... A 32-BIT C COMPILER ................ 543 DOT Commands ................................2..................................................Specifying Memory Operands..............................................1 .........................................0 -xvi- RICHARD A BURGESS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 562 Interrupt Functions.................................................... 547 DD (Define Double Word) ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 549 386 INSTRUCTION SET .......................................................................... 562 Variable Length Argument Lists .............................................................. 568 USING CM32.............................................................................................................................................. 552 EXECUTABLE FILE FORMAT ....................................................................................................................... 563 Supported C Language Features ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 581 MMURTL V1.................................................................................................. 568 Library Functions ................................................................................................. 570 Listing 29....................................................................................

0 -xvii- RICHARD A BURGESS .MMURTL V1.

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or Sun. They use them. as viewed by the outside programmer. they work with them. I was not out to compete with the likes of Microsoft. but very light on specifics. I set the ground rules. When I started out. MMURTL V1. I whittled away to find a basic set of ingredients that constitute the real make-up of the "guts" of operating systems. In the case of my own operating system. Unix had a somewhat more luxurious life. and begin coding. It's up to you. certain not-so-obvious ingredients came into play such as the OS-to-hardware interface. I decided what stayed and what went. although I'm sure it would have increased my productivity a little while writing my own. Realizing this. Even though I refer to it as unfinished. however. I would just make a list. It's my belief that when a piece of software is "finished" it's probably time to replace it due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance. I have documented what it takes to really write one. are the tasking model. I'm willing to bet you've pondered changes you would make to operating systems you use. BUCKO! I may not have to tell you this if you've done some serious "code cutting. memory model. The most obvious of these." but the simplest items on the wish list for a piece of software can add years to the critical path for research and development. You also don't have to be Einstein to write one. If you're an experienced programmer. and I've included the "unfinished" product for you to use with very few limitations or restrictions. One thing about desiring compatibility is that the interfaces are all well documented. Unfortunately. it's unlikely they'll use it. and advice into the seemingly endless tasks facing someone that really wants to sit down and create one.Chapter 1. One of the single most obvious concerns for commercial operating system developers is compatibility. In the early days. or even thought about what you would build and design into one if you were to write your own. NOT SO FAST THERE. You don't have to be Albert Einstein to figure out that many labor years go into writing a computer operating system. and I was to turn them into working code and documentation. I have Albert's absent-mindedness. It didn't provide the needed compatibility to run programs that business depended on. and they even work "around" them to get their jobs done. Along my somewhat twisted journey of operating-system design and implementation. It just seemed there should be a more "down to earth" book that documents what you need to know to get the job done. do some research on each of the desirables. What I discovered is that most of the books about operating system design are very heavy on general theory and existing designs. Each of the versions of MS-DOS that were produced had to be able to run software written for previous versions. may want compatibility if you intend to write your own operating system. you were pretty much expected to recompile something if you wanted it to run on your particular flavor of the system. I thought the “specs” would be the easy part. That was part of my wish list. I have been involved in many large software projects where others conceived the. code. But I wanted a small API. and the programming interface. You. portability issues size and speed. the "DOS-BOX" was a bad joke. IBM. I hadn't been a good-enough boy to get all those things (and the average life expectancy of a male human being wouldn't allow it either). it's a complete system. especially if you have a huge programming team of one person. not his IQ.0 -1- RICHARD A BURGESS . Introduction Overview Computer programmers and software engineers work with computer operating systems every day. You don't need to design your own. I determined the specifications for the final product. When OS/2 was first developed. Writing my own operating system has turned into a very personal thing for me. My first list of desirables looked like a kid's wish list for Santa Claus. I'm sure you've noticed that this has changed substantially. I did not intend to let compatibility issues drive my design decisions. because source-code compatibility was the main objective. I've learned a lot from all that I've read. I'm not knocking the authors of these books. Late in 1989 I undertook the task of writing a computer operating system. If you write something that no one can use. As coding began.

MMURTL V1. I'm sure it won't. I always thought that many systems lacked adequate documentation (and most of it was poorly written). or write your own. Serial and Parallel Ports.to 32-bit jump. message based. If you know a fair amount about the Intel 32-bit processors. hardware interface. I use the operating system I developed (MMURTL) to help explain some of the topics I discuss. The only legal restriction placed on your use of the source code is that you may not sell it or give it away. Once again. or all of it if you wish to write your own. For this reason. ideas from it. For instance. the next quantum leap really hasn't been made. and you have an interest in any of the following topics: Writing a 32-bit microcomputer operating system 80386/486/Pentium 32 bit assembly language (an assembler is included). real-time. In my opinion. Well-commented code examples are worth ten times their weight in generic theory or simple text-based pseudo-algorithms. I wanted to know more about how the system worked internally. would help me write better application software for it. you'll notice the ever so popular term "object oriented" blatantly missing from any of my discussions. I think you will find that it will help you if you intend to write your own. and then finally discuss my code in great detail. 80486 (486).0 -2- RICHARD A BURGESS . The C Programming language (a C compiler is included Intel 80386/486/Pentium Paged memory operation and management using the processor paging hardware Intel 80386/486/Pentium 32-bit hardware and software task management using the processor hardware task management facilities. operating system (MMURTL) which is designed for the Intel 386/486/Pentium processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. modify. The 486 and Pentium series have maintained compatibility with the 386-instruction set. they are effectively super-386 processors. The “Architecture and General Theory” section of this book along with the sections that are specific the MMURTL operating system. You can use pieces of it. your goals may be different. One thing I didn't put on my wish list was documentation. a few more instructions. but it was a "must" for me. It's not really required if you decide on a different platform and simply use this book as a reference. It clouds far too many real issues these days. In fact. size and speed. which I felt. If you don't like the way something in my system is designed or implemented.What This Book Is About In this book I discuss the major topics of designing your own OS: the tasking model. redesign it to meet your requirements. and Pentium processors as if they were all the same. programming interfaces. You may or may not want to do this for your system. the memory model. along with all the tools necessary to build. Embedded or dedicated systems using the 32 bit PC ISA architecture real-time. Throughout this book. even though the Pentium provides 64-bit access. will provide the information for you to use my system as is. and some serious "turbo" modifications. The hardware requirement section below tells you what you need to run MMURTL and use the tools I have developed. This was completely intentional. Even though they have added speed. Priority Interrupt Controller Units. so I've removed the mystique. you know that a quantum leap was made between the 80286 (286) and 386 processors. portability issues. written in 32-bit Intel based assembly language and C. Don't get me wrong I'm an avid C++ and OOP user. But that's not what this book is about. Hardware Timers. Your wish list may not be exactly like mine. I back up these discussions showing you what I decided on (for my own system). The source code. I have completely documented every facet of my computer operating system and included it here. and use the operating system are included on the accompanying CD-ROM. change it to suit your needs. I have included the complete source code to my 32-bit. Who Should Use This Book This book is for you if you are a professional programmer or a serious hobbyist. This was the 16. message based operating systems PC Industry Standard Architecture hardware management including: DMA Controllers. multitasking. Hard/Floppy disk controllers File systems (a DOS File Allocation Table compatible file system in C is included) You may note that throughout this book I refer to the 80386 (386).

Common affordable hardware platform with minimal hardware requirements . General Discussion and Background.But not the programmer. the right mix of capability and simplicity. Message agents could be added to any platform. I'll discuss some of your options. I use the stack. but real multi-threading . You may start with my list and modify it. and the techniques may change based on your platform and processor of choice. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). and who knows what other memory schemes and definitions are out there). and task management native to the Intel 32-bit x86 series of processors. The hardware interface may radically change based on your choice. I have attempted to isolate the API from the hardware as much as possible (for future source code portability). “The Hardware Interface. and for a very good reason. If it is another processor.. We also wanted to reduce the "jargon" level and minimize the number of terse. but I think you'll see the push in industry is towards real-time systems.My Basic Design Goals (yours may vary) My initial desires that went into the design of my own operating system will help you understand what I faced. but I don't recommend it. I also wanted to maintain a small. Here was my wish list: True Multitasking .Those of you that program on the Intel processors know all about segmentation and the headaches it can cause (Not to mention Expanded.The easiest way to interface to an operating system from a procedural language. and I stuck with a very simple paged model that made use of the Intel hardware. Synchronization of the messages would be the basis for effective CPU utilization (the Tasking Model). I take a generic look at it in chapter 6. I discuss some of your options in chapter 8. adding only the necessary calls to get the job done. archaic names and labels so often used in the computer industry.. hardware paging. Real-time operation . many of the items that I use and discuss may not apply. If you're going to write your own. the humans. This is also discussed in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). and what my end result was.Many languages and operating systems ported between processors tend to ignore many of the finer capabilities of the target processor. yet allow us the power to do what we wanted. yet powerful enough to get the job done. you may have a different platform in mind.the ability for a single program to create several threads of execution that could communicate and synchronize with each other while carrying out individual tasks. or even sharing the processor between multiple programs loaded in memory. and 4 (Interprocess Communications). “The Hardware Interface. “Programming Interfaces. or maybe a little less? Of course. I discuss this in chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications).Not just task switching between programs. I wanted an OS that would prevent another program from taking the system down. The messaging system would be the heart of the kernel. I added the Request and Respond message types to the more common Send and Wait found on most message based systems.The ability to react to outside events in real time. I discuss this in chapter 6. Many detailed books have been written on schemes for memory management. Client/Server design . Use the CPU Instruction Set as Designed . Simple descriptive names of procedures and structures are used throughout the system. are outside events. LIM. You could go nuts here and throw in the kitchen sink if desired. the Request and Respond primitives could be removed.” and chapter 8. I would shoot for less than 200 basic public functions. but not all the options. I recommend you take care not to make it an "endless" list.0 -3- RICHARD A BURGESS . We want the system to react to us.The ability to share services with multiple client applications (on the same machine or across a network). is with a procedural interface. You can also gather some serious insight to my wish list in chapter 2. I didn't want to do this. MMURTL would use the memory paging capabilities of 386/486 processors to provide an EASY 32-bit flat address space for each application running on the system. Power without BLOAT. YOURMOTHERSMEM. You may want your operating system to run on another platform or even another processor. if we knew how. or start one from scratch. and also what I decided on. uncluttered Applications Programming Interface (API) specification. in chapters 3 (Tasking Model). How many do you think are out there? Millions! How much does a 386SX cost these days? A little more than dirt. Computers using the Intel compatible 32-bit processors are cheap. Easy programming . A message-based operating system seemed the best way to do this. LOMEM.” Simplicity . Real-time operation may not even be on your list of requirements. MMURTL V1. Extended.” Flat 32-Bit Virtual Memory Model . Chapter 5 covers memory management. This could be a function of the hardware as well as the software. HIMEM. This design goal demanded MMURTL to be message based. calling conventions. UMBs. and most of them are grossly under used. A procedural interface directly into the operating system (with no intermediate library) is the easiest there is. We.” Protection from other programs . If you don't have this requirement. such as C or Pascal. “Programming Interfaces.Keep the system as simple as possible.The most common 32-bit platform in the world is the PC ISA platform.

MMURTL can be the foundation for a powerful dedicated communications system. Real-Time. MMURTL (pronounced like the girl's name Myrtle) is a 32-bit. and the initialization entry point jumped to. In the educational field. the code. I'm sure. It is RADICALLY different in that SIMPLICITY was one of my prime design goals. or for general reference. The real-time nature of MMURTL makes it ideal to handle large numbers of interrupts and communications tasks very efficiently. make up your own! But. One of the goals was to keep the basic system under 192Kb (a maximum of 128K of code. no doubt. the tools. If you don't want to start from scratch. this means it will even run on an 80386SX with one megabyte of RAM (although I recommend 2Mb). MMURTL can be the basis or a good starting point for you very own microcomputer operating system. Your creation will also take on a personality of its own. kerneL. And of course. but only a distant cousin. The OS could be moved from ROM to RAM. see the “Hardware Requirements” section later in this chapter. If you intend to run MMURTL. and only because of the similar kernel messaging schemes. or you have an embedded application for MMURTL. I will describe it to you here so that you can see what I ended up with based on my list.0 -4- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL would also be suitable for ROM based embedded systems (with a few minor changes). I put together my own operating system. MMURTL is not designed to be compatible with today's popular operating systems. here's what I see MMURTL being used for: MMURTL can be considered a general-purpose operating system and dedicated vertical applications are an ideal use. be of value in your other programming projects as well. Sections of the source code will. It is an ideal learning and/or reference tool for programmers working in 32-bit environments on the Intel 32-bit. Yes. Dedicated. MMURTL is designed to run on most 32-bit ISA PCs in existence. Multitasking. complex equipment control is not beyond MMURTL's capabilities. excluding dynamic allocation of system structures after loading. or as a dedicated interface between existing systems. MMURTL V1. The name is an acronym for Message based MUltitasking. The heavily commented source code and indepth theory covered in this book makes it ideal for a learning/teaching tool. If you don't like my acronym. I warn you: Acronyms are in short supply in the computer industry.A Brief Description of MMURTL From my wish list above. If you're not worried about memory consumption. Real-Time. Uses for MMURTL If you are not interested in writing your own operating system (it CAN be a serious time-sink). and the information you need are all contained here so you can make MMURTL into exactly what you want. Message based. and 64K of data). nor is it intended to directly replace them. Similarities to Other Operating Systems MMURTL is not really like any other OS that I can think of. and you want to use MMURTL as is (or with minor modifications). MMURTL can be used to teach multitasking theory. expand it to your heart's desire. or use any of the tools I included. operating system designed around the Intel 80386 and 80486 processors on the PC Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) platforms. Then again. it runs rather well on a Pentium with 24 MB of RAM too. Vertical applications of any kind can use MMURTL where a character based color or monochrome VGA text interface is suitable. Its closest relative is CTOS (Unisys). even if they aren't on ISA platforms or using message based operating systems. x86/Pentium processors.

The processor must be an Intel 80386. MMURTL does NOT use the BIOS code on these machines. Note: PCI bus designs work well. you can change the code as needed. VGA videotext (monochrome or color) is required.25" and 3. or one of the many clones in existence that executes the full 80386 instruction set. If you don't want to write a completely new operating system. MMURTL accesses the VGA text memory in color text mode (which is the default mode set up in the boot ROM if you have a VGA adapter). The file system included with MMURTL uses the MS-DOS disk structures.x (IBM). Hence.0 -5- RICHARD A BURGESS . via the keyboard serial controller (most are. Rebooting back to DOS is a few keystrokes away. MMURTL itself uses about 300K after complete initialization. and more importantly. No reformatting or partitioning your disks. (or even MS-DOS). based on your system manufacturer's documentation (if you can get your hands on it). but still. A standard 101 key AT keyboard and controller (or equivalent) is required. It certainly wasn't because I liked the design or file name limitations. Most I have found exceed this specification and are fully compatible. MMURTL has its own loader to boot from a disk to eliminate the need for MS-DOS altogether. also – 2000). 2 MB (or more) is recommended. not at all the same. BIOS types and versions don’t matter. This includes Cyrix. You simply run the MMURTL OS loader from DOS and the system boots. Both 5. AMD. you can ignore this section. MMURTL V1. but still not enough that you could ever confuse the two. but a few are not). The parallel port should follow the standard IBM AT parallel port specification. The hardware (computer motherboard and bus design) must be PC ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). If yours isn't. One Megabyte of RAM is required. Hardware Requirements This section describes the hardware required to run MMURTL (as included) and to work with the code and tools I have provided. If you intend to build on a platform other that described here. Some RLL controllers will not work properly with the current hard disk device driver. IBM and other clone processors. There are some 100 million+ disks out there with MS-DOS FAT formats. 16450 or 16550 serial controllers are required for the serial ports (if used). Full 32-bit device drivers control all hardware. The Floppy disk controller must be compatible with the original IBM AT controller specification (most are). The A20 Address Gate line must be controllable as documented in the IBM-PC AT hardware manual. eases the development burden. some serious fun can had by writing a much better file system than I have included. but only out of convenience. MMURTL will handle up to 64 Megs of RAM. but minor changes to specialized interface hardware may be required. Other 16/32 bit bus designs may also work. EISA (Ed. IDE is preferred. 80486. If you want to run DOS.The flat memory model implementation is a little like OS/2 2. This makes it easy to use MMURTL. The hard disk controller must be MFM or IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). 8250. that is.5" are supported. Some of the public and internal calls may resemble Unix a little. Pentium.

.

Every little thing you've run across will. take away. I might add). and from there I did everything I could to get into the "computer science" end of life. Even a course titled Structured Programming with FORTRAN 77. “Overview. Burroughs and Sperry. I wrote one over a period of almost 5 years. however. Far too often. write your own operating system. you might not want to). multiply by two and add 25 percent for the unexpected. as well what may influence your design. my methods may not seem obvious to the casual observer. my schooling. Things change a lot in the industry in five years. I was trained and tasked to maintain (repair and operate) a Honeywell DDP-516 computer system.” I covered what my final design goals were. Five years later. It had a "huge" 8K of hand-wound core memory and was as big as a refrigerator (including icemaker). has had an effect. I have tried to stick with them as close as possible without scrimping on power or over-complicating it to the point of it becoming a maintenance headache. and what I have been introduced to by friends and coworkers. A friend of mine and I began by day dreaming over brown bag lunches in a lab environment.Chapter 2. It whet my whistle. etc. I bought many little computers (remember the Altair 8800 and the TRS-80 Model I? I know. simplified memory management.000. Reading this chapter will help you understand why I did things a certain way. which I took on-line from the University of Minnesota in 1982. It was a 32-bit system. and it was very intriguing (even though punching in hundreds of octal codes on the front panel made my fingers hurt). no doubt. MMURTL V1. In 1981 I was introduced to a computer system made by a small company named Convergent Technologies (since swallowed by Unisys. improve. MMURTL's design is influenced by all of my experiences with software and hardware. This lead to a fairly concrete set of design goals that I whittled down to a size I thought I could accomplish in two years or so. and just make it better if you have the desire. This was a good while before I was ever introduced to PC-DOS or MS-DOS. here it is. and borrowed with great respect. But the history of MMURTL and why certain decisions were made can be valuable to you if you intend to dig into the source code. the convergent hardware and the CTOS operating system reached the market at about the same time. I would not let this happen. but I'm happy to find that many of the concepts I was interested in have become a little more popular (small tight kernels. add. It does. The term "register" has a whole new meaning when you are looking for a bit that intermittently drops out in a piece of hardware that size. In Chapter 1. Where Does One Begin? Where does one begin when setting out to write a computer operating system? It's not really an easy question to answer. make a lot of sense. Borrow from mine. Imagine an 8086 based system with an eight-inch 10-MB hard drive costing $20. merged). for no apparent reason). What I don't know fills the Library of Congress quite nicely. a. Fud’s Law of Software Design Time Estimates came into play rather heavily here. and "Where You Were When" will certainly give you a different perspective on what you would want in your own system. or even just use MMURTL the way it is. a piece of software becomes too complex to maintain efficiently without an army of programmers. I also give you an idea of the steps involved in writing an operating system. real-time operating system from the very start (called CTOS). That was 1989.0 -7- RICHARD A BURGESS . That worked out just about right. affect its design. It was an Intel 8086-based system and ran a multitasking. It usually also happens that software will expand to fill all available memory (and more!). My first introduction to computers was 1976 onboard a ship in the US Coast Guard. General Discussion and Background This section discusses the actual chore of writing an operating system. As you can see. my reading of various publications and periodicals. You Are Where You Were When The heading above sounds a little funny (it was the title of a popular book a few years back.k. In fact. We bantered back and forth about what we would build and design into a microcomputer operating system if we had the time and inclination to write one. I have no doubt that your background would have a major effect on your own design goals for such a system.). I spent 20 years in the military and took computer science courses when time allowed (Uncle Sam has this tendency to move military people around every two or so years. You know the adage (or a similar one): Take the time estimate. I hope this book will shave several years off of your development effort. client server designs.a.

but the tools just worked better. combined with my experience on the Intel X86 processors. at times it was quite difficult. and they didn't execute all the instructions I needed anyway. There was no turning back. The next major decision was the software development environment. In fact. The ability for a programmer to determine what was important while the software was running. access and familiarity played a role in deciding the tools that I would use. It can be a little confusing and frustrating. I began with Microsoft's assembler (version 5. I thought about other processors. I wanted to eventually port them to the finished operating system. was a must.all but ancient history now. Then those were the 2. This lack was disappointing because I wanted a multitasking OS running on a piece of hardware I could afford to own! In this early introduction to CTOS. Nothing about my operating system is very new and exciting. National Semiconductor's N80000 series. It's the place to start. I had two computers at that time (386DX and a 386SX) still running MS-DOS and not enough memory or horsepower to run UNIX. It was limited to the small memory model.0 -8- RICHARD A BURGESS . modular micro kernels seem to be coming of age. As you may be aware.. The 32-bit capabilities were added to these assemblers to take advantage of the capabilities of the new processors. however.1. Once again. The messaging is based on theory that has been around since the early 1970's. in the process of using these other tools. but as you well know. there was no such thing. but the tools worked. or ported to a system. Operating system developers. I wanted the finished product to have its own development environment . popular platform. How many of you have heard of or remember ISIS or PLM-86? These were some of the very first environments for the early Intel processors . MS-DOS was everywhere.. but not many people were using them for 32-bit development five or six years ago on the Intel based platforms. one of the first tools required on any new system is the assembler. like a bad virus. MS-DOS and the capability for the Intel processors to execute some 32-bit instructions in real mode (while still in 16-bit code segments) made life a lot easier. or even OS/2. Again. The popularity of the Intel processor and the PC compatible systems was. Memory access was limited. but it worked nonetheless. Being in real mode and not having to worry about circumventing protection mechanisms to try out 32-bit processor instructions actually lead to a reduced development cycle in the early stages. Two years later I ran into problems with the Microsoft linker and even some of the 32-bit instructions with the assembler. It is just now becoming popular. I found some serious bugs in them when used for 32-bit development. in the case of having the source code to an assembler I was comfortable with. and a few others. I even called and inquired about purchasing limited source rights to MMURTL V1. Utilities and compilers are usually the next things to be designed. The Chicken and the Egg The egg is first. I even put a 32-bit C compiler in the public domain for MS-DOS as freeware. maybe.yet I needed to have them in the MS-DOS environment to build the operating system. Not having to start from scratch was a major advantage. and also the luxury of changing tasks based on outside events in a timely manner. I'm not a Borland salesman. yet you need the 32-bit tools to develop the 32-bit OS. I could actually experiment with 32-bit instructions without having to move the processor into protected mode and without having to define 32-bit segments. compiler. Having assembler's available for the processor from the start made my job a lot easier. There were actually several advantages to using MS-DOS in real mode during development. Of course.x linker. and utilities . I also tasted "real-time" operation in a multitasking environment. Trying to see the exact development path was not always easy. however.After I got involved with the IBM PC. a lure that could not be suppressed. Message-based. these problems pretty much forced the move to all Borland-tools. You need the 32-bit OS to run the 32-bit tools.including assembler. I kept looking for the rich set of kernel primitives I had become accustomed to for interprocess communications and task management. I really had no choice. which at the time was still 16-bits anyway.x assembler and 2. People are just now seeing the advantages of message-based operating systems. It was definitely a "chicken-and-egg" situation.0) and later moved to 5. I purchased technical documentation for Motorola's 68000 series. Some assemblers were available in the "public domain" but came with restrictions for use. The Development Platform and the Tools My desire to develop an operating system to run on an inexpensive. clinched my decision on where to start: It would definitely be ISA 386-based machines (the 486 was in its infancy). people porting UNIX systems and those building 32-bit DOS extenders were the bulk of the users. I really do hate reinventing the wheel.

and a few other minor utilities. Developing this assembler was. discreet devices in the IBM AT system. (Unless you were the person that wrote that particular manual. you understood it perfectly) You will need to accumulate a sizable library of technical documentation for your target hardware platform if you intend to write an operating system. They give you the overall picture of how everything in the system ties together. which is fed to the assembler.0 -9- RICHARD A BURGESS . To fully understand this. documents. as you may understand.) This lead to the development of my own 32-bit assembler. the external bus interface on the ISA machines is still 16 bits. C can be made almost unreadable by the macros and some of the language constructs. including most of the digital logic families (ECL. or even port MMURTL to it. etc. Many different books. I dealt with both the electrical and timing characteristics. IBM published theirs. These documents are usually free. In fact. Parameters are passed left to right. I mention this now to explain my need to do some serious C compiler work.).some tools from the major software vendors. Nothing is harder to troubleshoot than a stack gone haywire. or may not. you know that it's usually NOT everything you need. a disassembler." It's not that the programmers that put it together aren't top quality. the cost was prohibitive (they mentioned dollar figures with five and six digits in them. “CM32: A 32-Bit C Compiler. Most of the machine-dependent items are left completely external to the language in libraries that you may. I started with a public-domain version of Small-C (which has been around quite a while). but another port is in the works. which is 32 bits for the most part. but it leads to some serious trouble on occasion. I don't like the calling conventions used by C compilers. But it gave me some serious insight into the operation of the Intel processor. and technical manuals were used throughout the early development of my operating system. I'm not going to tell you I did some disassembly of some BIOS code. and ancillary logic design form the basis for the 32-bit ISA internal architecture. “DASM: A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. But there is nothing like a high level language to speed development and make maintenance easier. took a good look at Dave Dunfield's excellent Micro-C compiler. MMURTL uses the Pascal conventions (refereed to as PLM calling conventions in the early Intel days). no linker. It's simply not needed. Needless to say. SX MMURTL V1. The source code to this assembler (DASM) is included with this book on the CD-ROM. The IBM PC-AT and Personal System/2 Technical Reference Manuals were a must. The biggest problem was accumulating all of the technical documentation in adequate detail to ensure it was done right. I keep referring to the IBM AT system even though it was only an 80286 (16-bit architecture). That set me back four months.) in the machine was actually a little exciting. DMA. I have worked for years with various forms of hardware. want or need. Following superfluous JMP instructions is not my idea of a pleasant afternoon. TTL. BIOS code brings new meaning to the words "spaghetti code. Now THAT'S a digital nightmare. in itself.” Early Hardware Investigation I taught Computer Electronics Technology for two years at the Computer Learning Center of Washington. There is no linker. The thought of controlling all of the hardware (Timers. The prohibitive costs also led to the development of a 32-bit C compiler. Those that have to maintain code or read code produced by others understand the advantages if they get past the "popularity concept". The C compiler produces assembly language. I was into Pascal long before I was into C. Besides. I actually prefer Pascal and Modula over C from a maintenance standpoint. All of the ISA type computer systems use VLSI integrated circuits (Very Large Scale Integration) that combine and perform most of the functions that were done with smaller. and the called function cleans the stack. interface design. at least. It is tied to the internal bus. supply excellent little documents that give even finer details on their particular implementation of the AT series ISA logic devices. parameters passed from right to left and the fact that the caller cleans the stack. such as Chips & Technologies. etc.” Assembly language has its place in the world. even though ANSI standards have fixed much of it. as well as the software control of these devices. That's right. Computer chip manufacturers. but I pretty much built from scratch. The details of CM-32 (C-Minus 32) are discussed in chapter 29. This is obviously for variable length parameter blocks.. I plead the "Fifth" on this.. articles. a major task. it's the limitations of size (memory constraints) and possibly the need to protect trade secrets that create the spaghetti-code effect. Communications controllers. Some very important pieces are still missing from the compiler. I do so because its bus. in which case. you will need to read chapter 28. But C's big strength lies in its capability to be ported easily. DC. If you've ever looked though technical manuals that are supposed to give you "all" of the information you need to work with these integrated circuits. I think many people started there.

). Memory Management.two segments per program and two for the OS. I knew from the start that this would be a necessity. but it presented several serious complications. even the operating system writer. etc. and the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU). The segmented memory idea was canned.. etc. you'll be ahead of the game. as you will see. It was a "kinder. This was timeconsuming. I discuss several options you have.x. the BIOS code is not 32-bit (not even on 32-bit machines). All of the early test programs were in assembler. The second six months was spent moving in and out of protected mode and writing small programs that used 32-bit segments. This simple model could allocate and manage memory.machines still have 16-bit memory access limitations. from a 16-bit code segment.g. MS-DOS didn't really have to worry about the specific hardware implementation because the BIOS software/firmware writers and designers took care of those details. of course. The largest of which would mean that all memory access would be based on 48-bit (far) pointers.0 -10- RICHARD A BURGESS . If you use Intel-based platforms. you must create an alias selector to be used by one of the programs. all based on their own selectors. My initial thought on memory management centered on segmentation. If you start from scratch on a different processor you will go through similar contortions. but this is transparent to the programmer. but instead a lean. no way to get test programs into the system. Many bus designs now out take care of this problem (PCI. An example would be making a call to a 32-bit section of code. but not a fully segmented model . Even machines that were technically superior in most every respect died horrible deaths (remember the Tandy 2000?). aliasing is also required. In a paged system. because of what you get on this book’s CD-ROM. I had to meet my design goals.] Much of the early development was a series of small test programs to ensure I knew how to control all of the hardware such as Direct Memory Access (DMA). It was proven that "PC" style computer manufacturers that deviated from this hardware design to the point of any real low-level software incompatibility usually weren't around too long. In chapter 5. It would have appeared as a flat memory space to all the applications. A variety of more recent operating systems go directly to a lot of the hardware just to get things done more efficiently. When the 386/486 loads a segment register. The thought was rather sickening. timers. One other consideration on the memory model is ADDRESS ALIASING. OS/2 version 2. It has turned out very nicely. as well as the stack storage. but necessary to prove some of my theories and hunches. EISA. During this time. [Thunking is when you interface 32. This easily consumed the first six months. easy to use system with a tremendous amount of documentation. This made the IBM designs the natural place to start.x. This generally involves manipulating the stack or registers depending on the calling conventions used in the destination code. anyway. I touched on what I wanted in the overview. and I went straight to fully paged memory allocation for the operating system. anyway (e. this is a year you won’t have to go through. There wasn't even a file system! Test programs were actually built as small parts of the operating system code. but it's not at as complicated. I was also building the kernel and auxiliary functions that would be required to make the first executable version of an operating system. powerful. MMURTL V1. If two programs in memory must exchange data and they are based on different selectors. The Real Task at Hand (Pun intended) All of the hardware details aside. gentler" environment I was after. and the primary emphasis was on the kernel and all that that implies. It took almost two years to get a simple model up and running. If you intend to use the Intel processors and start with MMURTL or the information presented in this book. "Thunking" was out of the question.and 16-bit code and data. but putting in on paper and getting it to run are two very different things. and had only the most rudimentary form of messaging (Send and Wait). If you write your own system. Some processors (such as the Intel 32-bit X86 series) force a specific element size for the stack. and some initial testing showed that it noticeably slowed down program execution. my original goal was a multitasking operating system that was not a huge pig. This would have given us a zero-based addressable memory area for all code and data access for every program. It is also not designed to be of any real value in most true multitasking environments. But as you may be aware.). There was no loader. and the entire system was rebuilt for each test. don't lose sight of the forest for the trees. a speed penalty is paid because of the hardware overhead (loading shadow registers. all implementations of UNIX). Windows version 3.

It may be RISC. There are so many platforms out there. I blamed myself several times for problems I thought were mine but were not. You'll probably be able to see that as you read further into this book. Operating systems use processor instructions and hardware commands that applications and even device drivers simply never use. Select your hardware platform. I say this from experience. get to know it very well. You may need to choose a hardware platform prior to making your memory model concrete. Memory management is next. only to find out that it had incorporated many of the pieces I needed – I simply hadn’t understood them at the time.0 -11- RICHARD A BURGESS . you know that it can be a very daunting task. I envy you. The theory behind what you want is the key to a good design. but there wasn’t. do it. Document the problems. The easy way out would be to take a working operating system and modify it to suite you. you'll find that there are major items to be accomplished. or how much time you really have to invest. In chapter 5 (Memory Management) I give you some options. "You start here. Or at least when you get it working. compilers and utilities. This includes the tasking model. Get to know your assemblers. will depend on the memory model you choose. the rest is real work. Chapter 3 and 4 (Tasking Model and Interprocess Communications) will give you plenty of food for thought on the tasking model. Even though you may think that the programmers that wrote those tools know all there is to know about them. I'll give you a list of these items in the approximate order that I found were required while writing my system. because I don't know exactly where you're coming from. at the beginning of the yellow brick road. If you are writing an operating system for the learning experience (and many people do). But. garbage collection. If you have to build a prototype running under another operating system. or theories must be proved in order for you to continue along the projected path. I was really interested in communications. Investigate your tools. For example. the actual application may not be so important. You can pretty much take these pieces everything from device drivers. it may be CISC. Of course. hints are about all I CAN give you. of course. the discoveries ." It is difficult for me to do this also. The books I have purchased on operating system design gave me a vast amount of insight into the major theories. Things change pretty rapidly in the computer industry. it is by no means the only operating system source code available. But I'll try. Go for the kernel. I have provided such an operating system with this book. if you are interested in embedded applications for equipment control. and there will also be background noise. how much knowledge you have. If you've ever done any large-scale project management. If you've gotten past the fun parts (kernel and memory).A Starting Point If you have truly contemplated writing an operating system. The Critical Path Along your journey. but whatever you decide on. and overall program management – as you see fit. If this has never happened to you. You can then “port” the prototype. Decide on your basic models. you know that certain items in a project must work. Chapter 6 (The Hardware Interface) will give you some hints on this. unless you go with the same hardware platform I did. Your target application will help you determine what is important to you. you'll NEVER really be done with it. This may sound a little humorous. This can be tricky because you may be playing with hardware and software in equal quantities. MMURTL V1. and you may find you really have something when you're done with it. Many times I have taken a piece of software that I didn't fully understand and "gutted" it. but I'm very serious. I'll tell you the easiest. memory model and basic programming interface. The level of complexity. you will no doubt find bugs. I'm not going to recommend any others to you. and also dive into some more challenging possibilities. This is called the critical path. If you choose to modify an existing operating system. you may want to concentrate on the device and hardware interface in more detail. but they just didn't say. Play with the hardware Ensure you understand how to control it.anything that you think you'll need to remember. I wish there had been some concrete information on really where to start. and overall concepts concerning operating system design. Try to ensure it will still be in production when you think you'll be done with your system. It will be worth the time spent. study what you have and make sure you completely understand it before making modifications. This includes understanding some of the more esoteric processor commands. Know your desired application.

I had my wish list well in advance. Make certain you understand the capabilities and limitations of them. and utilities to ensure I was “armed and dangerous. I spent a good six months playing with assemblers. But really. but it gave me great insight into what a programmer would see from the outside. It will be blood. Document as you go. I'll admit that I had to do some major backtracking a time or two. I lay out my notes for what I want. easily digestible chunks. Nothing is worse than finding out that the foundation of your pyramid was built on marshmallows. it won't be luck. and then I write the code. Good luck. Even if you have to write four or five small test programs to ensure each added piece functions correctly. Don't wish for a Porche if what you need is a good. I moved on from there. I actually wrote major portions of my programming documentation before the system was even usable.0 -12- RICHARD A BURGESS . compilers. When writing my memory-allocation routines I must have written 30 small programs (many that intentionally didn't act correctly) to ensure I had what I thought I had. Sounds backwards? It is. MMURTL V1.” Once satisfied. But don't set them too high. Sure the Porche is nice…but think of the maintenance (and can you haul firewood in it?)Make sure your tools work. and plenty of "theory food" for the engine (your brain). I actually had to switch assemblers in midstream. These tools include documentation for the hardware. sweat and maybe some tears. it's worth the time. As I mentioned above. Work with small. I write the documentation. Creating a realistic wish list may be one of the hardest jobs. all the way. Problems with programming tools were something I couldn't see in advance.Working Attitude Set your goals. dependable pickup truck.

is the ability for an operating system to equitably share CPU time between several well defined tasks currently scheduled to run on the system (even tasks that may be a little greedy with the CPU). In its executable form. and most people refer to. It's not because they're from the days of Neanderthal computing.. but some of it can also be attributed to laziness (yes. The operating system functions that directly affect CPU tasking are called kernel primitives. it is responsible for the way the CPU's time is allocated. resource management is supposed to be what a computer operating system provides you. Most of the discussion centers on resource management. CPU utilization.This is a hotly disputed term (or phrase) in the industry. It shouldn't be. but it is used a lot in the computer industry. or at least coming to agreement on them. The Intel based hardware is by far the most available and least expensive. A single computer program can have one or more tasks. PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKING .Terminate and Stay Resident programs). and I'm not talking about programming languages.g. This makes it a very small kernel. One type of preemption that occurs all the time is hardware interrupts. while your reading this book or working with MMURTL. My definition of Preemptive Multitasking: If an operating system has the ability to stop a task while running before it was ready to give up the processor. save its state. I use the same definition as the Intel 80386 System Software Writer's Guide and the 80386 and 80486 Programmer's Reference Manuals. but it is. but doesn't expect the interrupt. The Tasking Model This chapter discusses the tasking model and things that have an affect on it.This term is not disputed very much. then start another task running. After all. KERNEL . Hence. I admit some guilt here too). its hardware and software state are saved while the next task's state is restored and then executed. TASK . This is convenient if you want to refer to these documents while reading this book. How and when it does this is driven by its tasking model. If you write your own. The preemptive multitasking I'm talking about. It really depends on the documentation with the operating system you are using. But this is not cast in stone either. I literally destroyed two copies of each of these books while writing MMURTL (pages falling out. There are many ways to do this in a computer operating system. it probably isn't much more than two or three kilobytes of code. Some operating systems call a task a “process. and non-multitasking systems use them to steal time from programs and simulate true multitasking (e. I have to define some terms just to make sure we're on common ground. MMURTL has a very small amount of code that is responsible for the tasking model. at least temporarily.0 -13- RICHARD A BURGESS . I'm not including them in this discussion because they generally return control of the processor back to the same interrupted task. all the grumbling and heated discussions I see on the on-line services. be specific about it. You may not agree with the definitions. In other words. This might allow me to use the latest techno-buzz-word "microkernel" if I were into buzzwords. but because they are the lowest level entry points into the kernel code of the operating system. and more specifically. One computer term may mean six different things to six different people. coffee and soda spilled on them.Chapter 3. You can transform the same 50 processor instructions in memory into 20 independent tasks. Generally. more highlighter and chicken scratching than you can imagine). It also seems that a lot of people use the term and they don't even know what it is. Before I begin a general discussion or cover your options on a tasking model. but I hope you will accept them. I have seen the term thread applied to additional tasks all belonging to one program. Terms We Should Agree On One thing the computer industry lacks is a common language. however. An operating system that you use may be preemptive.” In most instances I call it a TASK. The word preempt simply means to interrupt something that is currently running. but its tasking model may not be the correct one for the job you want to accomplish (or you may not be using it correctly)." which means communications between tasks.” while others call it a “thread. so I imagine most of you will be working with it. MMURTL V1. Most of the problem is caused by hype and deceptive advertising. Some documentation.A task is an independently scheduled thread of execution. Tell the programmers what you mean. People use terms in everyday conversation without really trying to find out what they mean. it’s PREEMPTIVE. When a task is suspended from execution. MS-DOS TSRs . The kernel of an operating system is the code that is directly responsible for the tasking model. may use other words that mean the same thing such as "interprocess communications.

” In some operating systems each task may be considered a completely independent entity. When I wrote these programs. each program had a set of things that it had to accomplish to be successful (satisfy the user). rather than a mini or mainframe environment (although this line is getting really blurry with the unbelievable power found in micro CPUs these days). You may need to expand on this structure quite a bit if you decide that each and every task is an entity unto itself. when I look back at the various jobs this software had to handle. To paraphrase a famous scientist (yes. In each case. The largest factor was that I had a CPU in front of me. Multitasking. disk." but needless to say. Interrupt Controller Units. It is not a UNIX clone by any stretch of the imagination. including video. Consider your resources when planning your operating system. keeping track of tasks is no simple “task. In a system that is designed for multiple terminals/users. good old Albert). One of my major goals in designing MMURTL was simplicity. execute programs as the new users desire. But in almost all of these systems. Managing these resources in a simple. The resources include CPU time sharing (tasking model). but not simpler" (otherwise it wouldn't work!). then you must make sure that your task management structures and any IPC mechanisms take this into account. tasks may be created to monitor serial ports. This is where all of the resources for my tasks are managed. etc. Input/Output (I/O) devices. Tasks crash. In other words. Some are communications programs (FAX software. Nor did I want it to be. yet effective fashion is paramount to building a system you can maintain and work with. and it may even run after the task that created it is long gone. How tasks are handled. When you get to Section IV (The Operating System Source Code). These resources must be managed properly for all these things to work effectively in a multitasking environment.). One of my friends suggested the motto. and hardware (Timers. The operating system I wrote is not multi-user. or the user was done. and some are user-oriented software. and communications makes use of these basic resources to do their jobs. Multi User One of the determining factors on how your tasks are managed may be whether or not you have a true multi-user system. take a good look at the TSS (Task State Segment). you will see the rest of your operating system fit around this decision. These are the real resources. Task Management Tasks begin. Probably the best way to get this point across is to describe what I decided. Resource Management An operating system manages resources for applications and services. but it may not be so easy for you. All of these things must be taken into consideration when managing tasks. memory management. there seemed to be no purpose to have additional tasks that continued to run.0 -14- RICHARD A BURGESS . it didn't sit too well with me. Single User. each of the functions dealt with a specific well-defined mission. and each of the places these programs executed also had a CPU . If you decide that a single task may exist on its own two feet. then still be there after all the child processes are long gone (for the next user). "Everything should be as simple as possible. comms programs). or even network connections for logons. From this information you will be able to judge what's right for you. This is its only real purpose in life. keyboard. "simple software for simple minds. it may be completely dependent on its parent task or program. when the mission was accomplished.When you determine exactly what you want for a tasking model. I have written many commercial applications that span a wide variety of applications. some deal with equipment control (interaction with a wide variety of external hardware). DMA. Tasks end. It may have memory assigned to it. My operating system is designed for microcomputers. You may MMURTL V1. Quite obviously. I deal with one user at a time. and why. I have attempted to live up to that motto while building my system as a resource manager.In other words. the ability to spawn additional tasks to handle requirements for simultaneous operations came in very handy. and how resources are assigned to these tasks was easy for me to decide. Everything else uses these resources to accomplish their missions. Single vs. On the other hand.

This will be the heart and brains of the system. The Software State The software state can be a little more complicated than the hardware state and depends on how you implement your task management. The number of things you have to save may also depend on whether or not the processor assists you in saving and restoring the software-state. and single thread of instructions suited me just fine. There were so few factors to be concerned with on that early system. "It's 11:00PM. In the case of hardware interrupts. An example of an item that would be part of the software state is a simple variable in your operating system that you can check to see which task is running. The software state can consist of almost nothing. Many of the programs I wrote didn't require multitasking. This will depend on the processor you are using and possibly on external paging circuitry. I knew exactly how long each of my two tasks were going to run. the task that is running must have its hardware context saved. What WAS that thing doing? It was being shared with a few dozen other people staring at their terminals just like I was. Microcomputers spoiled me. CPU Time CPU time is the single most important resource in a computer system. this is usually a no-brainer. Yet. I had my very own processor. or it may be dozens of things that have to be saved and restored with each task switch. It was crude. you switch to its stack and pop the registers off. ensuring that the CPU time is properly shared is the job of kernel and scheduling code. The CPU takes care of it for you. there were many times that I thought it had died and gone to computer heaven. The Hardware State When a task switch occurs. When you restore a task. You will have to determine this from the technical manuals you accumulate for your system. it would seem to return at its leisure. Your decision in this matter will have a large effect on how you manage tasks or whole programs that are comprised of one or more tasks. My first programs were written with that attitude. and I could pretty much figure out what it was doing most of the time. they generally assume that it's the only thing running on the computer system. I didn't worry about how long the operating system took to do something unless it seemed like it wasn't fast enough. It was 1980 that I wrote my first time slicer which was built into a small program on an 8-bit processor. you change this variable to tell you which task is currently executing. In a multitasking operating system. Some processors (such as the Intel series) let you define software state items in a memory structure that is partially managed by the operating system.want to deal with many. It's actually easier than it sounds. If you must do it yourself. but effective. there are instructions on some processors to save all of the necessary registers onto the stack. You can define a structure to maintain the items you need for each task. We were each getting a piece of the pie. but an important one. The hardware context in its simplest form consists of the values in registers and processor flags at the time the task stopped executing. I also knew exactly how many microseconds it took to switch between them. "What is that thing doing?" When I used my first multiuser system. The hardware state may also consist of memory context if you are using some form of hardware paging or memory management. When you change tasks. albeit not a very big piece it seemed.0 -15- RICHARD A BURGESS . Do you know where your CPU is?" A funny question. then simply change a pointer to the current state structure for the task that is executing. MMURTL V1. Then I asked. Then all you have to do is switch stacks. This is where the hardware-state is saved. it was a breeze. What instructions are executing? Where is it spending all its time? And why? When an application programmer writes a program.

In fact. or to pause when it has nothing to do. or a combination of the two. Meanwhile. and you have used a library or system call with a name such as sleep() or delay(). This can be for a number of reasons. This is done by tacking your code onto other code that is executed as a result of an interrupt. An operating system's tasking model can be one of these. There are other important factors that apply to these two types of multi-tasking. If a programmer writes code that doesn't give up the CPU (which means he doesn't make an operating system call that somehow gets to the scheduler). you basically have a hardware manager. if necessary. Many methods have been devised to allow singletasking operating systems to share the CPU among pseudo-tasks. This implies that the programmer does part of the scheduling of task execution. If the operating system uses this period of time to suspend your task and execute another. the screen and everything else looks frozen. or it is preempted (the processor is taken away from the task). These have been in the form of special languages (CoPascal).Single Tasking What if you don't want a multitasking system? This is entirely possible. a program that is running makes an operating system call to get the time of day. which I cover in this chapter. The major point that you must understand here is that there are really only two ways a task switch will occur on ANY system. it is a good idea to have some form of a preemptive system. In this case. but usually to wait for a resource that is not immediately available. a single threaded system may be the best solution. They can. In many single tasking systems. You may also be aware that multitasking is simulated quite often in single tasking systems by stealing time from hardware interrupts. I'm sure you've run across the need to delay the execution of your program for a short period of time. MMURTL V1. With these calls. and also can be done with mini-multitasking kernels you include in your programs.I'm done with the CPU for now. if the system allows this (a sleep or delay function). It may not always be obvious when it happens." From there. For instance. The operating system may be written in such a fashion that this (or any call into the operating-system code) will suspend that task and execute another one. interrupt servicing. that's a waste of good CPU time if something else can be done. In a single tasking operating system. and in some cases. This is in the form of the task saying to the operating system. and the computer looks dead for all practical purposes. he then monopolizes the CPU. you pass a parameter that indicates how long the program should pause before resuming execution. many operating-system tasking models are a combination. do an adequate job in many cases. This may be in milliseconds. each task runs until it decides to give up the processor. the operating system decides which of the tasks will run next (if any are ready to run at all). It is then making wise use of your request to delay or sleep. "Hey . Cooperative Multitasking In a solely cooperative environment. there's some task in there calculating pi to a zillion digits. 10ths of seconds or even seconds.0 -16- RICHARD A BURGESS . management of CPU time is easy. And yes. the ability to cut a task off at the knees. Cooperative and Preemptive. you are cooperating with the operating system. There is a major problem with a fully cooperative system. The only thing for the programmer to worry about is how efficient the operating system is at its other jobs such as file handling. A task that has the processor gives it up. An important point here is that in a cooperative system. These forms of CPU timesharing suffer from the disadvantage that they are not in complete control of all resources. however. and basic input/output. a call of this nature may do nothing more than loop through a series of instructions or continually check a timer function until the desired time has passed. Because such "CPU hogs" are not only possible but also inevitable. If this isn't the task that the user is involved with. Multitasking I categorize forms of multitasking into two main groups. programs (actually the programmer) may have to be aware of things that must be done to allow a task switch to happen. however.

disk drive. or monitoring. This synchronization may be required for human interaction with the computer which will not be that critical. Also. this actually happens every time a hardware interrupt is activated. when a task is preempted. On most platforms. How long does the current task run before we suspend it and start the next one? One thing that we can't lose sight of when considering scheduling is that computer programs are generally performing functions for humans (the user). This means there is often some desire or necessity to have certain jobs performed in a timely fashion so there is some synchronization with outside events. In a preemptive system. This is usually until it willingly surrenders the processor. and How Long? The procedure or code that is responsible for determining which task is next is usually called the scheduler. Generally. a program.). or the operating system from an external device (e. I defined preemptive at the beginning of this chapter. it doesn't expect it. connected to the outside world . to which task do we switch. quite often. It does nothing to prepare for it. after the interrupt is finished. hardware timer. or a few other hardware-related things. and maybe (if we're nice) the user.. which means the processor is taken away from the task without its knowledge. When do we switch tasks. the entire "state" of your task is not saved. etc. and maybe memory context. The next section is the tricky part. The currently running task is preempted. or waiting for outside resources such as I/O.Preemptive Multitasking The opposite end of the spectrum from a fully cooperative system. outside events. Scheduling Techniques In a multitasking system. controlling. for some form of communications between several parties involved in the scheduling process. The timer can help determine when to preempt. This can occur between any two CPU instructions that it is executing (with some exceptions discussed later). MMURTL V1. In fully cooperative systems. To expand on that definition. One of the most important hardware interrupts and one of the most useful to an operating system designer is a timer interrupt. and how long does that task get to run? Who. the scheduler simply determines who's next. For the preemptive system. these two reasons are: A task that has the processor decides to give it up. only one task is running at a time (excluding the possibility of multi-processor systems). hardware interrupts occur to pass information to a device driver.g. or it may be for something extremely critical. The programmer (or the task itself) determines how long a task will run. As I also mentioned earlier. when a hardware interrupt occurs on most hardware platforms. the CPU is returned to the task that was interrupted.communicating. This is an operating system that can stop a task dead in its tracks and start another one. However. These parties include the programmer. it's only the hardware state which includes registers. such as ensuring your coffee is actually brewed when you walk out for a cup in a maniacal daze looking like Bill The Cat (I DID say important!). is a preemptive system. This is where the scheduling fun really begins. They are also. As you can see. Most of the time. there is hardware (programmable support circuitry) that allows you to cause a hardware interrupt either at intervals. Task Scheduling Given the only two real ways a task switch can occur. the scheduler also determines how long a task gets to run. communications device. or after a set period of time. the task that's running. When. The rest of the tasks are waiting for their shot at the CPU. the scheduler. this adds the requirement of timing. or even a requirement. we must now decide which task runs next. Just to review these ways (to refresh your RAM).0 -17- RICHARD A BURGESS . there is going to be a desire.

In a time sliced preemptive system. "a slice of time.and they will be executed in the order they were created. but it won't be on their terminals. This would even take care of the situation where your favorite employee falls asleep on the terminal and orders 8000 HuMonGo Burgers by mistake. and if a user interface is involved. only the very highest would ever get to run. This is usually not very effective. The tasks that need more time can get it by asking for it. The customer (and the greasy guy waiting on you behind the counter) would never see the slowdown as the CPU in the back room did a simple round-robin between all the tasks for the terminals. For example.0 -18- RICHARD A BURGESS . In some systems. In the simplest time sliced systems. A simple queuing system suffices.) Simple Cooperative Queuing The very simplest of cooperative operating-system schedulers could use a single queue system and execute the tasks on a first-come/first-serve basis.We're going to look at several techniques as if they were used alone. each task gets 25 milliseconds. this means that of all the tasks that are ready to run. or which task will run more often? You generally can't ask the user if they need more time (They will ALWAYS say yes!). When combined with an adequate form of interprocess communications or signaling (discussed in Chapter 4). The others may see a slow down. each task will get a fixed amount of time . it makes more sense to increase the time allocation for more important tasks. They can be waiting for something such as I/O. Variable Time Slicing In a preemptive system. Each task can be assigned a number (highest to lowest priority) indicating its importance. its complete hardware and software state is saved.all tasks will get the same slice . but they used a time slicing scheduler based on a hardware timer to divide CPU time amongst the tasks that were ready to run. When a task indicates it is done by making certain calls to the operating system. the one with the highest priority will be executed. simple time slicing may be adequate or at least acceptable. or how much time there is MMURTL V1. otherwise. And the programmer can't even determine in advance how much time he or she will need. When a task's time is up. it is suspended and goes to the end of the queue. This also implies that some may not be ready at all. But it has some major drawbacks. it can make for some pretty choppy user interaction. Not quite that simple. or by the programmer (or user) telling the scheduler it needs it. This gives the scheduler something to work with. it can serve admirably.000 burgers. (the others will be flipping 8. Many early multitasking operating systems were like this. a multitasking system that is handling simple point of sale and ordering transactions at Ferdinand's Fast Food and Burger Emporium may be just fine as an equitably time sliced system." This implies the system is capable of preempting tasks without their permission or knowledge. Time Slicing Time slicing means we switch tasks based on set periods of execution time for each task. than to execute the tasks in a sequence of equal time segments based solely on a priority assignment. But it may be just fine in some circumstances. Some form of signaling can even increase time allocation based on other outside events. you must assume that it's ready to run immediately. and the next task in line is restored and executed. if we preempted a task without it telling us it was OK to do so. This also means we just can't assign simple priorities in a time sliced system. Prioritized Cooperative Scheduling A logical step up from a simple first-in/first-out cooperative queue is to prioritize the tasks. Who determines which task gets more time. It can look at the priorities of those tasks that are ready-to-run and select the best based on what the programmer thinks is important. This way you can picture what each technique has to offer. In a cooperative system. Time slicing is an old technique. For example.

The programs that run on this computer may have some snap decisions to make based on information from outside sensors. To know in advance if it will actually be used at that rate is another story entirely. This IS real-time stuff. Being forced to wait 200 or more milliseconds to perform a critical safety task may spell certain disaster.0 -19- RICHARD A BURGESS . when something that is out of the immediate control of the programmer (and the CPU) must be handled within a specific period of time.. Thus. we definitely want to be able to preempt a task. Therefore. In the case of the nuclear reactor operating system. It's pretty simple to calculate how much time you'll need for a communications program running at full capacity at a known data rate. dependable. We want good. Operating systems that share the CPU among tasks by just dividing up a period of time and giving each task a share respond poorly to outside events. This is a simple example (actually a common problem). and maybe you can even see where it would be advantageous to combine a cooperative system (where the programmer can voluntarily give up the CPU) with a preemptive time-sliced system. Let's look at one that controls a nuclear reactor and all other events at a nuclear power plant. A computer in charge of complete climate control for a huge building may be a good example. it requires the ability to juggle tasks on the system in real-time. but one channel is handling five times the data. come do something with this data before I lose it"). take two communications programs that handle two identical ports with two independent Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs). I think you can see the advantages of a priority based system. the ISR can send a message to the program servicing it to tell it the buffer is almost full ("Hey. one of the most volatile reaction I can think of is when a user losses data from a communications program. Now. Many of these things depend on real-time interaction between the machine and the world to which it is connected. but they have problems with unbalanced jobs being performed by the tasks. This implies that some form of communication is required between the sensors (e. or the user. They do so many things for us that we simply accept them in our everyday lives. the program servicing the busier port may lose data if it can't get back to the buffer in time to empty it. The buffer will overflow. If you have ever had the pleasure of writing communications-interrupt service routines on a system that has a purely timesliced model. Because it is still based on a preset period of time. the possibility of being preempted before a certain important function was accomplished always exists. outside events MUST be able to force (or at least speed up) a task switch. or his FAX is garbled because buffers went a little bit too long before being emptied or filled. These are communications and user interface issues. and prioritization of these tasks will be critical. things are never as simple as they seem. Mixed Scheduling Techniques As you can see. but it's not dramatic enough. In a message based system.g. and we want our machines responsive to us. hardware interrupt service routines) and the scheduler. If I thought my operating system would be used in this fashion. Two very important areas of computing have been moving to the forefront of the industry. (should turning on the coffeepot for the midnight shift take a priority over emergency cooling-water control?) But how many of us will be writing software for a nuclear reactor? I thought not. I would have spent more time on the tasking model and also on interrupt service routines.to go around on the system. clean communications. but it makes the point. This is not to say that time-sliced systems have poor interrupt latency. computers are everywhere. For instance. There are also many tasks inside the machine to perform of which the user has no concept (nor do they care!) In case you haven't noticed. If the programs have an equal time slice and equal buffer sizes. you have many options for scheduling techniques: MMURTL V1. Other Scheduling Factors You know as well as I do. But I opted to "get real" instead. Some of the best examples of real-time computing are in robotics and equipment control. The reaction is always near meltdown proportions. you know that it can lead to serious stress and maybe even hair loss. The programmer on this type of system must also be able to indicate to the operating system that certain programs or tasks are more important than others are.

the task that is executing was always the highest priority found on the queue. A very simple. You may opt to give certain tasks a larger execution time based on external factors or the programmer's desires. time-slicing all the tasks is suitable (even desired) to accomplish what was initially intended by the system builders. There would have to be additional mechanisms to prevent poorly written tasks from simply gobbling up the CPU. it would still be scheduled to execute. and I discuss all of that in the next chapter. MMURTL V1. tasks are prioritized and generally run until they surrender the CPU. These tasks would always be the highest priority task queued on the system. In a system that was designed for multi-user application sharing (such as UNIX originally was). But even when the task has nothing to do. Users on a larger. all tasks will be scheduled for execution. To be honest. rapid calculation would hold the reins on a CPU hog. based on the number of tasks scheduled. That's the only way you'll really know for sure. I invite you to experiment with your own combinations. If such were the case (nothing to do) it would simply surrender the CPU again. Some Cooperation In this type of model. More Cooperative Building on the previous mix (some cooperation). See what works for your applications. Only in circumstances where multiple tasks of the same priority are queued to run would time slicing be invoked. A task may. In this type of system. All of these ways require some form of signaling or inter-process communications. No doubt. You can probably picture in your head how this could get complicated as several tasks begin to tell the scheduler they need a larger chunk of time. I didn't want to cloud the tasking issue with the required communications methods. and will execute for a predetermined amount of time. all of the examples in the next sections have preemptive capabilities. Keep in mind that on a prioritized cooperative system. and even help define the tasking model. give up the CPU if it’s no longer needed. Limited Time Slicing In this type of system. all tasks will get to run. Primarily Cooperative. In addition. Time Sliced. This means that the programmer sets the priority of the task and the scheduler abides by those wishes. I can't picture a system without it. This would put the task back into the queue to be executed when surrendered the CPU. solely timesliced system will see the system slowdown as the time is equitably divided between an increasing number of users or tasks.0 -20- RICHARD A BURGESS . This could be in the form of a maximum percentage of CPU time allowed. additional signaling or messaging could be incorporated in the system to allow a task to indicate that it requires more time to execute. you have a few ideas of your own. Writing communications tasks for these types of systems has always been a challenge (and that's being nice about it!).Cooperative task scheduling Preemptive time slicing Cooperative prioritized task scheduling Variable/prioritized time slicing ANY AND ALL COMBINATIONS OF THE ABOVE! The are as many ways to mix these two basic types of task scheduling as there are copies of this book out there. In the next sections we'll look at a few ways to mix them. This could be in the form of a system call to indicate to the scheduler that this task should get a larger percentage of the available CPU time. even though these methods are very important. This type of system would also have the capability to preempt a task to execute a higher priority task if one became queued (messaging from an Interrupt Service Routine). although such systems exist. Fully Time Sliced. however.

and no. and also the possibility of memoryMMURTL V1. goes into a "waiting" state. file access. With the Intel processor's you even have a choice of whether the ISR executes as an independent task or executes in the context of a task that it interrupted. This is the preemptive nature of MMURTL. For instance. it wasn't Ferdinand's Burger Emporium. and another one to return it to the task that was interrupted. My goal was not just to equitably share the processor among the tasks. A complete processor task change must occur for the ISR to execute. To me. and the next task with the highest priority executes. To briefly explain my tasking model. it will initiate a task switch after a set period of time." I borrowed that quote from a sugar packet I saw in a restaurant. This is a speed issue. If it detects that one or more tasks with priorities equal to the current task are in the ready queue. 0-15 (the highest) may be sliced together giving the lowest numbers (highest priorities) the greatest time slice. much faster. the user IS an outside event! This put my system in the Primarily Cooperative. real-time operating system. I never wanted to miss outside events. or whatever. This could have presented some protection problems. "Experience is a wonderful thing. multitasking. preemptive. it will initiate a task switch as soon as it finds this. This has the desired effect of ensuring that the highest priority task is running when it needs to and also those tasks of an equal priority get a shot at the CPU. The Tasking Model I Chose I'll tell you what I wanted. In chapters 18 and 20 (The Kernel and Timer Management) I discuss in detail how I melded these two models. Go for the fastest option . which provides a piece of the scheduling function. Other processors may offer similar options.PERIOD. This in itself does not immediately cause a task switch. Limited Time Slicing category. I made MMURTL listens to the programmer. monitors the current task priority. More Time Slicing This is similar to the previous model except you can slice a full range of priorities instead of just the highest priority running. Certain critical functions in the operating system kernel and even some functions in device drivers will require you to suspend interrupts for brief periods of time. and they will also be used for execution timing on some preemptive systems. The timer-interrupt routine. and in reality. Interrupt Handling Hardware Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) have always been interesting to me. MMURTL task switches occur for only two reasons: The currently running task can't continue because it needs more information from the outside world (outside its own data area) such as keystrokes. I have learned two very valuable lessons concerning ISRs. In such a system. you may get it!" Let me repeat that my goal was a real-time system. and limit the functionality if at all possible. I bring them up in this chapter because how an operating system handles ISRs can affect the tasking model. Keep them short. When it detects that a higher priority task is in a ready-to-run state. An outside event (an interrupt) sent a message to a task that has an equal or higher priority than the currently running task. I wanted a priority based. In such a case it sends a "request" or non-specific message. This will usually be during the allocation of critical shared operating system resources and certain hardware I/O functions. After all. The less time the better. if you have 256 priorities. This is the only "time-slicing" that MMURTL does. the outside events are even more important than placating the user. The task based ISR is slower. It's faster – actually. but to use the programmer's desires as the primary factor. prioritization of tasks is VERY important. It allows you to recognize a mistake when you make it again. then you can make your own choice based on my experiences. Remember the saying: "Be careful what you ask for. I decided that MMURTL ISRs would execute in the context of the task that they interrupted.Primarily Cooperative. timer services.0 -21- RICHARD A BURGESS . as well as checking for the highest priority task that is queued to run.

but because ISRs all execute code at the OS level of protection. who's to say when Mr. When you get to chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications) you'll how messaging ties into and even helps to define your tasking model. and MMURTL's specific methods in chapter 19. This was due to MMURTL's memory management methods. In a cooperative environment. or to suspend one or more through the Priority Interrupt Controller Unit. and all programs on the system share this common OS-base addressing. MMURTL V1. Who will determine how long it actually takes to transfer several sectors from a disk device? There are to many factors involved to even prepare for it. An important thing you should understand is that you don't have a big choice as to when an ISR executes. and they are surely out of your control most of the time. This means that your operating system must be prepared at all times to be interrupted. For instance.0 -22- RICHARD A BURGESS . or even possibly the users. On systems that are primarily time sliced.management headaches. the generic clock interrupt may be the basis of most task switches. I discuss memory management in chapter 5. User is going to press a key on the keyboard? That's right . it may possibly be some form of intelligent message from an ISR that causes a task switch (if an ISR causes a task switch at all). or Ms.only the user knows. (PICU) The real effect on the tasking model comes from the fact that some interrupts may convey important information that should cause an eventual task switch. It is determined by hardware that may be completely out of your control. you switch tasks. the problems didn't surface. Your only option (when you need one) is to suspend the interrupts either through the processor (which stops all of them except the non-maskable variety). After a period of time has elapsed.

An example of a resource that may only be available for one task at time is system memory allocation routine. it could cause some serious problems. If the memory-allocation routine was in the middle of a critical piece of code (such as updating a linked list or table) and the second task called this same routine. semaphores are used for signaling and exchanging information. nor should they have to. In other words. or is suspended when it can't run. Semaphores One common IPC mechanism is Semaphores. Messaging and Tasks A task is a single thread or series of instructions that can be independently scheduled for execution (as described earlier).0 -23- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is one place where the IPC mechanism comes into play and is very important. semctl() which controls certain semaphore operations and semop() which performs operations on a semaphore. In operating systems that use semaphores. On a single CPU. If you remember the discussion in chapter 3 (Task Scheduling) then you know that a task switch can occur at just about anytime. They also are used to signal the beginning or ending of an event." MMURTL V1. and also how it is scheduled will depend on the messaging facilities provided by the system. everyone can allocate memory in an operating system. You can't suspend interrupts for extended periods of time! I also discuss this in detail later in this chapter. However. Whether a task is ready to run will depend on information it receives from other tasks (or the system) and also how many other tasks are ready to run (multiple tasks competing for CPU time). This means that unless interrupts are suspended while one task is in the middle of a memory-allocation routine. How the operating system decides when a task is ready to execute. I discuss reentrancy in a later section in this chapter. where it waits. Typical semaphore system calls are semget() which allocates a semaphore. what operation you want to perform. Synchronization Synchronization of the entire system is what IPC all boils down to. Some resources may be available to more than one task at a time. if it's being allocated). As the name implies. while others are only available to a single task at any one point in time. some systems allow private semaphores that only related tasks can access. this task could be suspended and another task could be started. you should have good idea what your operating system will be used for before you determine important things like its tasking model and what forms of interprocess communications it will use. This identifier is generally associated with the ID of the task that created it. The arguments (or parameters) to these calls usually include the semaphore ID (or where to return it. the IPC mechanisms play a very important part in the overall makeup of the system. This allows you to lock out tasks as required to prevent simultaneous execution on non-reentrant code (they play traffic cop). As I described in earlier chapters. Of course. You will also notice that even though I covered task scheduling in the previous chapter. there are public calls that allocate semaphores. their task may be suspended until that resource is available or until another task is done with it. but more than likely it will be managed in such a way that it can be handed out to only one task or program at a time. As you will see in this chapter. A semaphore is usually assigned a system-wide unique identifier that tasks can use to select the semaphore when they want to perform an operation on it. Looking at this synchronization from the application programmer's point of view. perform operations on the semaphore structures. and finally destroy (deallocate) the semaphore and its associated structures when no longer required. and a set of flags that indicate specific desires or conditions that your task wants to adhere to such as one that says "DON'T SUSPEND ME IF I CAN'T GET BY YOU" or "I'LL WAIT TILL I CAN GET IT. and more than likely will be used to control access to one or more functions that the owner task provides. Interprocess Communications Introduction This chapter introduces you to some of your options for Interprocess Communications (IPC). he or she doesn't see most of the action occurring in the system. portions of the code will not be reentrant. only one task can execute at a time. When the programmer makes a simple system call for a resource or I/O. I can't get away from it here because it's tied in very tightly with Inter Process Communications.Chapter 4. Semaphores are code routines and associated data structures that can be accessed by more than one task.

In my system.In most cases. public pipes are very handy. I studied how they were used in UNIX systems and in OS/2. If you're not worried about size or complexity in your system. This will afford an overview of messaging for the novice as well as the details for the experienced systems programmer. ReadPipe(). tasks are not wholly independent. The best way to describe messaging is to provide the details of my own messaging implementation. When a semaphore operation is performed and the calling task is suspended. the application programmer won't even know that a semaphore operation is being performed. Quite often they are not public and are used to exchange data between tasks that are part of one program. They are normally stream-oriented devices and the system calls will look very much like file system operations. In fact. the only other resource required is somewhere to send a message and a place to wait for one (usually the same place). Pipes Another popular IPC mechanism is called a pipe. and WritePipe(). tasks exchange information and synchronize their execution by sending messages and waiting for them. If you intend to implement pipes as part of your IPC repertoire. If you intend to implement semaphores. I initially considered public named pipes for MMURTL to allow data transfer between system services and clients. All of the functions that they performed are available with simpler messaging facilities. or schedule tasks for execution. But once again. It is even possible to implement messaging routines using semaphores and shared memory. Pipes can be implemented as public devices. and the library code or code contained in the system will perform the semaphore operation which ensures synchronized access to its code (if that's its purpose). it is waiting at that semaphore for a condition to change before proceeding (being restarted to execute). the entire kernel should be built around whatever messaging scheme you decide on. I have added a second. Semaphore functions on some systems are actually implemented as an installable device instead of as an integrated part of the kernel code. OpenPipe(). you should study how they are implemented in the more popular systems that use them (UNIX.” The initial task in a program may create additional tasks as needed. Send and Wait The most rudimentary form of messaging on any system is a pair of system calls generally known as send() and wait(). OS/2. They rely on a certain data contained in structures that are assigned to a program or job. you should study how they are used on other systems. which means they can be given names so that unrelated tasks can access them. They also don't have to be so tightly coupled with the kernel code. Messages Messaging methods can be implemented several different ways (although not in as many different ways as semaphores from my experience). on most real-time operating systems. some systems allow standard I/O to be redirected through pipes. I didn't. form of messaging which adds two more kernel message MMURTL V1. Pipes are a pseudo input/output device that can be used to send or receive data between tasks. In the system I've included for you (MMURTL). You will see these commands. The best method to implement messaging (and I don't think I'll get an argument here) is to make it an integral part of the kernel code in your system. I opted not use semaphores in my operating system. which will consist of one or more tasks. destroy tasks. the semaphore mechanism would have to be coupled with all of the other kernel code. you must keep the code maintenance aspects in mind for whatever implementation you choose. and was my opinion that they added an unnecessary layer of complexity. He or she will make a system call for some resource. Another reason I avoided semaphores is that are usually associated specifically with tasks (processes). but I used a second form of messaging instead. This would provide the needed synchronization for task management on the system. or to ensure some other required condition on the system is met before the calling task is scheduled to execute. The parameters to these calls would be very similar to equivalent file operations. With the send() and wait() types of messaging. In fact. Common system calls for pipe operations would be CreatePipe(). On many message-based systems for smaller embedded applications. These new tasks inherit certain attributes from the initial task. I am describing this because you may decide to implement tasks as wholly independent entities. such as those procedures that create new tasks. only the basic form of messaging is implemented. In my humble opinion. more powerful. a program is made up of one or more tasks. This is much more efficient. ClosePipe(). One thing to note is that portability may be an issue for you.).0 -24- RICHARD A BURGESS . etc. I think they are best implemented as tightly integrated pieces of the kernel code. such as MMURTL. As you can see. In a message-based system. OS/2 is one such system. or similar ones. I refer to a program as a “job.

You also need a way to send the message.0 -25- RICHARD A BURGESS . dExch is the destination exchange. If you're lucky. You can send one way messages to a person. SpawnTask(). a task is born. There are only two places for a task to wait in MMURTL: At an Exchange or on the Ready Queue. It is a place where you send messages or wait for them to exchange information. Note that my messages are two 32 bit values. The request/respond concept is what I consider the key to the client-server architecture which was one of my original goals. Other operating systems use this type of messaging scheme also. In MMURTL I call this WaitMsg(). You point to a piece of code. It does just what it says . Now I have some very important terms and functions . The only reason it's discussed with the rest of the kernel primitives is because of its importance. such as. It returns 0 if all goes well. consider this: In a single processor system that is executing a multitasking operating system. but tasks can wait there too? This is an extremely important concept.functions. Not too large to move around. but we have enough to finish the basic theory. char *pMsgRet). AllocExch is an important auxiliary function. I don't consider it part of the kernel because it has no effect on the tasking model (CPU time allocation). a bin. I called it an Exchange. In Bob's case he will get the message from his secretary. char *pMsgRet). provide some other pieces of information. The Ready Queue is the line-up of tasks that are in a ready-to-run state but are not running because there's a higher priority task currently executing. unsigned long CheckMsg(long dExch. Tasks are started with the kernel primitives SpawnTask or NewTask. only one task is actually executing instructions. The most common is the send() function I described earlier. In an operating system's case. give it the message and away it goes. In order to send or receive a message you must have an exchange. the message will wait there until a task waits at the exchange or checks the exchange with CheckMsg(). Did you notice (from my definitions above) that not only messages wait at exchanges. Sending and receiving messages in any message-based system is not unlike messaging of any kind (even phone messages). This is an added messaging function to allow you to check an exchange for a message without actually waiting. for which you expect no response. but enough that we can talk about them. and VIOLA. You can leave a message on the machine (at the exchange) if no one (no task) is waiting there. long dMsgPart1. the message is received right away. his offer is the pits. In MMURTL's case. CheckMsg(). Zork to forget it. If there is no task waiting at that exchange. the answering machine is the exchange. If a human is there waiting (a task is at the exchange waiting). Yes. Operating system calls to send a message come in several varieties. MMURTL provides a call to allocate exchanges for jobs. You tell it what exchange. The parameter pdExchRet points to a dword (32-bit unsigned variable) where the exchange number is returned. an exchange point. All the other tasks are WAITING somewhere. SendMsg(). It is called AllocExch() and is defined like this in C: unsigned long AllocExch(long *pdExchRet). The task is the human. dMsgPart1 and dMsgPart2 are the two dword in a message. the task that you want to get the message is "waiting" at the exchange by calling the wait() function I described earlier. One more quick topic to round off what we've already covered. WaitMsg(). and a non-specific "message" that doesn't expect a response. and NewTask() are five very important kernel primitives. or whatever you call it. MMURTL V1. Now. In your system you will provide a function to allocate a mailbox. it's a little more complicated than that." This is an example of a one way message. long dMsgPart2).it sends a message. You also know about Exchanges and the Ready Queue. it is generally an allocated resource that can be called a mailbox. but large enough for a couple of pointers. This now gives MMURTL two forms of messaging.not in detail yet. or just about any other name you like. dExch is the exchange where we will wait to check for a message. "Tell Mr. one which is "request" for services which should receive a response. The C definitions for these calls and their parameters as I have implemented them are: unsigned long SendMsg(long dExch. One key element in a message system is WHERE you leave your messages. pMsgRet points to an eight-byte (2 dwords) structure where the message will be placed. Consider the phone again. unsigned long WaitMsg(long dExch. The function return value is the kernel error if there is one (such as when there are no more exchanges). I have implemented this as SendMsg(). request() and respond().

Kernel places Task1 on the Ready Queue. Table 4. whenever you call a kernel primitive you enter the KERNEL ZONE. Table 4. Task2 calls WaitMsg at Exch2. Task2 sends a message to Exch1. just the "kernel" (a small tribute to Rod Serling. Kernel checks for a message waiting at Exch2. You start with a single task executing. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue. very small. Task2 allocates Exch2. None are waiting. Kernel attaches message to Exch1.. Task2 is higher. As we move down the table in our example. Kernel makes Task1 run. Kernel evaluates Ready Queue to see who runs next.. it's not called the kernel zone. In this example. Task1 is ready to run. time is passing. I'll try to liven it up some later on.1 Task and Kernel Interaction Task Action Task1 is Running Task1 allocates Exch1 Task1 calls SpawnTask (to start Task2) Kernel checks priority of new task. Kernel places Task2 on Exch2.0 Kernel Action -26- RICHARD A BURGESS . What it's doing isn't important.).I apologize that none of the items I've introduced have names that are confusing or buzzwordish. Just kidding. None found. Task1 is running Task1 sends a message to Exch2 MMURTL V1. You now have enough information under your belt to provide a scenario of message passing that will help enlighten you to what actually occurs in a message based system. It's still task 2. Task2 is still running. Kernel checks for a task waiting at Exch1.1 (Task and kernel Interaction) shows actions and reactions between a program and the operating system. Kernel makes Task2 run Task2 is running.

This can simplify the scheduler. With MMURTL. If there is one.. keyboard input. only the service name. You can also see that it is the messaging and the priority of the tasks that determines the sharing of CPU time (as was described in previous chapters). They are dedicated types..the processor suddenly finds itself with nothing to do. The OS knows nothing about the service codes (except for one discussed later). If there is a task at the exchange. The Request() and Respond() messaging primitives are designed so you can install a program called a System Service that provides shared processing for all applications on the system.. They are ideal for things like file systems. It gives task2 the message. This low priority task can even be made to do some chores such as garbage collection or a system integrity check. it will be made to run. but has quite a few more parameters than SendMsg.533 different functions as identified by the Service Code. Request() I have added two more messaging types in my system. the processor is activated and it checks the Ready Queue. 10 or even 15 system services. they must be waiting for something.1. BBS systems.Kernel checks for task at Exch2 and find Task2 there. printing services. The interface to the Request primitive is procedural. If everyone is waiting at an exchange. queued file management. there should be a task sitting on the ready queue. each service installed is given a name. and also need to be shared with multiple applications. FAX services. you could implement named pipes (discussed earlier in this chapter) as a system service. It doesn't need to because the Request interface is identical for all services. The functions and what they do are defined by the service. The Ready Queue is immediately reevaluated. the user of the system service doesn't need to know the exchange number. From the example you can also see that when you send a message.. This may not work on all types of processors. What would happen if both Task1 and Task2 waited at their exchanges and no one sent a message? You guessed it . e-mail services. Message based services are used to provide shared processing functions that are not time critical (where a few hundred microsecond delay would not make a difference). I didn't do this with MMURTL. Actually it really does absolutely nothing. More than likely it is something from the outside world such as a keystroke. Each time an interrupt occurs. The MMURTL FAT-file system and keyboard are both handled with system services. Each service can provide up to 65. The exchange number may be different every time it's installed. you can see that the kernel has its job cut out for it. This way. When the service is first installed. If a very small embedded kernel is your goal. MMURTL V1. the kernel attaches the message to an exchange. the list could go on and on. I actually HALT the processor with interrupts enabled. The name must be unique on the machine. If the interrupt that caused it to wake up sent a message. but the name will always be the same. and a response (with the results and possibly data) is returned to the requester. and if the task that just received the message is a higher priority than the task that sent it. unsigned int wSvcCode. A fully loaded system may have 5. In some systems. The processing is carried out by the service. Look at it prototyped in C: unsigned long Request(char *pSvcName. Request() and Respond() provide the basis for a client server system that provides for identification of the destination exchange and also allows you to send and receive much more than the eight-byte message used with the SendMsg() primitive. From the simple example in table 4. .0 -27- RICHARD A BURGESS . In fact. the receiving task is made to run. dummy tasks are created with extremely low priorities so there is always a task to run. Kernel places task1 on Ready Queue Kernel makes Task2 run (It's a Higher priority) Task2 is running . the message is associated with that task and it is placed on the Ready Queue. You will have to dig into the technical aspects of the processor you are using to ensure a scheme like this will work. you will more than likely not use these types in your system. it registers its name with the OS Name Registry and tells the OS what exchange it will be serving.

If you remember. The content of the eight-byte message tells you if it is a message or a response. The service name is eight characters. the second dword is the status code or error from the service. Two questions arise: 1. The service already knows this. and dData2 . long *pdRqHndlRet. this would be the size (length) of the filename. This is possible because the kernel provides alias pointers to the service into your data area MMURTL V1.This is a second pointer exactly like pData1 described above. long dData2 ). it is NOT a response. There's still a little work to do. If it is 80000000h or above. char *pData2SR. This may even point to a structure or an array depending on how much information is needed for this particular function (service code).0 -28- RICHARD A BURGESS .the handle to the request block that the service is responding to.This is the same as dcbData1. If both data items were being sent to you from the service then this would be 0.Number of the specific function you are requesting.Exchange that the service will respond to with the results (an exchange you have allocated). The parameters are also a little less intimidating than those for Request(). *pData2 . dnpSend would be 1. long dcbData2SR. long dnpSend char *pData1SR. These can never be pointers to data. although its exact meaning is left up to the service. and pSend2 was not used or was pointing to your memory area for the service to fill. This doesn't mean the system service has it easy. dData0. as the plot unfolds you will see just how powerful this messaging mechanism can be (and how simple it really is). They are described below: dRqHndl . but network transport mechanisms do not. long dStatRet). Second. you'll need to know which one is responding. Respond() The Respond() primitive is much less complicated than Request(). If this is the response. At first glance. Where is the response data and status code? First. if the request was serviced (with no errors). But. all capitals. long dData1. dRespExch . then it calls WaitMsg() and sits at an exchange waiting for a reply. Here is the C prototype: unsigned long Respond(long dRqHndl. this dword should match the Request Handle you were provided when you made the Request call (remember pRqHndlRet?). If pSend1 was a pointer to some data the service was getting from your memory area. or pData2 to send data to the service. dcbData2 .Pointer where the OS will return a handle to you used to identify this request when you receive the response at your exchange. *pData1 . dStatRet . This is needed because you can make multiple requests and direct all the responses to the same exchange. The convention is the value of the first dword in the message. Lets look at each of the parameters: pSvcName . In many functions you will not even use pData1. 1 or 2) of the two data pointers that are moving data from you to the service. you'll see that the call for making a request is a little bit more complicated than SendMsg().long dRespExch.Pointer to the service name you are requesting.is the number (0. Using the Open File() example. dnpSend . in the file system OpenFile() function. These are documented independently by each service. long dcbData1SR. pData1 points to the file name (data being sent to the service). long dData0. dData1. This will be explained later in memory management.These are three dwords that provide additional information for the service. If you made more than one request. Zero (0) usually indicates no error. *pdRqHndlRet . dcbData1 . wSvcCode . but will simply fill in a value in one or more of these three dwords. For instance. the data has already been placed into your memory space where pData1 or pData2 was pointing. How do we know that this is a response or just a simple message sent here by another task? 2. the message that comes in to an exchange is an eight-byte (two dwords) message.the status or error code returned to the requester. A job (your program) calls Request() and asks a service to do something. and spacepadded on the right. Second.How many bytes the pDataSend points to.Pointer to memory in your address space that the service must access (either to read or write as defined by the service code).

and WHAMO . if you were sending data into the service via pData1 or 2. I'll use a pseudo text algorithm to define a series of instructions that are NON-reentrant. It's really quite simple. Reentrancy Issues A multitasking system that lets you simply point to a set of instructions and execute them means that you can actually be executing the same code at almost the same time. even in a multitasking system. As you know. As you can see. I say "almost" because really only one task is running at a time.it's crash time.to read or write data. task1 calls GetMeSomeMem(). Variable nBuffersLeft Variable pNextBuffer GetMeSomeMem() If (nBuffersLeft > 0) (A place between instructions called Point X) { (Allocate a Buffer) Decrement nBuffersLeft Increment pNextBuffer Return pNextBuffer } else Return Error Lets suppose two tasks are designed to call this function. Also. some method is required to prevent two tasks from being inside this code at the same time. right? But let me guess . Semaphores are used on many systems. it sends back the message so the next task can get in. (You will find out how important they are if you run out of them!) There is one link block in use for every outstanding (unanswered) request and one for every message waiting at an exchange. To really understand this issue. A Link Block is a little structure (smaller than an exchange) that becomes a link in a linked list of items that are connected to an exchange. only one task can really be running at a time. The call to manage and check the semaphore would actually be part of the allocation code itself. I opted to use something called a Link Block (LB). It will no doubt be a linked list of sorts. it successfully makes it all the way through and gets that last buffer. Reentrant means that if a task is executing a series of instructions and gets preempted. pointers are off the ends of arrays. This can add up to hundreds in a real hurry. lets look at an example. checks the semaphore. Not as difficult as you expect. the kernel has aliased this pointer for the service as well.0 -29- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each task that enters the code. Link Blocks I keep referring to how a message or a task just "sits" or "waits" at an exchange. You will need some way (a method) to attach messages to your mailbox. This can lead to serious problems if the code that is being executed is not designed to be reentrant. It's called GetMeSomeMem() In this example there are two variables that the code accesses to carry out its mission. Now. When each task is done with the allocation routine. A little further into this chapter we cover memory management as it applies to messaging which should clear it up considerably. and will be suspended until the last task is done with it. MMURTL V1. but this would slow things down a bit. But when it reaches PointX. or pauses in the middle of them. Each task will wait() at the exchange until it has a message. What's usually not so simple for the operating-system writer is ensuring you identify and protect all of the NON-reentrant code. Now. task1 gets to run again. Messages can also provide exactly the same functionality. The code has already checked and there was 1 buffer left. I guess you could use Elmer's Glue. The example is a function that allocates buffers and returns a pointer to it. and show you what can happen. it is preempted. and the service has already read your data and used it as needed. So.this aliasing thing with memory addresses is still a bit muddy. task2 is running and calls GetMeSomeMem(). it's OK for another task to enter and execute the same code before the first task is done with it. Allocate a mailbox or exchange and send it one message. there was only one buffer left. Not very big. The buffer is gone. it's a mess. For the sake of understanding this. but still very important. An exchange is a small structure in memory. So the code goes in. He is restarted by the scheduler and starts up at PointX.

you can't use the kernel code to lock things out of the kernel! You MUST disable interrupts in many sections. You will lose data. This is 1/38. In theory. I mentioned in the above section that you shouldn't disable interrupts for too long a period of time. Good tight code in the kernel is a must. If you disable interrupts too long then you will suffer interrupt latency problems. Just to give you an idea of what periods of time we are talking about. it will simplify IPC greatly . it will be even a greater chore to translate addresses that are passed around on the system. Also. If you use a completely flat model for the entire system. If you implement independent-linear memory arrays through paging hardware (as I did with MMURTL). You can find out about some of your memory management options in chapter 5.400 bits per second will interrupt every 208 microseconds.400 * 8 because they will interrupt for every byte (8 bits). Memory Management Issues The last hurdle in Interprocess Communications is memory. you know you locked out multiple users with the kernel messaging (or semaphores).000.If the instruction sequence is short enough. “Memory Management. A single huge linear array of memory in your system that all programs and task share means that they all understand a pointer to any memory address. I recommend you avoid a fully segmented model. That would be an average of 120 nanoseconds (1/25. The next sections discuss this. then you have to find away to translate (alias) addresses that are contained in messages that will be passed between different programs. The timer interrupt will be firing off every so often. Segmented memory models will also suffer from this aliasing requirement to even a greater extent. You must take into consideration that there are more interrupts than just that communications channel. WHOA THERE . I started with one and abandoned it early on. Why are task switches considered "the biggie?" A task switch can consume as many as 30 or 40 microseconds. but it can be depending on how you implement your memory model.but it will increase the headaches elsewhere. The actual amount of time will depend on whether you use hardware task switching or do it yourself. In the kernel code. A nonbuffered communication UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) operating at 38. This means you can freely pass pointers in messages back and forth (even between different programs) and no one gets confused. I could probably tighten mine a whole lot. if you remember the GetMeSomeMem() example above. Don't blame Windows though.” MMURTL V1. It will be the only way. Have you ever run a communications program for an extended period of time at 19.200 baud in Windows 3. you can simply disable interrupts for the critical period of time in the code. This means that if paging is used along with the segmentation. Fully segmented models allow any memory allocation to be zero-based. The typical processor running at 25 MHz executes most of its instructions in 2 or 3 system-clock periods.that was only in theory! Now we have to do a reality check.task switches. but my testing shows I did OK.000 * 3). they're doing some things I personally consider impossible. Interrupt Latency Interrupt latency is when interrupts don't get serviced fast enough. this means you could execute as many as 1730 instructions in the interrupt interval.0 -30- RICHARD A BURGESS . and also "the biggie" . You didn't disable interrupts. The communications interrupt itself will have interrupts disabled for a good period of time.x? You will lose data. It doesn't sound like it would be a problem. but you will still have interrupts disabled for a rather scary period of time. and maybe even not often enough. let's look at a real-world example. You should always know how long this will be and it shouldn't be too long. You will have to do some serious testing on your system to ensure interrupt latency is not going to be a problem.

0 -31- RICHARD A BURGESS . Memory management code in an operating system is affected by the following things (this list is not all inclusive. but hits the important things): How the processor handles addressing. The memory model you choose. Basic Terms Once again. Memory Management Introduction This chapter provides you with some fairly detailed ideas for memory management from an operating system's perspective. Intel uses this term to describe memory addresses that have been translated by paging hardware. Physical memory is the memory chips and their addresses as accessed by the hardware. It does not refer specifically to size or any form of segmentation. MMURTL V1. Memory Model Do not confuse my term "memory model" for the MS-DOS/Intel term. Either way. Whether you allow variable-sized chunks of memory to be allocated. I do make some assumptions about your processor. some do it with an external page memory management unit (PMMU). Instead. An operating system's view of memory management is quite different than that of a single application. a protected-mode program's memory is always referenced to a selector which is mapped in a table to linear memory by the operating system and subsequently translated by the processor. I will discuss segmentation in greater detail in this chapter for those of you who may want to use it. and how the operating system allocates and manages processor memory space. This will depend on whether or not some form of hardware translation takes place. Some do it with internal paging hardware. Address 0 is the first. this refers to how and where programs are loaded. These difference vary considerably based on how you choose to handle the memory on the system. If I put address 00001 on the address bus of the processor. Linear memory is the address space a program or the operating system sees and works with. I am addressing the second byte of physical memory. it's all basically the same. This is the memory that programs deal with and is based around a "selector" (a 16-bit number that serves as an index into a table). I need to define some terms to ensure we are talking about the same thing. There are some major differences though. Just as your memory management routines keep track of what they hand out.Chapter 5. I can do this because most of the processors afford roughly the same memory management schemes. so does an operating system. If you've ever written memory-allocation routines for compiler libraries. For instance. With the Intel processors. These addresses may or may not be the same as the physical addresses. This greatly affects the next three items. Logical memory is more an Intel term than a generic term that can be applied across different manufacturers processors. you know that you are basically asking the operating system for chunks of memory which you will breakdown even further as required for your application. if available. Whether or not you use paging hardware. or another complicated applications.

1 (Simple Flat Memory) shows this very simple-shared memory arrangement. Keep in mind that the easiest to understand may not necessarily be the easiest to implement. etc. are allocated and assigned to be used as a range of linear memory. As programs are loaded. Simple Flat Memory Simple Flat Memory means that the operating system and all programs share one single range of linear memory space. They can still share and get to each other's address space if no protection is applied.). Figure 5. This is still a flat scheme because all the programs will use the same linear addresses. No address translations take place in hardware. Simple Flat Memory Unless some form of protection is used. Considerations and variations of this simple model include paging. You may be restricted from using some of these options. I'll start with the easiest to understand and work from there. The bad part is that an invalid pointer will more then likely cause some serious problems. and possible partitioning for each program. As programs are loaded. Figure 5. at least for the operating system. Paged Flat Memory This is a variation on simple flat memory.1.There are several basic memory models to choose from and countless variations. In this type of system. Hardware memory paging would possibly provide a solution to the bad pointer problem. chunks of physical memory called pages. This would keep all of the program's memory in one range of linear addresses. any program can reach any other program's memory space (intentionally or unintentionally). With this scheme. This scheme requires the use of paging hardware. This can be good. they are given a section of memory (a range of address) to use as their own. and that physical addresses and linear addresses are the same.0 -32- RICHARD A BURGESS . the operating system is usually loaded at the very bottom or very top of memory. they are partitioned off into their own space with a lower and upper bound. The good part is that no address translations are required for any kind of interprocess communications. depending on what your processor or external memory management hardware allows. MMURTL V1. Partitioning means you would allocate additional memory for a program it would use as its unallocated heap. bottom up. If the paging hardware only provides two levels of protection. and bad. this still means that program A can destroy program B as long as they both share the same linear space and are at the same protection level. different memory allocation schemes (top down. Paging hardware usually affords some form of protection.

or even 64 MB). the linear address range can also be much larger than the amount of physical memory.Figure 5. but only 16 Megabytes of this linear address range may be active if that's all the physical memory your system has. With demand-paged memory. Figure 5. The word "demand" means that they are sent out to the disk when not needed. your system's actively-allocated linear address range may actually be extended to a much greater size (say 32. if you have 16 MB of physical memory. MMURTL V1. For example.3 (Demand Paged Flat memory) shows an example of the page translations that can occur. and brought back into real physical address space on demand or when required. Figure 5. direct access storage device. Figure 5. With this scheme. This gives the operating system some options for managing memory allocation and cleanup. For instance. your linear address space may run from 0 to 1 Gigabytes.0 -33- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 (Paged Flat Memory) shows how the blocks of physical memory are turned into addressable chunks for the system.2 also implies that the physical pages for the program were allocated from the "top down" to become its addressable area from the "bottom up" which is perfectly legitimate. but you can't actively allocate more linear address space than you have physical memory.2 . With paged memory. more than likely a hard disk drive.Paged Flat Memory Demand-Paged Flat Memory This is a major variation on Paged Flat Memory. you extend the active size of your linear memory beyond your physical memory's limits.The additional pages of physical memory will actually be contained on an external. the physical memory can come from anywhere in the physical range to fit into a section of linear address space.

" Some of the older systems referred to any form of demand paging as virtual memory. and the hardware allows it. it means that you're lying to your programs. My definition of virtual is telling a BIG lie (not a little one).4 (Virtual Paged Memory) for an example that will help you understand this technique. Virtual Paged Memory The term virtual usually means IT'S NOT REAL. MMURTL V1. they are operating in "parallel" linear spaces. Look at Figure 5. Address 30000h is the same to all programs and the operating system. as in virtual reality. all the programs still use the same linear space. you're already lying to them when you map in a physical page and it's translated to a linear page address that they can use.Figure 5. Something else to note is that the actual values of these linear addresses may extend to the highest values allowed by the paging hardware. This means that you can tell two programs that they are both using linear address ranges that are the same! In other words. With paging hardware. and indeed you are. So you can really call any form of memory management where address translations take place "virtual memory. The minute you apply this term to memory management. You could start your addressing for applications at the 3 GB mark if you desired.Demand Paged Flat Memory In this scheme. but it sure looks like it is.0 -34- RICHARD A BURGESS .3 .

Demand Paged Virtual Memory Just like demand-paged flat memory. the memory management hardware must support it. This means you can share operating system memory between all your programs. The options here are almost mind boggling.4 . different data or code). but linear address 30000h to one program may not be the same physical memory addressed as linear address 30000h to another program (same address. Unlike Paged Flat Memory. In Figure 5. No doubt. In order to allow multiple.0 -35- RICHARD A BURGESS . any memory they allocate can be theirs alone. but make all the rest of their linear space completely independent and inaccessible by any other program. MMURTL V1.Figure 5. you will think of. demand-paged virtual memory is when you can allocate more pages than you physically have on your system. Notice I said "may not" and not "will not. A way around this to use a shared memory area. memory is NOT flat. parallel linear spaces. The largest will be when you implement interprocess communications. which is the idea. You will have to do some homework for your processor of choice.4 you can see that both programs see the operating system pages at the same addresses in their linear spaces. yet. The major difference is that these pages can be for any one of several independent linear address spaces. Note the advantages here. The same type of on-demand external storage is used as with demand-paged Flat Memory. To a single program with its own address space it may appear flat. Once again. but the same linear range of addresses where program code and data are stored are completely independent. physically-allocated pages can be placed anywhere in a programs linear address space.Virtual Paged Memory Like the Paged Flat memory. You can have all programs share a section of the same physical memory in a portion of their linear space. Note also the disadvantages. there are many possible variations." This is because you can make the physical addresses match the linear addresses for two programs if you desire. and implement some of your own. You will need some form of translation between addresses that are passed from one linear space to another.

This can be a big time saver when you're talking about thousands of pages being swapped in and out.Demand-Paged Memory Management Management of demand-paged memory is no trivial task. This means you can save the time rewriting it. When a page has been written to. The FAR pointer is a pointer that includes the selector as part of the address. this introduction leads us to another very important point about segmentation that you need to understand. but it can become cumbersome to manage because it can force you to use something called FAR pointers to access almost everything. Another major change in the 32-bit processors that deal with segments is the fact that they can now be as large as all available memory.0 -36- RICHARD A BURGESS . They allowed multiple sequential.g. When this was a 16-bit world. This is a very handy feature. MMURTL V1. and still reference it as if it were at offset zero. and 80286). This additional task will try to keep a certain percentage of physical space cleared for near term page-in. This means you can locate code or data anywhere you want in the 4 GB of linear memory. or page creation (memory allocation) requirements. The descriptor tables allow you to set up a zero based address space that really isn't at linear address zero. paging hardware will tell you if a page has been accessed only for reading or has actually been modified. When the 80286 came on the scene. they added a very important concept called Protected mode. It is really a form of virtual memory itself. the pages that are moved out to make room are the ones that haven't been used recently. they needed a way to use all of the 8-bit processor code that used 16-bit addressing. This made it possible to manage these segments with something called a “selector. They used something called a segment register. the 16bit processors were also compatible with object code for the 8-bit processors (8080 and 8085. and the popular Zilog Z80). When you use a selector. A multitude of software was written for 16-bit addressing schemes. you may already have a "clean" copy on the disk. Likewise. 20 to be exact. or even an 8-bit one. The segment registers gave you an addressable granularity of 16 bytes. and now you want to move it out to disk because it hasn't been used lately. and maybe to use the Intel Object Module format. What they came up with is called Segmentation. that would identity which particular 64-K addressable area you were working with. they needed to identify and manage those segments. and you need to understand the implications. The LRU schemes have many variations. However. Protected mode operation with selectors carried over into the 32-bit processors. This meant you could have a whopping 64K of RAM. What they needed was a transparent way to use the extra four bits to give you access to a full 1 Mb of RAM. OS/2 or Windows). In fact. is to use a separate thread or task that keeps track of how often pages are used.” A selector is a number that is an index into a table that selects which segment you are working with. it is usually termed as "dirty. so I won't go into further detail. If you had read in a page and it was accessed for reading. and generally the most efficient. This was actually several registers. It's just what it sounds like. It also meant that when they built processors with more address lines." The idea of a page being dirty has some significance. The paged memory management hardware will tell you which ones have been used and which ones have been sitting idle since they were paged in or created.. The selectors are managed in tables called the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) or Local Descriptor Tables (LDT). 80186. when they built the 16 bit processors (8086. or overlapping 64-K sections of memory called segments. Segmentation is really a hold over from the past. If you need to move someone's physical pages back into their linear space. They are not limited to 64K. The most common method is with a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. Segmented Memory I will discuss segmented memory because the Intel processors allow it. This compatibility may be in the form of the ability to use code or object modules from other systems that use segmentation. The segment registers in the 16-bit processors were a simple extension to the address lines. All of the Intel products are very well documented. one for code and several for data access. To make this work. 8088. we had some pretty limited address spaces. You may even want to use it to make your system compatible with some of the most popular operating systems in use (e. The most common. The 8-bit processors had 16 address lines. they made sure that it was downward compatible with code written for the 16-bit processors. When Intel built the first of its 32-bit processors (80386). the processor uses the entry in the table indicated by the selector and performs an address translation.

the type of applications you cater to. and my advice to you is not to bite of more than you can chew. I will give you a good idea what it's like. Tracking physical memory if paging is used. you should decide on your basic allocation unit. I don't know of any theoretical books that take into account how much time it takes to actually implement pieces of an operating system. especially if you have a very small programming team (say. I learned this the hard way. One of the important ones will be whether or not you use hardware paging. With this scheme. Allocating memory for applications. and can be located almost instantly with the memory reference. This is because you have to figure out how you'll manage memory before you know how to initialize or track it. you have one or more linked lists that define allocated and/or free memory. when one application crashes. if your hardware supports it. This will simplify many things that your memory management routines must track. This way. and it will be based on many factors. It also slows things down because the processor must do some house keeping (loading shadow registers) each time the selector is changed. when one application crashes.” Before you decide which method to use. I'll discuss each of these things. There have been hundreds of algorithms designed for linked list memory management. but not in the order I listed them. one person). This type of algorithm is most common when there is a large linear address space shared by one or more applications. then it's up to you to do some serious research to find the best method for your system. I recommend you track which client owns each link for purposes of deallocation and cleanup. Allocating memory to load applications and services. you may want to make the allocation unit the same size as a page. MMURTL V1. which will be defined by the paging hardware. it is simply terminated and the resources it used are recovered. Tracking client linear memory allocations. Memory Management Once you've chosen a memory model. The links are small structures that contain pointers to other links. Remember.0 -37- RICHARD A BURGESS . you'll face many decisions on how to manage it. But in many systems. How you store the links in this list can vary. In operating systems that don't provide any type of protection. You can let applications allocate as little as one byte. Tracking Linear Memory Allocation Two basic methods exist to track allocation of linear or physical memory. You'll have to make a decision. and how much time and effort you can put into to the algorithms.With a 32-bit system. and Handling protection violations. this makes a far pointer 48 bits. such as I described earlier with the Simple Flat Memory Model. you ARE the operating system. This can be a real hassle. Linked List Management Using linked lists is probably the most common. They are “linked lists” and “tables. Management of memory involves the following things: Initialization of memory management. Other factors include how much memory you have. You make the rules. and one of the easiest ways to manage memory. but it's a very realistic part of the equation. The linked lists are setup when the operating system initializes memory. Basic Memory Allocation Unit The basic allocation unit will define the smallest amount of memory you will allow a client to allocate. The easiest and most efficient way is to store the link at the beginning of the allocated block. along with the allocated size and maybe the owner of the memory block. each block holds its own link. it usually takes the whole system down. If you do. or force them to take 16 Kilobytes at a time.

struct MemLinkType pFree. }. MS-DOS appears to use links in the allocated space.pPrev = 0. One points to the first linked block of free memory (pFree) and the other points to the first linked block of allocated memory (pMemInUse).16.owner = 0. Ignoring the fact that MS-DOS uses segmented pointers.size = 0.size is large enough. This is done by following pLink. I haven't disassembled their code. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* first link in 15 megabyte array */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ No mem blocks allocated yet */ No backlink */ No size for base link */ OS owns this */ /* Set up first link in free memeory */ pLink = 0x100000. These are the first links in your list. /* to work with links in memory */ struct MemLinkType *pNewLink. you would set up the two base link structures. pLink->size = 0xf00000 . let's assume we have 15 megabytes of memory to manage beginning at the 1 Mb address mark (100000h) and all of it is free (unallocated). pLink->owner = 0. struct MemLinkType *pLink. pFree. or you reach a link where pNext is null.pNext = 0x100000. /* " " */ long Client = 0. In the process of memory management initialization. pMemInUse. MMURTL V1.0 /* /* /* /* /* Set structure pointer to new link */ NULL. pFree and pMemInUse. pLink->pPrev = &pFree. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pNextLink. which means you can't honor the request. Of course. */ Backlink to pFree */ 15 Megs-16 for the link */ OS owns it now */ -38- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* a backlink so we can find previous link */ long size.size must be at least as large as the requested size PLUS 16 bytes for the new link you'll build there. pFree. you must remember that pLink. struct MemLinkType pMemInUse.The word cleanup also implies that the memory space will become fragmented as callers allocate and deallocate memory. This is another topic entirely. } When a client asks for memory. No next link yet. pMemInUse. In the following simple linked list scheme. I can tell this from the values of the pointers I get back when I allocate memory from the MS-DOS operating system heap. /* Memory Management Variables */ struct MemLinkType /* 16 bytes per link */ { char *pNext. pLink->pNext = 0. but I'll touch on it some. /* " " */ struct MemLinkType *pPrevLink. long owner. For my description. pFree.pPrev = 0. pMemInUse. you follow the links beginning at pFree to find the first link large enough to satisfy the request. You would set up the base structures as follows: void InitMemMgmt(void) { pFree.size = 0. You now have an idea where they went.owner = 0. pMemInUse. you have two structure variables defined in your memory management data.pNext until pLink. char *pPrev. you can see that there is a conspicuous few bytes missing from two consecutive memory allocations when you do the arithmetic.pNext = 0.

0 -39- RICHARD A BURGESS . The deallocation routine is even easier than the allocation routine. pNewLink->pNext = pLink->pNext. pNewLink->owner = 0. Let's assume the first request is for 1 MB. pLink->size = WantSize.WantSize . or a NULL pointer if we can't honor the request.. I've gone back to code I did five or six years ago and spent 30 minutes just trying to figure out what I did. The function returns the address of the new memory. And believe me. pNewLink->size = pLink->size . char *AllocMem(long WantSize) { pLink = &pFree. If you use this code. fix size and owner */ pNewLink = &pLink + (WantSize + 16). When they hand you a pointer to MMURTL V1. /* Backlink */ /* Fix size of pLink */ /* Remove pLink from the pFree list and put it in the */ /* allocated links! */ pPrevLink = pLink->pPrev. I would suggest you leave it as is for maintenance purposes and take the hit in memory usage. /* OS owns this for now */ /* Hook it into free links after pLink */ pNewLink->pPrev = &pLink. /* How much we allocated */ pLink->owner = Client.The following case of the very first client will show how all allocations will be. it was in an effort to save memory and make the code tight and fast. } /* Sorry .no mem available */ /* Return address of the NEW memory */ You will require a routine to free up the memory and also to clean up the space as it gets fragmented. Granted. pPrevLink->pNext = &pNewLink. but it sure didn't seem like it was worth the headaches. if (pLink->size >= (WantSize + 16)) /* This one will do! */ { /* Build a new link for the rest of the free block */ /* then add it two the free list.*/ /* Next link please */ while (pLink->pNext) { pLink = pLink->pNext.pNext = &pLink.pNext. it WILL get fragmented. /* Start at the base link */ /* Keep going till we find one */ /* As long as we have a valid link. This divides the free */ /* block into two pieces (one of which we'll allocate) */ /* Set up new link pointer. /* This is who owns it now */ return(&pLink+16). The following example code is expanded to show each operation. /* get previous link */ /* Unhook pLink */ pLink->pNext = pMemInUse.. pLink->pNext = &pNewLink. } } return(0). You could make this type of operation with pointers almost "unreadable" in the C programming language.16. WantSize is the size the client has requested. /* Point to the new link */ pLink->size = WantSize. /* Put pLink in USE */ pMemInUse. Client is the owner of the new block.

} pPrevLink = pNextLink->pPrev.pNext. You can do things like checking to */ ensure the pointer isn't null.0 /* Can't be pFree */ -40- RICHARD A BURGESS . change its owner. /* this will be handy later */ /* If memory isn't corrupted. If they tend to allocate a series of blocks and then free them in the same order. There are several thoughts on cleanup. if at all possible. We will stop when */ /* we find the link we belong between. you go to that address (minus 16 bytes). or you can do it all after the fact. In other words. You have the linear address. and you insert it there. I personally have not done any research on the fastest methods. This will be useful in the following routine. Even though the links themselves are next to each other in memory. This would be the link */ validation I talked about. You should notice that the allocation algorithm ensured that there was always a link left at a higher address than the link we allocated. */ /* Start at pFree */ pNextLink = pFree. depending on the order of deallocation. they can end up anywhere in the pFree list. Here is a deallocation routine that defragments the space as they free up memory. int FreeMem(char *MemAddress) { /* We will use pNewLink to point to the link to free up. but a lot depends on the patterns of allocation by your clients. This is where the fragmentation comes it. But we can't add our size to pFree. /* scan till we find out where we go.16. validate the link. But you can't depend on this. This makes the most sense to me. "walks" up the links and finds its place in linear memory order. This provides instant cleanup. The cleanup of fragmented space in this type of system is not easy. you simply walk the list until you find the links that the newly freed memory belongs between. but cleanup will be a snap. and that they really own the */ memory by checking the owner in the link block. */ /* It's actually a MemInUse link right now. */ /* but that doesn't help us cleanup if we can */ /* First let's see if we can combine this newly freed link */ /* with the one before it. You can add code in the allocation and deallocation routines to make it easier. which returns memory to the free pool. */ pNewLink = MemAddress . */ while ((pNextLink->pNext) && (&pNextLink < &pNewLink)) { pNextLink = pNextLink->pNext. A simple scan of the list can be used to combine links that are next to each other into a single link. He's a dummy */ if (pNextLink->pPrev != &pFree) MMURTL V1. the links may end up next to each other in the free list anyway. This will add time to deallocation routines. do a simple insertion at the proper point in the list. This means we would simply add our */ /* size + 16 to the previous link's size and this link would */ /* disappear.deallocate. /* /* /* /* /* /* point to the link to free up */ Some form of error checking should go here to ensure they */ are giving you a valid memory address. then move it to the pFree list. Combining blocks can be done at the same time. This starts at the first link pFree is pointing to. because we can assume there will always will be a link at a higher address. Another method is to keep the pFree list sorted as you add to it. we should be there! */ /* We could just stick the link in order right here. We try to combine the newly freed link with the one before it or after it.

If you want to use tables and you're not using paging hardware. you will simply have to ensure that when you hand out a linear address. we couldn't be combined with the previous. You can expand on them if needed.{ if (&pNewLink == (&pPrevLink + (pPrevLink->size + 16))) { /* add our size and link size (16). In the case of the paging hardware. /* operating system owns this now!*/ /* Now we'll try to combine pNext with us! */ if ((&pNewLink + pNewLink->size + 16) == &pNextLink) { /* We can combine them. there are physical pages assigned to it. The two must be synchronized.0 -41- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ /* we just leave it were we inserted it and report no error */ return(0). Tables are not as elegant as linked lists. pNewLink->pPrev = pPrevLink. You can still use paging underneath the system described earlier. you can still look at the setup of the tables for paging. /* fix backlink */ } /* If we didn't combine the new link with the last one. If you don't use the paging hardware. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink. you can decide how you want them setup. It should give you a great number of ideas. you will be forced to use tables of some kind anyway. you will have two memory spaces to track. */ /* In this case. then go away! */ pPrevLink->size += pNewLink->size + 16. pNext will go away! */ pNewLink->size += pNextLink->size + 16. Tracking Physical Memory If you use some form of paging. I go into great detail on paging hardware and tables when I describe MMURTL memory management. and all the information you need to use paging hardware on the Intel and work-alike systems. return(0). pNewLink->owner = 0. if (pLink) /* the next could have been the last! */ pLink->pPrev = &pNewLink. pNextLink->pPrev = pNewLink. } Memory Management With Tables If you use paging hardware . Paging hardware will define how the tables are organized. MMURTL V1. we assumed we were working with a flat linear space. we must insert ourselves in the free list */ pPrevLink->pNext = pNewLink. } } /* If we got here. This means your operating system will be tracking linear and physical memory at the same time.or you decide to make your operating system's allocation unit a fixed size and fairly large you can use tables for memory management. pNewLink->pNext = pNextLink->pNext. pLink = pNextLink->pNext. Quite often you resort to brute processor speed to get things done in a hurry. In the memorymanagement routines earlier. It combines the use of managing physical and linear memory with tables.

If your processor gives you these types of options.” but once the operating system is loaded. is that you can't address it until it has been identified in the hardware page tables that you manage. It will be greater if you keep a certain number of pages grouped together in a cluster. Another chore you'll have is to find out just how much memory you have on the system. and you should take that into consideration. you have a lot of work to do during the initialization process.” If you use a processor that uses hardware I/O from the memory space.0 -42- RICHARD A BURGESS . But it's up to you. You may want your operating system code and data at the very top of you linear memory address space. Paging hardware uses tables to track the relationship between physical and linear memory. This will almost certainly lead to some form of table use. The hardware paging is usually not active when the processor is reset. “the Hardware Interface. Something to remember about working with physical memory when paging is used. In some cases. you will have to move it all. You could also use linked lists to manage the physical memory underneath the linear address space if you like. This signaling will be in the form of a hardware trap or interrupt. you may also have to take into account any hardware addresses that may not be allocated to applications or the operating system. add the translations you need and are already using. it becomes allocated memory right away. You must consider where the operating system loads. Some processors use memory addresses from your linear space for device I/O. Intel has a different scheme called Port I/O. This is one of the first things you will do during initialization of memory management. From there. MMURTL V1. You will be allocated these up front. you need to ensure that you initialize memory so that it takes into account all of memory used by the OS code and data. such as battery backed-up CMOS memory space. I recommend you to leave the initial operating system memory block in an address range that matches physical memory. fault or other signaling method employed by the processor or paging hardware and determine how you will handle all those that apply to the type of system you design. I'll discuss that in Chapter 6. “OS Initialization. Your operating system is responsible to ensure they are updated properly. For instance. You will have to investigate each type of interrupt. Wherever you load it. If you use paging. you will deal with a fixed size allocation unit. You may not always be able to depend on this to be accurate. it will generally be associated with page tables that you are using to manage your linear address space. It will be the page’s size. The trap may not actually be signaling a problem. Some hardware platforms have initialization code stored in ROM (executed at processor reset) that will find the total and place it somewhere you can read. or load the rest of it after you turn on paging. Memory Protection Protected memory implies that the processor is capable of signaling you when a problem is encountered with memory manipulation or invalid memory address usage. This can get complicated. Other forms of traps may be used to indicate that an application has tried to access memory space that doesn't belong to it. It generally means the application has done some bad pointer math and probably would be a candidate for shut-down. Initialization of Memory Management I won't discuss loading the operating system here because it's covered in chapter 7. This means that if you want your operating system code and data in a linear address beyond the physical range. and turn on the paging hardware. Batteries fail.When you work with paging hardware. trap. but may be part of the system to help you manage memory. it will generally be in a block of addresses. demand-paged systems must have a way to tell you that some application is trying to address something in a page that isn't in memory right now. Most paging hardware also requires that the non-paged addresses you are executing during initialization match the paged linear addresses when you turn on paging. You must set up tables. you will have independent tables for each application.

The selector values must be a multiple of eight. This greatly simplifies every program we write. MMURTL's memory management scheme allows us to use 32-bit data pointers exclusively. The "selectors" (segment numbers for those coming from real mode programming) are fixed. One is for code and the other is for data and stack. and I chose them to reside at the low end of the Global Descriptor Table. I use a Virtual Paged memory model as described earlier. This means the only 48-bit pointers you will ever use in MMURTL are for an operating system call address (16-bit selector. If you have no desire to use them. and one or more code segments. For instance.0 -43- RICHARD A BURGESS . This could change in future versions. Large. In the 80x86 Intel world there are Tiny. This may sound like a restriction until you consider that a single segment can be as large as all physical memory. and I even use the Intel segment registers. you know that with MS-DOS. and is no longer necessary on these powerful processors. so the best thing I can do is to provide you with a very detailed description of the memory model and my implementation. This was commonly referred to as a "Medium Memory Model" program. It can be very complicated to use on any system. programs generally had one data segment which was usually shared with the stack. I wanted only one program memory model. but how I use it may give you some ideas I haven't even thought of. Small. How MMURTL Uses Paging MMURTL uses the Intel hardware-based paging for memory allocation and management. but in a very limited fashion. but it serves my purposes quite well without it. but will have no effect on applications. This was too complicated for me.An Intel Based Memory Management Implementation I chose the Intel processors to use for MMURTL. I figured that an operating system should be a "wholesale" dealer in MMURTL V1. The operating system code segment is 08h. Getting it straight took only half my natural life MMURTL really doesn't provide memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provide a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. programs are quite often broken down into the code segment. and many others. The fact that the operating system has its own code segment selector is really to make things easier for the operating system programmer. the application code segment. uninitialized data segment. but nice to have. The only selector that will change is the code selector as it goes through a call gate into the operating system and back again. and one data segment for all programs and applications. set them all to one value and forget them. 32-bit offset). the concept of program segments is an old one. Medium. It also speeds up the code by maintaining the same selectors throughout most of the program's execution. The user code segment is 18h. The common data segment is 10h. The operating system and all applications use only 3 defined segments: The operating system code segment. I use almost no segmentation. and for protection within the operating system pages of memory. The concept of hardware paging is not as complicated as it first seems. I may add demand paging to it at some later point in time. I do use a very small amount of segmentation. and even larger with demand page memory. Compact. and Huge models to accommodate the variety of segmented programming needs. If you are familiar with segmented programming. The program memory model I chose is most analogous to the small memory model where you have two segments. A Few More Words On Segmentation Even though I continue to refer to Intel as the "segmented" processors. the initialized data segment. I depend on the paging hardware very heavily. Making the operating system code zero-based from its own selector is not a necessity. These will never change in MMURTL as long as they are legal on Intel and work-alike processors.

If you get our calculator out. Linear memory is what applications see as their own address space. The map is identical for every Job and Service that is installed. What you don't see. Each entry in a PT is called a page table entry (PTE). which can have 1024 entries. Paging allows us to manage physical and linear memory address with simple table entries. This means we can have 1024 PDEs in the PD. Each PDE is also four bytes long. is that you really do need most of this capability.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome).1.294. The Page Tables that show where the operating system code and data are located get mapped into every job's memory space. (Aren't acronyms fun? Right up there with CTS . It is always on a 4Kb boundary of physical as well as linear addressing.296 (4 GB) You won't need this capability any time soon. and return them to the pool of free pages when they are deallocated. These table entries are used by the hardware to translate (or map) physical memory to what is called linear memory. No. Each PTE is four bytes long. but you need it in pieces. I manage all memory in the processor's address space as pages. Besides. but most of the operating system code – specifically. The kernel itself is never scheduled for execution (sounds like a "slacker. go to your language libraries for this trivial amount of memory. A job's memory space actually begins at the 1GB linear memory mark. That's not too much overhead for what you get out of it.967. Because of this. This 4K page of memory becomes addresses 4096 through 8191 even though it's really sitting up at a physical 16MB address if you had 16 MB of RAM. There are 1024 PTEs in every PT. if I add demand paging to MMURTL's virtual memory. This is done with something called a page directory (PD). Why so high? This gives the operating system one gigabyte of linear memory space. 1024 * 1024 * 4K (4096) = 4. I hand out (allocate) whole pages of memory as they are requested. For instance.runs in the task of the job that called it. each representing 4Kb of physical memory. MMURTL V1.0 -44- RICHARD A BURGESS . Here's the tricky part (like the rest was easy?). With 1024 entries (PTEs) each representing 4 kilobytes. the kernel . My thought was for simplicity and efficiency. it has code and data and a task or two. you'll see that this allows you to map the entire 4 GB linear address space. Each PDE holds the physical address of a Page Table. If you want just a few bytes. an application of a hundred megabytes or more is even conceivable. A page is Four Kilobytes (4Kb) of contiguous memory. but it’s close. Page Directories (PDs) The paging hardware needs a way to find the page tables. You could designed your system with only one page directory if you desire. Each of the PDEs points to a PT." huh?). The operating system itself is technically not a job. Each entry in a PD is called a Page Directory Entry (PDE). Sure. the operating system really doesn't own any of its memory. The operating system is shared by all the other jobs running on the system. its not magic.memory. The Memory Map The operating system code and data are mapped into the bottom of every job's address space. The Map of a single job and the operating system is shown in Table 5. and each application the same thing. Every Job gets its own PD. because I haven't explained it yet. Page Tables (PTs) The tables that hold these translations are called page tables (PTs). one 4K page table can manage 4MB of linear/physical memory. Right? Wrong. we can take the very highest 4K page in physical memory and map it into the application's linear space as the second page of its memory.

each PDE has the physical address of each PT. and it needs it fast. But it was for a good cause (No. However. Code. The operating system uses linear addresses (fake ones) just like the applications do. It needs a fast way to get to them for memory management functions. Exactly 2048 bytes above each real entry in the PD is MMURTL's secret entry with the linear address of the PT. The operating system has no special privileges as far as addressing physical memory goes. If you remember. but when you start talking 10. Read on and see what I did. the secret is out. I could have built a separate table and managed it. You can't just get the value out of CR3 and use it to find the PT because it's the physical address (crash – page fault). The processor then uses the next lower 10 bits in the linear address it's translating as an index into the PT. This is how I use the upper 2 Kb of the page directories. I built the PD and stored the physical address in the Task State Segment field for CR3. Data) 0Gb + operating system Memory 0Gb 0Gb Now the pundits are screaming: "What about the upper 2 gigabytes – it’s wasted!" Well. Well. now we're talking dozens or even hundreds of linear addresses for all the page tables that we can have.0 -45- RICHARD A BURGESS . Of course. In the scheme of things. I didn't give it to the Red Cross). but it does this with very little overhead. MMURTL needs to know the physical address of a PT for aliasing addresses. Now it's got the PTE.Table 5. I wanted to keep the overhead down. It does this by looking at the value you (the OS) put into Control Register CR3. MMURTL V1. Sounds like a lot of work. Sure. CR3 is the physical address of the current PD. the operating system has to know where to find all these tables that are allocated for memory management. Besides. This is fine for one address per job. in a word. or even 30 jobs running it starts to add up. I make this upper 2K a shadow of the lower 2K. certainly less overhead than this explanation).MMURTL Memory Map Description Linear Top Dead address space Linear Max. I keep the linear address of all the PTs there. Now that it knows where the PD is. these entries are marked "not used" so the operating system doesn't take a bad pointer and try to do something with it.1 . The processor translates these linear (fake) addresses into real (physical) addresses by first finding the current Page Directory. The PTE is the physical address of the page it's after. Likewise. Job Allocated Memory Data Code Initial Stack Job Memory DLLs (loadable shared code) Device Drivers OS Allocated memory OS Memory Linear Base Address Range 4Gb -1 byte 2Gb – Linear Top 2Gb (Artificial maximum limit) 1Gb + Job Memory 1Gb + Stack Page(s) + Code Pages 1Gb + Stack Page(s) 1Gb 1Gb (Initial stack. possibly several for each application. but it wasn't needed. you can't just take a physical address out of a PDE and find the PT it points to. yes. Finding the PD for an application is no problem. When I started the application. it uses the upper 10 bits of the linear address it's translating as an index into the PD. The entry it finds is the physical address of the Page Table (PT). 2K doesn't sound like a lot to save. This is fine until you have to update or change a PDE or PTE. then I put the linear address of the PD in the Job Control Block. 20.

is a list of the entries in the PD for the memory map shown in Table 5. Now you need to know how MMURTL actually allocates the linear space in each job or for the OS. The pages are all initially marked Read/Write with the System protection level and the entries automatically show up in all job's memory space because all the operating system page tables are listed in every job's page directory.. 768 769 .. all of the entries with nothing in them are marked not present. MMURTL V1. in Table 5. all the shadow entries are marked not present.. AllocPage(). The low-order 12 bits for a linear address are the same as the last 12 bits for a physical address. Table 5.0 -46- RICHARD A BURGESS . AllocDMAPage() also returns the physical address needed by the user's of DMA. As shown. AllocOSPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. Direct Memory Access hardware on ISA machines can't access physical memory above 16MB. 512 513 . AllocDMAPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the operating system address range. The pages are all initially marked with the user protection level Read/Write. but it ensures that these pages are below the 16MB physical address boundary. 256 257 . Something else the example doesn't show is that the entry for the physical address of the operating system PT (0) is actually an alias (copy) of the page tables set up when memory management was initialized. and how I use the processor's paging hardware. If I desired.. This assumes the operating system consumes only a few PTEs (one-page table maximum)..1.2. but you get the idea. This is 1Gb to 2Gb. AllocPage() allocates contiguous linear pages in the Jobs address range. and AllocDMAPage() are the only calls to allocate memory in MMURTL. It's 20 bits because the last 12 bits of the 32-bit address are below the granularity of a page (4096 bytes). I don't keep duplicate operating system page tables for each job. Allocation of Linear Memory You now know the mechanics of paging on the Intel processors.2 Page Directory Example Entry # 0 1 .. but I was more interested in conservation at this point in time. That would really be a waste.Page Directory Entries (PDEs) I know you're trying to picture this in your mind. They simply don't exist as far as the processor is concerned. If I decided to do it. This is accomplished with three different calls depending what type of memory you want. AllocOSPage(). I could move the shadow information into separate tables and expand the operating system to address and handle 4Gb of memory. What does this make the page directory look like? Below. in fact. This is 0 to 1Gb. it would be transparent to applications anyway. 1023 Description Physical address of operating system PT (PDE 0) Empty PDE Physical address of Job PT Empty PDE Linear Address of operating system PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Linear Address of Job PT (Shadow –marked not present) Empty Shadow PDE Last Empty Shadow PDE This table doesn't show that each entry only has 20 bits for each address and the rest of the bits are for management purposes. The pages are all initially marked with the System protection level Read/Write...

It's more likely you will run out of physical memory (the story of my life). The main goal of physical memory management is simply to ensure you keep track of how much physical memory there is. nor should it try to find out. where the physical memory is located with the exception of DMA users (device drivers). They become part of the operating system and are reached through the standard entry points in the call gate). Deallocation of Linear Memory When pages are deallocated (returned to the operating system). the operating system will attempt to deallocate as many pages as requested which may run into memory that was allocated in another request. If enough free PTEs in a row don't exist. it's unlikely that it won't find a contiguous section of PTEs. there will be no error. They are simply new jobs.All AllocPage() calls first check to see if there are enough physical pages to satisfy the request. it will create a new PT. but only from this caller's memory space. All AllocPage() calls return an address to contiguous linear memory. Device Drivers have code and data. The PAM only shows you which pages of memory are in use.0 -47- RICHARD A BURGESS . I've discussed how MMURTL handles linear addresses. For AllocPage() and AllocOSPage(). MMURTL V1. and DLLs. Now comes that easy part . only that number will be deallocated. The caller is responsible for ensuring that the number of pages in the DeAllocMem() call does not exceed what was allocated. To get this information we must go to the PDs and PTs. but the memory will not be available for later use. With a 1Gb address space. They are actually loaded into the operating system's memory space with freshly allocated operating system pages. you allocate physical memory from the top down. and to keep up family relations I told her I named this array after her). If so. Message-based system services are exactly like applications from a memory standpoint. along with the number of pages to deallocate. This ensures that even if you install a device driver that uses DMA after your applications are up and running. The PAM is similar to a bit allocation map for a disk. If the physical memory exists. which is also my sister's name. It also gets as many pages as it needs for its code. They become part of the operating system in the operating-system address space accessible to everyone. This is allocated along with the new Job Control Block (JCB). the caller passes in a linear address. nor do you even care. and data. but no stack. System Services. If it does. Allocation of Physical Memory The fact that the processor handles translation of linear to physical memory takes a great deal of work away from the OS. Now if I could only afford 64 MB of RAM. Each byte of the array represents eight 4Kb pages (one bit per page). It's loaded into these initial pages. Device drivers. and whether or not it's currently in use. The caller will never know. For AllocDMAPage() you allocate physical memory from the bottom up. must all be loaded into memory somewhere. The array is called the Page Allocation Map (PAM. Physical memory allocation is tracked by pages with a single array. Loading Things Into Memory Applications. This means the PAM would be 512 bytes long for 16 Mb of physical memory. It is not important. there will be physical memory below 16MB available (if any is left at all). then they must find that number of pages as contiguous free entries in one of the PTs. Each application (job) gets it own PD. if pages of memory in a particular job are physically next to each other (with the exception of DMA). It does not tell you whom they belong to. If fewer pages than were allocated are passed in. The current version of MMURTL is designed to handle 64 MB of physical memory which makes the PAM 2048 bytes long. initial stack. The PAM is an array of bytes from 0 to 2047. or will return an error if it's not available. from a previous AllocPage() call. with the least significant bit of byte 0 representing the first physical 4K page in memory (Physical Addresses 0 to 4095).Managing physical memory.

PDs and PTs are always resident (no page swapper yet. Aliasing will only occur for certain operating system structures and messaging other than the aliased page tables in the users Page Directory for the operating system code and data. Memory and Pointer Management for Messaging If you haven't read chapter 4 (Interprocess Communications).0 -48- RICHARD A BURGESS . This also means that the loader must keep track of the PUBLIC names of each call in a DLL and resolve references to them after we load the applications that call them. If it tries to deallocate them. Of course. Operating System page tables are aliased as the first tables in each job's PD and marked as supervisor. the second job has access to other job's data. They have only code. an alias address is actually just a shared PTE. and the service doesn't even know that the pages don't actually belong to him as they "magically" appear inside its linear address space. Some systems allow DLLs to contain data. you'll have to tackle address aliasing. It will still only be 8Kb for a 4Mb application. but at the user's protection level so the service can access it. but that's trivial (a few instructions). the kernel copies a PTE from one job's PT to another job's PT. Instantly. are aliased into the services memory area and are placed in the request block. no data. Memory overhead per application is one thing you will have consider in your design. This means you will have to translate addresses for one program to reach another's data. Messaging and Address Aliases If you design your memory management so that each application has its own independent range of linear addresses. If two programs need to share memory (as they do when using the Interprocess Communications such as Request/Respond messaging). They share physical memory. But this gets away from memory management. DLLs are also loaded into operating system address space. and no stack. then you can also alias addresses using selectors. They are there to be used as shared code only. which means you have to fix-up a pointer or two in the request block. an error will occur. When an application requests a service. the kernel allocates a Request Block from the operating system and returns a handle identifying this request block to the caller. This request block is allocated in operating system memory space. The user's two pointers pData1 and pData2. you should do it before you read this section. I wanted them to be fully re-entrant with no excuses. how could they be swapped?).Dynamic Link Libraries are the weird ones. This will make more sense if you do. Paging makes messaging faster and easier. but the pages they occupy are marked executable by user level code. A PTE that is aliased is marked as such and can't be deallocated or swapped until the alias is dissolved. This is 8 Kb of initial memory management overhead for each job. The memory management aspects of the request/respond messaging process work like this: The caller makes a request The Request() primitive (on the caller's side) does the following: Allocates a request block Returns a request handle to the caller Places the following into the RqBlk: linear address of pData1 (if not 0) linear address of pData2 (if not 0) sizes of the pData1 and 2 pointer to caller's Job Control Block MMURTL V1. This means they can be accessed from the user's code with near calls. There is no new allocation of physical memory. If you decide you want to use the full segmentation capabilities of the Intel processors. With a page based system such as MMURTL. The Intel documentation has a very good description of this process. Of course they probably won't be at the same linear address. This can introduce re-reentrancy problems.

Jobs can deallocate one or more pages at a time. When it's done its work. Summary of MMURTL Memory Management The key points to remember and think about when pondering my memory-management scheme (and how you can learn from it. The programmer tracks his own memory usage. the application programmer needs to know the following: The minimum amount of allocated memory is 4Kb (one page). Linear address of the PD is kept in the Job Control Block. Only those of you that will brave the waters and write your own operating system will have to consider documentation directed at the programmers. it responds. They don't need to know any of this at all to write a program for MMURTL. One or more PTs for the OS.0 -49- RICHARD A BURGESS . reading & writing data to the caller's memory areas. switching tasks if needed The Wait() primitive (on the service's side): Adds aliases to the service's Page Table(s) for pData1 and 2 Places aliased linear addresses into RqBlk Returns the message to the service The service does its thing using the aliased pointers. How they see the interface is very important. What does all this mean to the applications programmer? Not much I'm afraid. Places the message on the caller's response exchange. Memory is allocated in 4Kb increments (pages). Reevaluates the ready queue (switch tasks if needed). One or more Page Tables (PT) for each Job. Physical memory is tracked with a bit map. MMURTL V1. OS PTs are MAPPED into every Job's Page Directory by making entries in the Job's PD. For MMURTL. use it.Service Code Response Exchange dData0 and dData1 Places a message on the Service's exchange with the Request handle in it Schedules the service for execution Reevaluates the ready queue. The respond() primitive (on the service's side) does the following: Removes the aliased memory from the service's PTs. or use pieces of it) are: One Page Directory (PD) for each job. Jobs can allocate one or more pages at a time. The Wait() primitive (back on the caller's side): passes the response message to the caller. OS uses upper 2Kb of each PD for linear addresses of PTs.

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This affects everything from the programmatic interfaces. and physical device nomenclatures to the code that will be below this abstraction layer (which is actually controlling the hardware). You provide a common. It executes your instructions. Any additional layers between the users of the hardware and the hardware itself adds to size and reduces the speed of the interface. An important consideration is how the processor stores and manipulates its data . One other thing this may affect is how you manipulate the stack or access data that is on it. Other methods may be in the form of registers that you can read to gather information on the state of the processor. but that doesn't mean that you won't. and it simply runs. The CPU has well defined methods of communicating with the operating system. aside from the instructions you give it. and the most significant at the lowest. The most common. although I never thought so. Not even device driver writers have to know about the hardware aspects. This chapter discusses your approach to hardware interfaces and highlights some of he pitfalls to avoid. Your assembler and compilers will take care of all the details of this for you. the operating system provides access to hardware for the programs on the system. you can port the operating system to almost any platform. Hardware Interface As a resource manager. Therefore. You need to define logical device nomenclatures from the operating system's point of view. But there's always more than meets the eye. and speed. MMURTL V1. The two that are obvious are code size. I haven't run into any timing problems I could attribute to caching. I don't recommend you try to implement a complete hardware isolation layer without having all of the documentation for the target platforms you intend to support. Most 32-bit CPUs have relatively large internal instruction and data caches. Some processors store the least significant byte of a four byte integer at the highest memory address of the four bytes. The most obvious place this is evident is in the video arena. in theory. to interoperability with other systems. Little-ENDian" problem when dealing with the exchange of information across networks or in data files. This concept is called hardware abstraction or hardware isolation. The implementation of this hardware isolation layer also means that you must thoroughly investigation all of the platforms you intend to target. Don't use any fancy non-standard functions that might not be supported on some platforms – for example. The Intel and compatible CPUs have been referred to as "backward" in this respect. You can keep your device interfaces as hardware non-specific as possible. there are drawbacks to this idea. Adding a somewhat bulky layer between a program and the video hardware definitely slows down operation. or tasks that are running (or running so poorly). however. The interface can be designed above or below the device driver interface. jumps where you tell it. and if you've worked with the processor for any length of time it will be second nature. As good as it sounds. Hardware Isolation The concept of isolating the operating system (and the programmer) from directly accessing or having to control the hardware is a good idea. This is often referred to as the "Big-ENDian. it implies an additional programmatic interface layer between the hardware and the parts of the operating system that control it. I have learned how to enable and disable caching on the systems I work with for the purposes of debugging.0 -51- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 6. as long as it has similar hardware to accomplish the required functions. Timing issues are also involved with the CPU. These types of caches can affect timing of certain OS-critical functions.how it is accessed in memory. This well-defined interface has no hardware-specific information required for its operation from the point of view of the operating system. well defined interface to do things like move data to and from a device. or for specific timing requirements. memory-to-memory DMA transfers. is the interrupt or trap. The most elegant method (and the most difficult) is when it is done below the device driver code. The CPU The interface to the Central Processor Unit (CPU) seems almost transparent.

The connections between busses are usually through gated devices that will be turned on and off depending on who is accessing what bus. the PC-ISA bus is really quite crippled compared to the CPU bus. I refer to this bus as the interface bus. PCI. or control lines that are found on the main or CPU bus. There are many extensions to this bus . such as those dealing with interrupts. I've tried both methods. and especially the interface bus. which determines where in memory is being read from or written to or which I/O device is being accessed. They are actually very forgiving devices. which carries the values that are read from and written to memory or I/O devices. Most varieties of these devices are very similar. It would help you to be familiar with the basic bus structures on your target hardware platform. I read many books about my target processor. which means not being able to handle all your interrupts in a timely fashion. On smaller systems.An important point concerning the CPU interface is how you handle interrupts.0 -52- RICHARD A BURGESS . Quite honestly. but I found the most valuable. With some CPUs you can actually switch tasks on a hardware interrupt instead of just calling a procedure. These actions are under hardware control so you generally don't have to worry about them.some proposed. The most common is the relatively low-speed. the main bus may be composed solely of the CPU signals. in that case. internal bus. along with things like processor interrupt lines and clock signals. Only half of the data lines make their way out to this bus (it's really a 16-bit bus). Serial I/O Many forms of serial Input/Output exist. There is no source of information like the manufacturer's documentation to familiarize yourself with all of the aspects of the CPU. The most obvious to note is the bus from the CPU to the rest of the computer system. ISA. make sure you understand the capabilities of the platform you're working with. The RS232 device driver included with the MMURTL operating system should prove valuable to you. the external interface bus is called the Industry Standard Architecture. You really don't need to know the exact hardware layouts for these busses and signals. they are fairly explicit about the effect of certain instructions concerning some of these signal lines. For instance. The first set is the data bus. Other devices besides communications channels may also be controlled through UARTs. This is called the main bus. The CPU bus is usually connected to the main bus. This is handy. The CPU bus is usually comprised of three distinct sets of signals for most processors. I've had to "drop back 10 yards and punt" a time or two. but it can consume a good deal of valuable bandwidth. address. The second is the address bus. EISA. or ISA Bus. Multibus. and I recommend interrupt procedures over interrupt tasks if at all possible. This gets into the issue of interrupt latency. the control bus usually carries a wide variety of signals. and some that are available now. Switching the complete hardware and software context of a task for every interrupt will simply slow you down. On the PC-ISA platforms. The electronic devices that handle asynchronous communications are called UARTs (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters). no matter which device you must code. were purchased directly from the processor manufacturer. Your interpretation of their documentation may be superior to that of those who write secondary books on these topics (like mine). including read and write access lines for memory and I/O. The Bus Structure A bus is a collection of electrical signals that are routed through a computer system between components. just to name a few. The interface bus may not carry all of the data. These may include the keyboard or a mouse port to name few. and not all of the I/O addresses or interrupt lines can be accessed on this bus. The bus structure on any hardware platform is usually comprised of several buses. or CPU bus. the CPU bus and the main bus are the same. Bus designs are usually based on standards and given names or numbers such as IEEE-696. and they take much of the drudgery away from the programmer that is implementing serial communications. MMURTL V1. Finally. and most useful. Before you plan some grand interface scheme. The CPU bus will not usually be the bus that is connected directly to the external interface devices that you must control. asynchronous serial communications (RS-232). but in some of the processor documentation.

but is really a device connected to the bus. simply because they are transferring information one byte or one word at a time instead of a single bit at a time in a serial fashion. Block-Oriented Devices Block-oriented devices can include disk drives. Unlike UART devices. Parallel buses can move data faster. the infamous Centronics interface). and all you do to transfer the block is write or read those addresses then tell the device you're done. This is done by repetitively reading the status registers on the UART/USART in a loop. I recommend that you forget about polling and stick with interrupts. the method is determined by the interface hardware (the disk or tape controller hardware.25 (an international link and network layer standard). to determine when one byte ends and the next begins. Programmed I/O uses special instructions to send data to what appears to be an address. but still very important. which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. during unused portions of the CPU clock cycle.0 -53- RICHARD A BURGESS . The interfaces to these devices enable large volumes (blocks) of data to be moved between the devices and memory in a rapid fashion. Another method is shared memory blocks – a process in which a hardware device actually takes up a portion of your physical address space. Another way is programmed I/O. They have no way. are synchronous communications such as those used with X. The processor may even have some form of high-speed string instructions to enable you send blocks of data to this array of pseudo addresses. to name a few. SDLC. Buffered USARTs assist with this issue. a delay causes them to abort the frame they're working on and send an error instead. If you have a platform that communicates with its users through external terminals. If you intend to design a true multitasking system. Quite often. Parallel I/O Parallel Input/Output may include devices for printer interface (e. Concentrate on the efficiency of all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs) on your system. The major difference between these forms of block-data transfer is the consumption of CPU time (bandwidth). in many cases. This block movement of data is accomplished in one of several ways. This is how the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface works on the PC-ISA systems. You will usually not have a choice as to which method you use. Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one method.. All these synchronous communications standards have one thing in common from the operating system writer's point of view: critical timing. USARTs generally expect the device driver to provide these packets with very little delay. or even memory to memory. Keyboard The keyboard may or may not be a part of the hardware to control on your system. they are much easier to control than serial devices because they have fewer communications options. and tape drives. or network card). which is available on some processors such as the Intel series. MMURTL V1. These devices provide interrupt-driven capabilities just like the serial devices. except for the hardware clock timing. The concept of polling a device means that your device driver or program always is there to continually check on the device to see when it needs attention. you must ensure that you can get out the entire frame (byte by byte) without a large delay factor involved between each byte. In fact. the IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). even the main bus may be accessible as a parallel interface of sorts (this is most common on laptops and notebook computers). and on some systems. DMA uses the least CPU bandwidth because it's a hardware device designed to transfer data between memory and devices. but how your operating system implements its tasking model and its ISRs (interrupt service routines) will have a large effect on its ability to handle these types of devices.g. USART (the added "S" is for synchronous) devices are very timing critical. or HDLC. They work with frames or packets of data. Therefore.Less commonly found. you may simply have to deal with a serial device driver. network frame handlers. The issue of polling versus interrupt-driven control of communications devices crops up in documentation you read about UARTs and USARTs.

A common resolution on many systems is 1280 x 1024. Bit-mapped graphics-based systems are much more complicated to deal with. Keyboard users prefer a familiar set of codes to work with such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information interchange). All the output would be via a serial port. This is especially true for the IBM PC-AT compatible platforms. Manufacturers provide methods to allow these arrays to occupy the same physical address space. This consumes the least amount of your address space. Quite often. and you will need to know how to set it up and operate the device. This could consume a vast amount of memory. Your tasking model and your programmatic interfaces will determine how this is accomplished. Nothing infuriates an experienced user more than an undersized typeahead buffer or losing keystrokes. If this is the case. Each bit array is on its own plane. The keyboard on many systems is preprogrammed to provide series of bytes based on some translation table within the keyboard microprocessor. ASCII) that the video hardware translates into individual scan lines on-screen to form the characters.500 bytes of memory space. Video hardware manufacturers realize this. and can consume a much larger area of your address space. Graphics systems must have an address for each bit or Pixel (Picture element) of information you wish to manipulate or display. Then they break video memory into four or more sections. The two basic forms of video display are character-based and bit-mapped graphics. Keyboard handling in a multitasking system can present some pretty interesting problems.On many systems. You can even perform a CPU hardware reset through these same control ports. This is known as planar pixel access. most platforms have the video hardware built in or directly accessible through the interface bus. you have direct access to "video memory" somewhere in the array of physical addresses that your CPU can reach. the keyboard hardware will be accessed through I/O port (or memory address). Interrupts are the normal method for the keyboard device to tell you that a key has been struck. In a monochrome system with a decent resolution. this only consumes 4000 bytes. this can be 600 or more bits across and as many as 500 vertically. One byte per character and maybe one byte for the character's color or attribute is required. and they give you a way to switch between the arrays.0 -54- RICHARD A BURGESS .. this video memory will contain character codes (e. devices perform more than one function on a particular platform. Another method is to make each nibble of a byte represent the four color bits for each displayed bit on-screen. In most cases. but you must realize the importance of this device. Many books have been written on control of video hardware. On the PC-ISA platform. I suppose you can imagine the veins popping out on my forehead when I reach the huge 15 keystroke limit of MS-DOS. This requires an interrupt service routine. the keyboard is an integral part of the hardware. 600 x 500 divided by 8(size of a byte in bits)=37. Video Like the keyboard. the keyboard hardware is tightly integrated into the system. On an 80-column-by-25-line display. If you want 16 colors for each bit.g. and even the device manufacturer's manuals (builders of the integrated circuits). and MMURTL V1. Each of these requires a completely different approach to how you interface video with your operating system. or Unicode. This hardware is usually a small processor or a UART/CPU combination. which is a relatively new multi-byte international standard. is worth more than I can indicate to you. this would require three additional arrays to provide the independent color information. However. In character-based systems. It's worth repeating that having the manufacturer's documentation for the platform. you may not have any video hardware at all if your user I/O is through external terminals. One of these is how to assign and distinguish between multiple programs asking for keystrokes. In fact. The keyboard can usually be treated as just another device on your system as far as a standardized interface. You are responsible for the translations required from the keyboard device if they aren't already in the desired format. the keyboard serial device allows more than just keyboard interaction. There are certain aspects of video hardware you need to understand because the direct hardware interaction on your platform will affect things like memory-management techniques that you must design or implement.

I considered future video and graphics requirements with MMURTL. which takes care of the synchronization and details of DMA programming. this code will be of little use to you after the system is booted. the video ROM's only purpose is to test and setup the video hardware during the testing and initialization phases of the boot process. How much memory you require will be determined by what methods your video hardware uses. The code for these two calls is shown below.” I also gave users high level calls to set up the DMA hardware for a move. This code may also be useless if it will not execute properly in your system (e. Programmers that write device drivers have often faced the chore of learning all the intricacies of DMA hardware. Direct memory access is a hardware device that operates outside of the virtual address translations that may be taking place within the paging hardware of the processor or external PMMU (paged memory management unit). I was interested in character-based. I provided a method to allocate memory that returns the physical address they require which I touched on in chapter 5. and I also allocated memory for large graphics arrays during initialization. “Video Code. except maybe an embedded system board. MMURTL V1. The efficiency of your video routines has a large effect on the apparent system speed as seen by the user. The DMA hardware calls are SetUpDMA(). Make certain that the video documentation you acquire documents hardware access and not simply access to the code found in ROM. and to query the status of the move. which is hardwarecontrolled on character based systems.. you'll have no problems. DMA hardware also requires that the programmer know the physical addresses with which they are working. For a 256-color system. I'll show you what I provided for users of DMA. Only one plane of the total memory consumes your address space. you need to take graphics into consideration even if you build a character-based system first. taking into account the differences in control registers and commands on the target system's DMA hardware. Other aspects of the video subsystem will also require your attention. non-overlapping video users. “Memory Management.500 bytes (using the 600 x 500 size sample). however. The concept of a message-based operating system plays well into event-driven program control (such as a windowing system). DMA devices have several control lines that connect to the CPU and to the devices that use it. and your tasking model. because the video interface cards have RAM that they switch in and out of your address space. 16-bit code in a 32-bit system). I even cheated a little and left the video subsystem set up the way the boot ROM left it because it suited my purposes. Chapter 26. but this means that the programmers must be well versed on the DMA hardware-control requirements. interprocess communications.allow you to switch between them. If the programmers all follow the rules for programming the DMA hardware to the letter. Your graphics implementation might have an effect on your memory management design or even your tasking model. In this age of graphics-based systems and graphical user interfaces. and GetDMACount(). Even though they have paralleled access to this memory.” describes each of the calls I designed for the video interface. These methods of displaying video information require you to allocate an array of OS-managed memory that is for the video display subsystem. The video hardware must usually be programmed to tell it where this memory is located. have to research hardware cursor control. I took this into consideration also. This is known as packed pixel access.0 -55- RICHARD A BURGESS . These control lines provide the necessary "handshakes" between the device and the DMA hardware. With minimal changes you could use this code on almost any system. In a multitasking system that may have several DMA users.000 bytes. I recommend you purchase a book that details the video hardware that you intend to control long before you implement your memory management. multiple. Video-handling code may even be provided in the form of a BIOS ROM (Basic Input/Output System). I did.g. the operating system must ensure harmony between these users. In many cases. That equates to 600. Direct Memory Access (DMA) You'll find DMA hardware on almost all platforms you work with. this would be 16 planes at 37. In some cases. Your requirements will more than likely be different. and timing when you write to the video display area. This includes cursor positioning. it is still a vast amount of memory to access. One thing I should mention is that many video subsystems may provide video code in ROM to control their hardware. A better plan is to provide users with a programmatic interface to use the DMA hardware.

Read Status/Write Command .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits DMA1MskBts EQU 0Fh . DACK1 (etc. DMA 1 Port addresses and page registers DMA10Add EQU 00h . DMA 2 Port addresses DMA20Add DMA20Cnt DMA21Add DMA21Cnt DMA22Add DMA22Cnt DMA23Add DMA23Cnt DMA2StatCmd DMA2RqReg DMA2RCmdWbm DMA2Mode DMA2FF DMA2Clear DMA2ClrMode DMA2MskBts EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 0C0h 0C2h 0C4h 0C6h 0C8h 0CAh 0CCh 0CEh 0D0h 0D2h 0D4h 0D6h 0D8h 0DAh 0DCh 0DEh .Read Command/Write Single bit mask . The following equates are the register addresses for these two devices on ISA hardware. but the standard include file MOSEDF.0 -56- RICHARD A BURGESS . address bits 16-1 are placed in the address registers.Ch 2 Address .Ch 2 Word Count DMA13Add EQU 06h . With word.Ch 3 Word Count DMA1StatCmd EQU 08h . .Read Status/Write Command DMA1RqReg EQU 09h .Ch 0 Word Count .Ch 3 Word Count .Read/Write DMA Rq Register DMA1RCmdWbm EQU 0Ah .DATA . The page registers determine which 64K or 128K section of memory is being accessed. One of the channels from the second device is fed into a channel on the first device.Read/Write DMA Rq Register .DMA Page register by DRQ/DACK number DMAPage0 DMAPage1 EQU 87h EQU 83h . and the page register is the next most significant byte (bits 23-16).Ch 0 Address DMA10Cnt EQU 01h .CODE With 8-bit DMA. etc.DMA DACK0 Page register . There really is no data segment for DMA.========== DMA Equates for DMA and PAGE registers ========= .Ch 3 Address .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) .The code is larger than it could be because I have expanded out each channel instead of using a simple table for the registers.Ch 1 Address .Write causes MASTER Clear (Read from Temp Reg) DMA1ClrMode EQU 0Eh .) MMURTL V1.Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register . Optimize it as you please. DMA moves (channels 5-7). .Ch 1 Word Count DMA12Add EQU 04h .Rd clears mode reg count/Wr Clr ALL mask bits .Ch 2 Address DMA12Cnt EQU 05h .Ch 1 Address DMA11Cnt EQU 03h .Read/Write Mode register DMA1FF EQU 0Ch . This is called a cascaded device.INC .Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop .Ch 1 Word Count .Ch 2 Word Count . the lower word (bits 15-0) is placed into the address registers of the DMA.INC is used for error codes that may be returned to the caller. There are two 4-channel DMA devices. while 23-17 are put in the page register. etc. Bit 16 is ignored by the page register.Writing this address clears byte ptr flip flop DMA1Clear EQU 0Dh .INCLUDE MOSEDF.Ch 0 Address .Read/Write DMA Rq Mask Register .Read/Write Mode register .Read Command/Write Single bit mask DMA1Mode EQU 0Bh .Ch 0 Word Count DMA11Add EQU 02h .Ch 3 Address DMA13Cnt EQU 07h .

sdMem. so they always specify byte count for the setup call. AL OUT DMA2ClrMode. .DMAPage2 EQU 81h DMAPage3 EQU 82h DMAPage5 EQU 8Bh DMAPage6 EQU 89h DMAPage7 EQU 8Ah The following internal call sets up the initial DMA channel values for both chips to most probable use. as you might assume). The caller sets the type of DMA operation (In. AL .CH 1 DMA 1 & 2 . AL XOR AL. AL OUT DMA2Mode.AL OUT DMA1ClrMode. I do this for the caller. AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. and data is moved into the lower part of the current 64K segment (not into the next segment.6 and 7. This includes the cascade mode for generic channel 4. . 43h OUT DMA1Mode. or 128K boundaries for a word move. .CH 3 DMA 1 & 2 . which is DMA channel 0 on DMA chip 2. AL OUT DMA2Mode. If they do. the segment is wrapped around. (Cascade Mode) MOV AL.CH 2 DMA 1 & 2 . . Out. . AL OUT DMA2Mode.0 -57- RICHARD A BURGESS . .MASTER CLEAR (same as hardware reset) . AL MOV AL. DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. .Master disable OUT DMA1StatCmd. DMA is crippled because it can't move data across 64K physical boundaries for a byte-oriented move. 04 . Verify). AL MOV AL. AL RETN . AL OUT DMA2StatCmd. For channels 5. AL OUT DMA1Clear.Enable ALL DMA 1 Channels . I left it up to the caller to know if their physical addresses violate this rule. .All commands set to default (0) . AL OUT DMA2Clear. dType. 40h DMA1Mode. AL XOR AL. AL XOR AL. The PUBLIC call DMSASetUp() follows: . 0C0h DMA2Mode. dChannel. even on word moves. .CH 0 DMA 2 . 41h OUT DMA1Mode. 42h OUT DMA1Mode.CH 0 DMA 1 . . This is called one time during initialization of the operating system. PUBLIC InitDMA: MOV AL. AL AL. AL MOV OUT MOV OUT AL. dMode) EBP+ 28 24 20 16 12 dPhyMem is physical memory address sdMem is nBytes to move (STILL bytes for word xfers.Enable ALL DMA 2 Channels The PUBLIC call DMASetUp() sets up a single DMA channel for the caller. the address and count must be divided by two for the DMA hardware. AL OUT DMA1StatCmd. we do math) MMURTL V1. .

Set to Verify by default (low bits 0) CMP EAX.Jump table for channel selection . OR read command to BL (OUT) JMP DMASelect DMAWrite: OR BL. Mode must be < 4 JB DMAModeOK MOV EAX. dMode CMP EAX. [EBP+20] CMP EAX. Check fType (Verify?) JE DMASelect . PUBLIC __DMASetUp: PUSH EBP . MOV EAX. 5 JE DMA5 CMP EAX. dChannel (0.. 2 Block.6. OR with MODE . 1 Single Cycle. ErcDMAChannel JMP DMAEnd DMA0: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT AL. 00001000b .0 Demand Mode.2. (Floppy Disk I/O uses 1) . dType . [EBP+16] . 00000000b AL. AL . BL DMA1Mode. AL AL.0 = Verify. [EBP+12] . MMURTL V1. CH0 (CH is last 2 bits) . 1 = In (Write Mem). Lo byte address . OR write command to BL (IN) DMASelect: MOV EAX. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) .0 -58- RICHARD A BURGESS .7) .5. Yes (if no then fall thru to Read) DMARead: OR BL. 6 JE DMA6 CMP EAX. 2 JE DMA2 CMP EAX. . 1 .1. [EBP+28] DMA10Add. 6 . 0 JE DMA0 CMP EAX. dPhyMem . AL DMA1FF. AL EAX. 7 JE DMA7 MOV EAX. get dType AND BL. channel 0 Set Mask for DRQ . Put it in BL MOV EAX. MOV EBP. . AL .3.ESP . 0C0h . 1 JE DMA1 CMP EAX. 3 Cascade . 3 JE DMA3 CMP EAX. ErcDMAMode JMP DMAEnd DMAModeOK: SHL EAX. 2 = Out (Read memory) . AL EAX. 04 . 00000100b . dMode . Yes CMP EAX. 0 . In? (Write) JE DMAWrite . Hi Byte . 00000100b DMA1RCmdWbm. 8 DMA10Add. Move Mode bits to 6 and 7 MOV BL.

channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . 00000110b DMA1RCmdWbm. dPhyMem . AL EAX. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. 00000000b DMA1RcmdWbm. OR with MODE/TYPE . Hi Byte . 8 DMAPage1. AL AL. Lo byte address . sdMem . AL DMA1FF. [EBP+24] EAX DMA11Cnt. channel 0 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. 8 DMA12Add. AL EAX. Lo byte address . AL EAX.0 -59- RICHARD A BURGESS . dPhyMem . 00000101b DMA1RCmdWbm. Hi Byte . 8 DMAPage0. Highest byte (to page register) . 8 DMAPage2. AL EAX. AL DMA1FF. AL . 8 DMA11Add. BL DMA1Mode. 8 DMA10Cnt. AL AL. [EBP+24] EAX DMA12Cnt. AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . AL AL. AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA10Cnt. sdMem . AL EAX. AL EAX. Highest byte (to page register) . AL EAX. AL AL. EAX DMAEnd . 00000001b DMA1RcmdWbm. channel 1 Set Mask for DRQ . AL EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ MMURTL V1. 00000010b AL. CH1 . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . [EBP+28] DMA12Add. AL AL. EAX DMAEnd . 00000010b DMA1RcmdWbm. BL DMA1Mode. AL EAX. 8 DMA12Cnt.SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA1: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP DMA2: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI EAX. 8 DMA11Cnt. CH2 . OR with MODE . AL EAX. [EBP+28] DMA11Add. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . AL EAX. 00000001b AL.

Highest byte (to page register) . sdMem . 0FFFFh EAX. EAX JMP DMAEnd DMA3: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV OUT SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP AL. AL EAX. AL EAX. [EBP+24] EAX DMA13Cnt. channel 1 DMA2 Set Mask for DRQ . 00000001b AL. AL EAX. . 8 DMA13Add. [EBP+28] DMA13Add. AL DMA2FF. AL AL. channel 1 Clear Mask for DRQ -60- RICHARD A BURGESS . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . 00000101b DMA2RCmdWbm. 8 DMA13Cnt. Hi Byte . OR with MODE . AL EAX. Lo byte address . dPhyMem . We only need 23-17 for the page Highest byte (to page register) sdMem DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer One less word . . AL AL. . MMURTL V1. OR with MODE . EAX DMAEnd . . 1 EAX DMA21Cnt. AL EAX. CH1 on DMA 2 . AL AL. BL DMA2Mode. [EBP+24] EAX. 1 DMA21Add.XOR EAX. Hi Byte . 8 DMA21Add. BL DMA1Mode. 15 DMAPage5. AL EAX. AL AL. 8 DMA21Cnt. . Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . . EBX EAX. . AL EAX. AL EAX. 00000111b DMA1RCmdWbm. 00000011b AL. 8 DMAPage3.0 AL. 00000011b DMA1RcmdWbm. 00000001b DMA2RcmdWbm. CH3 . AL EAX. AL EAX. . [EBP+28] EBX. AL DMA1FF. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) dPhyMem Save EBX for page Rid of all but lower 16 DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer (bits 16-1) Lo byte address .NOTE: DMA channels 5-7 are on DMA2 and numbered 1-3 for chip select purposes DMA5: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . EAX DMAEnd . AL EAX. . EAX EAX. AL EAX.

sdMem . AL EAX.EBP MMURTL V1. BL DMA2Mode. [EBP+24] EAX. Rid of all but lower 16 . EAX . DMA7: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR DMAEnd: MOV ESP. OR with MODE . 1 EAX DMA23Cnt. 1 EAX DMA22Cnt. AL EAX. Hi Byte . AL EAX. Rid of all but lower 16 .DMA6: CLI MOV OUT MOV OR OUT OUT MOV MOV AND SHR OUT SHR OUT MOV SHR OUT MOV SHR DEC OUT SHR OUT MOV OUT STI XOR JMP . Highest byte (to page register) . EBX EAX. 15 DMAPage6.0 AL. 00000010b DMA2RcmdWbm. AL EAX. 1 DMA22Add. channel 3 Set Mask for DRQ . Lo byte address . 8 DMA22Add. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 0FFFFh EAX. channel 2 Clear Mask for DRQ AL. AL EAX. channel 2 Set Mask for DRQ . 00000011b AL. CH2 on DMA 2 . 00000111b DMA2RCmdWbm. AL AL. OR with MODE . AL DMA2FF. 00000110b DMA2RCmdWbm. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . AL EAX. AL EAX. 8 DMA23Add. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . 15 DMAPage6. AL EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . 8 DMA22Cnt. AL DMA2FF. [EBP+28] EBX. [EBP+24] EAX. BL DMA2Mode. Highest byte (to page register) . [EBP+28] EBX. AL EAX. EAX EAX. CH3 on DMA 2 . channel 3 Clear Mask for DRQ . EAX EAX. DIV by 2 for WORD Xfer . Hi Byte . 1 DMA23Add. 0FFFFh EAX. dPhyMem . 8 DMA23Cnt. 00000010b AL. AL EAX. Lo byte address . EBX EAX. AL EAX. AL AL. Clear FlipFLop (Val in AL irrelevant) . dPhyMem . AL AL. 00000011b DMA2RcmdWbm. EAX DMAEnd . sdMem . AL EAX. -61- RICHARD A BURGESS . AL AL.

. you may not always be moving a fixed-size block. [EBP+16] MOV ESI.POP EBP RETF 20 .2. dChannel (0.5. DMA12Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC3: CMP EAX.. no error from the floppy controller). DMA10Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC1: CMP EAX. the device you are transferring data to or from will usually interrupt you to let you know it's done. you can assume that the block was moved if the device status says everything went smoothly (e. EBP+ 16 12 .3. pwCountRet is a pointer to a Word (2 byte unsigned value) where .Return address for count . 6 JNE SHORT DMAC7 MOV DX. pwCountRet) . this is bytes. The count is number of WORDS-1 .7) . . for channels 5-7 and BYTES-1 for channels 0-3. . 0 JNE SHORT DMAC1 MOV DX. DMA11Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC2: CMP EAX. 1 JNE SHORT DMAC2 MOV DX. .0 . DMA21Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC6: CMP EAX. -62- RICHARD A BURGESS . You should note that this value will read one less byte or word than is really left in the channel. . 5 JNE SHORT DMAC6 MOV DX. . you actually set the channel byte count 65. DMA22Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC7: MOV DX. . PUBLIC __GetDMACount: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . For channels 5 through 7. [EBP+12] DMACSelect: CMP EAX. GetDMACount(dChannel. 7 MMURTL V1.Channel . On some devices. .535: . DMA13Cnt JMP SHORT DMACDoIt DMAC5: CMP EAX. 20 bytes of junk to dump After the DMA call has been made. In this case. 3 JNE SHORT DMAC5 MOV DX.6.ESP MOV EAX.g. DMA23Cnt CMP EAX. . This is because 0 = 1 for setup purposes. the count will be returned. you will have to check the DMA controller and see just how many bytes or words were moved when you receive the interrupt. 2 JNE SHORT DMAC3 MOV DX. .1. In cases where you always move a fixed size block such as a floppy disk. GetDMACount() returns the number of bytes or words left in the DMA count register for the channel specified. this will be the number of words. For channels 0 through 3. . To move 64K.

ErcDMAChannel MOV ESP. In the process of an interrupt.AL STI MOV WORD PTR [ESI]. many devices interrupt the processor. Quite often. There are instructions to tell the PICU when your interrupt service routine is finished and interrupts can begin again.DX MOV CL. Your job is to know how to program the PICU. which determines the interrupt interval. The PICU takes care of this for you. and ways to tell the PICU how to prioritize all of the interrupt lines that it services. You can generally set a divisor value to regulate how fast this register is decremented to zero. . A hardware interrupt is a signal from a device that tells the CPU (the operating system) that it needs servicing of some sort. and read as required. Usually. If you have timers that perform system functions for the hardware.DX MOV CH.JE SHORT DMACDoIt MOV EAX. but it is critical that it's done correctly. . As you can imagine (or will have realized). Therefore. . but you must generally set values to indicate what will be placed on the bus. Some platforms may provide multiple hardware timers that you can access.0 -63- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. One or more of these timers may be dedicated to hardware functions on the system board. and also has the logic to select one of these incoming signals to actually interrupt the CPU. This is not very complicated. A hardware timer is basically a clock or stopwatch-like device that you can program to interrupt you either once. These timers may be for things like DMA refresh or some form of external bus synchronization. The device that handles all of the devices that may interrupt. Priority Interrupt Controller Unit (PICU) The PICU is a very common device found on most platforms. The operating system may. ways to tell the PICU to block a single interrupt. Internally.AL IN AL.No such channel! . . these devices allow you to read this register to obtain the countdown value at any time. or at least make sure it doesn't interfere with them after they have been set up by ROM initialization prior to boot time. No Error . be responsible to program these dedicated timers. however. some form of multiplexing that takes place on the CPU interrupt signal line. and not available to the operating system interrupt mechanisms directly.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 DMACDoIt: CLI IN AL. This interval or time period can range from microseconds to seconds. program. Almost everything you do will be based around an interrupt from a hardware timer. . CX XOR EAX. . . hardware timers have a counting device (a register) that is usually decremented based on a system-wide clock signal.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . .CX has words/bytes left in DMA . the CPU must know which device is interrupting it so it can dispatch the proper Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). and eventually feeds one signal to the CPU is the PICU. or even hours in some cases. 20 bytes of junk to dump . This ISR is usually performed by the CPU which places a value on the data lines when the CPU acknowledges the interrupt. they will more than likely be initialized at boot time and you can forget them. A PICU has several lines that look like the CPU interrupt line to the devices. the processor has one or two electrical signal lines that external hardware uses to indicate an interrupt. or at set intervals. EAX MOV ESP. . 8 bytes to dump from the stack Timers Hardware timers are a very important piece of any operating system.

You will need the hardware manual for code examples.0 -64- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1.All of this information will be very specific to the PICU that your platform uses.

memory. This device will. The only hardware platform I've researched for the purpose of learning how to boot an operating system is the IBM-PC ISA-compatible system.0 -65- RICHARD A BURGESS . it executes from a reset state. and important structures. I've done all your homework. Your operating system’s tasking and memory models may differ from MMURTL’s. because this address is executed by a boot ROM. This can be done in more than one step if required. In this chapter. which you can apply to most systems in a generic fashion. This information can be found in the processor hardware manual. It is usually the first logical sector of the disk. 512 bytes (standard hardware sector size on many systems) is not a heck of a lot of code. or in the processor programming manual from the manufacturer. The boot ROM is read-only memory that contains just enough code to do a basic system initialization and load (boot) the operating system. then jumping to the first address of the sector. This will give you a very good head start on your studies. This is known as a multistage boot. MMURTL V1. Getting Booted If you've ever done any research on how an operating system gets loaded from disk. This amounts to reading a sector into a fixed address in memory. how does it load a file (the operating system)? It generally doesn't .at least not as a file from the file system. For this reason. In other words." that's exactly what I mean. and it's not exactly easy. including hardware. If you're using another platform. this is known as the Boot Sector of the disk or diskette. be organized with a file system. the boot sector code may load another. more complicated. but the basic steps to get your operating system up and running will be very similar. The question is. Consider that the boot ROM code knows little or nothing about the file system. To be honest. This small amount of boot sector code has to know how to get the operating system loaded and executed. it's not everyday someone wants to write an operating system. then go through each section of the basic initialization. If you're using a PC ISA-compatible platform. In the PC world. the first executed address is usually somewhere at the high end of physical memory. The operating system will be located on a disk or other block-oriented device. you'll have to do some research. When I say "just enough code. I'm going to give you a good idea what you need to know. then execute it.) The operating system writer may not really need to know the processor’s initial execution address. Boot ROM When a processor is first powered up. OS Initialization Initializing an operating system is much more complicated than initializing a single program. The processor's purpose is to execute instructions. loader program that in turn loads the operating system. If this is true. no doubt.Chapter 7. Processor designers are very specific about what state they leave the processor in after they accomplish their internal hardware reset. The Boot Sector The boot ROM code knows only enough to retrieve a sector or two from the disk to some location in RAM. we start with loading the operating system. what instruction does it execute first? The instruction pointer register or instruction counter. you'll know there is no definitive publication you can turn to for all the answers. (The initial address that is executed will also be documented in the processor manual. (whatever they call it for your particular processor) tells the processor which instruction to execute first. where boot ROMs usually reside. tasks.

I was lucky with the PC ISA systems. 7. How the boot sector code will read the operating system or first-stage boot program from disk (e. The 7C00 hex address may be fine for your operating system if you intend to load it into high memory. as were also the active interrupt vector table and RAM work area for the BIOS. I don't pretend to know how to boot your system if you're not using the platform I chose.g. This lead to two relocation efforts. and also with MS-DOS boot schemes. 2. A single boot sector (512 bytes) is loaded to address 7C00 hex which is in the first 64Kb of RAM. The factors you will have to consider when planning how your operating system will boot are: 1. 5.If the operating system you are loading is located in a special place on the disk. Whether there are any additional set-up items to perform before executing the operating system. When the boot ROM loaded your boot sector. But I'm sure you can gain some insight on what you'll have to do if I give a detailed description of what it's like on a IBM PC-AT-compatible systems. so you can begin execution. 8. I have to turn on a hardware gate to access all the available memory. This means the boot sector code has to relocate itself before it can even load the operating system. such as a fixed track or cylinder. Some systems enable you to change the boot order for drives. 3. There are usually a few things you must do before you actually execute the operating system. 3. I read in the operating system above the actively used memory then relocate it when I didn't need the BIOS anymore. MMURTL V1. I wanted mine at the very bottom and it would have overwritten this memory address. it may have loaded it right where you want to put your operating system. and they have some knowledge of the drive geometry from their initialization routines.0 -66- RICHARD A BURGESS . 7. Where this boot sector is loaded and executed. 4. 6. 2. then Drive C. 8. such as a whole track). 4. Keep in mind that the PC ISA systems have a BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in ROM. because they provide the BIOS. or BIOS calls needed to load it into memory). and whether or not you have to move it after you load it. you may need to store this offset at a fixed data location and allow your boot sector code to read it so it knows where to jump. I will go over each of the eight items on the above list to explain how it's handled. 6. and runs contiguously for about 160Kb. Where your operating system will reside in memory. Each boot sector provides a small table with detailed disk and file system parameters that allow you to update what the BIOS knows about the disk. Second. I moved the boot sector code way up in memory. but the standard order on ISA systems is drive A. In an ISA system. But it gets more complicated. Whether you can leave the boot sector code where the BOOT ROM loaded it (dynamic relocation may be needed if the boot sector is where your OS will load). then you can use the BIOS calls to load the operating system or first-stage boot program. This dynamic relocation can eat up some more of the precious 512 bytes of code space in the boot sector (unless your boot ROM lets you load more than one sector. the BOOT ROM expects your boot sector at what it considers is Logical Sector Number Zero for the first drive it finds it can read. which they store in a small work area in RAM. In my case. then executed the next instruction at the new address. How you find your operating system on disk will depend on the type of file system. If you intend to load from a wide variety of disk types. then life is easy. and the code segment loads at a fixed address. First. This was the case with my system. Where your operating system's first instruction will be. and where you stored it. then I'll show you some boot sector code in grueling detail. Just what these things are depends on the hardware platform. 1. If your operating system's first execution address varies each time you build it. The boot sector was in the way (at 7C00h). My operating system data and code must start at address 0 (zero). This was a double problem.. Where the boot ROM expects your boot sector or sectors to be on disk. so I relocated my boot sector code (moved it and executed the next instruction at the new address). the hardware commands. How to find your operating system or first-stage boot program on disk from the boot sector code once it's executed. it may not always be in the same place if it's located after variable-sized structures on the first portion of the disk. I know the address of the first operating system instruction because my design has only two areas (Data and Code). You only need enough hardware and file-system knowledge to read the sectors from disk to the location you want them in RAM. and I also go into 32-bit protected mode (Intel-specific) before executing the very first operating system instruction. 5.

Padding to make it 3 bytes . The boot sector code also .Sect/Cluster .The .The following are pointers to my IDT and GDT after my OS loads .The following code is a boot sector to load an operating system from a floppy on a PC ISA-compatible system. .LIMIT 256 IDT Slots .nSect in FAT .0 -67- RICHARD A BURGESS .on this disk that the operating needs to know. The OS must .nBytes/Sector .Resvd sectors .nTotal Sectors (0 = <32Mb) .stage boot of the MMURTL OS which is about 160K stored as . I stick the stack anywhere in the first megabyte of RAM I desire.8 bytes for FAT name (Type) .and is found on all MS-DOS FAT compatible . Why not? I do own it. DS:CSEG. (140 sectors max) Was Volume ID number ' .nTotalSectors if > 32Mb . . (worthless) .11 bytes for volume name . Ext Boot Signature (always 29h) . CSEG SEGMENT WORD 'Code' USE16 ASSUME CS:CSEG.nSectors/track . It must be assembled with the Borland assembler (TASM) because the assembler I have provided (DASM) doesn't handle 16-bit code or addressing. and are not part of the above boot sector data structure.media desc.Root Dir entries max . There's no operating system here now.BASE (Linear) GDTptr MMURTL V1.needs some of this information if this is a bootable disk.nHeads .Drive boot sector came from .This boot sector is STUFFed to the gills to do a single . Examine the following code: . Herald nBytesPerSect nSectPerClstr nRsvdSect nFATS nRootDirEnts nTotalSectors bMedia nSectPerFAT nSectPerTrack nHeads nHidden nTotalSect32 bBootDrive ResvdByte ExtBootSig nOSSectors ResvdWord Volname FatType DB DW DB DW DB DW DW DB DW DW DW DD DD DB DB DB DW DW DB DB 'MMURTLv1' 0200h 01h 0001h 02 00E0h 0B40h 0F0h 0009h 0012h 0002h 00000000h 00000000h 00h 00h 29h 0140h 0000h 'RICH 'FAT12 ' . This contains additional information about the file system .be stored contiguously in each of the following logical sectors.nHidden Sectors (first whole track on HD) .LIMIT 768 slots .Used for temp storage of Sector to Read .a loadable image beginning at cluster 2 on the disk.386P directive is required because I use protected . ES:Nothing 0h JMP SHORT Boot up NOP ORG .This 59 byte structure follows the 3 jump bytes above .The actual number of sectors is stored in the data param nOSSectors. IDTptr DW 7FFh DD 0000h DW 17FFh DD 0800h .instructions.BASE (Linear) .nFATs .disks.386P . One thing you'll notice right away is that I take over memory like I own it.

nSectPerTrack . DI AX. MOV AX.0 -68- RICHARD A BURGESS .Offset to new location (Next PUSH) . 09000h ES. at the beginning of this code CLI .Clear interrupts . 0078h . DS:[BX] MOV MOV BYTE PTR [SI+4]. 0Fh .Save DS through the reset PUSH ES POP DS PUSH DS MMURTL V1.Move this boot sector UP to 90000h Linear (dynamic relocation) MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX. AX SI.Destination segment . some of the parameters to it from the boot sector.This is where we jump from those first 3 bytes BootUp: .This is the Boot block's first instruction from the initial jump . table so it can read the disk for us.This is done by finding out where it is and writing . Push the . AX MOV DS. 7C0h DS. AX SP. . AX MOV BX. MOV CX.Make DS correct again . that I calculated after assembling it once. 512 MOVSB .Source segment . AX DI. 6Fh PUSH AX RETF . Now set DS equal to ES which is 9000h PUSH ES POP DS .Get this while DS is correct XOR AX. It works.Int 1E FDC Params! LDS SI. CL BYTE PTR [SI+9].9000h SS. Its pseudo jump .Stick the stack at linear 98000h (an arbitrary location) MOV MOV MOV AX. 09000h PUSH AX MOV AX.Now we must update the BIOS drive parameter . vector location.The BIOS left a pointer to it at the 1E hex interrupt . SI CX. return address. Now we "jump" UP to where we moved it. ..Segment for new location . then "return" to it. 8000h .

ADC DX. Boot Sector (at logical sector 0) . but cluster 0 and 1 don't exist .Reset failed. nOSSectors . POP DS . nFATS MUL WORD PTR nSectPerFAT ADD AX. AX INT JC 13h SHORT BadBoot . MOV SI. WORD PTR nHidden . nBytesPerSect BX AX. OFFSET MsgLoad CALL PutChars .The controller is reset. We need the space for other code.CX now has a Word that contains the sector of the Root . nRsvdSect MOV CX.Number of OS sectors to read JMP SHORT ContinueBoot .STI MOV DL. (3rd cluster is really the first allocated .0 -69- RICHARD A BURGESS ... cluster because the first 2 are unused). FATS (1 or more) . .logical sector order.really IS the OS. Additional Reserved sectors (optional) . Hidden Sectors (optional) . CX .Bad boot goes here and displays a message then . bBootDrive XOR AX.Must set interrupts for BIOS to work .We are gonna skip checking to see if the first file .The layout of the Disk is: .AX is at sector for cluster 0. AX .What we do now is calculate our way to the third cluster . OFFSET MsgBadDisk CALL PutChars MMURTL V1.Reset Disk Controller (DL has drive num) .stage one of the a two stage loader should be).Size of Dir Entry WORD PTR nRootDirEnts BX.0020h .on the disk and read in the total number of OS sectors in .so we are really at cluster 2 like we want to be. MOV MUL MOV DIV ADD AX. MOV CX. AX MOV AL.waits for a key to reboot (or tries to) via int 19h BadBoot: MOV SI.Required for Disk System Reset .Save in CX .Calculate the size of the root directory and skip past it . Root Directory (n Sectors long) XOR AX. now let's read some stuff!! . WORD PTR nHidden+2 ADD AX.to the first allocated sectors (this is where the OS or .

DH . 6 .Divide LogicalSect by nSectPerTrack DL .Number of sectors AH. Hi 2 bits to CL CL. but works well.AL JZ SHORT Done MOV AH. 2 .Read 13h . 20h ES.I increment ES and leave BX 0 . It's slow. .Sys Reboot PutChars: LODSB OR AL. DX .0 -70- RICHARD A BURGESS .Logical Track left in AX WORD PTR nHeads . BX NextSector: PUSH AX PUSH CX PUSH DX PUSH ES XOR BX.This is a single sector read loop . 06000h MOV ES. DL . before we move it down to 0000h . BX .512 bytes for segment .OR with Sector number AL. ES BX. OFFSET MsgDot CALL PutChars POP POP POP POP MOV ADD MOV INC ES DX CX AX BX. AX has . 1 . CH .Cyl into CX CL. shifted to bits 6 and 7 CL.BX will be zeroed at top of loop . 0Eh MOV BX. BYTE PTR ResvdByte .Leaves Head in DL. .Read that sucker! SHORT BadBoot MOV SI.Sector numbering begins at 1 (not 0) ResvdByte. nSectPerTrack SI .Head to DH. Cyl in AX DH.Wait for keystroke .Sector to read DX.XOR INT INT AX. bBootDrive DL. ES:BX points to sector read address logical sector to ES:BX Logical Sector Number SI.0007 INT 10h JMP SHORT PutChars Done: RETN ContinueBoot: MOV BX. BX AX .Low 8 bits of Cyl to CH.This is segment where we load the OS.AX 16h 19h . AX .Next Sector MMURTL V1. Read a . Drive to DL CX. MOV DIV INC MOV XOR DIV MOV XCHG MOV XCHG SHL OR MOV MOV INT JC .

AX DI.64h TEST AL.LOOP NextSector . turn on the A20 line. .CX IBEmm2: IN AL.DI CX.DI CX. BX SI. DX MOVSW .WORD move .1000h ES. 8000h . move . Move first 64K code chunk from linear 70000h to 10000h MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV XOR MOV REP BX.the OS down to address 0.CX IBEmm0: IN AL.DX is 8000h anyway -71- RICHARD A BURGESS .02h LOOPNZ IBEmm2 . BX SI. Move 64K data chunk from linear 60000h to linear 0 MOV MOV XOR XOR MOV XOR MOV CLD REP BX.So move the OS MOV DX.0 .02h LOOPNZ IBEmm1 MOV AL. 06000h DS. SI AX. DX MOVSW .from 60000h linear up to about 80000h linear.0DFh OUT 60h. Move last code (32K) from linear 80000h to 18000h MOV DS.02h LOOPNZ IBEmm0 MOV AL. set protected mode and JUMP! CLI XOR CX. SI AX. SI MMURTL V1.AL XOR CX.Now we disable interrupts.CX IBEmm1: IN AL. 07000h DS.AX DI.WORD move .64h TEST AL. DX XOR SI.AL XOR CX. AX ES.0D1h OUT 64h.At this point we have the OS loaded in a contiguous section .A20 line should be ON Now .64h TEST AL.

referencing a 32 bit segment with a 32 bit instruction.MS-DOS used this.0 -72- RICHARD A BURGESS .We define a far jump with 48 bit pointer manually .bytes (66h and 67h) are required to indicate we are . EDX MOV DL.map).Set up segment registers .EXE header.1 MOV CR0.CR0 OR AL. To assemble and link this into a usable boot sector. I left it in. 'Bad Boot Disk!'. The segment and code size escape . 00h ' MsgNone MsgBadDisk MsgLoad MsgDot BootSig CSEG DW 0AA5Fh ENDS END . The last 512 bytes is the boot sector binary code and data in a ready-to-use format.AX DI.MOV MOV XOR MOV REP AX.EAX JMP $+2 NOP NOP MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV BX. 00h '.EXE file exactly 1024 bytes in length.lst). 10h DS. bBootDrive LIDT FWORD PTR IDTptr LGDT FWORD PTR GDTptr MOV EAX.2000h ES.'.BYTE move MOV BX. 'Loading MMURTL'. BX XOR EDX.BX FS.DI CX. use Borland's Turbo Assembler: TASM Bootblok.Control Register .BX SS. 0Ah. It's worthless.Clear prefetch queue with JMP . and a map file from the link (Bootblok.by defining the bytes that would make the FAR jump .Load Processor GDT Pointer . you need to inspect the actual size of the sector and location of some of the code. DB DB DB DD DW 66h 67h 0EAh 10000h 8h DB DB DB DB ' This is actually padding! 0Dh. such as the dynamic relocation address (if you needed to relocate).call JMP FAR 08h:10000h.Set protected mode bit . To generate a list file from the assembly (Bootblok. 9000h MOV DS. use TASM as follows: MMURTL V1. As you change and experiment with the boot sector.OS can find boot drive in DL on entry . 0Ah.BX GS. DX MOVSB .BX ES.BX . The first 512 bytes is the .Load Processor ITD Pointer .asm <Enter> This will make a . 00h 0Dh.

If you wanted the boot sector from your hard disk you would have used the Load command as follows: -L 219F:0000 2 0 1 <Enter> The only difference was the drive number which immediately follows the segmented address. They may do this as they format the disk.exe <Enter> -D <Enter> 219F:0000 EB 3E 90 (etc. you should not do this to your active development drive. logical sector number. This is easy to do. I used the MS-DOS Debug utility to read and write the disk boot sector while experimenting. After that you can copy any thing you like to the disk. After you have assembled your boot sector. Press enter without entering any instructions and use the address shown for the Load command along with the drive. Format a disk with MS-DOS 5. Write. type in the Debug command followed by the name of your new executable boot sector. Most operating systems provide utilities to make a disk bootable. The results can be disastrous. and Write commands as follows: N C:\Bootblok. Register.0 <Enter> -73- RICHARD A BURGESS . and WITHOUT the /S (System) option. It will be the first file on the disk and will occupy the correct sectors. The boot sector code above expects to find the operating system in a ready-to-run format at the first cluster on the disk and running contiguously in logical sectors until it ends.) This will dump the first 128 bytes and provide the address you need to the Write command. such as how to write the boot sector to the disk or read a boot sector from the disk and inspect it. Debug refers to the drives numerically from 0 to n drives. or after the fact.TASM Bootblok Bootblok Bootblok <Enter> You need some additional information to experiment with this boot sector if you are on the PC ISA platforms.EXE file and write the single 512 sector directly to the disk or diskette. C:\>Debug BootBlok. Then copy the operating system image to the disk. The following code loads the boot sector from the disk to address 219F:0000 (or whatever address you were shown): -A <Enter> 219F:0000 <Enter> -L 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> From there you can write this sector to another disk as a file with the Name. you only need to put the operating system where it expects to find it.bin in the root directory of drive C. you can use Debug to load it as a . and number of sectors following it. To read the boot sector from a disk. then write it to the disk. From the MS-DOS prompt. you can use the Dump command to display it. and Name commands. To find where Debug loaded it. find out where Debug's work buffer is by doing an Assemble command (just type A while in Debug). This will show you a segmented address. It's quite easy to do with the Load. -W 219F:0000 0 0 1 <Enter> After the boot sector is on the disk.bin R BX <Enter> BX:0 <Enter> R CX <Enter> CX:200 <Enter> W 219F:0000 The boot sector from drive 0 is now in a file named BootBlok. Keep in mind. The commands are: C:\> Format A: /U MMURTL V1.0 or higher using the /U (Unconditional) option. Some operating systems may force you to make a decision on whether the disk will be bootable before you format it if they pre-allocate space on the disk for the operating system.

it may not be in a form you can load directly from disk. I have a program (also provided on CD-ROM) that reads. If so. Hopefully. Your operating system may already have some of the addresses hard-coded in advance.00 loader. This is how I run MMURTL most of the time. The data and code is aligned where it would have been had it been loaded with a loader that understood my executable format. interrupts are usually disabled because there are no addresses in the interrupt vector table.0 -74- RICHARD A BURGESS . Other Boot Options If the operating system you write will be run from another environment. This program basically turns MS-DOS into a $79. you may face the chore of booting it from another operating system. This reads the MMURTL executable and turns it into a single contiguous executable image to be placed on the disk. All of the hardware that is resident in the system .must be initialized before you can set up the rest of the system (the software state). Operating System Boot Image Depending on the tools you use to build your operating system. Additionally. At this point. along with reading the operating system from its native executable format (a RUN file).c) to properly build it. and basic timers . but it's not necessary. My MakeImg utility is included on the CD-ROM and must be built with the Borland C compiler. In a non-segmented processor (such as the 68x0 series) this wouldn't even be necessary. It is called MMLoader.IMG A:\ <Enter> The new boot sector and the operating system are on the disk and ready to go. It should help give you a picture of what's required. “The Hardware Interface. I'm happy. Disabling interrupts is one of the chores that my initialization code handles. It has some additional debugging display code that you can easily eliminated if you like.” contains all of the code from MMURTL that is used to set up the operating system from the very first instruction executed. With MMURTL. Basic Hardware Initialization One of the very first things the operating system does after it's loaded and the boot code jumps to the first address is to set up a simple environment. I have provided a utility called MakeImg. there will be a header and possibly fix-up instructions contained in it. Good luck.asm on CD-ROM. In a segmented processor (such as the Intel series). They must simply be initialized to their default states. If no address fix-ups are required in your operating system executable. up to the point we jump the monitor program. Instructions are included in the single source file (MakeImg.” MMURTL V1. you might be able to avoid a need for a utility like this. It does everything that the boot sector code does. I've saved you some serious hours of experimentation. It is all contained in the source file Main. some of the hardware-related tasks you may have to accomplish are discussed in chapter 6.C) should also be built with the Borland C compiler as it has imbedded assembly language. “Initialization Code. I only had to do it thirty or forty times to get it right. I couldn't. and loads the image into RAM then executes it. understands.C:\> Copy OS. This includes setting up the OS stack. Chapter 21. This means you must provide a utility to turn the operating system executable into a directly executable image that can be booted and run by the small amount of code in a boot sector. the Direct Memory Access hardware. This single source file program (MMLoader. the boot code may have already set up the segment registers.such as the programmable interrupt controller unit. If it is in an executable format from a linker.

If you want to eliminate it. you must understand that the code you are executing on start up can be considered your first task. You'll have think about which tables are static and which are dynamically allocated. The option is usually up to you. For instance. but why not just let it become a real task that can be switched back to? Chapter 21 shows what I have to do using the Intel hardware task management. because this will determine whether their initialization occurs before or after memory-management initialization. you need to set up a Task State Segment (TSS) to switch from. Once the basic hardware and tables are set up. What is the A20 Line Gate? It all stems back to IBM's initial PC-AT design.0 -75- RICHARD A BURGESS . and also some basic variables. the A20 address line serves no purpose. you've got your job cut out for you. “the Tasking Model. I could have gone back and added code to reuse it. I didn't want to waste a perfectly good TSS by just ignoring it. MMURTL V1. on the Intel processors. The processor you're working with may provide the task management in the form of structures that the processor works with. you just learn to live with it. you can position it at the end of your code section and simply deallocate the memory for it. I had to set up the basic interrupt vector table. Initialization of Task Management Initialization of task management. you may be required to send a few commands to various pieces of hardware to set up physical addressing the way you need it. you can address above 1Mb. While in real mode. setting up for multitasking. Chapter 3. What you do may simply depend on how much time you want to spend on it. It's not that big. A third option is to make the code reusable by breaking it up into small segments so that the code can be more generic and used for other things. Being a little conservative. If you desire. you can let this first thread of execution just die once you have set up a real first task.Static Tables and Structures How your operating system handles interrupts and memory. This is enough bits to cover a one full megabyte. Its job is to set up the hardware and to get things ready to create additional tasks. and how you designed your basic operating system API and calling conventions determines how many tables and structures you must setup before you can do things like task and memory management. Chapter 21 shows how I go about this. This depends on the platform. These address lines are numbered A0 through A19. but you may also be performing your own tasks management.” discussed some of your options for a tasking model. It may be to turn on or off a range of hardware addresses. the real mode addresses are 20 bits wide. is not trivial. This leaves you with a few options . This is one example I can give to help you understand that there may be intricacies on your platform that will drive you nuts until you find the little piece of obscure documentation that explains it in enough detail to get a handle on it. you may realize that most of this code may never be executed again. It seems that memory address calculations wrapped around in real mode (from 1Mb to 0). One particular item that falls into this category on the PC ISA hardware platform is the A20 Address Line Gate. but may also depend on hardware task management if you use it. I just left it alone. I suppose that this line even caused some problems because programmers provided a way in hardware to turn it off (always 0). As most of you are aware (if you're programmers). or even to set up the physical range of video memory if your system has internal video hardware.the first of which may be to eliminate it from the operating system after it is executed so it doesn't take up memory. These first tables are all static tables and do not require any memory allocation. Initialization of Memory During the basic hardware initialization. If you use one more bit. and programmers wanted the same problem to exist in the AT series of processors. Either way. the array of call gates (how users get to OS calls). or not even initially allocate it with your memory-initialization code. In all of the cases that were discussed. I think it's kind of like inheriting baldness. Additional task-management accomplishments may include setting up linked lists for the execution queue (scheduler) and setting variables that might keep track of statistical information. as well as one to switch to. Because I used the Intel task management hardware I really had no choice. Another option is just to forget the code if it doesn't take up too much space.

You don't know how much you have. Set up the basic linked list structures if you will be using this type of memory management. Something of importance to note about the Intel platform and paged memory-management hardware is that your physical addresses must match your linear addresses when you make the transition into and out of paged memory mode. you're ready to execute a real program (of sorts). This is important because it forces you to have a section of code that remains. At this point you usually load a command-line interpreter. This program will generally be part of the operating system and it will do things like set up the program environments and load device drivers or system services. The following list is not all-inclusive. if you used paging hardware and your processor doesn't start out that way (Intel processors don't). but you aren't cognizant of memory yet. you can begin to allocate and set up any dynamic tables and structures required for your operating system. back to the initialization (already in progress). memory areas for future tables that can't be allocated on the fly. This piece of code may have a lot to do. If you chose not to do this. and ended up sticking with the way it was documented in the original IBM PC-AT documentation. To make a transition to a paged memory environment. If you went with a full blown demand paged system. Dynamic Tables and Structures After memory management has been initialized. You may need to consider the following points: Find out how much physical memory you have. I took the easy way out (totally by accident) when I left the entire static portion of my operating system in the low end of RAM. Know where your OS loaded and allocate the memory that it is occupying. where the address match will occur. set up the basic tables that will manage memory.0 -76- RICHARD A BURGESS . This seems to work on most machines. it may mean force dynamic relocation of your entire operating system. After all of the dynamic structures are allocated and set up.My goal was not to discover why it existed. but one I'm glad I didn't face. It's not that much of a headache. Meanwhile. Chapter 19. These structures or tables may be allocated linked lists for resources needed for interprocess communications (IPC). I tried several methods. The point is. It is controlled through a spare port on the 8042 keyboard controller (actually a dedicated microprocessor). and you can't manage or allocate it. that you couldn't allocate memory until memory-management functions were available. you may have to do some tweaking of the code. Most of the list depends on what memory model you chose for your design. This is where you call the routine that initializes memory management. At this stage of the initialization. but to ensure it was turned on and left that way. If your machine doesn't support this method. If you went with a simple flat model then you've got a pretty easy job. this could be a fairly large chunk of code. otherwise. you have basic tables set up and tasks ready to go. some which didn't work on all machines. or any number of things. or maybe even load up your windowing environment.” shows what I did using the Intel paging hardware. It is explained in a fair amount of detail. but gives you a good idea of what you may need to do. although some people may still have problems with it. “Memory Management Code. Allocate other areas of memory for things like video or I/O arrays if they are used on your system. or is at least loaded. MMURTL V1.

life was easy in this respect. I had questions about some of the very parameters I selected when I went back to use them. “API Specification.0 -77- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is really a layered problem that application programmers shouldn't have to worry about. it used the standard defined C calling conventions. Documenting Your API Your operating system may be for a single application. an embedded system. Even though I designed each of the calls for the operating system. I wanted to provide a good code example for each call. Chapter 15. The programmers must be able to understand what the system is capable of and how to make the best use of the system resources. The very largest was the calling conventions of the interface. public distribution. what order are they in? If the stack is used. In any and all of these cases. This may sound like a no-brainer.” shows you how I documented my calls. Procedural Interfaces Procedural interfaces are the easiest and most common type of interface for any API. they do. What could be easier? I can't imagine. The design and implementation of an API may seem easy at first. are there alignment restrictions imposed by hardware? If registers are used. With newer operating systems always looking for more speed (for us power MMURTL V1. I'm still not entirely happy with it. Calling Conventions As a programmer you're aware that not every language and operating system handles the mechanics of the procedural call the same. In the following sections. No kidding! With UNIX. If the parameters are on the stack. because the call they add. that on occasion. what do you do with the excess parameters if you run out of register? Who cleans the stack (resets the stack pointer) when the call is completed? This can get complicated. or your own consumption and enjoyment. But there are so many underlying complications for the system designer it can give you a serious headache. Some of the considerations include: Where the parameters are placed (on the stack or in registers?). I'll go over the complications that have crossed my path. and leave undocumented. but there are actually many decisions to be made before you begin work. Programming Interfaces For an operating system to be useful. Entire books have been written to describe “undocumented system calls” for some operating systems. may be similar to another documented call on the system. but time simply wouldn't allow it (at least for my first version). The call is made. If this happens to me. The functions you provide will be a foundation for all applications that run on your system. You place the name of the call and its parameters in a parenthetical list and it's done. I found. UNIX was written with C. but it turned out to be a time consuming and very important task for me.Chapter 8. the function does its job and returns. you'll need to properly document the correct use of each call. Application Programming Interface The Application Programming Interface (API) is how a programmer sees your system. I can only imagine what will happen to someone walking into it from a cold start. This can happen when operating system developers add a call that they think may not be useful to most programmers – or even confusing. including the mechanics behind some of the possible ways to implement them. the resources it manages must be accessible to the programmers who will implement applications for it. I describe both the application programming interface and the systems programming interface. Quite often though.

I'm sure you know of several. The stack is used to save the return address just like a CALL instruction. I used an Intel-specific processor hardware function for my calls (Call Gates). faster. Some use registers. and hardware requirements are the big considerations that drive the need to deviate from a standardized calling convention. for example. but the stack is not used for parameters. MS-DOS uses such a device on the Intel-compatible processors. First. A special instruction is provided to return from the software interrupt. code size. and forces an intermediate library to provide a procedural interface. there are many additional details to think about when designing the API. A software interrupt is a method provided by some processors that allow an pseudo-interrupt instruction to trigger a form of a call. In other words. It's up to you. more complicated calling conventions have been designed and put in place. Even the IBM C/Set2 compiler has its very own unique calling conventions that only work with CSet/2 (no one else supports it). this is MMURTL V1. your code expects all of the data to be in registers. Mechanical Details Aside from the not-so-simple differences of the calling conventions. This device is extremely hardware dependent. The hardware requirements may also be one of the deciding factors. Execution speed. it won't be a problem if this language also provides a method to reach the operating system if its conventions are different. the actual execution of the call may depend on a hardware mechanism to actually execute the code. However.0 -78- RICHARD A BURGESS . Your opinion may vary on this. or at least every time it's rebuilt. You may be using your favorite compiler and it will. OS/2. no doubt. Not many calls are made recursively or in a tightly looped repetitive fashion to many operating system functions. especially when it comes to speed. and you want to maintain a standard procedural calling convention for the sake of the high-level language interface. and it required a fixed number of parameters. This makes porting a C compiler a little hectic. The two most popular procedural calling conventions include: Standard C . An example of a hardware-calling mechanism is the Software Interrupt. Many systems use an intermediate library. I'm fairly opinionated on this issue.junkies). Will your call go directly into the operating system? In other words. I don't think the few microseconds saved (that's all it really is) by redesigning the mechanics of a standardized interface is really worth it when it comes to an operating system.. Second. but I wasn't going to let that drive my design. you will surely want to do some research to ensure there is full compatibility in the convention that you choose. support several conventions. some use both. I have even run across commercial development libraries (DLLs) that used this convention which forced a specific compiler even though I preferred another (Borland's. There are two reasons this library may be required. the interrupt vector table).Parameters are pushed onto the stack from right to left and the caller (the one that made the OS call) is responsible to clean the stack. Pascal . The advantages of using the software-interrupt function include speed (from assembly language only). If you want to use code generated by several different compilers or languages. and also the fact that operating system code relocation doesn't affect the address of the call because its a value in the interrupt vector table. as if you couldn't guess). I decided on the Pascal (PLM) conventions.g. There is a plethora of not-so-standard conventions out there. so the C calling conventions had no appeal to me. You may not want to go to the lengths that I did to support a specific calling convention on your system. This causes the instruction pointer to be loaded with a value from a table (e.(also known as PLM conventions in some circles) Parameters are pushed left to right. will the call actually cause the processor to change the instruction pointer to the code you wrote for that particular call? Your answer will more than likely be no. The address of the operating system calls may change every time you load it. I had no need for variable-length parameter blocks into the operating system. It leads to a lot of confusion if you're not prepared for it when you go use a mixed-language programming model. has three or four calling conventions. and the called function is responsible for making the stack correct. that is linked into your code that performs some translation before the actual operating system code is executed. When a high-level language has its own calling convention. some use the stack.

I really hope not. They either make you go find a public variable that you're not sure is named correctly for the language you're using. Systems Programming Interface I divide the systems programming interface into two distinct categories. it would be to have all systems return a status or error code directly from the function call that would give me some intelligent information about why my call didn't work. A single public variable linked into your data to return an error code doesn't work well anymore. MMURTL V1. If portability is near the top of your wish list. have the caller provide a pointer as one of the parameters. right. but if I could have any influence in this industry at all. the hardware will be obsolete. However. This may be a personal issue for me. things like software interrupts and register usage leave you with subtle problems to solve on a different platform. especially with multiple threads that may share common data areas or a single data segment. but the portability of the operating system source code itself. I recommend you avoid a register-driven interface if at all possible. then execute the interrupt instruction. Murphy's law says that as soon as you get the system completed.not sufficient reason to use this type of interface. I can remember reading the phrase "30 or 40 megahertz will be the physical limit of CPU clock speeds. When the software-interrupt mechanism is used. For application source code portability. but this is the computer industry of the 90s. The second is how internal calls are made from inside the operating system to other operating system procedures (public or internal)." Yeah. you may only need one interrupt for all of the calls in the operating system. I recommend that you consider providing a status or error code as the returned value from your system functions that really tells the caller what happened. I never considered the second aspect until I wrote my own operating system. A simple table fixed in memory to use for indirect call addresses. and the call gates are really not a problem. However. the procedural interface is the key. The first is the interface seen by programmers that write device drivers or any kind of extension to the operating system. The intermediate library would fill in this value. Portability Considerations Looking at portability might not seem so important as you write your system for one platform. Error Handling and Reporting So many systems out there make you go on some kind of wild-goose chase to find out what happened when the function you called didn't work correctly. Give this some serious thought before you begin coding. how you design the internal mechanisms of the system calls may save you a lot of time if you want to move your system to another platform. When you need to return data from the call. They aid in the interface but don't detract from portability because they were designed to support a high-level calling convention in the first place (procedural interfaces). I considered this before I used the Intel-specific call gates.0 -79- RICHARD A BURGESS . The portability I speak of is not the source-code portability of the applications between systems. or some other processor hardware capability can provide this functionality without all the registers directly involved. or they make you call a second function to find out why the first one failed. Error reporting has special implications in a multitasking environment. For the operating system source. This is accomplished by using a single register to identify the call.

The interface calls I came up with to satisfy my design were: MMURTL V1. Select a register-usage plan and try to stick with it. I ended up with two underscores for the public names that would be accessed by outside callers. Its purpose is to work generically with external hardware. but there was at least a plan to go back to when all else failed. If this is the case. Is it one underscore before the name? Maybe it was one before and one after. They work with the hardware. and so much synchronization is required with the tasking and memory-management code. Certain system calls may have to be designed to allow them to concentrate their programming efforts on the device and not the hardware on the platform. In your system you will also have to consider how to make the device appear at least somewhat generic. You must also realize that it isn't just the interface alone that makes things easier for the device driver programmer. can the programmer read a sector from a floppy disk drive or a hard disk drive without caring which one it really is? That's something to think about when you approach your design.Internal Cooperation The second aspect I mentioned above is not as easy as it sounds. This mechanism may be a table to place addresses in that the operating system can get to when a standardized entry point is made by an application. but underneath them somewhere is some assembly language coding for processor control and status. You'll need a way to dynamically make all the device drivers accessible to outside callers without them knowing where the code is in advance. For instance. You also need to investigate exactly how public names are modified by the compiler(s) you intend to use. I set out to design the simplest. I knew that there were four basic requirements when it came to device drivers: Installation of the driver Initialization of the driver Control (using) the driver. You need to consider these requirements in your design. A Device-Driver Interface Example With the four basic requirements I mentioned above. device drivers actually become part of the operating system. Do you see what I mean? Internally. fully functional device driver interface I could imagine. or maybe it was none if a particular compiler switch was active. I was familiar with two different device driver interface schemes before I started writing my own system. Suddenly. This is especially true if you intend to use assembler and high-level languages at the same time. timers. You more than likely will.0 -80- RICHARD A BURGESS . and Statusing the driver. You may want to satisfy these requirements by adding calls to isolate them from some of the system hardware such as DMA. or hardware that appeared external from the operating system's standpoint. so you can't put the code entry point addresses into a table in advance. and certain memory-management functions. naming conventions and register usage can become a nightmare. Some device drivers will load after the operating system is up and running. that it's almost impossible to separate them. The possibility exists that you may be writing a much more compact system than I did. all of your device drivers may be so deeply embedded in your code that you may not want a separate layered interface. This capability requires some form of indirect calling mechanism. and this wasn't my original plan. Device Driver Interfaces For all practical purposes. Many operating systems now are written almost entirely with high-level languages. I had to deviate from my plan quite often as you'll see.

” I provide detail on the use of these calls. so I won't go over it here. You'll see certain validity checks. EAX MOV EAX. The other three functions are the calls that the operating system redirects to the proper device driver as identified by the first parameter (the device number). This will give you a good place to start in your design. EBP+24 . InitDevDr(dDevNum. EAX MOV EAX. sdStatRetmax):dError In chapter 10. dOpNum. nDevices. nDevices MMURTL V1. I provided a mechanism to prevent re-entrant use of the drivers if the a flag was set in the DCB when the driver initialized itself. [EBP+24] MOV dDevX. you will also find that some device drivers may not be re-entrant. It's included in this chapter to emphasize the concepts and not to directly document exactly what I've written. pInitData. The comments explain each of the ideas I've discussed here.ESP SUB ESP.InitDevDr(dDevNum. EBP+20 nDevices. The first call listed in this section. The following code example is from the file DevDrvr. ndBlocks. and also that we allocate an exchange for messaging if the driver is not re-entrant.ASM. This structure is filled out with items common to all drivers before the driver tells the operating system that it is ready to go into business serving the applications. Announcing the Driver to the OS This is the call that a driver makes after it's loaded to let the operating system know it's ready to work. A requirement for the operating system to know things about each device driver led me to require that each driver maintain a common data structure called a Device Control Block (DCB). “Systems Programming. This is a common requirement on many systems. . For example.Valid DCB number? -81- RICHARD A BURGESS . When you look at the code. InitDevDr(). This is the layer in MMURTL that initializes device drivers and also redirects the three device driver calls to the proper entry points. In a multitasking system. pDCBs. Two simultaneous calls to the driver may not be possible (or desirable). What I want to discuss is the underlying code that allows them to function for multiple device drivers in a system. dLBA. pData):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. [EBP+16] MOV nDevs. 16 MOV EAX.Set up local vars . . You'll note that a pointer to its DCB is provided by the driver. EAX InitDev00: CMP dDevX. is called from the driver to provide the operating system with the information it needs to seamlessly blend it into the system. . sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat(dDevice.Local vars dDevX EQU DWORD PTR prgDevs EQU DWORD PTR nDevs EQU DWORD PTR dExchTmp EQU DWORD PTR pDCBs. [EBP+20] MOV prgDevs. pay attention to the comments instead of the details of the code. dfReplace):dError EBP+16 EBP+12 sParam 16 [EBP-4] [EBP-8] [EBP-12] [EBP-16] PUBLIC __InitDevDr: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. I use system IPC messaging to block subsequent calls to a driver that indicates it is not re-entrant. when one user is doing serial communications. this particular device must be protected from someone else trying to use it. fReplace) DeviceOp(dDevice. . . pStatRet.0 .

is Devname OK? JA InitDev04 InitDev03: MOV EAX.Check Device name size JA InitDev03 CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. 64 INC dDevX JMP SHORT InitDev00 .Next caller DCB . ErcBadDevName JMP InitDevEnd InitDev04: . 2 .and whether it's to be replaced LEA EBX.If we got here. 0 JNZ SHORT InitDevEnd InitDev06: . rgpDCBs MOV EAX.Next devnum .Yes .into temp storage CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch CMP EAX.Allocate device Exchange PUSH EAX . ErcBadDevNum JMP InitDevEnd .Not valid DCB number InitDev01: .Decrement nDevices . ErcDCBInUse JMP InitDevEnd InitDev02: .JB InitDev01 MOV EAX. dDevX SHL EAX.Empty.Set nDev to number of devices again .OK to replace existing driver? . OK to use . and assign exchange from temp storage to each DCB MOV MOV LEA MOV SHL EAX.Point EBX to OS rgpDCBs . 0 JNZ InitDev02 MOV EAX. EAX EBX. 0 JZ InitDev02 CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+12].No .dDevNum MMURTL V1.error exit .0 -82- RICHARD A BURGESS .12 . now move the DCB pointer(s) into array .All went OK so far. . dExchTmp . 0 JNZ InitDev06 .Now see if there are more devices for this driver DEC nDevs JZ InitDev05 ADD prgDevs. EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EBX].device IS reentrant! LEA EAX. [EBP+16] nDevs.EAX points to DCB CMP BYTE PTR [EAX+sbDevName]. [EBP+20] .All error checking on DCB(s) should be done at this point InitDev05: . 2 ADD EBX.Point EBX to rgpDCB .dDevNum . prgDevs .NONE left .pDCBx = 0 if not used yet . 0 .Now check to see if device is already installed . we can check DCB items then move ptr MOV EAX. [EBP+24] EAX.pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Alloc Exch if driver in NOT reentrant MOV EBX.nDevices . rgpDCBs EAX.

ErcBadDevNum .device IS reentrant! PUSH ECX .Set up for no error . [EBP+20] .0 . PUSH EBP . EAX MOV EAX. are almost identical to DeviceInit().Valid Device number? JB DevInit01 MOV EAX. EAX and ECX are set up. [EBP+20] MOV ECX. .EBX now points to correct pointer . nDevices .ADD EBX.also place Exchange into DCB. ADD EAX.Dummy message PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .DCB (if more than 1) and set up OS pointer to it.next p in rgp of DCBs . SHL EBX. or reset it after a failure.ESP .ECX has semaphore exchange InitDev07: . MOV EBX. DeviceOp() and DeviceStat(). EBP+20 EBP+16 EBP+12 Count = 12 . loop through each . MOV EBX. 4 EAX.EAX points to first DCB . [EBP+20] . EAX . dExchTmp . This is the same exchange . MOV EBP.If the device driver was NOT reentrant . .pDCBs CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Let erc in EAX fall through (Was ISend) InitDevEnd: MOV ESP.Sorry no valid DCB JMP DevInitEnd DevInit01: LEA EAX. sdInitData).next DCB . You can see in the comments how we redirect this call to the proper code in the driver from the address provided in the DCB. .Now that EBX. pInitData. EAX EBX. DeviceInit(dDevNum. ECX [EBX]. 2 . PUBLIC __DeviceInit: . .Is there a pointer to a DCB? MMURTL V1. 0 .we send a semaphore message to the exchange for . CMP DWORD PTR [EBP+20]. 64 nDevs InitDev07 EAX.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 .ECX is still the exchange PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh . EBX . The other two calls.Any more DCBs?? . 0 JNZ InitDev06 . -83- RICHARD A BURGESS .the first customer to use.for all devices that one driver controls. and are not presented here.now EBX points to DCB (maybe) CMP EBX. [EAX] . and . A Call to the driver This is the call that the user of the device driver makes to initially set up the device. rgpDCBs MOV EBX. MOV MOV ADD ADD DEC JNZ XOR [EAX+DevSemExch]. .

so we check to see if driver is reentrant. The next chapter begins the documentation of and for an operating system. .All looks good with device number . 0 JNE DevInitEnd DevInit03: PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD PUSH DWORD CALL DWORD POP EBX PUSH EAX . 0 DevInit02 EAX. ErcNoDevice DevInitEnd . 0 JNZ DevInit03 PUSH EBX PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] LEA EAX. This chapter (8) ends the basic theory for system design.Reentrant? JNZ DevInit04 .Get DCB ptr back .Get semaphore ticket . MMURTL V1.NO driver! .call WAIT to get "semaphore" ticket.Serious kernel error! PTR PTR PTR PTR [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBX+pDevInit] . Send semaphore message to Exch .No. 0 .Push all params for call to DD . It you use assembly language and provide code examples.Push exchange number . but I’m sure you noticed that I added examples of the procedural interface in the comments.Get ptr to DCB back into EBX .save ptr to DCB . ErcNoDriver DevInitEnd BYTE PTR [EBX+DevType].Is there a physical device? DevInit02: .EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . [EBX+DevSemMsg] PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg POP EBX CMP EAX. CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent]..Ignore kernel error .dump params Your interface doesn’t have to be in assembly language like the preceding example.Ptr to message area .. If not we . . adding the procedural call examples is a good idea. .YES PUSH DWORD PTR [EBX+DevSemExch] PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh PUSH 0FFFFFFFEh CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg DevInit04: POP EAX DevInitEnd: MOV ESP.save error (if any) CMP BYTE PTR [EBX+fDevReent].Device IS reentrant .Bogus Message .Save ptr to DCB .Get device error back .Yes .JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A: CMP JNZ MOV JMP DevInit1A EAX.0 -84- RICHARD A BURGESS .

1 to visualize what you find in memory: Table 9. and DWORD. as you discover the methods employed by this operating system. It may even be entertaining. Some of the information provided in this section may actually not be needed to code a program for MMURTL. A Byte at address 0 is accessed at the same memory location as a word at address 0.0 0 1 2 3 Hex Value -85- RICHARD A BURGESS .a 16-bit value (signed or unsigned) DWord . or a Procedure in Pascal. Look at the table 9. you will be comfortable with MMURTL because I have maintained the Intel and Microsoft conventions of BYTE. I think you will find it useful. or a Procedure in Assembler. “Interprocess Communications. One of the things that make processors different from each other is how data is stored and accessed in memory. and most structures (records) have many 32-bit components. old habits are hard to break and one of my key design goals was simplicity for the programmer on Intel-based ISA systems. MS-DOS).Same as Parameter Understanding 32-BIT Software If you have been programming with a 16-bit operating system (e. Terminology Throughout this section.a 32-bit value (signed or unsigned) Parameter . Byte . Most MMURTL parameters to operating system calls are DWords (32-bit values). Before writing your first MMURTL program. and a dword is also accessed at the same address. Function . though. These are important concepts you should understand before you attempt to create or port your first application. you should be familiar with the material covered in Chapter 4.” These chapters provide discussions on the concept behind message based operating systems and paged memory management. Argument . I would have called a 32-bit value a WORD.g. It provides information on basic video and keyboard usage as well as examples of multi-threading with MMURTL and information on memory-management techniques and requirements. Application Programming Introduction This section introduces the applications programmer to the MMURTL operating-system interface and provides guidance on programming techniques specific to the MMURTL environment. WORD. you will have to get used to the fact that all parameters to calls. but alas. This section should be used with the reference manual for the language you are using. several words are used that may seem language-specific or that mean different things to different programmers. If I were a perfectionist. Call .A value passed to a function or procedure. The Intel processors have often been called "backwords" because they store the least significant data bytes in lower memory addresses (hence. usually passed on the stack. If you are used to the 16-bit names for assembler variables.An eight bit value (signed or unsigned) Word . “Memory Management. The following words and ideas are described to prevent confusion: Procedure .1 .Memory Alignment Address Access As MMURTL V1.This is also used interchangeably with function and procedure. All MMURTL operating system calls return values (called Error Codes). the byte values in a word appear reversed when viewed with a program that displays hexadecimal bytes).Chapter 9.” and Chapter 5.A Function in C or Pascal.Same as Procedure..

while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. this also makes a great deal of difference when values are passed on the stack. It is also very easy to use from assembly language. Some do not. “API Specification. Conversions between types is automatic when read as a different type at the same address. All but a few of the operating-system calls use the stack to pass parameters to the operating system functions. But the address is really a call gate. You can even hard code the far address of the operating-system call because the system calls are at call gates.Byte Word Dword 01 01 01 02 02 03 04 01h 0201h 04030201h This alignment serves a very useful purpose. In some C compilers. or may not be an error depending on what you expect. When running the Intel processors in 32-bit protected mode. It doesn't matter where the operating system code is in memory. It may indicate an error. Operating System Calling Conventions All operating system calls are listed alphabetically in chapter 15. The addresses of the calls are documented with the source code (header or Include files). The GDT entry for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the call. The call gate will never change unless it becomes obsolete (in which case it will be left in for several major revisions of the operating system for compatibility purposes).) This is a hardware requirement of the 386/486 processors when 32-bit segments are used. All parameters are pushed from left to right. A list of all documented status or error codes can be found in header files included with the source code. The called operating-system function always cleans the stack. The descriptions in the API Specification (Chapter 15) show it as dError to indicate it is a 32-bit unsigned value. This means that an assembly-language programmer can make the far call to what appears to be a hard address (but is really a call gate). even the assembler or processor itself. Stack Usage Each of the MMURTL operating-system calls is defined as a function with parameters. although it's usually transparent to the programmer using a high level language. and assembly language. The selector is the call gate in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Most return a value that is a an error or status code. Here is an example of a call to the operating system in assembler: PUSH 20 PUSH 15 CALL FWORD PTR SetXY In the preceding example. and are expanded to 32-bit values. or simply convey information that may. Pascal. and in some cases.0 -86- RICHARD A BURGESS . They are defined as far (this may be language-dependent) and require a 48-bit call address. not the real address of the SetXY function. The CM32 compiler uses this convention. All Public operating-system calls are accessible through call gates and can be reached from "outside" programs. A far call address to the operating system consists of a selector and an offset. These codes convey information to the caller about the status of the call. This is because the processor enforces a four-byte aligned stack. MMURTL always uses a DWord stack (values are always pushed and popped as dwords – 32-bit values.” Most operating system calls in MMURTL return a dword (32-bit) error code which is often abbreviated as ERC. You can push a dword on the stack and read it as a byte at the same location on the stack from a procedure. This will be done by the compiler. This also plays a useful role in languages such as C. erc. MMURTL V1. this is referred to as the Pascal Calling Convention. or dError. SetXY is actually a far pointer stored in memory that normally would contain the address of the SetXY function.

A MMURTL application considers itself as being the only thing running on the system aside from the operating system and device drivers. 00000000h Top of user address space Application base (1Gb) Top of OS Address space OS base address Even if six applications running at once.0 -87- RICHARD A BURGESS . Heap-management functions that allow you to allocate less than 4Kb at a time should be provided by your high-level language. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem.2: Table 9.” and Chapter 4. This also means that a pointer to allocated memory will never start at 0.. MMURTL V1..Basic Memory Map 7FFFFFFFh .. The address of the pointer is always a multiple of the size of a page (modulo 4096). when an application allocates pages of memory they will begin somewhere above 1Gb (40000000h) MMURTL really doesn't provided memory management in the sense that compilers and language systems provides a heap or an area that is managed and cleaned up for the caller. while all applications and system services begin at the one-gigabyte mark.” describe this in great detail. They are listed below: AllocPage(nPages.Memory Management MMURTL uses all of the memory in your system and handles it as it as one contiguous address span. Your application sees the memory map shown in table 9. dnPages): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError When your program needs a page of memory. Multiple applications all load and run at what seems to be the same address range which logically looks like they are all loaded in parallel to one another. you should deallocate it. you allocate it.g.. 40000000h 3FFFFFFFh . The paging features of the 386/486 allow us to assign physical memory pages to any address ranges you like. There are no far data pointers. “The Tasking Model. She may pick up your dirty socks. Chapter 3. Read up on Memory Management in Chapter 5 if you're really interested. they all see this same "virtual memory map" of the system. and returns them to the pool of free pages when they are turned in (deallocated). MMURTL hands out (allocates) pages of memory as they are requested.. you simply allocate it. When you are done with it. “Interprocess Communications.2 . MMURTL is kind of like your mother. What does change your techniques is the fact that you are working with a flat address space all referenced to one single selector.. This would let you allocate 30 or 40 bytes at a time for dynamic structures such as linked lists (e. If you need a 2Mb array. MMURTL has control of all Physical or Linear memory allocation and hands it out it as programs ask for it.. The operating system resides at address 0. There are cleanup routines in the operating system that will deallocate it for you if your program exits without doing it. malloc() in C). The operating system provides three basic calls for application memory management. Application programs all reside at the one-gigabyte memory location inside of their own address space. Memory-page allocation routines always return a pointer to the new memory. This doesn't change any programming techniques you normally use. The library code for the high-level language will allocate pages and manage them for you. MMURTL is a Paged memory system. but it's bad manners not to cleanup after yourself. . Paged virtual memory is implemented with the paging capabilities of the 386/486 processor. In fact. . The operating system and device drivers reside in low linear memory (0). but she would much rather that you did it...

dData2 ) : dError Before you can use messaging you will need an exchange where you can receive messages. Then you deallocate 3 of these pages at address 40100000h (12K).0 -88- RICHARD A BURGESS . Address 40100000h is returned to you. You are left with a hole in your addressable memory area. dRespExch. pData1. This means that in a multitasking environment. while System Services and Applications run at user-level protection. dData0. or you will need to know of one you send messages to. The operating system acts more like a referee than a mother. protect programmers from themselves. MMURTL does NOT. If you attempt to address this "unallocated" area a Page Fault will occur. This will TERMINATE your application automatically (Ouch!). It is up to you to manage your own addressable memory space. and Device Drivers run and can only be accessed at the system-protection level (level 0) . The following calls are provided to acquire exchanges and to return them to the operating system when you no longer need them: AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError MMURTL V1. so it will return a pointer to 4 pages just above the original 5 you allocated first (address 40105000h). This is where non-specific intertask messaging will come into play. The operating system Code. Data. pData2. The following messaging calls are provided by the operating system for applications. Operating System Protection MMURTL provides protection for the operating system and other jobs using the paging-hardware protection. npSend. this doesn't mean you can allocate a gigabyte of memory. This is done with the SendMsg() and WaitMsg() calls. This is not a problem. It even prevents applications from executing code that doesn't belong to them.The memory allocation routines use a first fit algorithm in your memory space.pqMsgRet):dError Request(pSvcName. pRqHndlRet. but pointer arithmetic may get you into trouble if you allocate and deallocate often and lose track of what your active linear addresses are. The operating system prevents ill-behaved programs from intentionally or accidentally accessing another program's data or code (from "a pointer in the weeds"). cbData1. dMsg1. Now you allocate 4 pages. Application Messaging The most basic applications in MMURTL may not even use messaging directly. Consider the following scenario: Your program takes exactly 1Mb before you allocate. cbData2. However. even if they know the where it's located (its physical or linear address). in which case you will use Request() and WaitMsg(). You may not even have to call an operating-system primitive-message routine throughout the execution of your entire program. when you write multithreaded applications (more than one task) you will probably need a way to synchronize their operation. Now you have 6 pages beginning at 40103000h. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch. Your program can address up to one-gigabyte of space. You may also require the use of a system service that there isn't a direct procedural interface for. You now have 20K at the 40100000h address. dData1. The high-level language allocation routine may help you out with this. pMsgsRet) : dError WaitMsg(dExch. a program that crashes and burns doesn't eat the rest of the machine in the process of croaking. You allocate 5 pages. SendMsg (dExch. The memory-allocation algorithm can't fit it into the 3 page hole you left. however. Of course. but I have to address the issues faced by those that write the library allocation routines for the languages. wSvcCode. so long as you know it can't be addressed. or "queue up" events of some kind between the threads (tasks).

but you can easily eat up all of the system resources and cause the entire system to fail. you basically have two programs running in the same memory space. /* User Name . In these cases you can "spawn" a new task to handle the secondary functions while your main program goes about its business. applications will allocate all of the exchanges they require somewhere early in the program execution and return them (DeAllocExch) before exiting. operating system messaging (sharing an exchange). you need to know your job number.0 -89- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Linear add of Job's PD */ char *pJcbCode. but can also be destructive (to the entire system). char sbJobName[14]. If you do. struct JCBRec { long JobNum. accidentally sending messages in an endless loop to an exchange where no task is waiting to receive them will cause the system to fail. Starting a New Thread Some programs need the capability to concurrently execute two or three things. This new function will be scheduled for execution independently of your main program. such as data communications. The pointer is read-only. It may be simply keeping the time on the screen updated on a user interface no matter what else you are doing. /* Address of primary stack */ unsigned long sJcbStack. Prior to calling SpawnTask(). Memory-management protection provided by MMURTL will help some. /* Address of data segment */ unsigned long sJcbData.LString */ MMURTL V1. you need to allocate or provide memory from your data segment for the stack that the new task will use. and user interaction. Look at the code for the Monitor (Monitor. Several tasks are spawned in the Monitor. For instance. You should be concerned about reentrancy if you have more than one task executing the same code. The operating system provides the SpawnTask() call which gives you the ability to point to one of the functions in your program and turn it into a "new thread" of execution. They can even execute the same procedures and functions (share them). /* Size of code segment */ char *pJcbData. which the GetJobNum() call will provide. Header files included with the source code have already defined the following structure for you. /* Size of primary stack */ char sbUserName[30]. The stack you allocate should be at least 512 bytes (128 dwords) plus whatever memory you require for your task. Attempts to write directly to the JCB will cause your application to be terminated with a protection violation. /* Size of data segment */ char *pJcbStack. Job Control Block Applications may sometimes need to see the data in a Job Control Block. only your program will be trashed. Utilities to display information about all of the jobs running may also need to see this data. MMURTL is not a mind reader. The GetpJCB() call will provide a pointer to allow you to read values from a JCB.c provided with the operating system source code) for a good example of spawning new tasks. You are responsible to ensure you don't overrun this stack. This eats all of your link blocks. and allocation or use of system resources such as memory. Reentrancy considerations include modifications to variables in your data segment (two tasks sharing variables). /* lstring */ char *pJcbPD. The operating system is brought to its knees in a hurry. In order to use the GetpJCB() call. /* Address of code segment */ unsigned long sJcbCode. Messaging is very powerful.Normally. but you don't want that either. printing. Other than that.

you must use the calls provided by the operating system. char JcbExitRF[80]. char JcbSysIn[50]. pdcbUserNameRet): dError Basic Keyboard Internal support is provided for the standard IBM PC AT-compatible 101-key keyboard or equivalent. The first of the two parameters to the ReadKbd() call asks you to point to where the 32-bit keycode value will be returned. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError GetPath(dJobNum.0 -90- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. pPathRet. long VidMode. long CrntY. dcbPath): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dcbUserName): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. while the second parameter is a flag asking if you want to wait for a keystroke if one isn't available. unsigned char ScrlCnt. “Keyboard Service. char *pVirtVid. long nCols. For most applications. with unused portions padded. A system service allows concurrent access to system-wide resources for applications. char JcbSysOut[50]. long CrntX.LString */ Error Set by ExitJob */ Active video buffer */ Virtual Video Buffer */ Current cursor position */ /* Virtual Screen Size */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0 = 80x25 VGA color text */ 7 = WhiteOnBlack */ 1 = Cursor is visible */ 0=UL. char fCursOn. MMURTL V1. GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. The keyboard has a built-in device driver that the keyboard service accesses and controls. Only the active portions are shown in the preceding list. pdcbPathRet): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. with the second byte (offset 1) actually holding the first byte of data. dcbFileName): dError SetPath(pPath. long NormVid.LString */ std output . char *pVidMem. long nLines. long ExitError. and special keys. To change data in the JCB. char fVidPause. All of the names and filenames (strings) are stored with the first byte containing the length the active size of the string. There are tables in Chapter 13 to show all of the possible values that can be returned. Chapter 13. pcbFileNameRet): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. It provides access to all standard alphanumeric.LString */ std input . They include: SetJobName(pJobName. char fCursType. 1 = Block */ Count since last pause */ Full screen pause */ OS Uses to allocate JCBs */ The JCB structure is a total of 512 bytes. dcbFileName): dError Some of the more commonly used information can be read from the JCB without defining the structure by using the following operating-system provided calls. }. the single procedural ReadKbd() operating-system call will suffice. editing.char sbPath[70]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* current path (prefix) */ Exit Run file (if any) */ Command Line .” provides complete details on the keyboard implementation. char JcbCmdLine[80]. The keyboard interface is a system service. This call returns a 32-bit value which contains the entire keyboard state (all shifted states such as ALT and CTRL are included). long NextJCB.

3. and cursor positioning. Positions on the screen are determined in x and y coordinates on a standard 80 X 25 matrix (80 across and 25 down). and 9. 8 background colors and 1 bit for blinking. These names are also defined in standard header files included with the operating-system code and sample programs. Background. the high nibble is the background. x is the position across a row and referenced from 0 to 79. In this byte. #define BLACK #define BLUE MMURTL V1. The high bit of each. and low nibble is the foreground. The video calls built into the operating system provide TTY (teletype) as well as direct screen access (via PutVidChars() and GetVidChar() calls) for all applications. y is the position down the screen and referenced as 0 to 24.4 .Foreground Colors (Low nibble) Normal Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown White Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 00h 01h 02h 03h 04h 05h 06h 07h Intensity Bit Set Gray Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hex 08h 09h 0Ah 0Bh 0Ch 0Dh 0Eh 0Fh Table 9. Tables 9. This is 4000 bytes (even though an entire page is allocated . The colors for TTYOut(). Look at the following coding example (Hex values are shown for the Attributes). PutChars() and PutAttrs() are made of 16 foreground colors. logically OR the Foreground.Basic Video Each application and system service in MMURTL is assigned a virtual video buffer which is the same size as the video memory in standard VGA-color character operation. MMURTL has a basic character device driver built-in which provides an array of calls to support screen color. and Blink if desired to form a single value. only the least significant byte is used. Background colors describe the attributes.4096 bytes). The character set used is the standard IBM PC internal font loaded from ROM when the system is booted.0 0x00 1x07 -91- RICHARD A BURGESS .4. is the intensity bit. Table 9. Even though the attribute is passed in as a dword. Foreground colors.3 . character placement.Background Colors (High nibble) Normal Background Black Blue Green Cyan Red Magenta Brown Gray Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex Byte 00h 10h 20h 30h 40h 50h 60h 70h To specify an attribute to one of the video calls.

Replacing Your Application Your application has the option of "chaining" to another application.0 -92- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL has to hunt for them. If no file is specified. This terminates your application and loads another one that you specify. You can specify the name of a run file to execute when your job exits. MMURTL will cleanup after you if you don't. exchanges. Another option to chaining is to tell the operating system what application to run when you exit. It is best to deallocate all system resources before calling ExitJob(). You can pass information to the incoming application by using the SetCmdLine() function. Terminating Your Application The call ExitJob() is provided to end the execution of your program. but an application knows what it allocated and it's more efficient to do it yourself from an overall system standpoint. 17. or system calls. All tasks in your job will be shutdown at that time and the application will be terminated. The exit() function in a high-level language library will call this function. This is done with the SetExitJob() call. MMURTL V1. You will be terminated and sent to the "sidelines" if necessary. You should also wait for responses to any requests you made.#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define GREEN CYAN RED WHITE GRAY LTBLUE LTGREEN LTCYAN LTRED BGBLACK BGBLUE BGGREEN BGCYAN 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0A 0x0B 0x0C 0x00 1x70 0x20 0x30 dError = PutVidChars(0. This is done by calling the Chain() function. Any task in your job may call ExitJob(). 0. Some of the basic resources are saved for the new application. all the resources are recovered from the job and it is terminated. Remember. "This is a test. and other things allocated while you were running.". BGBLUE|WHITE). such as the job-control block and virtual video memory. This includes any memory. MMURTL is more like a referee on the football field.

This is the basis behind the Request() and Respond() messaging primitives. but it's a good clean example showing the basic "guts" of a system service. Its purpose it to hand out unique numbers to each request that comes in. if required. you should make sure you understand the material covered in the architecture and Applications Programming chapters.1 is the world's simplest system service for the MMURTL operating system. Systems programmers require a better understanding of the operating system. They should have a basic understanding of multitasking and messaging and be able to concentrate on the application itself. Initializing Your System Service The basic steps to initialize your service and start serving requests are listed below: Initialize or allocate any resources required. The file system and keyboard services are prime examples of message-based system services. Main Service exchange (clients send requests here). use messaging.0 -93- RICHARD A BURGESS . Additional tasks if required. as well as for other services. such as: Additional memory. Many people associate the term client/server only with a separate computer system that is the server for client workstations. Wait for messages. It can be compared to Remote Procedure Calls with a twist. It's not very useful. Application programmers shouldn't have to worry about hardware and OS internal operations to accomplish their tasks. MMURTL V1. MMURTL is a message-based operating system and is designed to support programs in a client/server environment. or provide services to application programs. They contain theory and examples to help you understand how to access services. It describes writing message based system services and device drivers. Pascal. Writing Message-Based System Services System Services are installable programs or built-in operating system services that provide system-wide message based services for application programs.Chapter 10. If you want (or need) to build device drivers or system services.) Call RegisterSVC() with your name and Main Service Exchange. Additional exchanges. A program that performs a specific function or group of functions can be shared with two or more programs is a system service. Anything else you need to prepare for business (Initialize variables etc. The service name is "NUMBERS " (note that the name is space-padded). Service names are casesensitive. if needed. service them. Systems Programming Introduction This section is aimed squarely at the MMURTL systems programmer. Systems programming deals with writing programs that work directly with the operating system and hardware. and memory management operations. Use of the associated operating system calls is described in a generic format that can be understood by C. then Respond. the service does the processing and Responds. and Assembly language programmers. MMURTL takes this down to a single processor level. A Simple System Service Example Listing 10. The service will get a pointer in the request block (pData1) that tells it where the user wants the number returned. Client programs make a Request.

long dData1.ServiceCode == 1) { /* User Asking for Number */ *pRqBlk.pData1 = NextNumber++. char *pData1. long RqOwnerJob. /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk. NextNumber = 0. long dData0. #define ErcOK 0 #define ErcBadSvcCode 32 struct pRqBlk unsigned long unsigned long unsigned long *RqBlk. char *pData2. MainExch. long cbData2. OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". MainExch). }. Message[2]. long dData2. long RQBRsvd3.1. A System Service /* Super Simple System Service */ struct RqBlk { /* 64 byte request block structure */ long ServiceExch. Message). long ServiceRoute. ErrorToUser. else if (pRqBlk. int ServiceCode. ErrorToUser): /* Respond to Request */ } } /* Loop while(1) */ } MMURTL V1.Listing 10. long RQBRsvd1. while (1) { /* WHILE forever */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). long RQBRsvd2. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ if (pRqBlk. char *pRqHndlRet. /* /* /* /* A pointer to a Request Block */ The number to return */ Where we wait for Requests */ The Message with the Request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError.0 -94- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* get an exchange */ if (OSError) { /* look for a kernel error */ exit(OSError). /* Respond with No error */ } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode. /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. char npRecv. long cbData1. /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. if (OSError) { /* look for a system error */ exit(OSError). char npSend. long RespExch.ServiceCode == 0) /* Abort request from OS */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK.

If you receive a service code you don't handle or haven't defined. In the simple example above. the service only defines one service code that it handles. As a system service writer. This gives the system service the opportunity to look at or use any parts of the Request Block it needs.The Request Block As you can see. For larger data movement to the service. The complexity of your service. The service must never attempt to write to the request block. installable services would find themselves terminated for the attempt. This value is actually a pointer to the Request Block itself in unprotected operating system memory. you define the data items you need. The Service Code A single word (a 16-bit value) is used for the caller to indicate exactly what service they are requesting from you. and what service you provide.0 -95- RICHARD A BURGESS . and it is your responsibility to document this information for application programmers. These two request block items are specifically designed as pointers to a data area in the caller's memory space. This is the number 1 (one). and how much information a program must pass to you. The first dword is the Request Block Handle. or any data movement back to the caller. The operating system reserves service code 0 (Zero) for itself in all services. Items In the Request Block The Request Block contains certain items that the service needs to do its job. will be determined by how much information you need to carry out the request. When a service receives a Request with service code 0. For all other values of the service code. and the aliased pointer to the user's memory is active and available only while the request block is being serviced. These items are dData0. one number represents OpenFile. You may not use or define service code zero to your callers in your documentation. Wait returns and the two-dword message is filled in. you should return the Error Bad Service Code which is defined in standard MMURTL header files. A prime example of their use is in the File System service. in the File System. They are one-way data values from the caller to you. you must describe in your documentation what Request information you expect from the caller. the system service interface using Request() and Respond() is not complicated. Programs and the operating system pass information to the service in various Request Block items. the operating system is telling you that a job (a user program or another service) has either exited or has been shut down by the operating system. In fact. This is called the service code. The operating MMURTL V1. because the operating system does not alias them as such. How many items you need to use depends on the complexity of the service you're writing. and another RenameFile. another CloseFile. and whether or not they are signed or unsigned is up to you (the System Service writer). As a system service. and dData2. The Request Block is in operating-system memory which is read-only to user-level jobs. and whether or not you hold requests from multiple callers before responding. They are 32-bit values. dData1. Caller Information in a Request Three dwords are defined to allow a program to pass information to your service that you require to do your job. For example. where callers pass in a file handle using these data items. when you receive a Request. The size of the area is defined by the accompanying 32-bit values. Several items in the Request Block are important to the service. An installable service will operate at the user level of protection and access. They may not contain pointers to the caller's memory area. How you handle this depends on how complex your service is. cbData1 and cbData2. The memory address of the Request Block. the request block items pData1 and pData2 must be used.

Synchronous services wait. cbData1 and pData2. All operations are handled in a serial fashion. You return a 0 (zero) if all went well. You don't have to access a global in your program or make another call to determine what went wrong. tape drives. and will alias the pointers so the caller's memory space is accessible to the service. MMURTL uses this concept. The abort request contains the Job number of the aborted program in dData0. or maybe the File System couldn't allocate an operating system resource it needed to open your file. When you write system services. you would receive a non-zero number indicating the error. but carries it one step farther. MMURTL has standardized entry points for all devices on the system. and network frame handlers are all examples of devices (or pseudo devices) that require device drivers to control them.0 -96- RICHARD A BURGESS . before responding to any other requests you are holding. In each of these cases. you must be aware of conventions used in error passing and handling. This means the keyboard service must place the global key code requests on another exchange while they handle normal requests. An example of this is how the file system handles errors. These key codes may not occur for long periods of time. This type of service is defined as asynchronous. Also be aware that these pointers are only valid from the time you receive the request. The device drivers are the closest layer to the OS. you need to ensure that you look at all the requests you are holding to see if this abort is for one of the requests. If an error occurred or you need to pass some kind of status back to the caller. Device drivers are accessed via call gates transparent to the applications programmer MMURTL V1. cbData2. The keyboard service is good example of an asynchronous service. Disk drives. and moves it to another exchange. which is a valuable system resource. If so. The file may already be opened by someone else in an incompatible mode.system is “aware” of this. Writing Device Drivers Device Drivers control or emulate hardware on the system. OpenFile() returns a 0 error code if everything went fine. and many normal key strokes may occur in the meantime. A service may receive and hold more than one request before responding. However. Some operating systems simply give you a true or false style of response as to whether or not the function you requested was carried out without errors. System Service Error Handling When the service Responds. You can then use WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() to get the requests from this second hold exchange when you know you can respond to them. As a service you must not attempt to access any data in the caller's space other than what is defined by pData1. In the keyboard service. communications ports (serial and parallel). you must respond to it immediately. callers can make a request to be notified of global key codes. RAM disks. You would look at each Request Block in the RqOwnerJob field to see if this request came from it. You should not confuse device drivers with message-based system services. Asynchronous Services Most services will be synchronous. The first is the request block handle. you may receive an Abort Service code from the operating system (ServiceCode 0). This type of service may even respond to the second request it receives before it responds to the first. receive a request. This is the easiest way to handle requests. MMURTL is built in layers. This type of service requires one or more additional exchanges to hold the outstanding requests. you must respond without accessing its memory or acting on its request. it may return five or six different values for various problems that can occur during the OpenFile() process. the file may not exist. If this happens. until you respond. the error (or status) to the user is passed back as the second dword parameter in the respond call. you return a number that indicates what you want to tell them. then respond before waiting for the next request. This is so the operating system can reclaim the request block. If so. While you are holding requests in an asynchronously. The kernel primitive MoveRequest() takes a request you have received using Wait.

keyboard. network link layer devices). The device-driver builder must not access ports other than those required to control their hardware. which actually becomes the OS memory space when you load it. Other system calls may also have to be made to allocate or initialize other system resources it requires before it can handle its device. the PICUs. it has to make a system call to set itself up as a device driver in the system. This means message. which ensures complete harmony in MMURTL's real-time. MMURTL provides several built-in device drivers including floppy disk. If a device driver controls more than one device. All device drivers use a Device Control Block (DCB). Only System code (protection level 0) is allowed processor port I/O access. Device drivers must not attempt to directly control the system DMA. The MMURTL standard Device Driver interface can handle both sequential and random devices with fixed or variable block and/orsector lengths. MMURTL V1. SCSI ports. MMURTL takes care of synchronization of system-level hardware access so device driver programmers don't have to worry about it. basic video. as well as where the data is on the device.e. Sequential devices are things like communications ports. With InitDevDr(). multi-threaded environment. or any OS structures. it passes in a pointer to its DCB. powerful. interrupt vectors. Some types of tape drives allow reading and writing to addresses (sectors) on the tape and therefore may also be random devices. Device drivers have complete access to processor I/O ports for their devices without OS intervention.which allow callers to easily and rapidly access code with a procedural interface from high-level languages (e. to handling complex devices such as hard drives.or request-based system services and application code (both at User level 3) cannot access ports at all. it will pass in a pointer to an array of DCBs. RAM DISK). or is included in the OS code at build time. device drivers and have even gone into substantial detail for beginners. Those who have written device drivers on other systems will appreciate this concept. Building Device Drivers When the device driver is installed by the loader. For example. Device Driver Theory MMURTL is a protected-mode. the file system is at user level (3). The interface is non-specific. C and Pascal).) Most byte-oriented devices tend to be sequential devices because they don't have a fixed size block and are not randomly accessed. MMURTL provides a complete array of calls to handle all of the hardware. timer hardware. or by simply "pushing" parameters on the stack in assembler and making a call. Each device driver must also maintain in itsdata area all hardware specific data (variables) needed to control and keep track of the state of the device. keyboard.. you provided a pointer to your Device Control Blocks (DCB) after you have filled in the required information. and sequential video access (ANSI drivers etc. The device driver defines and keeps the DCB in its memory space. Network frame handlers may also be random because a link layer address is usually associated with the read and write functions. The call to setup as a device driver is InitDevDr(). and communication (serial and parallel) Devices in MMURTL are classified as two different basic types: random. Device drivers must have access to the hardware they control. hard disk. or network frame handlers (i. Block Size. or a processor protection violation will occur. while providing a fair amount of hardware independence. although they may be sequential too (implementation dependent). paged memory OS that uses two of the four possible protection levels of the 386/486 processors. The levels are 0 and 3 and are referred to as System (0) and User (3).0 -97- RICHARD A BURGESS . Device drivers can be doing anything from simple disk device emulation (e. The DCB is shared by both the device driver and OS code.and sequential-oriented. Things like Device name. multitasking.g.. When a device driver initializes itself with the call InitDevDr(). Random-oriented devices are things like disk drives and RAM disks that require the caller to tell the driver how much data to read or write. and Device Type are examples of the fields in a DCB.g. It does not directly access hardware. I have made it rather painless to build fast.

You will have functions in your driver to handle each of these calls. Device Driver Setup and Installation The initialization section of your device driver must make certain calls to set up and install as a driver. At this point. like any application in MMURTL. The main entry point will never be called again. You can name them anything you want in your program. In a multitasking environment it is possible that a deviceMMURTL V1. Do anything else you need before being called. if needed for messaging from a second task or the ISRs (see the floppy device driver for an example of a device driver with a separate task to handle hardware interrupts). if needed. When programs call one of these PUBLIC calls. When you fill in the DCB you will fill in the addresses of these 3 entry points that the OS will call on behalf of the original caller. Check or set up the device’s. Set up interrupt service routines. Your actual calls may vary depending on what system resources you need. you have three device driver routines that are ready to be called by the OS. just like any other program. MMURTL does some housekeeping and then calls your specified function. if needed. Allocate exchanges. It has a main entry point which you specify when writing the program. Initialize or allocate any resources required: Allocate any additional memory. How Callers Reach Your Driver All device drivers are accessed via one of 3 public calls defined in the OS. if required. but they must have the same number and type of parameters (arguments) as the PUBLIC calls defined in the OS for all device drivers. This layer of code performs several functions for you. Enter the required data in the DCBs to pass to the InitDevDr() call. It will be the OS that calls them and not the users of the devices directly. In C this would be main().0 -98- RICHARD A BURGESS .Before calling InitDevDr you will most likely have to allocate other system resources and possibly even set up hardware interrupts that you will handle from your device. The OS defines the three following PUBLIC calls: DeviceInit() DeviceOp() DeviceStat() The parameter listings and function expectations are discussed in detail later in this chapter. InitDevDr() never returns to you. unless this is done in one of the procedures (such as DeviceInit()) as a normal function of your driver. it's the main program block. This code is immediately executed after loading the driver. This is because the OS has a very small layer of code which provides common entry points to the three device driver calls for all drivers. One very important function is blocking for non-re-entrant device drivers. In assembler this would be the START entry point specified for the program. Enable (UnMaskIRQ()) any hardware interrupts you are servicing. Your driver program must interface properly with the three public calls. This code will only execute once to allow you to initialize the driver. Additional system resources available to device drivers are discussed later in this section. This will generally be a very small section of code (maybe 30 lines). The generic steps are described below. But they must at least accept the calls and return a status code of 0 (for no error) if they ignore it. Your functions may not have to do anything when called depending on the device you are controlling. It terminates your task and leaves your code resident to be called by the OS when one of the three device-driver calls are made. Call InitDevDr(). The device driver looks. or in Pascal. and is programmed.

Interrupts Several calls are provided to handle initializing and servicing hardware interrupt service routines (ISRs) in your code. device drivers must delay (sleep) while waiting for an action to occur. More detail about each of these calls can be found in the alphabetical listing of OS calls in Chapter 15. EndOfIRQ() sends and "End of Interrupt" signal to the Programmable Interrupt Controller Units (PICU). DMA also has some quirks you should be aware of such as its inability to cross-segment physical boundaries (64Kb). This means all DMA transfers must be buffered into memory that was allocated using AllocDMAPage(). DMASetUp() lets you set a DMA channel for the type. Timer Facilities Quite often. The Alarm() call can be used asynchronously to allow the device code to continue doing something while the alarm is counting down. or how much was transferred. MaskIRQ() and UnMaskIRQ() are used to turn on and off your hardware interrupt by masking and unmasking it directly with the PICU. ISRs should be written in assembly language for speed and complete code control. The following is a list with brief descriptions of the calls you may need to set up and use in your ISR: SetIRQVector() is how you tell the OS what function to call when your hardware interrupt occurs. although it’s not a requirement. and size of a DMA move. Your driver should use the AllocDMAPage() call to allocate memory that is guaranteed not to cross a physical segment boundary which also provides you with the physical address to pass to DMASetUp(). In other operating systems. mode. Two calls provide these functions. and the addresses you use will probably never be equal to the physical address! Another thing to consider is that DMA on the ISA platforms is limited to a 16Mb physical address range. MMURTL has a complete array of support calls for such drivers. you will have to use the DMASetUp() call each time before instructing your device to make the programmed DMA transfer. Many device drivers need to use DMA and timer facilities.driver function could be called while someone else's code is already executing it. Do not do this in MMURTL as other code may be required to execute in later versions of MMURTL which will render your device driver obsolete. Many users of DMA also need to be able to query the DMA count register to see if the DMA transfer was complete.0 -99- RICHARD A BURGESS . The Sleep() call actually puts the calling process to sleep (makes it wait) for a specific number of 10-millisecond periods. Most device drivers are NOT re-entrant so this will normally be set to FALSE (0). MMURTL uses paged memory. If you use MMURTL V1. The Alarm() call will send a message to a specified exchange after a number of caller-specified 10-millisecond increments. See the section that deals specifically with ISRs for complete descriptions and examples of simple ISRs. See the OS Public Call descriptions for more information on DMASetUp() and how to use AllocDMAPage().”API Specification. They require special operating system resources to accomplish their missions. One of the items you fill out in the DCB is a flag (fDevReent) to tell the OS if your driver is re-entrant. the ISR usually sends the EOI sequence directly to the PICU. This is accomplished with GetDMACount().” Direct Memory Access Device (DMA) If your device uses DMA. Program code can and will most likely be loaded into memory above the 16Mb limit if you have that much memory in your machine. System Resources For Device Drivers Because they control the hardware. especially if the driver controls two devices. or have the ability to "time-out" if an expected action doesn't occur in a specific amount of time. and they must service interrupts from the devices they control. and should be called by you as the last thing your ISR does. It is important that you understand that the memory addresses your program uses are linear addresses and do not equal physical addresses. direction. This is often called an interrupt vector. specifically DOS. The floppy and harddisk device drivers also provide good ISR examples. device drivers are very close to the hardware.

IsendMsg() also does not re-enable interrupts before returning to the ISR that called it. If you must send a message that guarantees a task switch to a higher priority task. You can look at some of the included device driver code with MMURTL to help you. This will guarantee a task switch if the message is to a higher priority task. and how to implement them in your code. a structure in C. or you only need to send one message from the ISR. so it may be called from an ISR while interrupts are disabled. IsendMsg() is used if an ISR must send more than one message from the interrupted condition. or assembler to construct the DCB. If you use SendMsg(). DO NOT MODIFY -100- RICHARD A BURGESS . How the structure is implemented in each programming language is different. Detailed Device Interface Specification The following sections describe the device control block (DCB). and KillAlarm() functions. IsendMsg() is a special form of SendMsg() that can be used inside an ISR (with interrupts disabled). DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0.1 presents the information that needs to be included in the DCB. you can use SendMsg(). but easy to figure out. 2 = SEQUENTIAL Bytes Per Block (1 to 65535 max. The length of each field in the DCB is shown in bytes and all values are unsigned.Alarm(). Handler pointer to device Init handler pointer to device Status handler Is device handler reentrant? Is device usable from 1 JOB only? If fSingleUser true. Table 10. Device Control Block Setup and Use The DCB structure is shown in the following table with sizes and offsets specified. You must ensure that there is no padding between the variables if you use a record in Pascal. See the call descriptions for more information on the Sleep().) (0 for variable block size) Last error code from an operation Number of blocks in device (0 for sequential) pointer to device Oper. left justified Length of Device name in bytes 1 = RANDOM device.1-. Multiple DCBs must be contiguous in memory. It doesn't force a task switch (even if the destination exchange has a higher priority process waiting there). Alarm(). The size of a DEVICE CONTROL BLOCK is 64 bytes. Message Facilities for Device Drivers Interrupt service routines (if you need them in your driver) sometimes require special messaging features that application programs don't need. it must be the final call in your ISR after the EndOfIRQ() call has been made and just before the IRETD() (Return From Interrupt).0 Size 12 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 4 Offset 0 12 13 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 37 38 40 44 48 Description Device Name. you will most likely need to use KillAlarm() which stops the alarm function if it hasn't already fired off a message to you. Device control block definition Name DevName sbDevName DevType NBPB dLastDevErc ndDevBlocks pDevOp pDevInit pDevStat fDevReent fSingleUser wJob OSUseONLY1 OSUseONLY2 OSuseONLY3 MMURTL V1. each of the three PUBLIC device calls. Table 10. A special call that may be required by some device drivers is IsendMsg(). this is job ALLOCATE and 0. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. If your driver controls more than one device you will need to have a DCB for each one it controls.

on a floppy disk this would be the number of sectors x number of cylinders x number of heads on the drive. The queuing is accomplished with an exchange. if you are on track zero. but a driver for non-standard floppy devices can name them anything (up to 12 characters).This is the number of addressable blocks in your device. For example. where several devices are controlled though one access point. RETN is the proper instruction. The head number takes precedence over track number when calculating the actual position on the disk. or it's a disk driver that is initialized for 1024-byte sectors then this would reflect the true block size of the device. the SendMsg(). For instance. On very complicated devices such as a SCSI driver. MMURTL V1. If it is a single-byte oriented device such as a communications port or sequential video then this would be 1.OSuseONLY4 OSuseONLY5 OSuseONLY6 4 4 4 52 56 60 ALLOCATE and 0. and you read one sector past the end of that track. Most device drivers have a single set of variables that keep track of the current state of the device and the current operation. If the sectors are 512-byte sectors (MMURTL standard) then this would be 512. sbDevName . If the device is sequential. pDevOp. DevType .this indicates whether the device is addressable. Each device name must be unique. sector zero. This is usually dictated by your compiler or assembler and how you define the function or procedure. MMURTL will queue up tasks that call a device driver currently in use. pDevInit. defining the function with no additional attributes or modifiers defaults it to a 32-bit near return. In a true multitasking environment more than one task can call a device driver. An example of how this is accomplished is with the floppy device driver.When a driver encounters an error. then it's considered a random device and this byte should contain a 1. znBPB . In assembler. The driver does not need to reset this value as MMURTL resets it to zero on entry to each call to DeviceOP() for each device. head zero. it should set this variable with the last error code it received. floppy disk drives are usually named FD0 and FD1. DO NOT MODIFY The fields of the DCB must be filled in with the initial values for the device you control before calling InitDevDr(). and handle device conflicts internally.number of bytes per block. It numbers all sectors on the disk from 0 to nTotalSectors (nTotalSectors is nHeads * nSecPerTrack * nTracks). If the device is mountable or allows multiple media sizes this value should be set initially to allow access to any media for identification. non-zero true) that tells MMURTL if the device driver is re-entrant. MMURTL expects device drivers to organize access to each random device by 0 to n logical addresses. we then move to the next head. the driver may have to tell MMURTL it's re-entrant. and WaitMsg() primitives.a single byte containing the number of bytes in the device name. then this should contain a 2. If it is another device. If the device has variable length blocks then this should be 0. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. usually an unexpected one.Returns device-specific status MMURTL uses indirect 32-bit near calls to your driver's code for these three calls. but the following fields require detailed explanations: DevName .This is a 1-byte flag (0 false. dLastDevErc . but this doesn't prevent the driver from assigning a non-standard name. If data can be reached at a specific numbered address as specified in the DeviceOP() call parameter dLBA (Logical Block Address). The name is used so that callers don't need to know a device’s number in order to use it. Addressing with 32 bits limits address access to 4Gb on a single-byte device and 4Gb x sector size on disk devices. and pDevStat are pointers to the calls in your driver for the following PUBLIC device functions: DeviceOp() . not the next track.Each driver names the device it serves.0 -101- RICHARD A BURGESS . Some names are standardized in MMURTL.Initializes or resets the device DeviceStats() . This reduces disk arm movement which. increases throughput. DO NOT MODIFY ALLOCATE and 0. but this is not much of a limitation. MMURTL handles conflicts that occur when more than one task attempts to access a device. Most of the fields are explained satisfactorily in the descriptions next to the them. fDevReent . Disk drives are divided into sectors. For devices that are not re-entrant. ndDevBlocks .Performs I/O operations in device DeviceInit() . The Hard disk driver operates the same way. In C-32 (MMURTL's standard C compiler). and the concept of an address for the data has no meaning (such as with a communications port). A portion of the reserved DCB is used for this purpose. In other words. The return instruction you use should be a 32-bit near return. this is device dependent. Each sector is considered a block.

where the parameters will be found on the stack after the function has set up its stack frame using Intel standard stack frame entry techniques. All functions in MMURTL return errors via the EAX register. sdInitdata):dError DeviceStat (dDevice. Standard device errors should be used when they adequately describe the error or status you wish to convey to the caller. Device specific error codes should be included with the documentation for the driver. An almost unlimited number of operations can be specified for the Device Operation call (2^32).dnBlocks. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed.4.If a device can only be assigned and used by one Job (user) at a time. dLBA. Returning zero indicates successful completion of the function. verify. The rest of the dOp Numbers may be implemented for any devicespecific operations so long as they conform to the call parameters described here. pData):dError DeviceInit (dDevice. dError = DeviceOp(dDevice. They are: DeviceOp (dDevice. The call is not device specific and allows any device to be interfaced through it.pData). A non-zero value indicates and error or status that the caller should act on. this will be the job that is currently assigned to the device. They must be set to zero before the call to InitDevDr. This applies to devices like communications ports that are assigned and used for a session.These are reserved for OS use and device drivers should not alter the values in them after the call to InitDevDr.dLBA.5. If this is zero. If fSingleUser is false this field is ignored.3. ndBlocks.dOpNum.2. They equate to standard device operations such as read. OSUseONLY1.0 -102- RICHARD A BURGESS . and format. Standard Device Call Definitions As described previously. wJob . write. The first 256 operations (dOp number) are pre-defined or reserved. pStatRet. Note that your function should also remove these parameters from the stack. The procedural interfaces are shown with additional information such as the call frame offset.fSingleUser . Your function implementations must do the same. DeviceOp Function Implementation The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on a device. this flag should be true (non-zero).6 . all calls to device drivers are accessed through three pre-defined PUBLIC calls in MMURTL. sdStatRetmax):dError Detailed information follows for each of these calls. pInitData.If the fSingleUser is true. dOpNum. no job is currently assigned the device. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are these: dDevice [EBP+24] dOpNum [EBP+20] dLBA [EBP+16] dnBlocks [EBP+12] pData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice the device number dOpNum identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block (tape or disk devices) MMURTL V1.

For sequential devices. pData Pointer to data (or buffer for reads) for specified operation DeviceStat Function Implementation The DeviceStat() function provides a way to for device-specific status to be returned to a caller if needed. DError = DeviceInit(dDevice. this will simply be the number of bytes.dInitData).pStatRet. An example of initialization would be a communications port for baud rate.dStatusMax. you should return 0 to pdStatusRet and return the standard device error ErcNoStatus. Not all devices will return status on demand. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: dDevice pStatRet dStatusMax pdStatusRet Parameter Descriptions: dDevice Device number to status pStatBuf Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax caller sets this to tell you the max size of status to return in bytes pdStatusRet Pointer to dword where you return size of status returned in bytes DeviceInit Function Implementation Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use or to reset them after a catastrophe.0 -103- RICHARD A BURGESS . dnBlocks Number of contiguous Blocks for the operation specified. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device specific and should be defined with the documentation for the specific device driver.pdStatusRet). parity.pInitData. and so on.5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block (tape or disk devices only) 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) (Communications devices) 10 OpenDevice (communications devices) 11 CloseDevice (communications devices) (RS-232 devices with explicit modem control) 15 SetDTR 16 SetCTS Undefined operation number below 255 are reserved 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) Dlba Logical Block Address for I/O operation. The call frame offsets for assembly language programmers are: [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] [EBP+08] MMURTL V1. For sequential devices this parameter will be ignored. DError = DeviceStat(dDevice. In cases where the function doesn't or can't return status.

This means the devices are number consecutively. If this is not the case. It also returns the physical address of the memory which is required for the DMASetUp call. nDevices This is the number of devices that the driver controls. If the driver controls more than one device. pDCBs. After the Device driver has been loaded. UnMaskIRQ() Allows interrupts to occur from a specified channel on the PICU. If the driver is flagged as not re-entrant. this is the first number of the devices. and one DMA channel if applicable. SetIRQVector() Sets up a vector to your ISR.DDevice [EBP+16] IInitData [EBP+12]\ dInitData [EBP+08] Parameter Descriptions: dDevice dword indicating Device number pInitData Pointer to device specific data for initialization be returned dInitData dword indicating maximum size of status to return in bytes Initializing Your Driver InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the OS integrate it into the system. fReplace If true. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. DMASetUp() Programs the DMA hardware channel specified to move data to or from your device. the second at pDCBs + 128. The definition and parameters to InitDevDr() are as follows: InitDevDr(dDevNum. the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. such as a disk or SCSI controller.0 -104- RICHARD A BURGESS . this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. OS Functions for Device Drivers The following is a list of functions that were specifically designed for device drivers. MaskIRQ() Masks one interrupt (prevents it from interrupting) by programming the PICU. and so on. Please use the MMURTL API reference for a detailed description of their use. then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. A driver must specify at least as many devices as the original driver handled. This is because one controller. MMURTL V1. nDevices. and a very good knowledge of the hardware. fReplace) dDevNum This is the device number that the driver is controlling. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the Device Control Blocks for each device. If more than one device is controlled. They perform many of the tedious functions that would otherwise require assembly language. usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports. and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously the driver should be broken into two separate drivers. EndOfIRQ() Resets the programmable interrupt controller unit (PICU) at the end of the ISR sequence. it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices while providing service through the three standard entry points. pDCBs This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr call is made. it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. AllocDMAMem() Allocates memory that will be compatible with DMA operations. and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. This means the second DCB must be located at pDCBs + 64.

then use it. If an error code already defined in MMURTL's standard header file will adequately describe the error or status. Your device drive will also return error codes for problems it has honoring the device call.0 -105- RICHARD A BURGESS .Standard Device Error Codes The MMURTL device-driver interface code will return errors for certain conditions such as a device being called that's not installed. MMURTL V1.

.

No spaces.to the run file.1. Even when a Job is not being displayed. The monitor also serves as a context display controller by monitoring for global keys that indicate the user's desire to change.RUN) . The Monitor program enables you to select which job you are currently interacting with. Drive:\DIR\NAME. No parameters are passed .INITIAL. the keyboard. The file name must contain the FULL . the job he is currently viewing.JOB . as well as the video display. or terminate. many of the functions now performed by the monitor will be moved to external programs. A line that begins with a semicolon is ignored and considered a comment line.0 -107- RICHARD A BURGESS . it continues to run because a job never actually knows if it is displaying data to the real screen or its own virtual screen. the monitor attempts to open a text file in the system directory called INITIAL. tabs or other characters are allowed before the RUN file name. Any spaces. . is assigned to the new job or is terminated. tabs or comments after .You may list the jobs that you wanted executed upon .Maximum line length is 80 characters total. Listing 11.RUN <---.1 shows a sample INITIAL. One run file name per line.This is the initial jobs file. . Many of the functions performed by the monitor are for testing the system. C:\MSamples\Service\Service. Sample Initial.Comment lines begin with a semi-colon . Each line lists the full file specification of a RUN file. The format is very simple. If it's displaying video data.system boot in this file. In future versions of MMURTL.this will be loaded on bootup MMURTL V1.run C:\MMSYS\CLI..the run file name are ignored.file name including path. This is done by pressing the CTRLALT-PageDown keys to move forward through the active jobs until you see the one you want. . Active Job (Video & keyboard) When multiple jobs are running in MMURTL. The current job may also be terminated by pressing CTRL-ALT-Delete. The name must start in the first column of a line.g.JOB file.JOB.after each entry. a buffer in memory.Chapter 11. When the user presses these global keys. only one job at a time can be displayed or accept keyboard input. it is still running unless it's waiting for something such as keyboard input or some form of communication.Job file . This file contains the file names of one or more run files you want to execute automatically on boot up. The Monitor Program Introduction The Monitor program is included as part of the operating system. Listing 11. If you intend to write an operating system. Initial Jobs After all internal device drivers and services are loaded. (e. you will find a need for something similar to the monitor as an initial piece of code built into the operating system for testing.no spaces in front of the name and a proper end-of-line .

The initialization also includes starting two tasks inside the monitor code. user interaction is provided via the functions keys discussed in table 11. The monitor echoes other keys to the screen to show you it is working properly. The device drivers that are initialized include the hard and floppy disk.1. The first thing accomplished by the monitor is the initialization of all internal device drivers and system services. Monitor Function Keys Key F1 F2 F3 F8 F10 Label LDCLI JOBS STATS BOOT DEBUG Function Loads a Command Line Interpreter List Jobs Show System Resource Status Reboots the system (hard reset) Enter the Debugger Monitor Program Theory After all internal static and dynamic structures are initialized.RUN. Performance Monitoring Performance monitoring is provided by sampling statistic-gathering public variables the operating system maintains and updates.0 -108- RICHARD A BURGESS . This task also looks for the Ctrl-Alt-Delete key combination which terminates a job. These statistics include: Free 4K memory pages . job display. The functions are provided with function keys which are labeled across the bottom of the display. Table 11. The statistics provide a snap-shot of system resources every half second.. They are displayed as typed.This is the total count of task switches since boot up. RS-232 serial communications.This is the total number of 4K memory pages available for allocation by the memory-management code. Monitor Function Keys The Monitor also provides other functions such as system resource display. The initialized services include the keyboard and the file system. Once the initialization is complete.End of file If the executable job listed is CLI. the monitor is reached with a JMP instruction. the video and keyboard will be assigned to this job and taken away from the monitor. and the parallel port (LPT) driver.1. It looks for Ctrl-Alt-PageDown and shifts the keyboard and video to the next job in numerical order. Table 11. MMURTL V1. any errors returned are displayed. priority task. During this process. Task switches total . The second task is used to recover resources when a job ends or is terminated for ill behavior (memory access or other protection violations). and access to the built-in debugger. The first additional task provides the context-switching capabilities by leaving a global key request with the keyboard service. A status code of Zero indicates successful initialization.1 describes the function of each assigned key.

CPU idle ticks (no work) . you will see the preemptive task switch count increase. These are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. Each new task uses one of these. There were no tasks ready to run.h" "MFiles. Listing 11. MMURTL V1. These are static and the count is determined at OS build time. This number may seem a little high. Free Task State Segments . If this number is greater than zero. The memory they occupy is dynamically allocated.2. but the count is fixed at OS build time. Free Link Blocks . Free Exchanges . the C library code can be used. but have a fixed count at OS build time.This is the number of free job control blocks left. that don't get picked up right away. They are also dynamically allocated with a fixed count at OS build time. the request block is returned for re-use. These structures are also in dynamically allocated memory.h" "MVid. Response is made by the service. See listing 11. but dozens of messages may be sent between tasks.This is the number of free exchanges that can be allocated. including requests.h" "MData.h" "MMemory.This is the number of times the operating system had nothing to do.h" "MTimer.h" "MJob. This number does not directly relate the timer ticks because this can happen several times between the time interrupt interval.This is the number of tasks currently queued to run. even in the same job. Monitor program source listing #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char "MKernel.h" "MDevDrv. In future versions when a lot of the monitor functionality is moved out of the operating system. Tasks Ready to Run .These are task-management structures. Free Job Control Blocks .0 MMURTL Monitor Tick:0 -109- RICHARD A BURGESS . Monitor Source Listing Text-formatting functions are provided with the xprintf() function defined in the monitor. I include no C library code in the operating system itself. Each job uses one.2.h" #define ok 0 #define ErcNoDevice 504 static char rgStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 ".A small structure used by all messages sent and received.h" "MKbd.

fKilled. LastStatByte0. fIntOnReset. static long time. U32 BlocksMax. MngrMsg[2]. tick. KillJobNum. /* Number of bytes per sect */ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. static unsigned long GP1Msg[2]. unsigned long KillExch. /* current disk type for drive selected */ U8 resvd1[2]. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. static char rgMonMenu3[] = " \xb3Debug \xb3 \xb3 ". U8 type_now. MngrHndl. U32 blocks_done. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. MMURTL V1. static char rgCPR1[] ="MMURTL (tm) . /* Messaging for main */ /* Extra Messaging for main */ /* Structure for disk device driver status and setup */ static struct diskstattype { U32 erc. static char rgMonMenu2[] = " \xb3 \xb3 \xb3Reboot". LastErcByte0. static unsigned long GP1Exch. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. gcode. static unsigned long GPMsg[2].Message based.0 -110- RICHARD A BURGESS .static char rgMonMenu1[] = "LdCLI\xb3Jobs \xb3Stats \xb3 ". /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. MUltitasking. 1990-1995. static char *CRLF = "\r\n\r\n". static char rgCPR2[] ="Copyright (c) R. static static static static static static static static unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long char long long long long /* Messaging for stat task KILL proc */ /* First DWORD = TSSExch. LastErcByte1. LastSeekErc1. second is ERROR */ /* Color test for xprintf */ KillMsg[2]. MngrExch. static unsigned long GPHndl. LastRecalErc1. LastStatByte1. KillError. U8 fNewMedia. All Rights Reserved".A. LastSeekErc0. static unsigned long Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. Real-Time kerneL". Burgess. static unsigned long GP1Hndl. date. /* Messaging for stat task */ static unsigned long GPExch. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0.

nJCBLeft. /* out to 64 bytes */ }. static long StatStack[256]. nHalts. #asm MMURTL V1. InitFS(void).c */ Parallel. U32 resvd1[2].asm */ Floppy.c */ HardIDE. ***************************************************************/ #include <stdarg. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U8 filler1. nReady. xsprintf.0 -111- RICHARD A BURGESS . #define nMaxJCBs 34 /* 32 dynamic plus 2 static */ static struct JCBRec *pJCB. lpt_setup(void).h> #define S_SIZE 100 /********************************************* * Determine if a character is a numeric digit **********************************************/ static long isdigit(long chr) { . nSlices.c */ RS232. char *pJCBRet).U8 ResetStatByte. BootDrive. char *ppJCBRet). /* 1024 byte stack for Stat task */ static long MngrStack[256].c */ extern long GetExchOwner(long Exch.c */ Fsys. nEXCHLeft. nLBLeft. nTSSLeft. static unsigned long nMemPages. extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned unsigned long long long long long long long long long long long oMemMax. /* 1024 byte stack for Mngr task */ static unsigned char Buffer[512]. nRQBLeft. extern long DeAllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. static struct diskstattype DiskStatus. /*=================== START OF CODE ====================*/ /************************************************************** Formatted output routines for monitor program xprintf. /* /* /* /* /* /* From From From From From From Keyboard. hdisk_setup(void). fdisk_setup(void). /*============ protos (NEAR MMURTL support calls) =================*/ extern extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long long InitKBDService(void). coms_setup(void). nSwitches.

while(chr = *fmt++) { if(chr == '%') { /* format code */ chr = *fmt++. value.No CMP AL. i. ptr = &numstk[32]. 30h . minus. The number of chars written is returned (not incl \0). chr. **************************************************************/ static long _ffmt(char *outptr. total. char *fmt.0 JL isdigit0 . chr = *fmt++.0 JE _strlen1 INC ESI INC EAX JMP SHORT _strlen0 _strlen1: #endasm } /************************************************************* This does the actual parsing of the format and also moves to the next arg(s) in the list from the passed in arg pointer. unsigned long width. -1 isdigit2: #endasm } static long strlen(char *cs) { . } if(chr == '0') /* leading zeros */ zero = '0'. *ptr = justify = minus = 0.Yes isdigit0: XOR EAX. *ptr. justify.[EBP+8] CMP AL.0 -112- RICHARD A BURGESS . long *argptr) { char numstk[33]. width = value = i = 0.No JMP SHORT isdigit2 isdigit1: MOV EAX. zero. #asm XOR EAX.[EBP+8] _strlen0: CMP BYTE PTR [ESI]. zero = ' '. EAX MOV ESI.MOV EAX. total = 0. while(isdigit(chr)) { /* field width specifier */ MMURTL V1. 39h . JLE isdigit1 . if(chr == '-') { /* left justify */ --justify.EAX .

} while(value /= i). if(width) --width. ++argptr. } case 'u' : i = 10. case 'o' : i = 8.0 */ -113- RICHARD A BURGESS . *--ptr = chr. ++minus. break. } value = *--argptr. case 'c' : *--ptr = value.'0'). } if(i) do { /* get parameter value */ /* decimal number */ /* unsigned number */ /* hexadecimal number */ /* octal number */ /* binary number */ /* character data */ /* string */ /* value is ptr to string */ /* all others */ /* backup to last arg */ /* for all numbers. break. generate the ASCII string */ if((chr = (value % i) + '0') > '9') chr += 7.width = (width * 10) + (chr . default: *--ptr = chr. case 'x' : case 'X' : i = 16. /* output sign if any */ if(minus) { *outptr++ = '-'. case 'b' : i = 2. break. chr = *fmt++. case 's' : ptr = value. ++total. break. } /* pad with 'zero' value if right justify enabled if(width && !justify) MMURTL V1. switch(chr) { case 'd' : if(value & 0x80000000) { value = -value. break. break.

} } } else { /* not format char. va_start(ap. } /* pad with 'zero' value if left justify enabled */ if(width && justify) { while(i < width) { *outptr++ = zero. TTYOut(buffer. va_end(ap. ap).1. just move into string *outptr++ = chr. char buffer[S_SIZE]. } /* move in data */ i = 0. fmt. fmt). strlen(buffer). . } /************************************ Formatted print to screen *************************************/ long xprintf(char *fmt. Color). return total. long total..{ for(i = strlen(ptr). } } *outptr = 0. ++i. ++total. ++i) *outptr++ = zero. ++total.0 */ -114- RICHARD A BURGESS . return total. value = width . ++total.) { va_list ap. while((*ptr) && (i <= value)) { *outptr++ = *ptr++. } /************************************ MMURTL V1. /* set up ap pointer */ total = _ffmt(buffer.. fmt). ++total. ++i. i < width.

Msg[2]. SetXY(0.1. rgMonMenu3. fmt).) { va_list ap. total = _ffmt(s. return. 24.. 26. "%d". When it gets one. PutVidChars(0.0 /* set up ap pointer */ -115- RICHARD A BURGESS . BLUE|BGWHITE). long total. 80. } /********************************************** Checks to ensure we don't scroll the function keys off the screen.1). it recovers the last of the resources and then notifies the user on the screen. i. Exch.22). rgMonMenu1. 24. Besides displaying the top status line for the monitor. PutVidChars(27. MMURTL V1.80. ap). fmt. . return total. PutVidChars(54. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. it has the job of looking for messages from the job code that indicate a job has terminated. &iLine).Formatted print to string s *************************************/ long xsprintf(char *s..1). rgMonMenu2. } } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. va_start(ap. va_end(ap. PutVidChars(0.23. BLUE|BGWHITE). iLine.0. BLUE|BGWHITE). *********************************************************/ static void InitScreen(void) { ClrScr(). 24. 25. WHITE|BGBLUE). **********************************************/ void CheckScreen() { long iCol. rgStatLine. fmt). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. SetXY(0. } /********************************************************* This is the status task for the Monitor. char *fmt. *********************************************************/ static void StatTask(void) { unsigned long erc. tick). 26. GetXY(&iCol.

rgStatLine[10] = '0' rgStatLine[11] = '0' rgStatLine[13] = '0' rgStatLine[14] = '0' rgStatLine[16] = '0' rgStatLine[17] = '0' GetCMOSDate(&date). "%d". PutVidChars(0. *pVid.) { GetCMOSTime(&time). if (!erc) { KillJobNum = pJCB->JobNum. rgStatLine[0] = '0' rgStatLine[1] = '0' rgStatLine[3] = '0' rgStatLine[4] = '0' rgStatLine[6] = '0' rgStatLine[7] = '0' + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). Sleep(50). Sleep(50). pPD = pJCB->pJcbPD. /* Must change video to monitor if this guy owned it */ MMURTL V1. pVid = pJCB->pVirtVid. KillMsg). TSSExch in it.0. /* Call GetExchOwner which gives us pJCB */ erc = GetExchOwner(KillMsg[1]. xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. "%d". CheckScreen().. rgStatLine. 0x0f). Tone(440. tick). /* month */ 0x0f). tick). 80.50). (time & 0x0f). ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). The message has Error. Error: %d\r\n". 80. for(. KillJobNum. /* year */ 0x0f).5 second */ /* Now we check for tasks that are Jobs that are killing themselves (either due to fatal errors or no exitjob). WHITE|BGBLUE)..U8 *pPD. /* Day */ 0x0f). xprintf("Job number %d terminated.*/ /* Get and save the error (KillMsg[0]) */ KillError = KillMsg[0]. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f). GetTimerTick(&tick).0. PutVidChars(0. /* sleep 0.0 -116- RICHARD A BURGESS . ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). WHITE|BGBLUE).5 second */ GetTimerTick(&tick). &pJCB). /* seconds */ + + + + + + ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). xsprintf(&rgStatLine[70]. ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). if (!erc) { /* someone’s there wanting to terminate. */ erc = CheckMsg(KillExch. /* sleep 0. rgStatLine. KillError).. 0x0f).

char *pJCB. fKilled = 1. if (i == KillJobNum) { GetTSSExch(&Exch). 0. 2). /* Leave a Global Key Request outstanding with KBD service for the status task */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0. DeAllocPage(pVid.GetVidOwner(&i). &gcode.) */ } } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This is the Manager task for the Monitor. 0. *********************************************************/ static void MngrTask(void) { long erc. 1. 0. we just reassign video and keyboard to the next active job (except the Debugger). } /* Now we deallocate the JCB and the TSSExch which will free the TSS automatically! */ DeAllocExch(KillMsg[1]). Msg). DeAllocJCB(pJCB). /* Use our TSS exchange for Request */ SetVidOwner(1). erc = Request("KEYBOARD". /* We're done (and so is he.0 -117- RICHARD A BURGESS . Exch. 0). 0. MngrExch. We don't actually switch jobs. */ DeAllocPage(pPD. 1). if the debugger has the video. MMURTL V1.... erc = WaitMsg(Exch.. j. Also. 0. It allows us to switch jobs with the CTRL-ALT-PageDown key. 4. /* No error returned */ /* When the JCB was created. Then we deallocate the single page for virtual video. So we can just deallocate both pages in one shot. 2. i. &i. fDone. &MngrHndl. we don't do it at all! This also looks for CTRL-ALT-DELETE which kills the job that owns the keyboard/Video so long as it's not the Monitor or the Debugger. the PD and its 1st PDE (PT) were allocated as two pages next to each other in linear memory. 0.

} } else if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x7F) { erc = GetVidOwner(&j).4. 2. 0.. */ erc = GetVidOwner(&j). #asm INT 03 #endasm MMURTL V1. MngrMsg).) { erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0. } /* CTRL-ALT-DEL (Kill)*/ /* leave another global key request */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD".0 -118- RICHARD A BURGESS . MngrExch. MngrMsg). else if (i>34) i = 1. } if (i != j) { SetVidOwner(i). 0). 0. 0. 0. 0. &MngrHndl. 0. 4. *********************************************************/ static void GoDebug(void) { . 0. &MngrHndl. 0. if (!erc) { if ((gcode & 0xff) == 0x0C) { /* Find next valid Job that is NOT the debugger and assign Vid and Keyboard to it. &gcode. 0. &pJCB). fDone = 0. while (!fDone) { i++. 0. erc = GetpJCB(i. for(. erc = KillJob(j). 4. i. /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if ((!erc) || (i==j)) fDone = 1. MngrExch. 0. 0. } } /* for EVER */ } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). 0. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". if (i==2) i = 3. 0). i = j. 0. erc = WaitMsg(MngrExch. 0).

1=B. j. &ajobfile[1]. fcli = 0. fcli. 0FFFFh Reboot0: IN AL. 1. 2=C etc.Test The Input Buffer Full Bit . */ ajobfile[0] = sdisk. sjobfile. } /********************************************************* This strobes keyboard data port 60h with 00 after sending 0D1 command to Command port. 0. &fh). *********************************************************/ void LoadJobFile(void) { long erc. } .0FEh OUT 64h. fh.JOB\0". do MMURTL V1. i. *********************************************************/ static void Reboot(void) { . Video and keyboard are not assigned to any of these jobs unless it is cli. sdisk &= 0x7F. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\INITIAL. char ajobfile[50].02h LOOPNZ Reboot0 MOV AL. char arunfile[80]. We have to loop reading the status bit of the command port to make sure it's OK to send the command.Job from the system directory and loads all jobs specified in the file.64h TEST AL.run and the last job loaded.Strobe bit 0 of keyboard crtlr output /********************************************************* This reads a file called Initial. unsigned char sdisk.return. GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). erc = OpenFile(ajobfile. sjobfile = strlen(ajobfile). This resets the processor which then executes the boot ROM. #asm CLI MOV ECX.first we clear interrupts . cbrunfile. job = 0. sjobfile. /* 0=A. while (!fdone) { i = 0.check port up to 64K times . sdisk += 0x41. char fdone. 20).0 -119- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) { fdone = 0. job.AL STI #endasm return.Read Status Byte into AL .

') continue.run". &job). xprintf("Loading: %s. CheckScreen(). 0. /* a comment line */ cbrunfile = 0. 4.. /* if the last successfully loaded job was a cli. 7) == -1)) fcli = 1. &j). } while ((!erc) && (arunfile[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < 80)). } else { xprintf("ERROR %d Loading job\r\n". 1. CheckScreen(). erc = LoadNewJob(arunfile.. */ if ((job > 2) && (fcli)) { SetVidOwner(job). } CloseFile(fh). assign the keyboard and video to it. job = 0.{ erc = ReadBytes(fh. /* null terminate for display */ if ((cbrunfile > 8) && (CompareNCS(&arunfile[cbrunfile-7]. erc). MMURTL V1. while ((arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile] != (arunfile[cbrunfile])) cbrunfile++. &arunfile[i++]. 0x0A) 0x0D) 0x20) 0x09) && && && && if (cbrunfile > 2) { arunfile[cbrunfile] = 0. "cli. job). Sleep(50).0 -120- RICHARD A BURGESS . CheckScreen(). &GP1Hndl. erc = 0. if (!erc) { xprintf("Successfully loaded as job %d\r\n". erc = Request("KEYBOARD". else fcli = 0. GP1Exch.\r\n". cbrunfile. } } } else fdone = 1. Sleep(50). if ((!erc) && (i > 1)) { if (arunfile[0] == '. arunfile).

sdisk &= 0x7F. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. GP1Exch. job. 0. if (!erc) { xprintf("New CLI Job Number is: %d\r\n". } /********************************************************* This is the main procedure called from the OS after all OS structures and memory are initialized. job. &GP1Hndl. 0. iLine. CopyData(":\\MMSYS\\CLI. /* 0=A. 16). 1=B. CheckScreen(). *********************************************************/ static long LoadCLI(void) { long erc. 0. char text[70]. acli[40]. job. SetVidOwner(job). unsigned long ccode.. unsigned char sdisk. 0. acli).. 0. MMURTL V1. sdisk += 0x41. 0. job).0. ccode1.JOB file not found in system directory. 0. &acli[1]. 2=C etc. InitScreen(). GP1Msg). i. if (!erc) erc = WaitMsg(GP1Exch. unsigned char c. j. *********************************************************/ void Monitor(void) { long erc. &job). GetSystemDisk(&sdisk).RUN\0". } } /********************************************************* This Loads the MMURTL Command Line Interpreter and switches video and keyboard to give the user access to it. */ acli[0] = sdisk. xprintf("Loading: %s. 0).\r\n"). k. erc = Request("KEYBOARD". 0). Sleep(50).". erc = LoadNewJob(acli. } return erc. GP1Msg). 0. 0. iCol. 4. } } else { xprintf("INITIAL. CheckScreen(). strlen(acli). 0.0 -121- RICHARD A BURGESS .

if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Kill Exch) Error: %d\r\n". MUltitasking.Message based. erc)... erc). xprintf("%d\r\n". xprintf("Init Parallel LPT Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc).Burgess. erc). i = (oMemMax+1)/1024. xprintf("Init floppy device driver. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch Error: %d\r\n". Real-Time kerneL\r\n"). erc = lpt_setup(). erc = fdisk_setup(). Color = YELLOW|BGBLACK. xprintf("Init KBD Service Error: %d\r\n". erc). xprintf("BootDrive: %c\r\n". xprintf("%d\r\n". 24. Error: "). &StatStack[255]. if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch GP1 Error: %d\r\n". if (erc) xprintf("AllocExch (Mngr Exch) Error: %d\r\n". Color = WHITE|BGBLACK. erc = InitKBDService(). xprintf("Init hard disk device driver. /* 250 Hz for 150ms */ /* 250 Hz for 330ms */ /* Allocate an exchange for the Manager task global keycode */ erc = AllocExch(&MngrExch). i = (nMemPages*4096)/1024. xprintf("Total memory (Kb): %d\r\n". erc = coms_setup(). c = ((BootDrive & 0x7f) + 0x41). /* Task 4 */ MMURTL V1. erc). erc). erc).. erc). erc = AllocExch(&GP1Exch).. erc = SpawnTask( &StatTask. xprintf("Init Serial Comms Device Driver Error: %d\r\n". erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). xprintf("Free memory (Kb): %d\r\n". 0. Error: ").Tone(250. i). xprintf("Copyright (c) R. xprintf("MMURTL (tm) . c).15). i). erc = AllocExch(&KillExch). /* Allocate general purpose exchanges to use in the monitor */ erc = AllocExch(&GPExch).A.0 -122- RICHARD A BURGESS . Tone(1000. erc = hdisk_setup(). 1 ).33). if (erc) xprintf("SpawnTask (StatTask) Error: %d\r\n". 1991-1995 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED\r\n\r\n"). erc).

xprintf("Job: %d\r\n". 0). pJCB->JobNum). c = ccode & 0xff. Tell it to wait for a key. erc = InitFS(). SetXY(k+10. 1 ). if (erc) xprintf("Error from LoadCLI: %d\r\n". erc = GetpJCB(i.0 -123- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* erc = 0 if valid JCB */ if (!erc) { SetXY(k. MMURTL V1..\r\n"). Error: %d\r\n". &GPHndl. 1. 13). if (erc) xprintf("Kbd Svc Request KERNEL ERROR: %d\r\n".j). GPExch. text[pJCB->sbJobName[0]] = 0. CopyData(&pJCB->sbJobName[1]. erc). j++. xprintf("File System. /* lop off everything but the key value */ switch (c) { case 0x0F: /* F1 Run */ erc = LoadCLI(). 0. xprintf("Name: %s\r\n". 0. i<nMaxJCBs. break.. 0. erc). 1. 0. erc).. j = 2. &MngrStack[255].) { /* Loop forEVER looking for user desires */ /* Make a ReadKbd Key Request with KBD service. */ erc = Request("KEYBOARD". text. /* wait for the keycode to come back */ erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. i++) { if (j > 20) k = 40. 10. /* Call LoadJobFile to read job file from system directory and execute and jobs listed there. text). GPMsg). 0. &ccode. */ LoadJobFile(). &pJCB). case 0x10: /* F2 Jobs */ InitScreen().xprintf("Initializing file system. erc).j). /* Line */ k = 0. if (erc) xprintf("KERNEL Error from Wait msg: %d\r\n". for (.. 4.. /* Col offset */ for (i=1. /* Spawn manager task */ SpawnTask( &MngrTask.

.loops displaying status till key is hit */ InitScreen(). PutVidChars(29. PutVidChars(29. xprintf("Free Exchanges: %d\r\n". "\\". 1. nMemPages). nRQBLeft). erc = QueryPages(&nMemPages). 1. xprintf("Free Link Blocks: %d\r\n". PutVidChars(29. nEXCHLeft). case 0x18: /* F10 Debug */ GoDebug(). \r\n"). nSwitches). PutVidChars(29. erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1. PutVidChars(29.. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK).1). Sleep(9). while (erc = ReadKbd(&ccode1.Cancelled\r\n"). Sleep(9). "|". 1. 1. nTSSLeft). PutVidChars(29. case 0x11: /* F3 Stats . Sleep(9). "|". PutVidChars(29. GREEN|BGBLACK). "/". "/". Sleep(9). 1. PutVidChars(29. PutVidChars(29. 1.} } break. 1. 1. nReady). 1. "\\". nHalts). "-".0 -124- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1. 1). Sleep(12). nSlices). 1. Sleep(12). xprintf(". 0)) { /* ReadKbd no wait until no error */ SetXY(0.12). break. 1. nLBLeft). default: if (((c > 0x1F) && (c < 0x80)) || (c==0x0D) || (c==8)) { if (c==0x0D) MMURTL V1. GREEN|BGBLACK).. 1. GREEN|BGBLACK). "-". any other key to cancel"). GREEN|BGBLACK). if ((ccode1 & 0xff) == 0x16) Reboot(). case 0x00: /* No Key */ Sleep(3). xprintf("Task switches total: %d\r\n".. case 0x12: /* F4 . GREEN|BGBLACK). SetXY(0. xprintf("Any key to dismiss status. 1. /* Sleep for 30 ms */ break. 1. xprintf("Preemptive task switches: %d\r\n". xprintf("CPU idle ticks (no work): %d\r\n". xprintf("Free 4K memory pages: %d\r\n". " ". nJCBLeft). Sleep(9). Sleep(9). xprintf("Tasks Ready to Run: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free Request Blocks: %d\r\n". break. } SetXY(0. GREEN|BGBLACK). GREEN|BGBLACK). xprintf ("\r\n").future use */ case 0x13: /* F5 */ case 0x14: /* F6 */ case 0x15: /* F7 */ case 0x17: /* F9 */ case 0x19: /* F11 */ case 0x1A: /* F12 */ break. xprintf("Free Job Control Blocks: %d\r\n". xprintf("Free Task State Segments: %d\r\n".1). 1. break. GREEN|BGBLACK). 1. case 0x16: /* F8 Reboot */ xprintf("\r\nF8 again to reboot.

1).23. &iLine). WHITE|BGBLACK).0 -125- RICHARD A BURGESS . 2.TTYOut (CRLF.80. SetXY(0. WHITE|BGBLACK). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. } } GetXY(&iCol.22). else TTYOut (&c.1. } } /* for EVER */ } MMURTL V1. 1.

.

The most common exceptions are the General Protection Fault (0D hex) and the Page Fault (0E hex). non-symbolic debugger. or by placing and INT 03 instruction anywhere in your application's assembly language file. Some exceptions are designed to take you directly into the debugger and display an error code to indicate the problem. The complete general register set is displayed along the right side of the screen. See “Debugger Theory” section for more information on INT 03 instruction usage. the Debug command in the command-line interpreter. The debugger may also start on its own if certain exceptions occur.0 -127- RICHARD A BURGESS . When this occurs. It is not a separate run file. function keys are across the bottom. The debugger will also exit using the Single Step command (F1 function key). and will be re-entered immediately following the execution of the next complete instruction. the debugger is entered. Entering the Debugger The Debugger may be entered using the Debugger function key in the monitor. MMURTL V1. the debugger is an assembly language. Debugger Display The debugger display is divided into 3 sections. See “Debugger Theory” for more information. This usually provides enough information to correct the offending code. along with the exception number that caused it. and the left side is the instruction and data display area. Intimate knowledge of the Intel processor instruction set is required to properly use the debugger. and messages or tasks waiting Display of active tasks Set and Clear an instruction breakpoint Full register display Selection of Linear Address to display Display of important OS structure addresses Using the Debugger In its current incarnation. and why. and a red banner is displayed. If the debugger was entered on a fault. will clear the screen for display. Certain debugger display functions. Exiting the Debugger Pressing the Esc key will exit the debugger and begin execution at the next instruction. pressing Esc will restart the debugger at the offending address and you will re-enter the debugger again.Chapter 12. Debugger Introduction The debugger is built into the operating system. such as dumping data. The registers can be examined to see where it happened. The registers and function keys will be redisplayed when the function is finished. The debugger provides the following functions: Display of instructions (disassembled) Dumping of linear memory as Bytes or dwords Display of Exchanges.

The first two task state segments are static structures and are used for the operating system Monitor and debugger. This is the address of the 32 queue structures where tasks that are ready to run are queued. with the name of the structure and what use it may be during debugging. This can be dumped to view all of the GDT entries.Services Array. GDT .Ready Queue. the address of the TSS. TSSs are numbered sequentially. The GDT contains many items. F9 DumpB .Change Current Address. The request handle that you receive from the request primitive is actually a pointer. This becomes the active address. JCBs . The format is the same as the dump command in the CLI. These values are hard coded at system build. F12 AddInfo .Job Control Blocks.Debugger Function Keys Each of the debugger function key actions are described below: F1 SStep . This returns to the application and executes one instruction. LBs . and the priority of the task are displayed with each one. next. Only exchanges that actually have a message or task will be displayed. This is useful for dumping structures that are dword oriented.Interrupt Descriptor Table. the address of the task's JCB. This is an array of 512-byte structures.Display Exchanges. after which it immediately returns to the debugger where the next active code address and its associated instruction are displayed. This is the address of the first request block in the array of request blocks allocated during system initialization. that will be somewhere in this array.” SVCs . with the down arrow key. This is the address of the Monitor TSS.Link Blocks.Goto CS:EIP. You may move down through the instructions. The names of the services and the exchanges they service are contained here. RQBs . This does not change the address that is scheduled for execution. F10 . TSS3 . and then dumps the dwords located at the that address. This can be dumped to view interrupt vector types and addresses. This clears the single breakpoint. a linear address. The F4 CS:EIP function key can be used to return to the next address scheduled for execution. some of which include the TSS descriptor entries for you program. F6 Tasks . These structures can also be very useful during program debugging. next. as most of them are. The array of link blocks are allocated as a static array. The rest of the task state segments are in several pages of allocated memory and are initialized during system startup. This allows you to set the code address the debugger is displaying (disassembling).Dump Dwords. TSS1 . F5 Exch .Dynamic TSSs.Global Descriptor Table. and all the data as well as the ASCII is shown to the right.Single Step.This is the address of the array of currently registered services.Request Block Array. the associated Job number. TSS descriptors point to your task state segment and also indicate the privilege level of the task. The Debugger TSS is 512 bytes after this address. IDT . Each TSS is 512 bytes. low order). MMURTL V1. F4 CS:EIP . Each byte of a dword is displayed is in the proper order (High order. This redisplays the current instruction pointer address.Clear Breakpoint.Address Information. The task number.Set Breakpoint.0 -128- RICHARD A BURGESS .Display Tasks. These are 16-byte structures used as links in chains of messages and tasks waiting at an exchange. and then dumps the bytes located at that address. This the address of the array of Job Control Blocks. and all the data as well as the ASCII is show to the right. F3 ClrBP . The address is displayed on the left. This requests a linear address. which makes the first of the dynamic TSSs number 3.Dump Bytes. This requests a linear address. The address is displayed on the left. without executing them. You may also use F8 CrntAdd (Current Address) to select a new address to display before setting the breakpoint. F2 SetBP . This sets the breakpoint at the currently displayed instruction. This displays all active tasks on the system.First TSS. RdyQ . . The abbreviations are given in the following list. F8 CrntAdd . This may be useful if you have set up an interrupt and you want to ensure it was encoded properly and placed in the table. This displays all exchanges and shows messages or tasks that may be waiting there. The JCB is discussed in detail in Chapter 9. This lists names and linear addresses of important structures used during OS development. “Application Programming.

With near calls like you would make inside your program. just knowing how far your program made it is enough to solve the problem. and placing an INT 03 instruction there. whenever any linear memory location is accessed. A single 4-byte integer is referenced as [EBP-4] or [EBP+FFFFFFFC]. Debugging in a multitasking operating system is complicated to say the least. Debugging Your Application If your application is "going south" on you (crashing. this really doesn't apply as much because they each have their own linear address space. Debugger Theory The Intel 32-bit processors have very powerful debugging features. PUSH EBP MOV EBP. entering the debugger. The INT 03 interrupt is just like any other on the system. its down and dirty troubleshooting. actually a trap. This is the address of the array of exchanges in allocated memory.Timer Blocks. Each exchange is 16 bytes. When you receive an exchange number form the AllocExch() function. There are four debug address registers in the processor. This is the address of the array of timer blocks. you can set breakpoints in several locations of your program by editing the . When it occurs. Remember that several tasks may be executing exactly the same piece of code.Exch . It may help you to be able to identify high-level entry and exit code sequences (begin and end of a C function). You can start by searching for _main in your primary assembly language file generated by the C compiler. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions each set up a timer block. entry 3 in the interrupt table is used to vector to a procedure or task.START in an assembly language program. The paging hardware translates the linear address to a physical address for its own use. the last parameter is always [EBP+8]. it is an interrupt procedure that will switch to the debugger task after some fix-ups have been completed. which means you can have four active breakpoints in your program if you only use the registers. In some cases. They have internal debug registers that allow you to set code and data breakpoints. such as [EBP+12]. You would insert the INT 03 instruction wherever you feel would be useful. If you set a breakpoint using the INT 03 instruction. or whatever).Exchanges. aTmr . The INT 03 instruction may also be placed in your code.and displayed as an unsigned number. locking up. MMURTL V1. Lots of code here MOV ESP. or for . The following example shows typical entry and exit code found in a high-level procedure. but for right now. What this means is that you can set the processor to execute an interrupt.ASM files. like the older processors. or at the beginning of any instruction. The MMURTL debugger currently only uses one of these registers and allows only instruction breakpoints to be set. listed in your ATF file. For applications. and also how local variables are accessed. In MMURTL. ESP . The 386/486 processors makes it much easier because they let you determine if the breakpoint is local to a single task or global to all tasks. EBP POP EBP RETN When local variables are accessed they are always referenced below the frame pointer in memory. There is a symbolic debugger in MMURTL's near future. every task that executes it will produce the interrupt and enter the debugger. without having to fill in special registers. it is the index of that exchange in the array. Stack parameters (arguments) are always referenced above the frame pointer.0 -129- RICHARD A BURGESS .

The INT 03 interrupt is not the only way to enter MMURTL's debugger.) Invalid TSS Segment Not Present Stack Fault General Protection Fault Page Fault Coprocessor error (*) The asterisk indicates that the return address points to faulting instruction. Until MMURTL uses demand page virtual memory. These include copying the interrupted task's Page Directory Entry into the debugger's JCB and the debugger's TSS. MMURTL's debugger is also entered when other fatal processor exceptions occur. The debugger cannot debug itself. becomes a task in the job it interrupted. or INT 03 in code) Overflow (INT0 instruction) Bounds Check (from Bound Instruction) Invalid Opcodes (reserved instructions) Coprocessor Not available (on ESC and wait) Double fault (real bad news.. it can mean hours of grueling debugging with very little indication of what's going on. If you have problems before the debugger is initialized. you initially enter an interrupt procedure that places the running task in a hold status. If you look through the 386/486 documentation.. while others should not happen and are considered fatal for the task that caused them. Table 12. This is so the debugger is using the tasks exact linear memory image.1.MMURTL's debugger is set up as a separate job. that can occur. but not quite. Even though the debugger has its own JCB and looks like another application. it has special privileges that allow to it to operate outside of the direct control of the kernel.Processor exceptions. you will see that there are many interrupts. It's actually an orphan when it comes to being a program in its own right. the debugger becomes one of the most important tools you can have. The debugger is the highest priority task on the system (level 1).0 -130- RICHARD A BURGESS . just like applications do. It means it tried to access memory that didn't belong to it. No other task operates at a priority that high. When writing an operating system. The debugger must be able to do this to get its job done. The exceptions that cause entry into the debugger include Faults. This effectively replaces the running task with the debugger task. It can remove the currently running task and make itself run. Instead. It doesn't have its own Page Directory or Page Tables like other jobs (programs). including allocated memory. Some of these are used by the OS to indicate something needs to be done. When the debug interrupt activates. or faults. you must be able to access all of its memory. This return address is used by the debugger entry code. and Aborts (processor fatal) and are shown in table 12. No 0* 1 3 4 5* 6* 7* 8* 9 10* 11* 12* 13* 14* 16 Type F T/F T T F F F A F F F F/T F F Description Divide by zero Debug Exception (debugger uses for single step) Breakpoint (set by debugger. called exceptions. A few housekeeping chores must be done before the task switch is made. MMURTL V1. and the interrupt procedure does a task switch to the debugger's task. a pointer to the currently running TSS. The debugger becomes the active job. a page fault is fatal to a task.1. Traps. and do the reverse without the kernel even begin aware of what has happened. the current pRunTSS. The debugger also has its own virtual screen. It has its own Job Control Block (JCB) and one task (its own TSS). It almost. usually a blank screen and nothing else. If you are going to debug a task. Hold status simply means that it is not placed on the ready queue as if it were a normal task switch. is saved by the debugger.

The debugger exit code is just about the reverse of the code used to enter the debugger. which is exactly what you want. If the debugger was entered because of a fault. setting a breakpoint before the exception occurs. all of the registers from the task that was interrupted are displayed. MMURTL has a very small interrupt procedure for each of these exceptions. To do this. along with any error that may have been removed from the stack on a fault. The debugger removes himself as the running task and returns the interrupted task to the running state with the values in the TSS.0 -131- RICHARD A BURGESS . When the debugger is entered. While you are in the debugger. This also allows you to restart the application after a breakpoint at the proper place.Some of the exceptions even place an error code on the stack after the return address. then single step while watching the registers to see where the problem is. These procedures get the information off the stack before switching to the debugger. The debugger uses this information to help you find the problem. MMURTL V1. you should kill the offending job and restart. This makes the debugger transparent. This also has the effect of starting the task back at the instruction after it was interrupted which is the next instruction to execute. it uses the values in the task's Task State Segment (TSS). This also includes switching the video back to the rightful owner. All of the values are just the way they were when the exception occurred except the CS and EIP. To fix this so that you see the proper address of the code that was interrupted. it displays the registers from the interrupted task. These contain the address of the exception handler. we must get the return address from the stack and place it back into the TSS.

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Keyboard Service Introduction The keyboard is handled with a system service.fWait for Key */ dData1 . “system programming. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number.Chapter 13. It is a service because it is a shared resource just like the file system. Service Code 1 2 3 4 Function Read Keyboard Notify On Global Keys Cancel Notify on Global Keys Assign Keyboard MMURTL V1.1 shows the services provided by the service code. Here is an example of a Keyboard Service request: erc = Request( "KEYBOARD". this is true multitasking). Only one program (job) will be assigned to receive keystrokes at any one time. &KeyCode 4.0 -133- RICHARD A BURGESS .not used (0) */ Not used (0) */ dData0 . Several programs can have outstanding requests to the keyboard service at one time. You can make a request then go do something else before you return to wait or to check the function to see if it's completed (yes boys and girls. MyExch.Not used (0) */ dData2 . 0). It's easier to use. As described in chapter 10. 0 0. The Service Name is KEYBOARD (uppercase as always). The exception to this rule is the Global Keyboard request to receive CTRL-ALT keystrokes.” system services are accessed with the Request primitive.Not used (0) */ All message-based services use the same request interface. 0. 1. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Service Name */ wSvcCode for ReadKbd */ dRespExch */ pRqHndlRet */ npSend (no Send Ptrs) */ pData1 */ cbData1 (size of KeyCode)*/ pData2 . I’ll describe it after I discuss the following services. Available Services Table 13. 1. the public call ReadKbd() is provided which is a blocking call with only 2 parameters. Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. 0. If you don't need asynchronous keyboard access. but not as powerful. &MyRqhandle.

even if a key is not available.Not used. In this case.Count of bytes in the code 0 . If you have an outstanding Notify request.Not used 0 . and you no longer want to receive Global key notifications. Unlike regular keystrokes.Available Keyboard Services The four functions are described in the following section. This allows for "hot-key" operation. Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 2 0 Ptr 4 0 0 0 0 0 - where the KeyCode will be returned Count of bytes in the code Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used MMURTL V1. Request Parameters for Read Keyboard: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 = = = = = = = 1 0 Ptr where the KeyCode will be returned 4 . The key codes are described in detail in tables later in this chapter. keys that are pressed when the CTRL-ALT keys are depressed are not buffered. A value of 0 means the request will be sent back to you immediately. fWaitForKey (0 or 1) 0 .Not used = 0 . The error from the service is ErcNoKeyAvailable (700) if no key was available. The dData0 determines if the service will hold the request until a key is available.0 -134- RICHARD A BURGESS .Wait for Key = 0 . you should send a Cancel Notify request (service code 3). This means that users of the Read Keyboard function (1) will not see these keys. The Global key codes returned are identical to the regular key codes. A value of 1 in dData0 will cause the service to hold your request until a key is available.Table 13. The key code is undefined if this occurs (so you must check the error). Read Keyboard The Read Keyboard function (1) allows a program to request keyboard input from the service. the error should be 0.1. described in detail later.Return with error if no key waiting 1 .Not used dData1 dData2 Notify On Global Keys The Notify On Global Keys function (2) allows a program to look for any keystroke that was entered with the CTRL and ALT keys depressed. The first request pointer points to an unsigned dword where the key code will be returned. It also means that your application must have an outstanding Notify request with the keyboard service to receive these keys.

2. The third byte is for lock states (3 bits for Caps. shown in table 13. as shown in table 13. and Scroll). To eliminate all the key status from the 4-byte key code to get the keystroke value itself.Cancel Notify On Global Keys The Cancel Notify On Global Keys function (3) cancels an outstanding Notify On Global keys request. etc. The high-order byte is for the Numeric Pad indicator and is described later.4. Alpha-Numeric Key Values The Key code returned by the keyboard service is a 32-bit (4 byte) value. Alt & Ctrl.). Parameters for Notify On Global Keys function: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Not Not Not Not Not Not Not used used used used used used used Assign Keyboard The Assign Keyboard Request assigns a new job to receive keys from the service. The upper 3 bytes provide the status of special keys (Shifts. This request should only be used by services such as the Monitor or a program that manages multiple jobs running under the MMURTL OS. The key will be properly shifted according to the state of the Shift and Lock keys.3. Locks. The low-order byte is the actual key code. If you have an outstanding Notify request.0 -135- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters for Assign Keyboard request: wSvcCode npSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 - Not Not Not Not New Not Not used used used used Job Number (1 to nJobs) used used Key codes and Status MMURTL supports the standard AT 101-key advanced keyboard. while providing complete keyboard status to allow further translation for all ASCII control codes. The Cancel Notify request will be returned also. logically AND the key code by 0FFh (0xff in C). Num. This will leave you with the 8-bit code for the key. The Notify request will be sent back to the exchange with an error stating it was canceled. this cancels it. The second byte provides the shift state which is six bits for Shift. as shown in table 13. This cancels all outstanding Notify requests from the same job number for your application. All ASCII text and punctuation is supported directly. (D) Shift State Byte (Second Byte) MMURTL V1.

3 . Shift or Alt keys were depressed for the key code being read: CtrlDownMask ShftDownMask AltDownMask EQU 00000011b EQU 00001100b EQU 00110000b Lock-State Byte (third byte) If you need to know the lock state of any of the lock capable keys (Caps.0 -136- RICHARD A BURGESS . you can use the third byte in the 32-bit word returned.3 shows how the bits are defined. Table 13.Shift State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Left CTRL key down Right CTRL key down Left Shift key down Right Shift key down Left Alt key down Right Alt key down Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if Control. you can use the second byte in the 32-bit word returned. Table 13.. Alt or Shift). Table 13. shows how the bits are defined. Table 13. CpLockMask NmLockMask ScLockMask EQU 00000100b EQU 00000010b EQU 00000001b Numeric Pad Indicator Only one bit is used in the high-order byte of the key code.Lock State Bits Bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning When Set (1) Scroll Lock On Num Lock On Caps Lock On Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) Not used (0) The following masks in assembly language can be used to determine if one of the lock keys was active for the key code being read.2 .If you need to know the shift state of any of the shift keys (Ctrl. LSB) will be set if the keystroke came from the numeric key pad. This is needed if you use certain keys from the numeric pad differently than their equivalent keys on the MMURTL V1. This bit (Bit 0. Num or Scroll).2.

If a shift code is not shown.main keyboard.Keys Values Base Key Esc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = BS HT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Desc. Table 13.4 shows the hexadecimal value provided in the low-order byte of the key code (least significant) by the keyboard service for each key on a 101-key keyboard.1h to 7Fh).0 -137- RICHARD A BURGESS . or Locks). the same value is provided in all shifted states (Shift. Ctrl. All codes are 7-bit values (1 to 127 . the Enter key on the numeric keypad might do something differently in your program than the typewriter Enter key. Zero and values above 127 will not be returned. Key Codes Table 13. The Shift Code column shows the value returned if the Shift key is active. A description is given only if required. The Caps Lock key does not affect the keys shown with an asterisk (*) in the Shift Code column. Escape KeyCode 1Bh 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Dh 3Dh 08h 09h 61h 62h 63h 64h 65h 66h 67h 68h 69h 6Ah 6Bh 6Ch 6Dh 6Eh 6Fh 70h 71h 72h 73h 74h 75h 76h 77h 78h Shifted Key ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Shift Code 21h 40h 23h 24h 25h 5Fh 26h 2Ah 28h 29h 5Fh 2Bh 41h 42h 43h 44h 45h 46h 47h 48h 49h 4Ah 4Bh 4Ch 4Dh 4Eh 4Fh 50h 51h 52h 53h 54h 55h 56h 57h 58h Desc Exclamation At pound dollar percent carat ampersand asterisk open paren close paren underscore minus equal backspace tab MMURTL V1.4 . Alt. For example..

Shift and Lock state bytes must be used to determine program functionality.5 . Table 13. . ' .0 -138- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 13. / Space accent Enter semicolon apostr.5 shows the key code value returned. bar close brace tilde colon quote less greater question Function Strip Key Codes Shift and Lock states do not affect the function key values. comma period slash 79h 7Ah 5Bh 5Ch 5Dh 60h ODh 3Bh 27h 2Ch 2Eh 2Fh 20h Y Z { | } ~ : " < > ? 59h 5Ah 7Bh 7Ch 7Dh 7Eh 3Ah 22h 3Ch 3Eh 3Fh open brace vert.Function Key Strip Codes Base Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 KeyCode 0Fh 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 18h 19h 1Ah MMURTL V1.Y Z [ \ ] ` CR .

6 are returned when the shift keys or Num Lock are active. and Special Pad Key Codes None of the keys in these additional key pads are affected by Shift or Lock states.7.6 .0 -139- RICHARD A BURGESS .Additional Key Codes Base Key Print Screen Pause Insert Delete Home End Pg Up Pg Dn Up Down Left Right KeyCode 1Ch 1Dh 0Eh 7Fh 06h 0Bh 05h 0Ch 01h 02h 03h 04h MMURTL V1.Numeric Pad Key Codes The Shift values shown in Table 13. Edit. The values returned as the key code are shown in table 13. Caps lock does not affect these keys. 13.7. (Period) Cursor.Numeric Pad Key Codes Base Key End Down Pg Dn Left Blank Key Right Home Up Pg Up Insert Delete * / + CR KeyCode 0Bh 02h 0Ch 03h 1Fh 04h 06h 01h 05h 0Eh 7Fh Dash Asterisk Slash Plus Enter Shift Code 31h 32h 33h 34h 35h 36h 37h 38h 39h 30h 2Eh 2Dh 2Ah 2Fh 2Bh 0Dh Shifted key 1 2 3 4 5 (Extra Code) 6 7 8 9 0 . Table 13.

You may also want the keyboard more deeply embedded in your operating system code. I also recommend that you concentrate on the documentation for your keyboard implementation. Remember. as I have tried to do in this chapter.Your Keyboard Implementation You may not want all of the functionality in your system that I provided.” contains the source code behind the system service described in this chapter. Pieces of it may be useful for your system.0 -140- RICHARD A BURGESS . such as international key translations. or you may want more. if you desire. The keyboard translation tables could be used to nationalize this system. Chapter 25. the programmer will read the documentation.”Keyboard Code. MMURTL V1. when all else fails.

The internal management of a file system is no trivial matter.txt A full file specification for the FAT-compatible file system consist of a drive letter identifier followed by a colon. When a network file is opened. File Specifications A filename consists of one to eight characters. and a node name is specified.txt If the network name is omitted from the specification. Even though service names must be capitalized and space padded. then up to three more characters. This also means that network names are limited to eight characters.Chapter 14. then the path – which is each directory separated by the backslash character .txt Network File Request Routing File system requests are routed based on the full file specification. but none as wide spread. It certainly wasn't done because I liked the design or the filename length limitations.and finally the filename itself. and limited the number of functions to what is necessary for decent operation. For example. A filename that is prefixed with a node name. This depends on the type of file system on the node being accessed. This ties its hands so to speak. just how we access it. the network service receives the request from the file system. the default name NETWORK is used. The file handle that is returned will be unique on the system that originated the request. and optionally. A full network file specification consists of three parts: The first part is the Network name enclosed in brackets [] The second part is the Node name on that network enclosed in braces { }. For example: C:\Dir1\Dir2\Dir3\Filename. The File System Service Introduction The file system included with MMURTL is compatible with the MS-DOS FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. The third part is the filename as described above.0 -141- RICHARD A BURGESS . There are better file systems (disk formats) in use. MMURTL V1. The filename across a network may not be limited to the MS-DOS file naming conventions described above. filename. This means that MMURTL can read and write MS-DOS disks (Hard and Floppy). a network name. hence the default system service name for a network routing service is network. The Service Name is "FILESYS ". The network name matches the name of the network service when it was installed. Because you are simply accessing one that was designed by someone else. this is not necessary with Network names because the file system fixes them. I have tried to keep with the simplicity motto. there isn't anything new about the format. will be routed to the service with the same name. MS-DOS has the unenviable task of being compatible with its previous versions. A complete network filename looks like this: [network]{Node}C:\Dir1\Dir2\Filename. This was done so MMURTL could be used without reformatting your hard disks or working from floppies. a period.

This user is granted exclusive access to the file while it is open. No internal file buffers are allocated by the file system in Block mode. a number called a file handle is returned to you.File Handles When a file is opened. 4096 byte buffer. Block mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: ReadBlock() WriteBlock() CloseFile() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Stream Mode In Stream mode. it may not be opened in Modify mode by any user.0 -142- RICHARD A BURGESS . File Open Modes A file may be opened for reading and writing. Only a single user may open a file in Modify mode. This number is how you refer to that file until closed. Multiple users may open and access a Read-mode file. The file handle is used in a all subsequent file operations on that file. This is a one page. A file handle is a 32-bit unsigned number (dword). The data is moved in whole blocks in the fastest means determined by the device driver. When a file is opened in Read mode. The only restriction is that whole blocks must be read or written. MMURTL V1. File Access Type A file may be opened in Block or Stream mode. in any mode or type. Stream mode operation allows use of the following file system functions: CloseFile() ReadBytes() WriteBytes() SetFileLFA() GetFileLFA() GetFileSize() SetFileSize() DeleteFile() Errors will be returned from any function not compatible with the file-access type you specified when the file was opened. Block Mode Block mode operation is the fastest file access method because no internal buffering is required. The standard block size is 512 bytes for disk devices. the file system allocates an internal buffer to use for all read and write operations. or just reading alone. These two modes are called modify(Read and Write) and read(Read-only). Make no assumptions about this number.

no matter what Mode the file was opened in. Each of the functions is identified by its Service Code number. Stream Access files have internal buffers and maintain your Current LFA. 0. Listing 14.may be needed */ nSendPtrs -. You can make a request.ModeRead */ dData1 -. then go do something else before you come back to wait or check the function to see if it's completed (true multitasking).1 shows the service codes the file system supports. 1. Table 14. LFA 0 is the beginning of the file. The file system is an ideal candidate for a message-based service. This means it can be accessed directly with the Request primitive.1. The file system actually runs as a separate task. The small amount of time for message routing will not make any measurable difference in the speed of its operation because most of the time is spent accessing hardware.0 Service Code 1 2 -143- RICHARD A BURGESS . For Stream files. Block access files have no internal buffers and do not maintain a current LFA. &"AnyFile.not used */ Unused Request parameters must be set to 0.1 Send ptr */ pData1 -.1 for OpenFile */ dRespExch -. It meets all the requirements. When a file is initially open for Stream access the file pointer is set to 0.File System Service Codes Function OpenFile CloseFile MMURTL V1. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* ptr to name of service */ wSvcCode -. MyExch. Additional functions are provided to allow you to find and set the current LFA. Listing 14. Block Access file system functions require to you specify a Logical File Address (LFA).ptr to name */ cbData1 -. &MyRqhandle.doc". or file pointer.size of name */ pData2 -. 1.returned handle */ cbData2 -. The procedural interface for Request has 12 parameters. you do not specify an LFA to read or write from. The current LFA for stream files is updated with each ReadBytes() and WriteBytes() function. This is the byte offset in the file to read or write from. Table 14. 11. The Logical File Address (LFA) is an unsigned dword (dLFA).Block Type Access */ dData2 -. It also provides the shared access required for a true multitasking system.Logical File Address All files are logically stored as 1-n Bytes.Size of a handle */ dData0 -. All message-based services use the same request-based interface. &FileHandle 4.1 is an example of a File System request in the C programming language. Openfile request in C dError = Request( "FILESYS ". This is called a file pointer in some systems. 0).1 . Using the Request interface allows for asynchronous program operation. The file size minus 1 is the last logical byte in the file. File System Requests The file system is a message-based system service.respond here */ pRqHndlRet -. 1.

The procedural interface actually makes the request for you using your TSS Exchange. you can use a blocking procedural interface which is included in the file system itself.2 lists the device names that are reserved and also the mode of stream access supported.0 -144- RICHARD A BURGESS .2 . Table 14. The request is transparent to the caller.ReadBlock WriteBlock ReadBytes WriteBytes GetFileLFA SetFileLFA GetFileSize SetFileSize CreateFile RenameFile DeleteFile CreateDirectory DeleteDirectory GetDirectorySector 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Procedural Interfaces If you don't have a need for asynchronous disk access. It is easier to use because it has less parameters. All system device names are reserved and should not be used as filenames on the system. This means there is a simple procedural interface call for each file system function. High-level language libraries that implement device access (such as putchar() in C) must use the procedural interfaces for file access. but only through the procedural interfaces.Device Stream Access Device NUL KBD VID LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 FD0 FD1 HD0 HD1 Description NULL device Keyboard Video Printer 1 Printer 2 RS-232 1 RS-232 2 RS-232 3 RS-232 4 Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Hard disk Hard disk Access Write-Only read-only Write-Only None None None None None None None None None None Device access is currently implemented for NUL. VID and KBD devices may be accessed through the file system. The blocking procedural interface is described with each of the call descriptions that follow later in this chapter. Table 14. Device Access Through the File System Teletype fashion stream access to the NUL. The Request interface will not allow device access. MMURTL V1. KBD and VID devices only.

pdHandleRet): dError OpenFile() opens an existing file in the current path for Block or Stream operations. Multiple users can open a file in ModeRead.File System Functions in Detail The following pages detail each of the file system functions that are available.pointer to the filename or full file specification. If stream access type was specified. Stream = 1.pointer to a dword where the handle to the file will be returned to you.DWord with length of the filename dOpenMode . Procedural parameters: pName . Request Parameters for CloseFile: 1 1 pName dcbName pdHandleRet 4 (Size of a file handle) dOpenMode dAccessType Not used (0) MMURTL V1. dAccessType.a dword that was returned from OpenFile(). all buffers are flushed and deallocated. OpenFile Procedural interface: OpenFile (pName. dcbname. A full file specification may be provided to override the current job path. Opening in ModeModify excludes all others from opening the file. it can not be opened in ModeModify by any other users.Block = 0. Procedural parameters: dHandle . Request Parameters for OpenFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 CloseFile Procedural interface: CloseFile (dHandle): dError CloseFile() closes a file that was previously opened. If a file is open in ModeRead. dcbName .READ = 0.0 -145- RICHARD A BURGESS . pdHandleRet . dOpenMode. MODIFY = 1 dAccessType .

DWord with a valid file handle as returned from OpenFile. dLFA. dLFA . nBytes . See the SetFilesize() section. The file must be opened for Block access in Modify mode or an error occurs. Procedural parameters: dhandle . Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBlock Procedural interface: WriteBlock(dHandle. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more blocks from a file. The file must be opened for Block access or an error occurs. Writing beyond the current file length is not allowed.Logical File Address to write to.0 = = = = = = = = = 3 0 pDataRet nBytes (multiple of 512) pdnBytesRet 4 (size of dnBytesRet) dHandle 0 0 -146- RICHARD A BURGESS .DWord with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile. This must be a multiple of the block size.pointer to a dword where the count of bytes successfully read will be returned. MMURTL V1.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of blocks you specify to read. dLFA.DWord with number of bytes to write. This must be a multiple of the block size for the 512-byte disk.Pointer to the data to write nBytes . This will always return a multiple of 512.DWord with number of bytes to read. pData . nBytes.wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBlock = = = = = = 2 0 0 0 0 0 = dHandle = 0 = 0 Procedural interface: ReadBlock(dHandle. pData. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more blocks to a file.Logical File Address to read from. This MUST be a multiple of the block size. One Block = 512 bytes. pDataRet. Procedural parameters: dHandle . pdnBlkRet . pdnBytesRet .pointer to a dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. nBytes. pDataRet . This must always be a multiple of 512. dLFA . This will always be a multiple of the block size (n * 512). SetFileSize() must be used to extend the file length if you intend to write beyond the current file size.

The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you wrote. pdnBytesRet . nBytes . The LFA is updated to the next byte address following the data you read. Request Parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 WriteBytes Procedural interface: WriteBytes(dHandle. The file length is extended automatically if you write past the current End Of File. nBytes.Dword with number of bytes to read. Parameters: dhandle . pDataRet. pdnBytesRet): dError This reads one or more bytes from a file. = 5 = 0 = pDataRet = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = 4 = 1 = pData = nBytes (512 = 1 Block) = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 MMURTL V1. The bytes are written beginning at the current LFA. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. nBytes.pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully read will be returned. Use SetFileLFA() to move the stream file pointer if you want to read from an LFA other than the current LFA. The file must be opened for Stream access or an error occurs. The file must be opened for stream access in Modify mode or an error occurs. pdnBytesRet): dError This writes one or more bytes to a file.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile). pDataRet .0 -147- RICHARD A BURGESS . The bytes are read from the current LFA.Pointer to a buffer large enough to hold the count of bytes you specify to read. GetFileLFA may be used to find the current LFA. pData. GetFileLFA() may be used to find the current LFA.Request parameters for ReadBlock: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 ReadBytes Procedural interface: ReadBytes(dHandle.

pData . pdnBytesRet .Procedural parameters: dHandle .Dword with number of bytes to write.Pointer to the data to write.Dword with a valid file handle. The file LFA can not be set past the End Of File (EOF).Dword with a valid file handle. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access. Procedural parameters: dhandle . Request parameters for ReadBytes: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileLFA Procedural Interface: GetFileLFA(dHandle. pdLFARet): dError This gets the current LFA for files with stream mode access. dLFA): dError This sets the current LFA (file pointer) for Stream Access files. An error occurs if the file is opened for Block access.0 = 6 = 1 = pData = nBytes = pdnBytesRet = 4 (size of dnBytesRet) = dHandle = 0 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 7 0 pdLFARet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 -148- RICHARD A BURGESS . as returned from OpenFile pdLFARet . nBytes . Procedural parameters: dHandle .a pointer to a Dword where the current LFA will be returned.Dword with a valid file handle (as returned from OpenFile).pointer to a Dword where the number of bytes successfully written will be returned. The file will be set to EOF if you specify 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1 for a signed long value in C). Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileLFA Procedural interface: SetFileLFA(dHandle. as returned from OpenFile() MMURTL V1.

as returned from OpenFile() pdSizeRet . Procedural parameters: dHandle . Request parameters for GetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 SetFileSize Procedural interface: SetFileSize(dHandle. Request parameters for SetFileLFA: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 GetFileSize Procedural interface: GetFileSize(dHandle.Dword with a valid file handle. The file length. The current LFA is not affected for Stream files unless it is now past the new EOF in which case it is set to EOF automatically. Procedural parameters: dhandle .a pointer to a Dword where the current size of the file will be returned. and allocated space on the disk.a Dword with the LFA you want to set. pdSizeRet): dError This gets the current file size for files opened in any access mode. as returned from OpenFile() dSize . will be extended or truncated as necessary to accommodate the size you specify.0 -149- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0FFFFFFFF hex will set the current LFA to End Of File. Request Parameters for SetFileSize: wSvcCode nSend = 10 = 0 = = = = = = = = = 9 0 pdSizeRet 4 0 0 dHandle 0 0 = 8 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dLFA = 0 MMURTL V1. dSize): dError This sets the current file size for Stream and Block Access files.a Dword with the new size of the file.Dword with a valid file handle.dLFA .

pointer to the filename or full file specification to create.Dword with length of the new filename Request parameters for RenameFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 = = = = 12 1 pName dcbName = = = = = = = = = 11 1 pName dcbName 0 0 dAttributes 0 0 MMURTL V1.pointer to the new filename or full file specification. dcbname. The file is closed after creation. Procedural parameters: pName .pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = dHandle = dSize = 0 CreateFile Procedural interface: CreateFile (pName. dAttributes): dError This creates a new. dcbNewName . The file must not be opened by anyone in any mode. dcbName. pNewName dcbNewName): dError This renames a file. System file Request parameters for CreateFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 RenameFile Procedural interface: RenameFile (pName. dcbName .Dword with length of the filename dAttributes .pointer to the current filename or full file specification. Procedural parameters: pName .0 -150- RICHARD A BURGESS . empty file in the path specified. dcbName .Dword with length of the current filename pNewName .A Dword with one of the following values: 0 = Normal File 2 = Hidden File 4 = System File 6 = Hidden. and ready to be opened and accessed.

as opposed to a full path. dcbPath): dError This creates a new. No further access is possible.pointer to the path (directory name) to create. This means all subdirectories above the last directory specified must already exist.Dword that was returned from OpenFile. the directory is created in your current path. and the filename is available for re-use.pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 DeleteFile = = = = = pNewname dcbNewname 0 0 0 Procedural interface: DeleteFile (dHandle): dError This deletes a file from the system.0 -151- RICHARD A BURGESS .Dword with length of the path Request parameters for CreateDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 14 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 MMURTL V1. Procedural parameters: dHandle . The file must be opened in Modify mode (which grants exclusive access). The path must contain the new directory name as the last element. specified in the Job Control Block. empty directory for the path specified. Request parameters for DeleteFile: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 13 0 0 0 0 0 dHandle 0 0 CreateDirectory Procedural interface: CreateDirectory (pPath. Procedural parameters: pPath . dcbPath . If only the new directory name is specified.

and files in subdirectories will be deleted. dcbPath . to read tj sector from dcbPath . all subdirectories. pSectRet. dcbPath. Request parameters for DeleteDirectory: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 15 1 pPath dcbPath 0 0 0 0 0 GetDirSector Procedural Interface: GetDirSector (pPath. A single directory entry looks like this with 16 per sector: Name Ext Attribute Reserved Time Date StartClstr FileSize 8 Bytes 3 Bytes 1 Byte 10 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytes The fields are read and used exactly as MS-DOS uses them. This call returns one sector from a directory.If set to non-zero.Dword with length of the path fAllFiles . You specify which logical directory sector you want to read (from 0 to nTotalSectors-1).0 -152- RICHARD A BURGESS . If only the existing directory name is specified. or directory name.pointer to the path. the path in your JCB will be used. The path must contain the directory name as the last element. All files and sub-directories will be deleted if fAllFiles is non-zero.DeleteDirectory Procedural interface: DeleteDirectory (pPath. Procedural parameters: pPath . or directory name to delete. The directory must exist in the path specified. all files in this directory. Each sector contain 16 directory entries. fAllFiles): dError This deletes a directory for the path specified. dcbPath. If no path is specified. dSectNum): dError Directories on the disk are one or more sectors in size. as opposed to a full path. the name is appended to the path from your job control block.pointer to the path. Procedural parameters: pPath .Dword with length of the path MMURTL V1.

is what links the user of a file to the FCB.pSectRet . The file handle is actually a pointer to the FUB. A bad pointer could do some real damage here if you let it. The file system starts with an initial 4Kb (one memory page) of FCBs. and other things that are required to manage the user's link to the file. A more accurate name would be cluster allocation table because its actually allocating clusters of disk space to the files. while others are part of the operating system data segment. File User Blocks Because this is a multitasking operating system. There is one FUB for each instance of a user with an open file.a Dword with the logical sector number to return Request parameters for GetDirSector: wSvcCode nSend pData1 cbData1 pData2 cbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 = = = = = = = = = 16 1 pPath dcbPath pSectRet 512 dSectNum 0 0 File System Theory Understanding a bit more about how the file system is managed may help you make better use of it. File Control Blocks All file system implementations have some structure that is used to manage an open file. FCB.a pointer to a 512-byte block where the directory sector will be returned dSectNum . buffer pointers. Each opened file is allocated an FCB. This linked list is contained in a table called the File Allocation Table. Internal File System Structures The file system has several internal structures it uses to manage the logical disks and open files. you allocate a one page buffer(4Kb) for reading and writing. The maximum number of open files is currently limited to 128 files by this initial allocation. the location of every cluster of 1 or more sectors of a file is managed in a linked list of sorts. If the file is opened in Stream mode. extra checking is done to ensure it is valid in every call. MMURTL V1. the FCB is deallocated for re-use. the FCB is not directly associated with the job that opened the file. The FUBs contain the file pointer. Another structure called the File User Block (FUB). The FCB keeps track of the number of FUBs for the file. Some structures are dynamically allocated. the open mode. Each FCB is 128 bytes. The FCB actually contains a copy of the 32-byte directory entry from the disk. This is read into the FCB when the file is opened.0 -153- RICHARD A BURGESS . Quite a few of them use this same name. The file system allocates file system structures dynamically when it is initialized. When it reaches 0. it's not allocating files. FAT Buffers In the FAT file system. Because it is a pointer.

A badly fragmented disk can force as many as four or five accesses to different parts of the FAT just to read one file. Run files being executed. the initial filling of buffers for a word processor (and the final save usually). L = Last entry in your file. Directories are stored as files. the commands to the device driver will be broken up into several smaller reads as the file system finds each contiguous section listed in the FAT. vector. From this example you can see that every file we access will require a minimum of two disk accesses to read the file. The file is open. MMURTL's DOS FAT file system allocates a 1Kb FAT buffer based on file access patterns. you simply issue the read to the device driver to read the sectors into the caller's buffer (locating them using the FAT). and can only do this if 128Kb of the file is located in contiguous sectors. The first cluster of the file is listed in the directory entry. they use what is called a FAT16. allocate an FUB and attach it. return an error ErcFileInUse. the user will strike next. fifth and sixth cluster in the data area on the disk. This means each FAT entry is a 16-bit word. FAT Position Entry in FAT 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 5 5 6 6 L 7 8 9 10 This means our file occupies the fourth. The disk controller (IDE/MFM) can read 256 contiguous sectors in one read operation. and you read it into the FAT buffer if it is not already in one. Assume the directory entry you read says the first FAT entry is number 4. the actual contiguous read will usually be limited to the size of a cluster. the fifth points to the sixth. inside of a 400 Mb file.0 -154- RICHARD A BURGESS . source files for compilers. That's 128Kb. or three entries. If so. File Operations Reading a file is a multipart process. read and close a file: Look through the FCBs to see if someone already has it open in ModeRead. From this. MMURTL V1. A simple LRU (least recently used) algorithm ensures the most accessed FAT sectors will remain in memory. Load FAT buffer if required. However. you calculate which disk sector in the FAT has this entry. Read What actually happens on a read depends on whether the file is opened in Block or Stream mode. The list could go on and on. Ever get lost clusters when you ran a Chkdsk in MSDOS? Who hasn't? It usually means it found some clusters pointing to other clusters that don't end. On most hard disks. Large database files are the major random users. and we'll assume the file size is 12Kb. Just 1Kb of FAT space represents 2Mb of data space on the disk if clusters are 4Kb. Locate the directory entry and read it into the FCB. The hardware is limited to 128Kb reads in one shot. This is in itself is time-consuming. Lets look at an example of how you use the FAT to locate all parts of file on the disk. This means it's important to attempt to keep as much FAT information in memory as you can and manage it wisely. If your disk isn't too badly fragmented and you are sequentially reading all of a file into memory (such as loading an executable file). because of the design of the FAT file system. you'll assume that each FAT entry is worth 4Kb on disk.The disk is allocated in clusters. which is cluster size. or it found a beginning cluster with no corresponding directory entry pointing to it. If it's open in ModeWrite. This means that you have to go to the FAT to find where the whole directory is stored so you can look through it. and the sixth is marked as the last. you can usually do it quite rapidly. Let's look what the file system has to go through to open. unless the piece of the FAT you need is already in memory. That's a lot of FAT (or file). A great number of files are read and written sequentially. Usually. with each cluster having an associated entry in the FAT. In this example. If opened in Block mode. and raster image files. The fourth entry points to the fifth. The beginning of the FAT represents the beginning of the usable data area on the logical disk. X = not your file. and only a good level-4 mind reader knows where.

Close This is the easy part.0 -155- RICHARD A BURGESS . then write the data. you issue the write command to the device driver to write out the sectors as indicated by the user. If opened in block mode.Write Writing to a file is a little more complicated. If the sectors have already been allocated in the FAT. It sounds simple. and depends on how the file was opened. attach them to the chain. but much overhead is involved. MMURTL V1. Then we deallocate the FUB and FCB. You flush buffers to disk if necessary for Write Mode. you must find unallocated clusters. If the file is being extended. Both copies must be updated. you simply write over the existing data while you follow the cluster chain. On many disks there are also two copies of the FAT for integrity purposes.

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g.4 bytes unsigned) d is the default when b or w is not present.32 bit near) Additional descriptive prefixes may be used to help describe the parameter. API Specification Introduction This section describes all operating system public calls.1 lists the prefixes. Function calls that are provided by system services (accessed with Request and Respond interface) are described in detail in the chapters of the book that apply to that service (e. Table 15. The descriptor for the call gate defines the actual address called and the number of dwords of stack parameters to be passed to the operating system call.Size and Type Prefixes Prefix b w d ib iw id p Description Byte (1 byte unsigned) Word (2 bytes unsigned) Double Word (dword .2 lists these additional prefix characters. Chapter 14. Table 15. The prefixes indicate the size and type of the data that is expected. I might add. These are known as compound descriptions. The offset should be 0. while the offset is ignored by the 386/486 processor. Public Calls Public Calls are those accessible through a call gate and can be reached from "outside" programs. An improperly.Additional Prefixes Prefix a c s o n Description Array (of) Count (of) Size (of) Offset (into) Number (of) MMURTL V1.1 .. The selector is the call gate entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Table 15. you'll find the documentation to be almost 30 percent of the work – and it’s a very important part of the entire system. They are defined as far and require a 48-bit call address. “File System Service”).2 . or poorly described function call can cause serious agony and hair loss in a programmer. They are listed by functional group first. Parameters to Calls (Args) All stack parameters are described by their names. Table 15.Chapter 15. The call address consists of a selector and an offset. then an alphabetical list provides details for each call and possibly an example of its use. If you are going to write your own operating system.0 -157- RICHARD A BURGESS . Integer Byte (1 Byte signed) Integer Word (2 bytes signed) Integer DWord (4 bytes signed) Pointer (4 bytes .

dMsg1. indicates a dword error or status code is returned from the function.3.or 16-bit values) are pushed as dwords automatically.3 .pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1. Many of these calls will not be used by the applications programmer. The caller need not worry about whether the upper part of a dword on the stack is cleared or set when a value is pushed because MMURTL will only use as much of it as is defined by the call. The parameter (argument) names follow the naming convention described earlier. dMsg2): dError CheckMsg(dExch.Compound Prefixes Prefix pab pad pdcb pib pb cb n ppd Description Pointer to an array of bytes Pointer to an array of Double words Pointer to a DWord that is a count of bytes Pointer to a signed byte pointer to a byte DWord that contains a count of bytes (defaults to size d if not preceded by other) DWord than is a number of something Pointer to a Pointer that points to a Double word Descriptive suffixes may also be used to help describe some parameters. Max means Maximum. the most common returned value shown.a Pointer to a Dword where data is returned. This information is provided for the assembly language programmers.Dword that contains the Count of Bytes of a filename. If a parameter is a byte. The operating-system calls are described in a generic fashion that does not directly correspond to a particular programming language such as C.0 -158- RICHARD A BURGESS . Pascal. grouped by type. and Min means Minimum. pdDataRet . be returned. Table1 5. Bytes and words (8.and optionally suffixes . The dError. dStatRet): dError AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError DeAllocExch(dExch): dError SendMsg (dExch. MMURTL high-level languages follow this convention. Combine these prefixes with variable or parameter names and you have a complete description of the data. The following are examples of parameter names using prefixes and suffixes. and finally. MMURTL procedures will only get the byte from the stack while the upper three bytes of the dword are ignored. Each compound set of prefixes .Dword with the maximum count of bytes that can. dcbFileName . Calls Grouped by Functionality The following is a list of all currently implemented operating system public calls. dMsg2): dError WaitMsg(dExch.Examples of compound prefixes are shown in table 15.accurately describes the provided or expected data types. The function name is followed by the parameters. It is processor (hardware) enforced. Ret means Returned. pMsgsRet) : dError ISendMsg (dExch. a colon with the returned value. Messaging Respond(dRqHndl. or should be. dMsg1. or Assembler. dcbDataRetMax . if a value is returned by the function. Stack Conventions MMURTL keeps a dword (4 Byte) aligned stack.

pPhyAddRet): dError QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError High Speed Data Movement FillData(pDest. nDevices. wCodeSeg. dcbFileName): dError GetExitJob(pFileNameRet. cBytes. dcbFileName): dError GetSysIn(pFileNameRet. dInitData): dError InitDevDr(dDevNum. pdcbUserNameRet): dError SetSysIn(pFileName. ppMemRet. pStack. dPriority. fReplace): dError RegisterSvc(pSvcName.Request( pSvcName. dcbAliasBytes. dBytes) CopyDataR(pSource. dExitError):dError ExitJob(dExitError): dError LoadNewJob(pFileName. pDestination. pInitData. ppMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage(nPages. pDestination. dData2 ) : dError MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. pDCBs. dcbFileName. bFill) CompareNCS(pS1. dOpNum. dcbFileName. dfDebug. dSize): returned offset or -1 CopyData(pSource. LinAdd. dJobNum. dcbFileName): dError GetSysOut(pFileNameRet. pS2. pStatRet. dPriority. pcbFileNameRet): dError SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. pdcbFileNameRet): dError SetSysOut(pFileName. dcbMem. dESP. ppMemRet): dError DeAllocPage(pMem. dSize): returned offset or -1 Compare(pS1. fDebug. npSend. dExch): dError UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName): dError Memory Management AllocPage(nPages. fOSCode):dError SetPriority(bPriority): dError GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError System Service & Device Driver Management DeviceOp(dDevice. cbData1.0 -159- RICHARD A BURGESS . pData1. dcbPath): dError GetPath(dJobNum. dcbUserName): dError GetUserName(pUserNameRet. wSvcCode. dcbJobName): dError SetExitJob(pFileName. pJCBRet): dError GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError SetJobName(pJobName. cbData2. pdcbFileNameRet): dError Task Management NewTask(dJobNum. dData1. pdcbPathRet): dError SetUserName(pUserName. dnBlocks. dStatusMax. dLBA. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocOSPage(nPages. pRqHndlRet. dDestExch) : dError Job Management Chain(pFileName. pS2. pdcbCmdLineRet): dError SetPath(pPath. dData0. dExch. pData): dError DeviceStat(dDevice. dRespExch. dEIP): dError SpawnTask(pEntry. dcbCmdLine): dError GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet. ppAliasRet): dError DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. pPathRet. dBytes) MMURTL V1. JobNum): dError GetPhyAdd(dJobNum. pdJobNumRet):dError GetpJCB(dJobNum. dStatusRet):dError DeviceInit(dDevice. pData2. dnPages): dError AliasMem(pMem.

dTextOut. dChannel. dTicks): dError KillAlarm (dAlarmExch): dError Sleep(nTicks): dError MicroDelay (dn15us): dError GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet): dError GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError GetTimerTick(pdTickRet): dError ISA Hardware Specific I/O DmaSetUp(dPhyMem. dLine. & Video SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError GetNormVid(pdNormVidRet): dError SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Beep(): dError ClrScr(): dError GetXY(pdXRet. dLine. nChars.Timer and Timing Alarm(dExchRet. nCols. pbCharRet.dPort) OutDWord(DWord. pVector) GetIRQVector (dIRQnum. dTicks10ms): dError TTYOut (pTextOut. pdYRet): dError SetXY(dNewX. dPort) OutWords(dPort. nChars. dMaxLen. pwCountRet): dError InByte(dPort): Byte InWord(dPort): Word InDWord(dPort): DWord InWords(dPort.0 -160- RICHARD A BURGESS . dCrntLen. dfWait): dError Tone(dHz. dAttr): dError ScrollVid(dULCol. dMode): dError GetDMACount(dChannel. fdRead. dNewY): dError PutVidChars(dCol. dPort) OutWord(Word. ddLine. pDataOut. pbChars.dBytes) OutByte(Byte. Speaker. pDataIn. dULline. nLines. sdMem. pVectorRet): dError MaskIRQ (dIRQnum): dError UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum): dError EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum) Keyboard. dAttrib): dError EditLine( pStr. pbExitChar. dBytes) ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte Interrupt and Call Gate Management AddCallGate: dError AddIDTGate: dError SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. pbAttrRet): dError PutVidAttrs(dCol. dEditAttr): dError MMURTL V1. dAttrib): dError GetVidChar(dCol. dfUp): dError ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. pdLenRet.

the parameters are not stack based. AddCallGate AddCallGate: dError AddCallGate() makes an entry in the Global Descriptor Table (GDT) for a publicly available operating-system function. The Selector of the call is Always 8 (operating-system code segment) for interrupt or trap. Unlike most other operating system calls. exceptions. EAX Returns Error. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. AddIDTGate AddIDTGate: dError AddIDTGate() makes an entry in the Interrupt Descriptor Table for traps. Unlike most other operating system calls. the parameters are not stack-based. and is the TSS descriptor number of the task for a task gate.Alphabetical Call Listing The remaining sections of this chapter describe each of the operating system calls available to programmers. This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. and interrupts.Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) ESI .Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) CX . else 0 if all went OK Alarm Alarm(dExchRet. but can be used by experienced systems programmers. exception gates and interrupt gates. AddIDTGate() builds and adds an IDT entry for trap gates. Parameters: AX . This call doesn't check to see if the IDT descriptor for the call is already defined. AddIDTGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined.Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute EAX . dnTicks): dError MMURTL V1.Offset of entry point in operating system code to execute.0 -161- RICHARD A BURGESS .Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) ESI .Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00h Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00h Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500h BX . They are passed in registers. This must be zero (0) for task gates. or 0 if all went well. AddCallGate() can only be executed by code running at supervisor level (0). The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range (40h through maximum call gate number).Returns an error. Parameters: AX . AddIDTGate ()is primarily for operating system use. AddCallGate() is primarily for operating system use.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) DPL entry of 2 CC0x DPL entry of 1 AC0x DPL entry of 0 8C0x (x = count of dword parameters 0-F) CX . They are passed in registers. It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites the descriptor if it is already there.

WaitMsg. This procedure allocates an exchange (message port) for the job to use. dcbMem . and then "CheckMsg()" on the exchange to see if it has gone off.The count of bytes pMem is pointing to. AllocExch AllocExch(pdExchRet): dError The kernel Allocate Exchange primitive. This procedure is used by the operating system to perform address conversions when passing data using the Request() and Respond() primitives. exit and messaging code makes the alarm delay timing a little more than 10 milliseconds and is not precisely calculable. This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. each containing 0FFFFFFFF hex (-1).Job number from the other application. You must not attempt to access more than this number of bytes from the other application's space. The overhead included in entry. and don't get placed in a waiting condition.A pointer to the memory address from the other application's space that needs to be aliased. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The larger dnTicks is. Parameters: dnTicks . This would be for the time-out function described above. you can set it to send a message to the same exchange you are expecting another message. Using it as a normal pointer will surely cause horrible results.a pointer to 4-byte area where the physical address of the memory is returned. Alarm() is accomplished using the same timer blocks as Sleep(). the more precise the timing. The allocation routine uses a first-fit algorithm. except you provide the exchange. Alarm() should not be called for extremely critical timing in applications. ppAliasRet .Dword (4 BYTES). (The address the aliased memory pointer you will use).0 -162- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. ppAliasRet): dError AliasMem() provides an address conversion between application addresses. The message that is sent is two dwords. then see which one gets there first by simply waiting at the exchange. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will be within reach of the DMA hardware. If you do. Alarm() is similar to Sleep(). ppRet . This pointer is only valid when used with the DMA hardware.Alarm() is public routine that will send a message to an exchange after a specified period of 10-millisecond increments has elapsed. pdPhyMemRet): dError AllocDMAPage() allocates one or more pages of Memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables. pdPhyMemRet . dJobNum. except it can be used asynchronously. This means you can set an alarm. Parameters: pdExchRet is a pointer to the dword where the exchange number is returned. etc.Dword with the number of 10 millisecond periods to wait before sending a message the specified exchange. In fact. dcbMem. One important use would be a time-out function for device drivers that wait for interrupts but may never get them due to hardware difficulties. Each application has its own linear address space. Parameters: pMem . AliasMem AliasMem(pMem.A pointer to the pointer you want to use to access the other application's memory. Exchanges are required in order to use the operating system messaging system (SendMsg. you will cause a fault and your application will be terminated.). Alarm() can be used for a number of things. Parameters: nPages . do some other processing. ppMemRet. even though it's very close. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space.a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. It will always begin on a page boundary. dJobNum . AllocDMAPage AllocDMAPage(nPages. Even addresses of identical numeric values are not the same addresses when shared between applications.

AllocOSPage AllocOSPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Operating System Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the operating system page tables. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and to always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit-algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. AllocPage AllocPage(nPages, ppMemRet): dError Allocate Page allocates one or more pages of memory and adds the entry(s) to the callers page tables in upper linear memory. Memory is guaranteed to be contiguous and will always begin on a page boundary. No cleanup is done on the caller's memory space. If the caller continuously allocates pages and then deallocates them this could lead to fragmentation of the linear memory space. The allocation routine uses a first fit algorithm. Parameters: nPages - a dword (4-bytes). This is the count of 4Kb pages to allocate. ppRet - a pointer to 4-byte area where the pointer to the memory is returned. Beep Beep: dError A Public routine that sounds a 250-millisecond tone at 800Hz. Parameters: None Chain Chain(pFileName, dcbFileName, dExitError): dError Chain() is called by applications and services to replace themselves with another application (as specified by the filename). Chain()terminates all tasks belonging to the calling job and frees system resources that will not be used in the new job. If chain cannot open the new job or the new run file is corrupted, ErcBadRunFile, or similar errors, may be returned to the application and the chain operation will be canceled. If the chain is too far along, and running the new application fails, the ExitJob, if the JCB contained a valid one, will be loaded and run. If there is no exit job specified, the Job will be terminated as described in the ExitJob() call. Parameters: pFilename - this points to the name of a valid executable run file. dcbRunFilename - A Dword containing the length of the run file name. dExitError - A Dword containing an error code to place in the ErrorExit field of the JCB. The chained application may or may not use this error value. CheckMsg CheckMsg(dExch, pMsgsRet) : dError

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The kernel CheckMsg() primitive allows a Task to receive information from another task without blocking the caller. In other words, if no message is available, Checkmsg() returns with an error to the caller. If a message is available, the message is returned to the caller immediately. The caller is never placed on an exchange and the Task Ready Queue is not evaluated. This call is used to check for non-specific messages and responses from services. The first dwords value (dMsgHi) determines if it's a non-specific message or a response from a service. If the value is less than 80000000h (a positive-signed long in C) it is a response from a service, otherwise it is a non-specific message that was sent to this exchange by SendMsg() or IsendMsg(). If it was a response from a service, the second dword is the status code from the service. IMPORTANT: The value of the first dword is an agreed-upon convention. If you allocate an exchange that is only used for messaging between two of your own tasks within the same job, then the two dwords of the message can represent any two values you like, including pointers to your own memory area. If you intend to use the exchange for both messages and responses to requests, you should use the numbering convention. The operating system follows this convention with the Alarm() function by sending 0FFFFFFFFh as the first and second dwords of the message. Parameters: dExch - is the exchange to check for a waiting message pMsgsRet - is a Pointer to two dwords in contiguous memory where the two dword messages should be returned if a message is waiting at this exchange. dError - returns 0 if a message was waiting, and has been placed in qMsg, else ErcNoMsg is returned.

ClrScr ClrScr() This clears the virtual screen for the current Job. It may or may not be the one you are viewing (active screen). Parameters: None Compare Compare(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is ASCII case sensitive. It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize - Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CompareNCS CompareNCS(pS1, pS2, dSize) : returned offset or -1 This is a high-speed string compare function using the Intel string instructions. This version is not case sensitive(NCS). It returns the offset of the first byte that doesn't match between the pS1 and pS2, or it returns -1 (0xffffffff) if all bytes match (ignoring case) out to dSize. pS1 and pS2 - Pointers to the data strings to compare. DSize – Number of bytes to compare in pS1 and pS2. CopyData CopyData(pSource, pDestination, dBytes)

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This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. Data is always moved as dwords if possible. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. CopyDataR CopyDataR(pSource, pDestination, dBytes) This is a high-speed string move function using the Intel string move intrinsic instructions. This version should be called if the pSource and pDest address overlap. This moves the data from the highest address down so as not to overwrite pSource. Parameters: pSource - Pointer to the data you want moved. pDestination - Pointer to where you want the data moved. dBytes - Count of bytes to move. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem(pAliasMem, dcbAliasBytes, dJobNum): dError This invalidates the an aliased pointer that you created using the AliasMem() call. This frees up pages in your linear address space. You should use this call for each aliased pointer when you no longer need them. Parameters: pAliasMem - The linear address you want to dealias. This should be the same value that was returned to you in the AliasMem() call. dcbAliasBytes - Size of the memory area to dealias. This must be the same value you used when you made the AliasMem() call. dJobNum - This is the job number of the application who's memory you had aliased. This should be the same job number you provided for the AliasMem() call. DeAllocExch DeAllocExch(dExch): dError DeAllocate Exchange releases the exchange back to the operating system for reuse. If tasks or messages are waiting a the exchange they are released and returned as reusable system resources. Parameters: dExch - the Exchange number that is being released. DeAllocPage DeAllocPage(pMem, dnPages) : dError DeAllocate Page deletes the memory from the job's page table. This call works for any memory, OS and DMA included. Access to this memory after this call will cause a page fault and terminate the job. Parameters:
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pMem - Pointer which should contain a valid memory address, rounded to a page boundary, for previously allocated pages of memory. dnPages - Dword with the count of pages to deallocate. If dnPages is greater than the existing span of pages allocated at this address an error is returned, but as many pages as can be, will be deallocated. If fewer pages are specified, only that number will be deallocated. DeviceInit DeviceInit(dDevice, pInitData, dInitData) : dError Some devices may require a call to initialize them before use, or to reset them after a catastrophe. An example of initialization would be a Comms port, for baud rate, parity, and so on. The size of the initializing data and its contents are device-specific and are defined with the documentation for the specific device driver. Parameters: dDevice - Dword indicating device number pInitData - Pointer to device-specific data for initialization. This is documented for each device driver. dInitData - Total number of bytes in the initialization data. DeviceOp DeviceOp(dDevice, dOpNum, dLBA, dnBlocks, pData): dError The DeviceOp() function is used by services and programs to carry out normal operations such as Read and Write on all installed devices. The dOpNum parameter tells the driver which operation is to be performed. The first 256 operation numbers, out of over 4 billion, are pre-defined or reserved. These reserved numbers correspond to standard device operations such as read, write, verify, and format. Each device driver documents all device operation numbers it supports. All drivers must support dOpNum 0 (Null operation). It is used to verify the driver is installed. Most drivers will implement dOpNums 2 and 3 (Read and Write). Disk devices (DASD - Direct Access Storage Devices) will usually implement the first eight or more. Parameters: dDevice - the device number dOpNum - identifies which operation to perform 0 Null operation 1 Read (receive data from the device) 2 Write (send data to the device) 3 Verify (compare data on the device) 4 Format Block 5 Format Track (disk devices only) 6 Seek Block 7 Seek Track (disk devices only) 8-255 RESERVED 256-n Driver Defined (driver specific) dLBA - Logical Block Address for I/O operation. For sequential devices this parameter will usually be ignored. See the specific device driver documentation. dnBlocks - Number of continguous blocks for the operation specified. For sequential devices this will probably be the number of bytes (e.g., COMMS). Block size is defined by the driver. Standard Block size for disk devices is 512 bytes. pData - Pointer to data, or return buffer for reads, for specified operation DeviceStat DeviceStat(dDevice, pStatRet, dStatusMax, dStatusRet):dError

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The DeviceStat() function returns device-specific status to the caller if needed. Not all devices will return status on demand. In cases where the driver doesn't, or can't, return status, ErcNoStatus will be returned. The status information will be in record or structure format that is defined by the specific device driver documentation. Parameters: dDevice - Device number to status pStatBuf - Pointer to buffer where status will be returned dStatusMax - This is the maximum number of bytes of status you will accept. pdStatusRet - Pointer to dword where the number of bytes of status returned to is reported. DMASetUp DMASetUp(dPhyMem, sdMem, dChannel, fdRead, dMode): dError This is a routine used by device drivers to set up a DMA channel for a device read or write. Typical use would be for a disk or comms device in which the driver would setup DMA for the move, then setup the device, which controls DMA through the DREQ/DACK lines, to actually control the data move. Parameters: dPhyMem - is physical memory address. Device drivers can call the GetPhyAdd() routine to convert linear addresses to physical memory addresses. sdMem - number of bytes to move dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7. Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices, and though they move words, you must specify the length in bytes using sdMem. fdRead - any non zero value sets DMA to read (Read is a read from memory which sends data to a device). dMode - 0 is Demand Mode , 1 is Single Cycle mode (Disk I/O uses single cycle), 2 is Block mode, and 3 is Cascade mode, which is for operating system use only. EditLine EditLine( pStr, dCrntLen, dMaxLen, pdLenRet, pbExitChar, dEditAttr): dError This function displays a single line of text and allows it to be edited on screen. Display and keyboard input are handled inside of EditLine(). The line must be on a single row of the display with no character wrap across lines. The first character of the line is displayed at the current X and Y cursor coordinates for the caller's video screen. Parameters: pStr - a pointer to the character string to be edited. dCrntLen - the current length of the string (80 Max.). dMaxlen - the maximum length of the string (80 Max.). pdLenRet - a pointer to a dword where the length of the string after editing will be returned. PbExitCharRet - is a pointer to a Byte where the exit key from the edit operation is returned. dEditAttr - editing attribute. The display and keyboard are handled entirely inside EditLine(). The following keys are recognized and handled internally for editing features. Any other key causes EditLine() to exit, returning the contents and length of the string in its current condition 08 (Backspace) move cursor to left replacing char with 20h which is a destructive backspace Left-Arrow - Same as Backspace (destructive) 20-7E Hex places character in current position and advances position Special shift keys combination (CTRL and ALT) are not interpreted (CTRL-D = D, etc.). EndOfIRQ EndOfIRQ (dIRQnum)

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This call is made by an interrupt service routine to signify it has completed servicing the interrupt. End of Interrupt commands are sent to the proper PICU(s) for the caller. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ that your ISR has finished serving. For a description of hardware IRQs, see the call description for SetIRQVector(). ExitJob ExitJob(dExitError): dError ExitJob() is called by applications and services to terminate all tasks belonging to the job, and to free system resources. This is the normal method to terminate your application program. A high-level language's exit function would call ExitJob(). After freeing certain resources for the job, ExitJob() attempts to load the ExitJob() Run File as specified in the SetExitJob() call. It is kept in the JCB. Applications can exit and replace themselves with another program of their choosing, by calling SetExitJob(), and specifying the Run filename, before calling ExitJob(). A Command Line Interpreter, or executive, which runs your program from a command line would normally call SetExitJob(), specifying itself so it will run again when your program is finished. If no ExitJob is specified, ExitJob() errors out with ErcNoExitJob and frees up all resources that were associated with that job, including, but not limited to, the JCB, TSSs, Exchanges, Link Blocks, and communications channels. If this happens while video and keyboard are assigned to this job, the video and keyboard are reassigned to the OS Monitor program. Parameters: dExitError - this is a dword that indicates the completion state of the application. The operating system does not interpret, or act on this value, in any way except to place it in the Job Control Block. FillData FillData(pDest, cBytes, bFill) This is used to fill a block of memory with a repetitive byte value such as zeroing a block of memory. This uses the Intel string intrinsic instructions. Parameters: PDest - is a pointer to the block of memory to fill. Cbytes - is the size of the block. BFill - is the byte value to fill it with. GetCmdLine GetCmdLine(pCmdLineRet, pdcbCmdLineRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command Line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the Command Line from the JCB. The complimentary call SetCmdLine() is provided to set the Command Line. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. High-level language libraries may use this call to retrieve the command line and separate or expand parameters (arguments) for the applications main function. Parameters: pabCmdLineRet - points to an array of bytes where the command line string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest CmdLine (79 characters). pdcbCmdLineRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the command line returned will be stored.

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GetCMOSTime GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet) : dError This retrieves the time from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword as: Low order byte is the seconds (BCD), Next byte is the minutes (BCD), Next byte is the hours (BCD 24 hour), High order byte is 0. Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the time is returned in the previously described format. GetCMOSDate GetCMOSDate(pdDateRet): dError This retrieves the date from the on-board CMOS battery backed up clock. The date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword defined as: Low order byte is the Day of Week (BCD 0-6 0=Sunday), Next byte is the Day (BCD 1-31), Next byte is the Month (BCD 1-12), High order byte is year (BCD 0-99). Parameters: pdTimeRet - A pointer to a dword where the date is returned in the previously described format. GetDMACount GetDMACount(dChannel, pwCountRet): dError A routine used by device drivers to get the count of bytes for 8-bit channels, or words for 16-bit DMA channels, left in the Count register for a specific DMA channel. Parameters: dChannel - legal values are 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (Note: Channels 5, 6 and 7 are for 16-bit devices.) pwCountRet - This is the value found in the DMA count register for the channel specified. Note that even though you specify bytes on 16-bit DMA channel to the DMASetUp call, the count returned is always the exact value found in the count register for that channel. The values in the DMA count registers are always programmed with one less than the count of the data to move. Zero (0) indicates one word or byte. 15 indicates 16 words or bytes. If you program a 16-bit DMA channel to move data from a device for 1024 words (2048 bytes) and you call GetDMACount() which returns 1 to you, this means all but two words were moved. GetExitJob GetExitJob(pabExitJobRet, pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits, to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Applications may use this call to see what the ExitJob filename. The complimentary call SetExitJob() is provided. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again. Calling SetExitJob() with a zero length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB.

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Parameters: pabExitJobRet - points to an array of bytes where the ExitJob filename string will be returned. This array must be large enough to hold the largest ExitJob filename (79 characters). pdcbExitJobRet - is a pointer to a dword where the length of the ExitJob filename returned will be stored. GetIRQVector GetIRQVector (dIRQnum, pVectorRet): dError The Get Interrupt Vector call returns the 32-bit offset address in operating system address space for the ISR that is currently serving dIRQnum. Parameters: dIRQnum - the hardware interrupt request number for the vector you want returned. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). pVectorRet - A pointer where the address of the ISR will be returned. GetJobNum GetJobNum(pdJobNumRet):dError This returns the job number for the task that called it. All tasks belong to a job. Parameters: pbJobNumRet - a pointer to a dword where the job number is returned. GetNormVid GetNormVid(pdNormVidAttrRet): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen, virtual or real. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. The default foreground color which is the color of the characters themselves, and background colors may be changed by an application. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call, and are also used by stream output from high level language libraries. This returns the normal video attribute for the screen of the caller. See SetNormVid() for more information. Parameters: pdNormVidAttrRet - this points to a dword where the value of the normal video attribute will be returned. The attribute value is always a byte but is returned as a dword for this, and some other operating system video calls. See Chapter 9, “Application Programming,” for a table containing values for video attributes. GetPath GetPath(dJobNum, pPathRet, pdcbPathRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store and application’s current path. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. Refer to File System documentation. This call allows applications and the file system to retrieve the current path string. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the path string you want. pPathRet - this points to an array of bytes where the path will be returned. This string must be long enough to contain the longest path (69 characters). pdcbPathRet - this points to a dword where the length of the path name returned is stored.

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GetPhyAdd GetPhyAdd(dJobNum, dLinAdd, pdPhyRet): dError This returns a physical address for given Linear address. This is used by device drivers for DMA operations on DSeg memory. Parameters: dJobNum - is the job number of owner of d LinAdd - is the Linear address you want the physical address for. This is the address itself, not a pointer it. pdPhyRet - points to the dword where the physical address is returned GetpJCB GetpJCB(dJobNum, ppJCBRet): dError This returns a pointer to the Job Control Block for the specified job number. Each job has a structure to control and track present job resources and attributes. The data in a JCB is read-only to applications and system services. Parameters: dJobNum - this is the job number for the Job Control Block you want a pointer to. ppJCBRet - this is a pointer that points to a pointer where the pJCB will be returned. GetSysIn GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file, or device, from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetSysOut GetSysIn(pFileNameRet, pdcbFileNameRet): dError This returns the name of the standard output file or device from the application's Job Control Block. Parameters: pFileNameRet - Pointer to an array where the name will be returned. This array must be at least 30 characters long. pdcbFileNameRet - Pointer to a dword where the length of the name will be returned. GetTimerTick GetTimerTick( pdTickRet) : dError This returns the operating system tick counter value. When MMURTL is first booted it begins counting 10-millisecond intervals forever. This value will roll over every 16 months or so. It is an unsigned dword. Parameters: pdTickRet - A pointer to a dword where the current tick is returned.
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GetTSSExch GetTSSExch(pdExchRet): dError This returns the exchange that belongs to the task as assigned by the operating system during SpawnTask() or NewTask(). This exchange is used by some direct calls while blocking a thread on entry to non-reentrant portions of the operating system. It can also be used by system services or library code as an exchange for the request primitive for that task so long as no timer functions will be used, such as Alarm() or Sleep(). Parameters: pdExchRet - a pointer to a dword where the TSS Exchange will be returned. GetUserName GetUserName(pUserNameRet, pdcbUserNameRet): dError The Job Control Block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system. This call retrieves the user name from the JCB. The complimentary call SetUserName() is provided to set the user name. The name is preserved across ExitJobs, and while Chaining to another application. Parameters: pabUsernameRet - points to an array of bytes where the user name will be returned. dcbUsername - is the length of the string to store. GetVidChar GetVidChar(dCol, ddLine, pbCharRet, pbAttrRet): dError This returns a single character and its attribute byte from the caller's video screen. Parameters: dCol - The column, or X position, of the character you want returned. dLine - The line location, or Y position, of the character you want returned. pbCharRet - a pointer to a byte where the character value will be returned. pbAttrRet - a pointer to a byte where the video attribute for the character is returned. GetVidOwner GetVidOwner(pdJobNumRet): dError This returns the job number for the owner of the real video screen, the one you are viewing. Parameters: pdJobNumRet - pointer to a dword where the current video owner will be returned. GetXY GetXY(pdXRet, pdYRet): dError This returns the current X and Y position of the cursor in your virtual video screen.
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Parameters: PdXRet - is a pointer where you want the current horizontal cursor position returned. PdYRet - is a pointer where you want the current vertical cursor position returned. InByte InByte(dPort) : Byte This reads a single byte from a port address and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InDWord InDWord(dPort) : DWord This reads a single dword from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWord InWord(dPort) : Word This reads a single word from a port address, and returns it from the function. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. InWords InWords(dPort, pDataIn, dBytes) InWords reads one or more words from a port using the Intel string read function. The data is read from dPort and returned to the address pDataIn. dBytes is the total count of bytes to read (WORDS * 2). This call is specifically designed for device drivers. Parameters: DPort - The address of the port. PDataIn - The address where the data string will be returned. DBytes - The total number of bytes to be read. This number is the number of words you want to read from the port times two. InitDevDr InitDevDr(dDevNum, pDCBs, nDevices, fReplace) : dError InitDevDr() is called from a device driver after it is first loaded to let the operating system integrate it into the system. After the Device driver has been loaded it should allocate all system resources it needs to operate and control its devices,
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while providing the three standard entry points. A 64-byte DCB must be filled out for each device the driver controls before this call is made. When a driver controls more than one device it must provide the device control blocks for each device. The DBCs must be contiguous in memory. If the driver is flagged as not reentrant, then all devices controlled by the driver will be locked out when the driver is busy. This is because one controller, such as a disk or SCSI controller, usually handles multiple devices through a single set of hardware ports, and one DMA channel if applicable, and can't handle more than one active transfer at a time. If this is not the case, and the driver can handle two devices simultaneously at different hardware ports, then it may be advantageous to make it two separate drivers. See Chapter 10, “System Programming,” for more detailed information on writing device drivers. Parameters: dDevNum - This is the device number that the driver is controlling. If the driver controls more than one device, this is the first number of the devices. This means the devices are numbered consecutively. pDCBs - This is a pointer to the DCB for the device. If more than one device is controlled, this is the pointer to the first in an array of DCBs for the devices. This means the second DCB would be located at pDCBs + 64, the third at pDCBs + 128, etc. nDevices - This is the number of devices that the driver controls. It must equal the number of contiguous DCBs that the driver has filled out before the InitDevDr() call is made. fReplace - If true, the driver will be substituted for the existing driver functions already in place. This does not mean that the existing driver will be replaced in memory, it only means the new driver will be called when the device is accessed. A driver must specify and control at least as many devices as the original driver handled. ISendMsg ISendMsg (dExch, dMsgHi, dMsgLo): dError This is the Interrupt Send primitive. This procedure provides access to the operating system to allow an interrupt procedure to send information to another task via an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed and interrupts remain cleared. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated with that task and it is moved to the Ready Queue. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the Kernel. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg ()to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. IMPORTANT: Interrupts are cleared on entry in ISendMsg() and will not be set on exit. It is the responsibility of the caller to set them if desired. This procedure should only be used by device drivers and interrupt service routine. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. When WaitMsg(), or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver, it will be into an array of dwords, unsigned long msg[2] in C. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index (msg[0]), and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address (msg[1]). Parameters: dExch - a dword (4 bytes) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsgHi - the upper dword of the message. dMsgLo - the lower dword of the message. KillAlarm KillAlarm (dAlarmExch) : dError A Public routine that kills an alarm message that was set to be sent to an exchange by the Alarm() operating system function. All alarms set to fire off to the exchange you specify are killed. For instance, if you used the Alarm() function to send a message to you in three seconds so you could time-out on a piece of hardware, and you didn't need it anymore, you would call KillAlarm(). If the alarm is already queued through the kernel, nothing will stop it and you should expect the Alarm() message at the exchange.

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Parameters: dIRQnum . MicroDelay MicroDelay(dn15us) : dError MicroDelay is used for very small. pdJobNumRet) : dError This loads and executes a run file.0 -175- RICHARD A BURGESS . It will delay further execution of your task by the number of 15-microsecond intervals you specify. Page Descriptor. This allocates all the system resources required for the new job including a Job Control Block. although longer periods will work. Virtual Video. Interrupts are not disabled. but instead is actually consuming CPU time for this interval. Interrupt latency of the system is not affected for greater delay values. MaskIRQ MaskIRQ (dIRQnum) : dError This masks the hardware Interrupt Request specified by dIRQnum. Parameters: pFilename . the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. The timing is tied directly to the 15us RAM refresh hardware timer.is the exchange you specified in a previous Alarm() operating system call. DestExch) : dError The kernel primitive MoveRequest() allows a system service to move a request to another exchange it owns. An example of use is when a system receives a request it can't answer immediately.length of the run filename. stack.pointer to a dword where the new job number will be returned. MicroDelay guarantees the time to be no less than n-15us where n is the number of 15microseconds you specify. dcbFileName .A dword containing the number of 15-microsecond intervals to delay your task. LoadNewJob LoadNewJob(pFileName. and data pages. Parameters: dn15us . dcbFileName.pointer to the filename to run. It would move it to a second exchange until it can honor the request. so the time could be much longer. pdJobNumRet . The recommended maximum length is 20-milliseconds. MoveRequest MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl. delays that may be required when interfacing with device hardware. but application speed or appearance may be affected if the priority of your task is high enough. and the memory required to run code. and you call this often enough. MMURTL V1. precise.Parameters: dAlarmExch . but a task switch will probably not occur during the delay even though this is possible. initial Task State Segment. You should be aware that your task does not go into a wait state.the hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to mask. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector().

OutDWord OutDWord(DWord. ESP . dEIP) : dError This allocates a new Task State Segment (TSS).The address of the port.0 -176- RICHARD A BURGESS . Most applications will use SpawnTask() instead of NewTask() because it's easier to use. dCodeSeg. dPort) This writes a single dword from a port address and returns it from the function.Non-zero if you want the enter the debugger immediately upon execution. dExch.The dword value to write to the port. DPort .handle of the Request Block to forward DestExch .Initial instruction pointer (offset in CSeg) OutByte OutByte(Byte.0-31 Primary Application tasks use 25 fDebug .Job number the new task belongs to (JCB) CodeSeg .Which code segment.Exchange for TSS. dfDebug. then fills in the TSS from the parameters to this call and schedules it for execution. Parameters: JobNum . No error is returned. Parameters: dRqBlkHndl .Stack pointer (offset in DSeg) EIP . NewTask NewTask(dJobNum. dPriority. OS=8 or User=18 Priority . it is made to run.The address of the port.This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or Job because the data pointers in the outstanding request block have been aliased for the service that the request was destined for. else it's placed on the Ready Queue in priority order. OutWord OutWord(Word. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. The operating system uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. dPort) This writes a single byte to a port address. Parameters: MMURTL V1. DPort . dESP. Paramters: Dword . Parameters: Byte .The byte value to write to the port. dPort) This writes a single word from a port address and returns it from the function. Exch .exchange where the Request is to be sent.

number of characters pbChars is pointing to.line (0-24) dnChars . pDataOut. dBytes) This uses the processor string intrinsic function OUTSW to write the words pointed to by pDataOut to dPort. The Basic Video section in Chapter 9. PutVidChars PutVidChars(dCol. DPort .0 -177- RICHARD A BURGESS .a pointer to a dword where the current count of free pages will be returned. This is done independently of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected.The word value to write to the port. dAttr): dError This applies the video attribute specified to the characters at the column and line specified on the video screen. nChars. You specify the number of bytes total (Words * 2).column to start on (0-79) dLine . PutVidAttrs PutVidAttrs(dCol. dAttrib): dError This places characters with the specified attribute directly on the caller's video screen. PdataOut .The address of the port.pointer to the text to be displayed nChars . dAttr . QueryPages QueryPages(pdnPagesRet): dError This returns the number of free physical memory pages left in the entire operating system managed memory space. Parameters: pdnPagesRet .A pointer to one or more dwords to send out the port. DBytes .The address of the port. dLine.number of characters pbChars is pointing to dAtrib .Dword with number of characters to apply the attribute to.line (0-24) pbChars . if not displayed. MMURTL V1. The “Basic Video” section in Chapter 9 describes all of the attribute values. pbChars.Word . Parameters: DPort . or virtual screen. OutWords OutWords(dPort.” describes all of the attribute values.column to start on (0-79) dLine . dnChars. Parameters: dCol . dLine. “Application Programming. Parameters: dCol .The count of bytes to write to the port address. It is independent of the current video stream which means X and Y cursor coordinates are not affected. Each page of memory is 4096 byte. This is the number of Words * 2.color/attribute to use during display.

the exchange to be associated with the service name. This will identify a system service name with a particular exchange. npSend. Access to all other functions of the keyboard service are only available through the Request and Wait primitives. pData2. If no key was available. The string must be left justified. dExch) : dError This procedure registers a message-based system service with the operating system. fWait .The address of the byte you want from 0 to MaxCMOSSize ReadKbd ReadKbd (pdKeyCodeRet. fWait) : dError ReadKbd() is provided by the keyboard system service as the easy way for an application to read keystrokes. This is specific to the ISA/EISA PC architecture. dData0. If fWait is true (non-zero).If true (non-zero). dData1. the call will wait until a key is available before returning. This call blocks your task until completion. Parameters: pSvcName . pData1. Request Request( pSvcName. Parameters: pdKeyCodeRet . cbData1. dRespExch. error ErcNoKeyAvailable will be returned.ReadCMOS ReadCMOS(bAddress):Byte This reads a single byte value at the address specified in the CMOS RAM and returns it from the function. the call will wait until a keycode (user keystroke) is available before returning. See the documentation on the Keyboard Service for a complete description of KeyCodes. pRqHndlRet. dData2 ): dError MMURTL V1. and padded with spaces (20h). If fWait is false (0).0 -178- RICHARD A BURGESS . the call will return the keycode to pdKeyCodeRet and return with no error. This information allows the operating system to direct requests for system services without the originator (Requester) having to know where the actual exchange is located. cbData2. Parameters: BAddress .A pointer to a dword where the keycode will be returned. Examples: "KEYBOARD" and "FILESYS " dExch . if forwarded across a network.a pointer to an 8-byte string. Service names are case sensitive. wSvcCode. RegisterSvc RegisterSvc(pSvcName. or on what machine the request is being serviced.

It identifies a Request Block resource that was allocated by the operating system.This is the Request handle that was received at WaitMsg or CheckMsg() by the service. The reason for this is that the operating system does not provide alias memory addresses to the service for them. npSend . or received from the service. dStatRet): dError Respond() is used by message-based system services to respond to the caller that made a request to it. or a memory area where data will be returned from the service. See Respond(). What each service expects is documented by the service for each service code. then npSend would be 2. is an indication of whether or not the respond primitive functioned normally. Zero will be returned if all was well.This is the operating system Request primitive. This is the error/status that the service passes back to you to let you know it is handled your request properly. This error is not the error returned by the service. a dError indicating this problem would be returned (ErcNoSuchService).The exchange you want the response message to be sent to upon completion of the request. dError. 1 and 2. cbData2 . if you made a Request() to QUEUEMGR and no service named QUEUEMGR was installed. is an indication of whether or not the Request() primitive functioned normally. These are strictly for data and cannot contain pointers to data. An error from the service is returned to your exchange (dRespExch) in the response message. Respond Respond(dRqHndl. The service must be registered with the operating system. Do not use SendMsg or ISendMsg. This is how you identify the fact that it is a request and not a non-specific message when you receive a message after waiting or checking at an exchange. This must be 0 if pData1 is not used. The npSend parameter is so network transport systems will know which way to move data on the request if it is routed over a network.0 -179- RICHARD A BURGESS . Parameters: pSvcName . service name. With all kernel primitives. MMURTL V1. the value returned from the Request() call itself. It must be installed or included in the operating system at build time. are sending data to the service. dError. It allows a caller to send a "request for services" to a message-based system service.the size of the data being sent to the service. For example. 1 and 2 are dwords used to pass data to a service.a pointer to your memory area that the service can access. Service name examples are 'QUEUEMGR' or 'FAXIN '. Use of pData1 and pData2 are documented by the system service for each service code it handles.same as pData1. The descriptions for each service code within a service will tell you the value of npSend. otherwise an operating-system status code will be returned. pData2 . The service actually knows which pointers it's reading or writing. Function Codes 0. pData1 . This allows a service to access a second memory area in your space if needed.The service code is a 16-bit unsigned word that identifies the action the service will perform for you. dRespExch . Zero will be returned if the Request() primitive was properly routed to the service. With all kernel primitives. space padded.This is the status or error code that will be placed in the second dword. This may be data sent to the service. the value returned from the Respond() call itself. The use of dData0.the size of the memory area in pData1 being sent to. dMsgLo. This must be 0 if pData2 is not used.A pointer to an 8-Byte left justified.a pointer to a dword that will hold the request handle that the request call will fill in. otherwise an operating system status code will be returned. and 65535 (0FFFFh) are always reserved by the operating system. dData1. Parameters: dRqHndl . pRqHndlRet . dData0.dData0. Always assume it will be network-routed. Values for the Service Code are documented by each service. cbData1 . 1 and 2 are defined by each service code handled by a system service. 65534 (0FFFEh).a number (0. dStatRet . A service must respond to all requests using Respond(). wSvcCode . of the message sent back to the requester of the service. dData2 . 1 or 2) that indicates how many of the two pData pointers. If pData1 and pData2 both point to data in your memory area that is going to the service.

it will be into an array of dwords. Parameters: dExch . DfUp . and the bottom line would be blanked. the first dword would be less than 80000000h which is a positive 32-bit signed value. MMURTL V1.25.a polite term for crashed.dULline. and it is moved to the Ready queue. the new command line string.dnLines.0 -180- RICHARD A BURGESS . dcbCmdLine): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the command line that was set by the previous application or command line interpreter. SendMsg SendMsg (dExch. in C this is unsigned long msg[2].ScrollVid ScrollVid(dULCol.Points to an array of bytes. SetCmdLine SetCmdLine(pCmdLine. msg[0]. If you never make a request that indicates exchange X is the response exchange. When WaitMsg() or CheckMsg() returns these to your intended receiver. dMsgHi. and is not enforced by the operating system.This non-zero to cause the scroll to be up instead of down. the parameters would be ScrollVid(0. msg[1]. Parameters: pCmdLine . which is the first dword pushed. Command line interpreters may use this call to set the command line text in the JCB prior to ExitJob() or Chain() calls running an application.The length of the command line string to store. dMsgHi . Longer values will cause ErcBadJobParam to be returned. you will not receive a response at the X exchange unless the operating system has gone into an undefined state . This field is not directly used or interpreted by the operating system.0.The number of columns to be scrolled. The CmdLine is preserved across ExitJobs. The two-dword message is placed on the specified exchange. the message is associated.The upper dword of the message. DnLines . Users of SendMsg() should be aware that they can receive responses from services and messages at the same exchange.A dword (4 BYTES) containing the exchange where the message should be sent. The message is two double words that must be pushed onto the stack independently. The line(s) left blank is filled with character 20h and the normal attribute stored in the JCB. dMsgLo will be in the lowest array index. linked with that task. If there was a task waiting at that exchange. This call stores the command line in the JCB. This is an agreed-upon convention.1). dcbCmdLine . Parameters: DULCol . dMsgLo): dError SendMsg() allows a task to send information to another task. and while Chaining to another application.The upper left column to start on (0-79) DULLine . dfUp) This scrolls the described square area on the screen either up or down dnLines.The upper left line (0-24) DnCols . The proper way to insure the receiver of the message doesn't assume it is a Response is to set the high order bit of dMsgHi.80.The lower dword of the message. dMsgLo .dnCols.The count of lines to be scrolled. The command line field in the JCB is 79 characters maximum. In this case the top line is lost. If it were a Response from a service. The complimentary call GetCmdLine() is provided to retrieve the Command Line. If dfUp is non-zero the scroll will be up. and dMsgHi will be in the highest memory address. If you want to scroll the entire screen up one line.

This call sets the ExitJob string in the JCB. The filename must not longer than 79 characters. The complimentary call GetExitJob() is provided. Parameters: dIRQnum . Initially. which will happen most often. Applications may use this call to set the name of the next job they want to execute in this JCB.4 . dcbExitJob .If installed. This will be 0-7 for interrupts on 8259 #1 and 8-15 for interrupts on 8259 #2. SetIRQVector SetIRQVector(dIRQnum. Calling SetExitJob with a zero-length value clears the exit job file name from the JCB. pVector must be a valid address in the operating-system address space because the IDT descriptor makes a protection level transition to system level if the interrupt occurred in a user level task.0 -181- RICHARD A BURGESS . Table 15. pdcbExitJobRet): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the ExitJob filename.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ to be set. MMURTL V1.Points to an array of bytes containing the new ExitJob filename. these should follow ISA hardware conventions. pVector . pVector) The Set Interrupt Vector call places the address pVector into the interrupt descriptor table and marks it as an interrupt procedure. of the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) that handles the hardware interrupt. Table 15. When a job exits.The 32-bit address in operating system protected address space. Built-in device drivers assume these values. The ExitJob remains set until it is set again.Hardware IRQs IRQ 0 8254 Timer IRQ 1 Keyboard (8042) IRQ 2 Cascade from PICU2 (handled internally) IRQ 3 COMM 2 Serial port * IRQ 4 COMM 1 Serial port * IRQ 5 Line Printer 2 * IRQ 6 Floppy disk controller * IRQ 7 Line Printer 1 * IRQ 8 CMOS Clock IRQ 9 Not pre-defined IRQ 10 Not pre-defined IRQ 11 Not pre-defined IRQ 12 Not pre-defined IRQ 13 Math coprocessor * IRQ 14 Hard disk controller * IRQ 15 Not pre-defined * . the job is terminated and all resources are reclaimed by the operating system.A dword with the length of the string the pExitJob points to. all unassigned hardware interrupts are masked at the Priority Interrupt Controller Units (PICUs). After the interrupt vector is set.4 shows the predetermined IRQ uses. This field is used by the operating system when an application exits to see if there is another application to load in the context of this job (JCB). Parameters: pExitJob . the caller should then call UnMaskIRQ to allow the interrupts to occur. This is typically used by a command line interpreter. and its ExitJob is zero length.SetExitJob SetExitJob(pabExitJobRet.

This call allows applications to set their path string in the JCB. The maximum length is 13 bytes. SetPath SetPath(pPath.0 -182- RICHARD A BURGESS . See chapter 9 for a table containing values for video attributes. The default foreground color.This is the new priority (0-31). dcbPath): dError Each Job Control Block has a field to store the applications current path. It is used only for the display of job names and serves no other function. Parameters: pJobName . Parameters: bPriority . SetNormVid SetNormVid(dNormVidAttr): dError Each Job is assigned a video screen either virtual or real. The path is interpreted and used by the File System. The Sleep() function with a value of 1 would have this effect. MMURTL V1. dcbPath . The path is 79 characters maximum. dcbJobName): dError This sets the job name in the Job Control Block. The normal video attributes are used with the ClrScr() call. This is a maximum of 13 characters. you can ensure it is rescheduled at the new priority by making any operating-system call that causes this task to be suspended. Parameters: pPath . Typically.This points to an array of bytes containing the new path string. Because the task that is running is the one that wants its priority changed. the entire screen will become Black characters on a White background.SetJobName SetJobName(pJobName. The normal video attributes used to display characters on the screen can be different for each job. A zero length. a text string. If no job name is set by the application. and background colors may be changed by an application. a command line interpreter would use this call to set the current path. dcbJobName . Longer values will be truncated. The last 13 characters of the complete path for the run file that is executing is used. If you SetNormVid() to Black On White.Count of bytes in the pJobName parameter. and also used by stream output from high level language libraries. the color of the characters themselves. The attribute value is always a byte but passed in as a dword for this and some other operating system video calls.This is a dword containing the value of the video attribute to become the normal or default.This is a dword containing the length of the new Path for the current Job. Refer to the file System documentation). then call ClrScr().Pointer to the job name you want to store in the job control block. SetPriority SetPriority(bPriority): dError This changes the priority of the task that is currently executing. will clear the job name from the JCB. Parameters: dNormVidAttr .

SetSysOut SetSysOut(pFileName. The name is preserved across ExitJobs. writing to the file VID with WriteBytes() is the same as calling TTYOut(). This is used by the MMURTL Monitor and can be used by another user written program manager. if none is set. If you desire to read data from a file to drive your application. Only ASCII data is returned from this call. If the SysOut name is VID. The default name. dcbUserName): dError The job control block for an application has a field to store the current user's name of an application. Parameters: pUsername . WriteBytes().points to a text string. and Chaining to another application. and only receiving the low order byte which is the character code. which is the one to be displayed.The job number for new owner of the active screen. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard input file stored in the job control block. if none is set by the application. If you desire to write data from your application to a file. dcbFileName . SetVidOwner SetVidOwner(dJobNum): dError This selects which job screen will be displayed on the screen. The complimentary call GetUserName() is provided to retrieve it from the JCB. dcbFileName): dError This sets the name of the standard output file stored in the job control block. you should read stream data from the file system using the procedural interface call ReadBytes(). The direct access video calls bypass this mechanism. dcbFileName . Parameters: DJobNum . dNewY): dError MMURTL V1.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name. Parameters: pFileName .The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. The keyboard system service bypasses this mechanism when you use the request/respond interface. This field is not used or interpreted by the operating system. which is the user's name. dcbUsername . this has the same effect as calling ReadKbd() with fWait set to true. is KBD.The count of characters pFileName is pointing to. If the SysIn name is set to KDB. Only ASCII data is saved to the file. SetXY SetXY(dNewX.A maximum of 30 characters with the file or device name.0 -183- RICHARD A BURGESS . you should write stream data using the file system procedural interface call.SetSysIn SetSysIn(pFileName.is the length of the string to store. is VID. SetUserName SetUserName(pUserName. Parameters: pFileName . The default name.

fOSCode):dError This creates a new task.This is a number from 0 to 31. such as the file system and keyboard. The default exchange in the TSS is used so the caller doesn't need to provide a separate exchange. Sleep Sleep(nTicks): dError A Public routine that delays the calling process by putting it into a waiting state for the amount of time specified. but testing will be required to ensure harmony. Parameters: DNewX . and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero. fOSCode .This is a pointer to the function. Add the number of bytes your task will require to this value. pStack. or thread of execution with the instruction address pEntry. it is made to run. when it's actually doing exactly what it's told to do. Tone Tone(dHz. then fills in the TSS from the parameters you passed. This allocates a new Task state segment (TSS). and clears the block when it reaches zero. Parameters: pEntry . An example of the use of Sleep() is inside a loop that performs a repetitive function and you do not want to create a busy-wait condition.A dword with the number of 10-millisecond periods to delay execution of the task. which may consume valuable CPU time causing lower priority tasks to become starved. and may cause applications to appear sluggish. The instruction displayed in the debugger will be the first instruction that is to be executed for the task pStack . 512 bytes is required for operating system operation. DNewY . The overhead included in entry and exit code makes the timing a little more than 10ms and is not precisely calculable. If the priority of this new task is greater then the running task. should use priorities above 25. dPriority . otherwise. or the real video screen if currently assigned. Certain system services are higher priority. lower numbers. Parameters: dnTicks . Sleep sends -1 (0FFFFFFFF hex) for both dwords of the message. SpawnTask SpawnTask(pEntry. Device drivers such as network frame handlers may even require priorities as high as 5. Sleep() should not be used for small critical timing in applications less than 20ms. or make it sleep. This applies to the virtual screen.The new horizontal cursor position column. If your task is a high enough priority. System services will generally be in the 12-24 region. Secondary tasks for device drivers will usually be lower than 12.A memory area in the data segment that will become the stack for this task.If you are spawning a task from a device driver or within the operating system code segment you should specify a non-zero value.The new vertical cursor position row. 1 is accepted. dPriority. dTicks10ms): dError MMURTL V1. Print spoolers and other tasks that may consume a fair amount of CPU time. The timer interrupt sends the message. Sleep is accomplished internally by setting up a timer block with the countdown value. Application programs should use priority 25. procedure or code section that will become an independent thread of execution from the task that spawned it.This positions the cursor for the caller's screen to the X and Y position specified. it's placed on the Ready queue in priority order. a busy-wait condition may cause the CPU to appear locked up. fDebug .A non-zero value will cause the task to immediately enter the debugger upon execution. fDebug. Many of the TSS fields will be inherited from the Task that called this function.0 -184- RICHARD A BURGESS .

A value of 100 is one second. UnMaskIRQ UnMaskIQR (dIRQnum) : dError This unmasks the hardware interrupt request specified by dIRQnum.pqMsgRet):dError MMURTL V1.A near Pointer to the text.The hardware interrupt request number for the IRQ you want to unmask. Examples: "KEYBOARD" . TTYOut TTYOut (pTextOut. the CPU will not be interrupted by the particular piece of hardware even if interrupts are enabled. Parameters: dIRQnum . For a description of IRQs see the call description for SetIRQVector(). dTextOut. Parameters: PTextOut .Dword that is the frequency in Hertz. Service names are case sensitive. it will be moved to the first column of the next line.0 -185- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each dTick10ms is 10-milliseconds.The cursor will be moved one column to the left. They will receive an error.The cursor. and padded with spaces (20h).A pointer to an 8-byte string. "FILESYS " This name must exactly match the name supplied by the service when it was registered. dAttrib) This places characters on the screen in a TTY (teletype) fashion at the current X & Y coordinates on the screen for the calling job. the entire screen will be scrolled up one line. If this line is below the bottom of the screen. If the cursor is in the last column on the last line the screen will be scrolled up one line and the bottom line will be blank. The string must left justified. 08 backspace . Parameters: pSvcName . The service with that name will no longer be available to callers. next active character placement. The cursor will then be placed in the first column on the last line. If already at column 0.The number of 10-millisecond increments to sound the tone. from 30 to 10000. Parameters: dHz . DTextOut . no characters are changed.The Cursor will be moved to column zero on the current line. and the bottom line will be blanked 0D Carriage Return . The following characters in the stream are interpreted as follows: 0A Line Feed . Backspace will have no effect.A Public routine that sounds a tone on the system hardware speaker of the specified frequency for the duration specified by dTicks. WaitMsg WaitMsg(dExch. DAttrib . dTicks10ms .The number of characters of text. will be moved down one line. UnRegisterSvc UnRegisterSvc(pSvcName) : dError This procedure removes the service name from the operating system name registry. if the cursor is in the last column of a line.The attribute or color you want. The backspace is non-destructive. When an IRQ is masked in hardware. For character placement.

an array of two dwords. the task will be placed on the exchange specified. so this would be obvious to you. If the first 4-byte value is a valid pointer.Returns 0 unless a fatal kernel error occurs. If no message is available.This is the kernel WaitMsg() primitive.The exchange to wait for a message pqMsg . you would have had to make the request in the first place. less than 8000000h. Execution of the process is suspended until a message is received at that exchange. You've got to send mail to get mail. dExch .0 -186- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is an agreed upon convention for the convenience of the programmer. Of course. This procedure provides access to operating system messaging by allowing a task to receive information from another task.A pointer to where the message will be returned. it is possibly a pointer to a request block that was responded to. the caller's task will be placed on the Ready queue and executed in priority order with other ready tasks. At that time. MMURTL V1. Parameters: DError .

The internal commands are: Cls . The CLI screen is divided into two sections. time. The top line is the status line.g. MMURTL V1. One of the first was a simple command-line interpreter.” Command Line Interpreter (CLI) The MMURTL Command-Line Interpreter (called CLI) is a program that accepts commands and executes them for you. is described in the following sections. This line is where you enter commands to be executed by the CLI.Remove directory Rename . Some of these programs have their source code listed and are discussed in this chapter. it does work and it's useful in its own right. but it's a good start.RUN files). However. It has been expanded.Exit and terminate CLI (return to Monitor) Help . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter and on the CD-ROM. D:\DIR\) RD . The command prompt is a greater-than symbol (>) followed by a reverse video line. and its real purpose is to show certain job management aspects of MMURTL. Only in the last year or so have I made any real effort to produce even the simplest of applications or externally executable programs.Enter Debugger Del .Type the contents of text file to the screen Each of these commands along with an example of its. see Appendix A. job number for this CLI.0 -187- RICHARD A BURGESS .Chapter 16. most of my efforts have been directed at the operating system itself.Copy a file Dir . MMURTL Sample Software Introduction While working with MMURTL.Directory listing Debug .Set file access path (New path e.Execute a run file (replacing this CLI) Type . The source code to the CLI is listed in this chapter at the end of this section.Delete a file Dump .Clear Screen Copy . To see what has been included on the CDROM. Internal Commands The CLI has several built-in commands and can also execute external commands (load and execute . The rest of the screen is an interactive display area that will contain your command prompt.Rename a file (Current name New name) Run .Make Directory Path . “What's On the CD-ROM.Display list of internal commands Monitor . I wrote literally hundreds of little programs to test detailed aspects of MMURTL. CLI version.Return to Monitor (leave this CLI running) MD .Hex dump of a file Exit . The CLI contains some good examples using a wide variety of the job-management functions of the operating system. It provides information such as date. use. and your current path. Other test programs that may be useful to you have been included on the CD-ROM and are discussed in this chapter. It's still missing some important pieces (at least important to me).

Pressing Esc will stop the listing. Example: >Del C:\TEST\FILE. If the character is not ASCII text. >Copy THISFILE. For more information on the Debugger see chapter 12. “The Debugger. a period is displayed instead. The current path will be properly used if a full file specification is not used. The listing is in multiple columns as: FILENAME SIZE DATE TIME TYPE FIRST-CLUSTER The first-cluster entry is a hexadecimal number used for troubleshooting the file system. Copy (Copy a file) This makes a copy of a file with a different name in the same directory. Dump pauses after each screen full of text. If a file exists with the same name. The TYPE is the attribute value taken directly from the MS-DOS directory structure. The values are as follows: 00 or 20 is a normal file 01 or 21 a read-only file 02 or 22 is a hidden file 04 or 24 is a system file 10 is a sub-directory entry 08 is a volume name entry (only found in the root) File values greater than 20 indicate the archive attribute is set.Cls (Clear Screen) The Cls command removes all the text from the CLI screen and places the command prompt at the top of the screen.TXT THATFILE. Dir (Directory listing) This lists ALL the files for you current path or a path that you specify. A new line is displayed for each 16 bytes. MMURTL V1. It means the file has been modified or newly created since the archive bit was last reset.0 -188- RICHARD A BURGESS . The text from the line is displayed following the hexadecimal values. or the same name in a different directory. you are prompted to confirm that you want to overwrite it. To exit the Debugger press the Esc. Both names must be specified.TXT <Enter> Dump (Hex dump of a file) This dumps the contents of a file to the screen in hexadecimal and ASCII format as follows (16 bytes per line): ADDRESS 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx The address is the offset in the file.” Del (Delete a File) This deletes a single file from a disk device.TXT <Enter> Wildcards (pattern matching) and default names (leaving one parameter blank) are not supported in the first version of the CLI. Debug (Enter Debugger) This enters MMURTL's built-in Debugger. >Dir C:\SOURCE\ <Enter> The listing fills a page and prompts you to press Enter for the next screen full.

. Help (List internal commands) This opens the text file called Help.Exit (Exit the CLI) This exits this CLI and terminates this job. The path must end with the Backslash.CLI (if it exists) and displays it on the screen. The path you set in the CLI will remain the path for any job that is run. The file should located in the MMURTL system directory. The only entries allowed are the two default entries (. In other words. MD (Make Directory) This creates an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line. if you don't specify a full file specification (including the drive).0 -189- RICHARD A BURGESS . Each CLI (Job) has its own path which is maintained by the operating system in the job control block. a job's path is simply a prefix used by the file system to make complete file specifications from a filename. Path (Set file access path) This sets the file-access path for this Job. This CLI will still be executing. Unlike a single tasking operating system. >RD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >RD C:\MMURTL\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory must be empty. or external command that is executed for this CLI. The Keyboard and video will be assigned to the monitor if this was the active job. no system wide concept of a "current drive" or "current directory" can be assumed. listing. In MMURTL. the file system appends your specification to the current path for this job. etc. The current path is displayed on the status line in the CLI. Do not confuse the term path for the MS-DOS version of the path command. This is an ASCII text file and you may edit it as needed. the tree will only be extend one level. With any file-system operation (opening. renaming. The path may also be set programmatically (by a program or utility). Each job control block maintains a context for its particular job. this will assign the keyboard and video back to the monitor.). Examples: >Path D:\DIR\ <Enter> >PATH C:\ <Enter> >C:\MMSYS\ <Enter> RD (Remove Directory) This removes an empty directory in the current path or the path specified on the command line.) MMURTL V1. and . Don't be surprised if you return from a program you have executed to the CLI with a different path. Monitor (Return to Monitor) If this is the active CLI (the one displayed). for example: >MD OLDSTUFF <Enter> >MD C:\SAMPLES\OLDSTUFF <Enter> The directory tree up to the point of the new directory must already exist.

The file must not be open by any other job. The first item on the line is the command name.RUN file) This executes the named RUN file in place of this CLI (same job number).0 -190- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDIT C:\MSAMPLES\EDITOR\Edit. The contents of the file COMMANDS. MMURTL looks for external commands in three places (in this order): Your current path (shown on the status line) The MMSYS directory on the system disk. An example of COMMANDS.End of Command.CLI Commands. Examples: >Run C:\NewEdit\NewEdit. pausing after each page.CLI must be located in the \MMSYS directory on your system disk. Type (View a text file on the screen) This displays the contents of a text file to the screen one page at a time.Rename (Rename a file) This changes the name of a file.CLI follows: .run New. Here’s an example: >Type C:\MMSYS\Commands.CLI File The file COMMANDS.run DASM D:\DASMM\DASM. which is followed with the full file specification for the RUN file to execute.Txt <Enter> >Run D:\MMDEV\Test. The command format is as follows: >Rename OLDNAME.Any line beginning with SEMI-COLON is a comment. It is a simple text file with one command per line.CLI tells the CLI what RUN file to execute for a command name.run CM32 C:\CM32M\CM32. The File COMMANDS. Additional spaces and tabs are ignored. MMURTL V1. The Path remains the same as was set in the CLI. The format of this ASCII text file is discussed below. If the new filename exists you are prompted to either overwrite existing file or cancel the command.RUN).run .TXT <Enter> External Commands External commands are those not built into the CLI.cli At least one space or tab must be between the command name and the RUN file.TXT Run (Execute a .run <Enter> Any parameters specified after the RUN-file name are passed to the RUN file. These are RUN files (MMURTL executable files with the file suffix . There must also be at least one space or tab between the RUN-file name and the arguments (if they exist).run Print C:\MSamples\Print\Print. No spaces or tabs are allowed before the command name.CLI <Enter> NEWNAME.

h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. but other application might.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.h" "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. The CLI doesn't recognize any Hot Keys.CLI file. Listing 16.h" /******************** BEGIN DATA ********************/ /* Define the Foreground and Background colors */ MMURTL V1. You may also add parameters to the line in COMMANDS. Global "Hot Keys" The system recognizes certain keys that are not passed to applications to perform system-wide functions. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program.h> #include <string.h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid. This key sequence is received and acted upon by the Monitor program. 1.Terminates the currently displayed job. CTRL-ALT-DELETE .h" "\OSSOURCE\Status. In this case. Global hot keys are those that are pressed while the CTRL and ALT keys are held down. The Include files from the OS Source directory contain all the ANSI C prototype for the operating system functions.1.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. CLI Source Listing The following is the source code for version 1.0 of the Command Line Interpreter.CLI.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles.0 -191- RICHARD A BURGESS .h> #include <ctype.Any parameters you specify on the command line in the CLI are passed to the run file that is executed.h" "\OSSOURCE\MData.h" "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. CLI Source Code Listing .Ver. CTRL-ALT-PAGE DOWN .Switches video and keyboard to next job or the monitor. The monitor and the Debugger will not terminate using this command. the parameters you specified on the command line are appended to those you have in the COMMANDS.0 #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define #define #define #define #define #define U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include <stdio.

char fUpdatePath. char aCmd[80]. hlppath[60]. clipath[60]. unsigned long GPHndl. long cbPath. unsigned long GPExch. long cbCmd = 0. unsigned long GPMsg[2]. /* "Dir". /* "RD".0 Job Path: ". /* /* /* /* holds system disk and system path */ Path to help file */ Path to CLI */ Path to command file */ CLI V1. /* "Exit". /* "Del". /* "Help". /* 1024 byte stack for stat task */ long time. /* "Path". /* array of internal commands for parsing */ #define NCMDS 16 char paCmds[NCMDS+1][10] = "". char char char char sdisk. long JobNum. syspath[50]. /* "Ren". /* "MD".0 { 0 external */ 1 . char ExitChar. /* "xxxxx". date. /* "Debug". /* MMURTL V1. /* Messaging for status task */ long StatStack[256]. cmdpath[60]. iLine.not used */ 2 */ 3 */ 4 */ 5 */ 6 */ 7 */ 8 */ 9 */ 10 */ 11 */ 12 */ 13 */ 14 */ -192- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* "Copy". /* Command line */ /* Messaging for Main */ unsigned long StatExch. unsigned char Buffer[512]. /* "Cls". char text[70]. /* "Dump".#define EDVID BLACK|BGWHITE #define NORMVID WHITE|BGBLACK #define STATVID BLACK|BGCYAN long iCol. /* "Monitor". /* aStatLine is exactly 80 characters in length */ char aStatLine[] = "mm/dd/yy 00:00:00 char aPath[70]. unsigned char bigBuf[4096].

U16 StartClstr. 16 records 32 bytes each */ struct dirstruct { U8 Name[8]. char *apParam[13].) { if (fUpdatePath) { if (cbPath > 30) MMURTL V1.. }. long acbParam[13]. U8 Rsvd[10]. } dirent[16]. /************************* BEGIN CODE ********************/ /********************************************************* This is the status task for the CLI. #define nParamsMax 13 #define ErcBadParams 80 /* Directory Entry Records. It runs as a separate task and is started each time the CLI is executed. #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define EXTCMD 0 RESVDCMD 1 CLSCMD 2 COPYCMD 3 DELCMD 4 DIRCMD 5 DBGCMD 6 DUMPCMD 7 EXITCMD 8 HELPCMD 9 MAKEDIR 10 MONCMD 11 PATHCMD 12 REMDIR 13 RENCMD 14 RUNCMD 15 TYPECMD 16 /* 15 */ /* 16 */ /* External Command */ long CmdNum = 0. U16 Time. U32 FileSize. U8 Ext[3]."Run". "Type". U8 Attr.0 /* Param 0 is cmd name */ -193- RICHARD A BURGESS . It updates the status line which has the time and path. *********************************************************/ void StatTask(void) { for(. U16 Date.

case 230: pSt = "Disk is full (bummer)". ((time >> 8) & 0x0f). + + + + + + ((time >> 20) & 0x0f). break. /* sleep 1 second */ } /* forEVER */ } /********************************************************* This displays error code text string if listed and NON zero. break. case 208: pSt = "File in use". cbPath). break. case 4: pSt = "User cancelled". break. aStatLine[10] = '0' aStatLine[11] = '0' aStatLine[13] = '0' aStatLine[14] = '0' aStatLine[16] = '0' aStatLine[17] = '0' ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date ((date >> >> >> >> >> >> 20) 16) 12) 8) 28) 24) & & & & & & 0x0f). 0x0f). break. /* Day */ 0x0f). Sleep(100). case 226: pSt = "File Already Exists (duplicate name)". case 202: pSt = "The name is not a file (it's a directory)". &aStatLine[47]. case 228: pSt = "Root directory is full". case 223: pSt = "Can't rename across directories". case 231: pSt = "Directory is full". break. 80. break. /* year */ 0x0f). case 203: pSt = "File doesn't exist". /* month */ 0x0f). case 222: pSt = "Can't rename across drives". PutVidChars(0. (time & 0x0f). case 200: pSt = "Invalid filename (not correct format)". MMURTL V1.cbPath = 30. } GetCMOSDate(&date). case 205: pSt = "File is ReadOnly". break.0 -194- RICHARD A BURGESS . case 1: pSt = "End of file". 0x0f). ' '). case 201: pSt = "No such drive". break. break. break. aStatLine. break. 0). aStatLine[0] = '0' + aStatLine[1] = '0' + aStatLine[3] = '0' + aStatLine[4] = '0' + aStatLine[6] = '0' + aStatLine[7] = '0' + GetCMOSTime(&time). FillData(&aStatLine[47]. switch (erc) { case 0: return. 30. break. fUpdatePath = 0. break. case 204: pSt = "Directory doesn't exist". ((time >> 12) & 0x0f). break. ((time >> 16) & 0x0f). case 80: pSt = "Invalid parameters". FillData(st. case 101: pSt = "Out of memory (need more for this)". *********************************************************/ void CheckErc (unsigned long erc) { char *pSt. 40. STATVID). break.0. break. char st[40]. CopyData(aPath. ((time >> 4) & 0x0f).

i. if (fNew) { iCol = 0. fNew is used to determine is we do or not. pSt). PutVidChars(0. unsigned long addr) { U32 erc. } /********************************************* This does a hex dump to the screen of a memory area passed in by "pb" **********************************************/ U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. } SetXY(iCol. erc = 0. iLine = 2.0 -195- RICHARD A BURGESS . "Error %05d on last command". ClrScr(). addr). #asm INT 03 #endasm return. long cb. &iLine). If we are returning from and external command we do not reset the cursor position. &iLine). aStatLine. *********************************************************/ void GoDebug(void) { . j. GetXY(&iCol. STATVID). } /********************************************************* This simply does a software interrupt 03 (Debugger). while (cb) { printf("%08x ". } /********************************************************* This is called to initialize the screen. erc). unsigned char buff[17]. KeyCode. *********************************************************/ void InitScreen(int fNew) { SetNormVid(NORMVID). 80.default: sprintf(st. MMURTL V1.0. break. iLine). return. pSt = st. GetXY(&iCol. } printf("%s\r\n".

MMURTL V1. iLine =1. addr+=j.23. printf("%s\r\n".23). } InitScreen(TRUE).1). /* file lfa */ GetFileSize(fh. if (buff[i] > 0x7F) buff[i] = 0x2E.1). &k)."). for (i=0. else cb=0. k. acbParam[1]. if ((apParam[1]) && (acbParam[1])) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. &buff[0]). dret. any other key to continue. This expects to find the filename in param[1].. SetXY(0.if (cb > 15) j=16. l. Buffer. } if (cb > 15) cb-=16. else j = cb. if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. fh. &dret). erc = 0. if (!erc) { j=0. } /********************************************************* This sets up to call the dump routine for each page. } return erc. while ((j<k) && (!erc)) { FillData(Buffer. printf("ESC to cancel.1.23). } erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. i++) { printf("%02x ".0 -196- RICHARD A BURGESS . ++iLine.80. 512. erc.*pb). erc = ReadBytes (fh. &fh). wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { return 4. i<j. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. 1). SetXY(0. if (buff[i] < 0x20) buff[i] = 0x2E. ModeRead. 512. /* ReadKbd.. } buff[i+1] = 0. *********************************************************/ long DoDump(void) { unsigned long j. buff[i] = *pb++. 1. 0).

0. j.if (k-j > 512) l = 512. erc = ReadBytes (fh.1. j++) { if ((Buffer[j] == 0x09) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0d) || (Buffer[j] == 0x0a)) Buffer[j] = 0x20. cbName. long cbName) { long i.0 -197- RICHARD A BURGESS . } for (j=0. while ((erc<2) && (dret)) { GetFileLFA(fh. return erc. } if (dret) { PutVidChars(0. KeyCode. j). } /********************************************************* This types a text file to the screen.23.iLine). fh. dret. iLine. 1. Buffer.23). if (!erc) { FillData(Buffer. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). if ((pName) && (cbName)) { if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. &lfa). } SetXY(0. 512. MMURTL V1. j+=512. j<=i. iLine++. Buffer. if (erc < 2) erc = Dump(Buffer. while ((Buffer[i-1] != 0x0A) && (i < dret)) { i++. lfa+i). NORMVID). erc. &fh). *********************************************************/ long DoType(char *pName. SetXY(0. lfa. i = 1.80.1). } CloseFile (fh). else l=k-j. i. erc = 0. SetFileLFA(fh. 0). dret = 1. &dret). 78. } erc = OpenFile(pName. dret.

InitScreen(TRUE). /* ReadKbd. erc. bytesLeft. } } else printf("Filename not given\r\n"). This uses a conservative 4K buffer. CopyData(st. return erc.if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. erc). 1). ********************************************************/ U32 CopyFile(char *pFrom.").. char *pTo.hr. pTimeRet. fhFrom.se). U32 cbFrom.se. } /******************************************************* This converts DOS FAT date & time and converts it into strings with the format MM/DD/YY HH/MM/SS.mo. yr = ((date & 0xFE00) >> 9) + 1980 . CopyData(st. } /******************************************************* Copy a single file with overwrite checking.hr. MMURTL V1. printf("ESC to cancel.mo. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) return(4). if (yr > 99) yr -=100. se = (time & 0x001F) * 2. This is used by the directory listing. bytesGot. Use block mode for speed.1). mo = (date & 0x01E0) >> 5. pDateRet. mi = (time & 0x07E0) >> 5. sprintf(st. hr = (time & 0xF800) >> 11. 8).da. char st[15]. char *pDateRet) { U32 yr. bytesWant. sprintf(st. THis could be made a good deal faster by allocating a large chunk of memory and using it instead of the 4K static buffer. "%02d:%02d:%02d".23). ReadKbd(&KeyCode.. "%02d-%02d-%02d". U32 cbTo) { U32 fhTo. CloseFile (fh). 8).da. any other key to continue.1900. SetXY(0. iLine =1. ********************************************************/ void CnvrtFATTime(U16 time. U16 date. char *pTimeRet. da = date & 0x001F.0 -198- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } printf("\r\nError: %d\r\n".mi.mi.yr).

} CloseFile(fhTo). erc = OpenFile(pFrom. wait */ if (((KeyCode & 0xff)=='Y') || ((KeyCode & 0xff)=='y')) { erc = 0. cbTo. dLFA. ModeRead.0 -199- RICHARD A BURGESS . ModeModify. if (bytesGot) { erc = WriteBlock(fhTo. size). /* ReadKbd. } return(erc). bytesWant. ReadKbd(&KeyCode. &bytesOut). if (bytesWant & 511) /* handle last sector */ bytesWant += 512. bytesWant = (bytesWant/512) * 512. cbTo. bigBuf. Overwrite? (Y/N)\r\n"). bytesLeft = size. erc = ReadBlock(fhFrom. &fhTo). &bytesGot). KeyCode. bigBuf. 1). if ((!erc) || (erc==ErcDupName)) { if (erc == ErcDupName) { printf("File already exists. else bytesLeft-=bytesOut. } MMURTL V1. if (!erc) erc = SetFileSize(fhTo. cbFrom. dLFA. } } } CloseFile(fhFrom). &fhFrom). dLFA. else bytesWant = bytesLeft.bytesOut. if (!erc) { /* Check to see if it exists already */ erc = CreateFile(pTo. dLFA = 0. } dLFA += bytesGot. 0. 0). if (bytesLeft < bytesOut) bytesLeft = 0. size. &size). if (!erc) { /* both files are open in block mode */ erc = GetFileSize(fhFrom. while ((!erc) && (bytesLeft)) { if (bytesLeft >= 4096) bytesWant = 4096. 0. } } if (!erc) { erc = OpenFile(pTo. bytesGot.

23). &st[24]). if (!erc) { for (i=0.Name[0] != 0xE5)) { sprintf(st.Attr.Ext. /* ReadKbd. if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. fDone = 1.Name.Time.1). if (iLine >= 22) { SetXY(0. SectNum = 0. dirent[i]. U32 SectNum.80. printf("ESC to cancel. dirent[i].Name[0]) && (dirent[i]. SetXY(0. } } } MMURTL V1. &st[33]./********************************************************* Does a directory listing for param 1 or current path. } if ((dirent[i].23. erc.0 -200- RICHARD A BURGESS . fDone = TRUE. } InitScreen(TRUE). dirent[i]. 1). } fDone = 0. any other key to continue. *********************************************************/ U32 DoDir(void) { U8 fDone. "%8s %3s %8d xx/xx/xx xx/xx/xx %2x %04x\r\n". iLine++. acbParam[1]. st). KeyCode.Name[0]) { erc = 1.1."). char st[78]. i. SetXY(0. i++) { if (!dirent[i]. iLine =1. 512.23).FileSize. wait */ if ((KeyCode & 0xff) == 0x1b) { erc = 4. CnvrtFATTime(dirent[i]..1).StartClstr).. while (!fDone) { erc = GetDirSector(apParam[1].Date. &dirent[0]. i<16. printf("%s". ReadKbd(&KeyCode. dirent[i]. dirent[i]. SectNum). dirent[i].

for (iPrm=0..} else fDone = TRUE.CLI is: name fullspec param param param. /* default the param to empty */ apParam[iPrm] = 0. /* Null the ptr */ if (iCmd < cbCmd) { if (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd])) { apParam[iPrm] = &aCmd[iCmd++]. } return(erc). while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (!isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) { i++. The format for a line entry in Commands. } acbParam[iPrm] = i. fdone. SectNum++. **************************************************/ long { long FILE char char char GetCLICommand(char *runfile) i. j. rawline[90]. it places the full filespec for the run file in "runfile" for the caller. /* size of param */ } while ((iCmd < cbCmd) && (isspace(aCmd[iCmd]))) iCmd++. iPrm<nParamsMax.0 /* used we build a pseudo command line */ /* used we build a pseudo command line */ -201- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* iCmd is index to aCmd */ iCmd = 0.. /* ptr to param */ i = 1. iPrm. iCmd++. i. If it finds it. then fixes up the aCmd command line just as if it had come from the user. } /********************************************************* This Fills in the ptrs to and sizes of each parameter found on the command line in the arrays apParams and acbParams. MMURTL V1. *f. *********************************************************/ void ParseCmdLine(void) { long iCmd. iPrm++) { acbParam[iPrm] = 0. cmdline[90]. k. } } } /************************************************* This opens and parses Commands.CLI in the system directory and looks for the command name in apParam[0].

runfile[k] = 0.') /* a comment line */ continue. acbParam[0]). /* now move arguments if any. rawline.CLI not found.cmdline[0] = 0. cmdline[j] = 0. /* tell em we got it! */ } } else fdone = 1. /* follwed by a space */ cmdline[j++] = ' '. /* null terminte */ /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. if (f) { fdone = 0.0 -202- RICHARD A BURGESS . "r"). while (!fdone) { if (fgets(rawline. /* Index into cmdline we are building */ k = 0. } } else printf("Commands. f)) { if (rawline[0] == '. /* Move cmd line we built to real cmd line */ strcpy(aCmd. return(1). j = CompareNCS(apParam[0]. /*Index into runfile name we rtn to caller*/ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++]. /* skip whitespace in rawline */ while (isspace(rawline[i])) i++. if (j == -1) { /* we found a match for the command */ /* Move the command name into the command line */ i = 0.\r\n"). 89. cbCmd = strlen(aCmd). } /************************************************** MMURTL V1. return(0). /* Index into rawline */ j = 0. cmdline). /* now move runfile name */ while (!(isspace(rawline[i]))) runfile[k++] = rawline[i++]. f = fopen(cmdpath. and LF */ while (rawline[i]) cmdline[j++] = rawline[i++].

&runfile[i].0 -203- RICHARD A BURGESS . ModeRead. erc = OpenFile(runfile.RUN file in the current path. 0). if it's not there. long i. we first look for a . } /* now we call GetCLICommand as a last resort */ else if (GetCLICommand(runfile)) { erc = OpenFile(runfile.RUN"). strcat(runfile. strlen(runfile). erc = Chain(runfile. /* Try to find in current path */ CopyData(apParam[0]. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). CopyData(apParam[0]. i = strlen(runfile). 0). SetExitJob(clipath. If we don't find one. cbCmd). cbCmd). erc. ModeRead. fh. /* null terminate */ strcat(runfile. strlen(clipath)). cbCmd). erc = Chain(runfile. runfile[acbParam[0]+i] = 0. ***************************************************/ void FindRunFile(void) { char runfile[80]. strlen(runfile). &fh). if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh).When a command is specified to the CLI and it is not an internal command. if (!erc) { /* found a run file */ CloseFile(fh). acbParam[0]). we then go to COMMANDS. } } } printf("Command not found\r\n").CLI and search it line by line to see if a run file is specified there. &fh). 1. SetExitJob(clipath. runfile. SetCmdLine(aCmd. } MMURTL V1. erc = Chain(runfile. ". SetExitJob(clipath. strlen(runfile). If so. strlen(runfile). runfile[acbParam[0]] = 0. SetCmdLine(aCmd. ModeRead. strlen(runfile). syspath). 1. acbParam[0]). strlen(clipath)). strlen(runfile). ". erc = OpenFile(runfile. we go to the system directory. 0). strlen(clipath)). we set the command line with everything after the runfile specified and try to execute it. SetCmdLine(aCmd. &fh). 1. } else /* Try to find in System directory */ { strcpy(runfile.RUN").

fh.CLI"). syspath). &cbPath). SetJobName("CLI V1. } else { strcpy (aPath. strcat(hlppath. */ GetSystemDisk(&sdisk). command file. if (cbPath) { GetXY(&iCol. GetJobNum(&JobNum). SpawnTask(&StatTask. sprintf(&aStatLine[37]. "\\MMSYS\\"). aPath.0".CLI"). &StatStack[255]. j. sdisk &= 0x7F. */ syspath[0] = sdisk. Note: No params to CLI. 24. strcpy(clipath. strcat(clipath. InitScreen(FALSE). 0).RUN"). 1=B. We do not want to reset the screen completely so the use can see anything the external command left on the screen. JobNum). ***********************************************/ void main(void) { unsigned long erc.0 -204- RICHARD A BURGESS . &iLine). if (iLine == 0) /* under status line */ iLine = 1. syspath)."CLI. sdisk += 0x41. iLine). /* Get system disk and set up path names for cli. "%02d". SetXY(0./********************************************** Main function entry point."HELP. */ cbPath = 0. MMURTL V1. syspath). and help file. strcpy(cmdpath. strcat(cmdpath. 2=C etc. strcpy(hlppath. syspath[2] = 0. GetPath(JobNum. /* If a path was already set we assume that we are re-loading after an external command has been run. erc = AllocExch(&GPExch). /* 0=A. 0. syspath). strcat(syspath."COMMANDS. i. syspath[1] = ':'. erc = AllocExch(&StatExch). 8).

0. 79. if (!erc) MMURTL V1. SetExitJob(clipath. acbParam[1].cbPath = strlen(syspath). &iLine). InitScreen(TRUE). acbParam[2]). 2. case DELCMD: erc = OpenFile(apParam[1]. 1. cbCmd. SetXY(0. acbParam[0] = 0. &fh). switch (CmdNum) { case EXTCMD: /* external command */ FindRunFile(). cbCmd = 0. NORMVID). CmdNum = 0. &ExitChar. TTYOut ("\r\n". case CLSCMD: InitScreen(TRUE). apParam[0] = 0. &cbCmd. ' '). } fUpdatePath = 1. /* set up all params */ if ((acbParam[0]) && (apParam[0])) { /* It's a command! */ i = 1. EDVID). aCmd[79] = 0. SetPath(syspath. apParam[2]. 1. paCmds[i]. case COPYCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = CopyFile(apParam[1]. break. if (ExitChar == 0x0d) ParseCmdLine(). } erc = 0. break. else erc = ErcBadParams. while (1) { FillData(aCmd. TTYOut (">". } i++. break. GetXY(&iCol. 79. j) == -1)) { CmdNum = i. EditLine(aCmd. strlen(clipath)). strlen(syspath)). acbParam[1]. break.0 -205- RICHARD A BURGESS . if ((acbParam[0] == j) && (CompareNCS(apParam[0]. while (i <= NCMDS) { j = strlen(paCmds[i]). iLine). NORMVID).

break. case PATHCMD: erc = SetPath(apParam[1]. case DUMPCMD: erc = DoDump(). erc = Chain(apParam[1]. GPExch. acbParam[1]. 0). acbParam[1]). &cbPath). 0). if (!erc) erc = GetPath(JobNum.\r\n"). SetCmdLine(&aCmd[i].0 -206- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. case HELPCMD: erc = DoType(hlppath. SetVidOwner(1). GPMsg). 0). break. } break. case MONCMD: erc = Request("KEYBOARD". acbParam[1]). acbParam[1]. break. break. MMURTL V1. erc = WaitMsg(GPExch. 0. SetExitJob(clipath. acbParam[1]). break. if (!erc) printf("Done. aPath. strlen(hlppath)). apParam[2]. 0. 0. &GPHndl. case DIRCMD: erc = DoDir(). else erc = ErcBadParams. case DBGCMD: GoDebug(). case RENCMD: if ((acbParam[1]) && (acbParam[2])) erc = RenameFile(apParam[1]. default: break. cbCmd-i). break. case RUNCMD: if (acbParam[1]) { i = 2. case TYPECMD: erc = DoType(apParam[1]. break. fUpdatePath = 1. 1. 0. acbParam[1]). case MAKEDIR: erc = CreateDir(apParam[1].erc = DeleteFile(fh). 4. break. 0. break. break. break. ExitJob(0). acbParam[2]). strlen(clipath)). while (aCmd[i] != ' ') i++. case REMDIR: erc = DeleteDir(apParam[1]. 0. case EXITCMD: SetExitJob("".

1). The top line provides continuous status information.1.23).23.} CheckErc(erc). if (iLine >= 23) { ScrollVid(0. See Appendix A.2. such as the position of the cursor in the file (column and line).80.0 Action Move one screen down in the text file Move one screen up in the text file Cursor up one line (scroll down if needed) Cursor down one line (scroll up if needed) Cursor left one column (no wrap) -207- RICHARD A BURGESS . } GetXY(&iCol. } } } A Simple Editor The editor included with MMURTL is a very simple in-memory editor. and typing mode (Insert or Overtype). The largest file that can be edited is 128Kb.1. The last line is used for data entry. The next 23 lines are the text editing area. The editor contains a good example of extensive use of the keyboard service (translating KeyCodes). Editor Commands The following four tables describe all the editor commands. The source code is listed below and also included on the accompanying CD-ROM. &iLine). File Management and General Commands Keystroke ALT-S ALT-C ALT-O ALT-Q ALT-X Insert Esc ALT-V Action Saves changes to current file Closes & prompts to Save current file Open a new file Quits (Exits) the editor Same as ALT-Q (Exit) Toggles Insert & Overtype mode Exits filename entry mode for open-file command Make non-text chars Visible/Invisible (toggle) Table 16. Editor Screen The editor screen is divided into three sections. The editor always word-wraps lines that extend beyond 79 columns. Table 16. SetXY(0. Cursor and Screen Management Commands Keystroke Page Down Page Up Up Down Left MMURTL V1. status and error display. current filename. What's On the CD-ROM.

h> #include <string. which provides good examples of checking for file system errors.2.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MData.Miscellaneous Editing Keys Keystroke Delete Backspace Tab Action Delete character at current cursor position Destructive in Insert Mode (INS) Non-destructive in Overtype mode (OVR) Pseudo tab every 4 columns (space filled) Editor Source Listing The editor source is a good example of a program that used a lot of functionality form the keyboard service.Right ALT-B ALT-E ALT-UP Arrow ALT-Down Arrow ALT-Left Arrow ALT Right Arrow Home End SHIFT Right SHIFT Left Cursor right one column (no wrap) Go to Beginning of Text Go to End of Text Cursor to top of screen Cursor to bottom of screen Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Cursor to beginning of line Cursor to end of line Move cursor right 5 spaces Move cursor left 5 spaces 16.4 .0 -208- RICHARD A BURGESS .c A simple editor using MMURTL file system and keyboard services */ #define U32 unsigned long #define S32 long #define U16 unsigned int #define S16 int #define U8 unsigned char #define S8 char #define TRUE 1 #define FALSE 0 #include <stdio.h" MMURTL V1.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MMemory. Editor Source Code /* Edit.h> #include <ctype. Listing 16.3Block Selection and Editing Commands Keystroke F3 F4 F2 F9 F10 ALT Delete Action Begin Block (Mark) End Block (Bound) Unmark block (no block defined or highlighted) MOVE marked block to current cursor position COPY marked block to current cursor position Delete Marked Block Table 16. File system calls are also used in place of equivalent C library functions.2 is the editor source code.h> /* Includes for OS public calls and structures */ #include "\OSSOURCE\MKernel. Listing 16.

U32 iAttrNorm. /* Screen coords */ U32 iRowMin. U32 oBufBound. /* Param 0 is cmd name */ long acbParam[13]..h" "\OSSOURCE\MVid.h" "\OSSOURCE\MFiles. /* For copy and move */ U32 Line[NLINESMAX]. struct EditRecType *pEdit.h" "\OSSOURCE\MJob. /* cursor. }. 0.0 -209- RICHARD A BURGESS .. /* prototype for forward usage */ /********************************************************* MMURTL V1. char fOvertype. long erc. char aStat[80]. U32 oBufLine0 /* oBufLine0 */ U32 iCol.#include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. char aCmd[80]. U8 bSpace. U32 iAttrMark. /* offset+1 of last char */ U32 oBufMark. /* sBuf .cLines-1 */ U32 oBufInsert. /* Get our command line */ long cbCmd = 0. unsigned char b. *pBuf2. U32 sLine. /* cursor. void clearbuf(void). 0.h" EDVID NORMVID MARKVID STATVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE WHITE|BGBLACK WHITE|BGRED BLACK|BGCYAN #define EMPTY 99999 #define NLINESMAX 26 struct EditRecType { U8 *pBuf. char *pBuf1. U8 *pBufWork. fh. /* Offset in buf for 1st char in line */ U32 iBufMax. U32 iTabNorm.1 */ U32 iColMin. U32 iColMax. unsigned char filler[100]. b1. char fModified. U8 fVisible. struct EditRecType EdRec. char aStat1[80]. #define nParamsMax 13 char Filename[60]. /* offset of next char in */ U32 oBufLast.h" "\OSSOURCE\MKbd. long cbFilename.sLine-1 */ U32 iLine. char *apParam[13]. U32 iRowMax.

st. } /********************************************************* Clears the status line with 80 blank chars. PutVidChars (0.Displays errors if they occur for certain file opeations. erc). 0). If fClose. FillData(st. } return (erc). 0). "Error break. *********************************************************/ void ClearStatus(void) { char st[80]. %05d occured on ReadBytes". this will prompt you to save. *********************************************************/ long CheckErc(long call. %05d occured on SetFileSize". st. erc). long i. %05d occured on OpenFile". STATVID). "Error break. 24. %05d occured on ReadKbd". case 5: sprintf(st. PutVidChars (40. switch (call) { case 1: sprintf(st. "Error break. i<40. "Error break. case 7: sprintf(st. long erc) { char st[40]. erc). 80. "Error break. case 3: sprintf(st. %05d occured on last command". 40. erc). %05d occured on CreateFile". } for (i=0. 39. "Error break. erc). "Error break. %05d occured on WriteBytes". i++) if (!st[i]) st[i] = ' '. %05d occured on SetFileLFA". erc). the file will be closed MMURTL V1. Beep(). If fPrompt is true. 24. case 6: sprintf(st.0 -210- RICHARD A BURGESS . 80. case 4: sprintf(st. erc). erc). case 2: sprintf(st. "Error break. default: sprintf(st. NORMVID). } /************************************************************* Saves a file you are editing. if (erc) { FillData(st.

Sleep(150). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. SetFileSize(fh. 43. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20.0 -211- RICHARD A BURGESS . fYes. i <=pEdit->iBufMax. "DONE. TTYOut("This file has been modified. pBuf1. STATVID). ClearStatus(). } } MMURTL V1. 24).. fh = 0. fModified = 0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. keycode. WriteBytes (fh. } fYes = 1. BLACK|BGCYAN). &i)). 1). 10. if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'N') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'n')) { fYes = 0. ReadKbd(&keycode.and the buffer will be closed.. if ((fh) && (fModified)) { if (pEdit->fVisible) { /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. int fClose) { U32 i. **************************************************************/ void SaveFile(int fPrompt. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. SAVE IT? (Y/N)". 0)). cbFilename = 0. unsigned char *pBuff. pEdit->oBufLast)). if (fPrompt) { ClearStatus(). 24. PutVidChars (0. ". ClearStatus(). SetFileLFA(fh. } } if (fh && fClose) { CloseFile(fh). } } if (fYes) { erc = CheckErc(6. ClearStatus(). clearbuf(). pEdit->fVisible = FALSE. pEdit->oBufLast. SetXY(0.

BLACK|BGCYAN). if (((keycode & 0xff) == 'Y') || ((keycode & 0xff) == 'y')) { erc = CheckErc(4. erc). else erc = 0.24). if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(1. if (erc > 1) erc = CheckErc(2. /* offset+1 of last char */ pBuf1[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. if (!erc) { GetFileSize(fh. fh = 0.24. strncpy(Filename. 26. ModeModify. filesize. TTYOut("Doesn't exist. /* the SUN */ } else { CloseFile(fh). SetXY(0. 0. **************************************************************/ void OpenAFile(char *name) { U32 filesize. cbFilename = strlen(Filename). &fh)). BLACK|BGWHITE). TTYOut("File is too large to edit. 13). } } else if (erc == 203) { /* no such file */ Beep(). 1. &fh). CreateFile(Filename. MMURTL V1. ModeModify. cbFilename. if (filesize < 131000) /* Buf is 131071 */ { erc = ReadBytes (fh. pBuf1. 1).0). &cbFilename. name. 24). 60. cbFilename = 0. &filesize). } if ((b1==0x0d) && (cbFilename)) { erc = OpenFile(Filename. Create?? (Y/N)". 10. SetXY(10. &dret).24). keycode. BLACK|BGCYAN). erc = 0. } else { b1=0x0d.0 -212- RICHARD A BURGESS . cbFilename. it will prompts to create. If not. SetXY(50. ReadKbd(&keycode.". 29. "Filename: ". 24)./************************************************************* This prompts for a filename to open and opens it if it exists. Beep(). ReadKbd(&keycode. 0)). 1. SetXY(50. cbFilename. OpenFile(Filename. if (!name) { SetXY(0. EditLine(Filename. &b1. 1). pEdit->oBufLast = dret. dret. PutVidChars (0. BLACK|BGCYAN).

ClearStatus(). ABSOLUTE means LFs were found. return(nEols). } } else { cbFilename = 0. nEols = 0. } /************************************************************ This returns the index to the the last character in a line upto a maximum of sLine-1. cbFilename = 0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.0 -213- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ unsigned long findEol (unsigned long iBuf) { unsigned long unsigned char iEol. /* Calculate the most it could be */ MMURTL V1. *************************************************************/ unsigned long CountEols (void) { unsigned long nEols. while (i < pEdit->oBufLine0) /* count LFs */ if (pBuff[i++] == 0x0A) nEols++. erc). *pBuff. even though we word wrap always. } /************************************************************ This counts ABSOLUTE LINES from the begining of the buffer upto to point of oBufLine0 (which is the first char displayed in the window. unsigned char *pBuff.if (erc) { fh = 0. } } else CheckErc(1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } if (!erc) ClearStatus(). iEolMax. iBuf points to the beginning point in the buffer to find the end of line for. i. i = 0.

} } if ((iEol == iBuf) && (pBuff[iBuf] > 0) && (pBuff[iEolMax] > 0)) iEol = iEolMax. char *pBuff. /* now find first non-space . i = 0.0 -214- RICHARD A BURGESS . } } return(iEol). iEol = iBuf.. */ iEol = iEolMax. if (i > 0) MMURTL V1. while ((i) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. if (oBufStart) i = oBufStart . /* Fix it if EOL is past end of data */ if (iEolMax > pEdit->oBufLast) iEolMax = pEdit->oBufLast. if (iEolMax < pEdit->oBufLast) { /* now work back to last space */ while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. while ((pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A) && (iEol < iEolMax)) /* Find CR */ iEol++.allows */ if ((iEol > iBuf) && (pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && /* wrap-around w/ double space */ (iEol == iEolMax)) { if ((pBuff[iEol-1] == pEdit->bSpace) || ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol+1] == pEdit->bSpace))) { while ((pBuff[iEol] == pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. while ((pBuff[iEol] != pEdit->bSpace) && (iEol > iBuf)) iEol--. j.. } /************************************************************ This walks back through the buffer looking for the logical end of a line. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. *************************************************************/ /* handles "all-char" of full line */ unsigned long findPrevLine (unsigned long oBufStart) { unsigned long i.1. if ((iEol == iEolMax) && (pBuff[iEol] != 0x0A)) { /* if no CR.iEolMax = iBuf + pEdit->sLine-1.

iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufMark. iLn. /* Get to known start of line */ do { j = i. return(j).iColStart +1.pEdit->Line[iLn]. } else { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufBound. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pEdit->iColMax . } if ( ((iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) || ((iMarkLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn]) && (iBoundLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn+1])) ) { if (iMarkLoc >= pEdit->Line[iLn]) iColStart = pEdit->iColMin + iMarkLoc . *************************************************************/ void doMark (unsigned long iLn) { unsigned long iColStart. while ((i > 0) && (pBuff[i] != 0x0A)) i--. i = (findEol (j)) + 1. iLn. } else /*buf col*/ PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMarkLoc = pEdit->oBufMark.pEdit->Line[iLn].iColFinish. } while (i < oBufStart). } /************************************************************ This executes the BEGIN BLOCK (Mark) command. iColStart-pEdit->iColMin. iBoundLoc = pEdit->oBufBound.pEdit->Line[iLn] .i--. iColFinish. PutVidAttrs (iColStart.1. if (iBoundLoc < pEdit->Line[iLn+1]) iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + iBoundLoc . iMarkLoc. if (iColFinish < pEdit->iColMax) PutVidAttrs (iColFinish+1. if (iColStart > pEdit->iColMin) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. iColFinish .0 -215- RICHARD A BURGESS . else iColFinish = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . pEdit->iAttrMark). iLn. else iColStart = pEdit->iColMin. if (i) i++. iBoundLoc. pEdit->iAttrNorm). MMURTL V1.

char fOK. *pBuff. *************************************************************/ MMURTL V1. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->iBufMax) && ((pEdit->oBufLast < pEdit->iBufMax) || ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)))) { fOK = 1. cb).0 -216- RICHARD A BURGESS . *************************************************************/ char putInBuf( unsigned char bPutIn. } } } else { fOK = 0. pEdit->oBufInsert++. pEdit->oBufLast++. Beep(). } return (fOK). erc = 40400. char fOvertype. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark++. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. } } /************************************************************ This inserts data into the main editing buffer.iLn. if (pEdit->oBufLast == pEdit->oBufInsert) pEdit->oBufLast++. if (pEdit->oBufInsert-1 <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound++. fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufInsert++. cb). pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->iAttrNorm).pEdit->oBufInsert + 1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn. } /************************************************************ This executes the MOVE command which moves a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. CopyData (pEdit->pBufWork. pEdit->sLine. } else { cb = pEdit->oBufLast . CopyData (&pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. char fSpecInsert) { unsigned long cb. if ((fOvertype) && (!fSpecInsert)) { pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] = bPutIn.

iMk.pEdit->oBufInsert . i <=iBd-iMk. for (i=0. i++) pBuff[iMk+i] = pBuffWork[iBd+1+i]. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) { for (i=0. iBd. i<=iBd-iMk. i <= pEdit->oBufLast. } iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . i++) pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i].0 -217- RICHARD A BURGESS . } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. iMk. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. } if ((pEdit->oBufInsert < iMk) || (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd)) { for (i=0. i<=iMk . pEdit->oBufBound = iMk.1. pEdit->oBufInsert . iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. } } } else Beep(). for (i=0.1.1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. } if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) { for (i=0. *pBuffWork. i++) pBuffWork[i] = pBuff[i]. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. i++) /* Shift overwritten ahead */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1+i] = pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+i]. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. MMURTL V1. i++) /* Move mk/bd */ pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+i] = pBuffWork[iMk+i]. *************************************************************/ void CopyIt (void) { unsigned long iMk.iBd . char *pBuff.iBd + iMk . iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. iBd.void moveData (void) { unsigned long i.

for (i = pEdit->iRowMin. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. } if (pEdit->oBufLast+iBd-iMk+1 < pEdit->iBufMax) { CopyData(pBuff. i. *pBuffWork. } /************************************************************ This executes the COPY command which copies a marked block to the cursor's current location in the file. pEdit->oBufMark = iMk. *************************************************************/ void normAttr (void) { unsigned long i. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. MMURTL V1.iMk. (hides it). pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. iBd-iMk+1). pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd .pEdit->oBufInsert+1). pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufBound = iMk. pEdit->oBufLast+1). pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast + iBd .iMk + 1. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1. CopyData(&pBuffWork[iMk]. pEdit->sLine. iBd = pEdit->oBufInsert + iBd . &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].0 -218- RICHARD A BURGESS . pEdit->oBufBound = EMPTY. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. } } } else Beep(). } /************************************************************ This unmarks a selected block.iMk + 1. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. *************************************************************/ void nullMarkBound (void) { pEdit->oBufMark = EMPTY.char *pBuff. } else { pEdit->oBufMark = iBd. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert+iBd-iMk+1]. iMk = pEdit->oBufInsert. if (pEdit->oBufLast >= pEdit->oBufInsert) CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert]. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound. if (pEdit->oBufBound > pEdit->oBufMark) { pEdit->oBufBound = iBd. pEdit->oBufLast . pEdit->iAttrNorm).

} } /************************************************************ After screen movement (such as scrolling). i = pEdit->iRowMin.iBd + iMk . iBd. while ((i <= pEdit->iRowMax) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i])) MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->oBufMark <= pEdit->oBufBound) { iMk = pEdit->oBufMark. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf.normAttr (). else fProb = FALSE. CopyData(&pBuff[iBd+1]. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . if (fProb) { i = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufInsert). *************************************************************/ void deleteData (void) { unsigned long i. } nullMarkBound (). if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { fModified = 1.iBd + iMk. *pBuffWork. iBd = pEdit->oBufBound.0 -219- RICHARD A BURGESS . this will adjust screen */ unsigned long i. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > iBd) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert . &pBuff[iMk]. } /************************************************************ This DELETES a selected block. iMk. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. iMk = pEdit->oBufBound. char fProb. j. pEdit->oBufLast-iBd).might be off screen . } if ((pEdit->oBufLine0 >= iMk) && (pEdit->oBufLine0 <= iBd)) fProb = TRUE.1. this finds the proper location of the cursor in relationship to the portion of the file currently displayed. else if ((pEdit->oBufInsert > iMk) && (pEdit->oBufInsert <= iBd)) pEdit->oBufInsert = iMk. char *pBuff. } else { iBd = pEdit->oBufMark. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork.if it is. *************************************************************/ void findCursor (void) { /* locates cursor based on oBufInsert .

/* get to potential insert . find last good line */ while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) { pEdit->iLine--. if ((pEdit->Line[j+1] < EMPTY) && (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[j+1])) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iLine + 1. i = pEdit->iLine. oBuf = pEdit->Line[i+1]. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert . } } MMURTL V1. If oBufInsert is not onscreen. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > oBuf) pEdit->oBufInsert = oBuf. guarantee end of good */ i = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i] + pEdit->iCol .i++. is not if prev = CR */ if (pEdit->oBufInsert == oBuf) /* if at EOL */ if (pEdit->pBuf[oBuf-1] == 0x0A) pEdit->oBufInsert--. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->oBufLine0) && (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->Line[i])) { /* if bogus line. if (pEdit->iLine < pEdit->iRowMin) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMax + 1) pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMax. if (pEdit->oBufInsert > pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast.1. if prev char <> CR. j = pEdit->iLine. j = pEdit->iLine.is.pEdit->iColMin.0 -220- RICHARD A BURGESS . i.pEdit->Line[j] + pEdit->iColMin. } /************************************************************ This readjusts iCol & iLine to get them back in sync with oBufInsert if oBufInsert is on screen. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->oBufInsert + pEdit->iColMin pEdit->Line[i]. this makes it so it is! *************************************************************/ void coordCursor_oBuf (void) { unsigned long oBuf. pEdit->iLine = i . if (pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. /* if bogus line. } i = pEdit->iLine. i = pEdit->iRowMax+1.

i<=k. i++) { if (pEdit->Line[i] < EMPTY) { j = findEol (pEdit->Line[i]). else pEdit->Line[k+1] = EMPTY. while (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[k+1]) { for (i=j. if (j < pEdit->oBufLast) /* j = offset of last char of line */ pEdit->Line[i+1] = j + 1. /* If oBufInsert is not on screen (above current display) then find the previous line beginning and make that the new first line 1 until it is! */ while (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0). k. /* Set all subsequent Line[s] by calling findEol for each. j. *************************************************************/ void showScreen (char *pFiller) { unsigned long i. */ for (i = k. oBuf. i <= pEdit->iRowMax. pEdit->Line[k] = pEdit->oBufLine0. if (i < pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->Line[k+1] = i + 1. /* Set Line[iRowMin] to match oBufLine0 */ k = pEdit->iRowMin. This also sets all of the Line array values (Line[n]) *************************************************************/ void makeOnScreen (void) { unsigned long i. iLn. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[j]. cb. else for (j=i+1.0 /* EOL of iRowMax */ /* i = offset of last char of line */ -221- RICHARD A BURGESS . j<NLINESMAX. MMURTL V1. j++) pEdit->Line[j] = EMPTY. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = pEdit->Line[i+1]./************************************************************ Adjusts oBufLine0 to make sure that oBufInsert is on the screen. i = findEol (pEdit->Line[k]). k = pEdit->iRowMax. } } /* If the InsertPoint (your cursor position) is past the last line then do this junk to fix it */ j = pEdit->iRowMin. } } /************************************************************ Redisplay all data on the screen.

iLn++) { /* i = offset in buf of last char on line */ /* cb = nchars in line */ cb = 0. not offset */ if ((!pEdit->fVisible) && (pBuff[i] == 0x0A) && (cb)) cb--. /* oBufInsert on screen . if (cb < pEdit->sLine) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin+cb. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. cb. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.0 -222- RICHARD A BURGESS . doMark (iLn).char *pBuff. pFiller. } } /************************************************************ Resets all variables for the editor and clears the buffers. oBuf = pEdit->Line[iLn]. *************************************************************/ void clearbuf (void) { unsigned long i. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. for (i=0. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. pEdit->sLine-cb. iLn <= pEdit->iRowMax. Called before use and after closure. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. } if ((cb) && (oBuf < EMPTY)) PutVidChars (pEdit->iColMin. iLn. else i = pEdit->oBufLast. iLn.oBuf + 1. 80. 0x20). /* Make size.Line correct */ for (iLn = pEdit->iRowMin. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE.1. pEdit->iAttrNorm). pBuff+oBuf. FillData(filler. if (oBuf < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->Line[iLn+1] < EMPTY) i = pEdit->Line[iLn+1] . MMURTL V1. char *pBuff. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. cb = i . pEdit->iAttrNorm). makeOnScreen (). i = pEdit->iRowMin. i<NLINESMAX.

j. *pBuffWork. sprintf(aStat. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. if (cbFilename) MMURTL V1. pBuff = pEdit->pBuf. i. It is a HUGE while loop which reads keystrokes and processes them.fModified = 0. for (i=0. if (pEdit->fVisible) { pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. while (!fDone) { if (fScreen) { showScreen (filler). pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0x0F. } SetXY (pEdit->iCol. } /* the SUN */ /************************************************************ This is the main editing function. pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. pBuffWork = pEdit->pBufWork. i <=pEdit->oBufLast. erc = AllocExch(&exch). /* TRUE = insert no matter what fOvertype is */ char fScreen. char fSpecInsert. pEdit->iLine). unsigned char b. nullMarkBound(). pEdit->iCol. char *pBuff. key. normAttr (). pEdit->oBufInsert = 0."C: %02d L: %05d nChars: %05d". pEdit->oBufLast = 0. /* TRUE = display entire screen */ char fDone. fScreen = TRUE. long exch. /* we know oBufInsert on screen */ findCursor (). i= CountEols() + pEdit->iLine. fScreen = FALSE. *************************************************************/ void Editor(char *pbExitRet) { unsigned long i. 0x20).0 /* the SUN */ -223- RICHARD A BURGESS . fOvertype = FALSE. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = pEdit->bSpace. FillData(aStat. 80. } else pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. pEdit->oBufLast). normAttr (). k. fDone = FALSE.

if (key & 0x3000) { switch (b) { /* ALT key is down */ case 0x42: /* ALT-B -. 3). case 0x02: /* ALT Down Arrow . while ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { pEdit->iLine++. &aStat[77]. STATVID).CloseFile */ case 0x63: /* ALT-c */ SaveFile(TRUE. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.Cursor to top of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. aStat. pEdit->oBufInsert = 0.CopyData(Filename. 1)). if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + MMURTL V1. if (fOvertype) CopyData("OVR". case 0x04: /* ALT-Right Arrow .0 -224- RICHARD A BURGESS .Cursor to bottom of screen */ pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin.Beginning of Text */ case 0x62: /* ALT-b */ pEdit->oBufLine0 = 0. break. PutVidChars (0. i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE. TRUE). case 0x45: /* ALT-E -. coordCursor_oBuf (). 0.Cursor to EOL */ i = pEdit->iLine. break. i = pEdit->iLine. cbFilename). 80. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. /* True if char should be inserted even if fOver */ /* Wait for char */ CheckErc(7. break. case 0x43: /* ALT-C -. case 0x01: /* ALT-UP Arrow . coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.End of Text */ case 0x65: /* ALT-e */ pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLast. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin.Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. fSpecInsert = FALSE. break. else CopyData("INS". } pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMax. break. 3). case 0x03: /* ALT-Left Arrow . &aStat[40]. b = key & 0xff. &aStat[77]. break. ReadKbd (&key.

break. i<=pEdit->oBufLast. break. i = pEdit->iLine+1. case 0x56: /* ALT-V Make nontext chars Visible/Invisible */ case 0x76: /* ALT-v */ if (pEdit->fVisible) { for (i=0. pEdit->bSpace = 0x20. FALSE). TRUE). i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x20) pBuff[i] = 0x07. i <= pEdit->oBufLast.pEdit->Line[i+1] pEdit->Line[i]. } } else if (key & 0x0300) { /* CTRL key is down */ MMURTL V1. pEdit->bSpace = 0x07. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20. } break. pEdit->fVisible = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. default: break. if ((pBuff[pEdit->Line[i]-1] == 0x0A) && (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin)) pEdit->iCol--. case 0x7F: /* ALT Delete (Delete Marked Block) */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { deleteData (). case 0x4F: /* ALT-O OpenFile */ case 0x6F: /* ALT-o */ if (!fh) { clearbuf(). } else pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin + pEdit->oBufLast .SaveFile */ case 0x73: /* ALT s */ SaveFile(FALSE. fScreen = TRUE. fDone = TRUE. } else { for (i=0. case 0x53: /* ALT S .pEdit->Line[i]. OpenAFile(0).0 -225- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. case 0x51: /* ALT Q . } fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->fVisible = FALSE.Quit */ case 0x71: SaveFile(TRUE. } break. break.

if (b == 0x0D) b = 0x0A. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert).1. pEdit->oBufLast = pEdit->oBufLast . else if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) pEdit->iCol--. &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert].} /* Standard editing keys including LF */ else if (((b >= 0x20) && (b <= 0x7E)) || (b == 0x0D)) { coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x03: /* SHIFT Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin + 5) pEdit->iCol -= 5. else if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) pEdit->iCol++. default: break.5) pEdit->iCol += 5. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if ((pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufInsert)) nullMarkBound (). findCursor (). if (b == 0x20) b = pEdit->bSpace. break. MMURTL V1. fSpecInsert))) Beep(). } else if (key & 0x0C00) { /* SHIFT key is down & NOT letter keys */ switch (b) { case 0x04: /* SHIFT Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax . fOvertype. if (!(putInBuf (b.0 -226- RICHARD A BURGESS . fScreen = TRUE. } } else { /* Unshifted editing keys */ switch (b) { case 0x08: /* Backspace */ if (pEdit->oBufLast) { coordCursor_oBuf (). break. if (!fOvertype) { CopyData(pBuff. /* Don't overwrite CR */ if (pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert] == 0x0A) fSpecInsert = TRUE. CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pBuffWork. pEdit->oBufLast+1). if (pEdit->oBufInsert) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufInsert .1.

case 0x17: /* F9 . pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufMark. fModified = TRUE. case 0x06: /* Home . case 0x11: /* F3 -. } } } if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = findPrevLine (pEdit->oBufLine0).1. if (pEdit->oBufMark >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufMark .1.0 -227- RICHARD A BURGESS . FALSE).Cursor to BOL */ pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. case 0x09: /* Tab */ if (pEdit->oBufLast + pEdit->iTabNorm < pEdit->iBufMax) { coordCursor_oBuf (). if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufLast . fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. fScreen = TRUE. } break. case 0x10: /* F2 -.MOVE */ coordCursor_oBuf ().if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert <= pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--.Begin Block */ if (pEdit->oBufLast > 0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). for (i=1. i = pEdit->iLine. fScreen = TRUE. j = pEdit->iTabNorm . FALSE. i <=j. } break. case 0x12: /* F4 -.UNMARK BLOCK */ nullMarkBound (). break.(pEdit->iCol % pEdit->iTabNorm). if (pEdit->oBufBound >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufBound--. i = pEdit->iLine.1. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->oBufInsert. i++) putInBuf (pEdit->bSpace. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufInsert. fScreen = TRUE. MMURTL V1. moveData ().End Block */ if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { coordCursor_oBuf (). pEdit->oBufBound = pEdit->oBufInsert. if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark = pEdit->oBufLast . break. } break. } break.

case 0x05: /* Page Up */ if (pEdit->oBufLine0) { coordCursor_oBuf (). k = pEdit->iLine. if (i > 0) { i = findPrevLine (i). } break.break. pEdit->iCol = pEdit->iColMin. /*keep on screen*/ i = pEdit->iRowMax.0 -228- RICHARD A BURGESS . break. pEdit->iLine = pEdit->iRowMin. i = pEdit->iRowMax. } while ((j > 0) && (i > 0)). case 0x0C: /* Page Down */ coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x18: /* F10 . k--. j = pEdit->iRowMax . CopyIt ().pEdit->iRowMin. fScreen = TRUE. /*always keep onScreen*/ if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufLine0) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->oBufLine0. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. pEdit->oBufLine0 = i. pEdit->oBufInsert = i. } } break. fScreen = TRUE. pEdit->oBufLine0 = pEdit->Line[i]. fScreen = TRUE. } else { /* scroll screen down if we can */ i = pEdit->oBufLine0. j--.COPY */ coordCursor_oBuf (). coordCursor_oBuf (). if ((pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) && /*Down Arrow*/ (i < pEdit->iRowMax)) { MMURTL V1. case 0x01: /* Up */ if (pEdit->iLine > pEdit->iRowMin) { pEdit->iLine--. fScreen = TRUE. if (pEdit->oBufInsert >= pEdit->Line[i+1]) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i]. while ((pEdit->Line[i] == EMPTY) && (i > pEdit->iRowMin)) i--. /*fix for scrolling when iLine=iRowMax */ do { i = findPrevLine (i). break. /*fix for scroll when iLine=iRowMax*/ if (pEdit->iLine == pEdit->iRowMax) pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[k]. i = pEdit->oBufLine0. case 0x02: /* Down */ i = pEdit->iLine.

pEdit->iLine++. if (pEdit->oBufBound == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufBound--. j = pEdit->iLine. pEdit->oBufLast--. if ((pEdit->oBufInsert == pEdit->oBufMark) && (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufBound)) nullMarkBound (). &pBuff[pEdit->oBufInsert]. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. pEdit->iCol = i. pEdit->oBufLast-pEdit->oBufInsert). CopyData(&pBuffWork[pEdit->oBufInsert+1]. pEdit->oBufLast+1). } break. } break. case 0x0E: /* Insert */ if (fOvertype) fOvertype = FALSE. coordCursor_oBuf (). fModified = TRUE.0 -229- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (pEdit->oBufMark == pEdit->oBufLast) pEdit->oBufMark--. else fOvertype = TRUE. } fScreen = TRUE. fScreen = TRUE. } break. if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufBound) pEdit->oBufBound--. pBuffWork. case 0x03: /* Left */ if (pEdit->iCol > pEdit->iColMin) { /*Left Arrow*/ pEdit->iCol--. break. } else { /* ELSE scroll screen UP if we can */ i = pEdit->iRowMax. default: MMURTL V1. if (pEdit->Line[i+1] < EMPTY) { pEdit->oBufInsert = pEdit->Line[i+1]. if (pEdit->oBufMark < EMPTY) { if (pEdit->oBufInsert < pEdit->oBufMark) pEdit->oBufMark--. if ((pEdit->oBufLast) && (pEdit->oBufLast > pEdit->oBufInsert)) { CopyData(pBuff. pEdit->iLine = j. case 0x7F: /* Delete */ coordCursor_oBuf (). case 0x04: /* Right */ if (pEdit->iCol < pEdit->iColMax) { pEdit->iCol++. } } break. i = pEdit->iCol.

SetFileSize(fh.pEdit->oBufLast)). &i)).1 */ /*Screen coordinates*/ /* iColMax-iColMin+1 */ -230- RICHARD A BURGESS . /*sBuf . if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(3. i. pEdit = &EdRec. return. &pBuf1). 0. ClrScr(). fModified = 0. i++) if (pBuff[i] == 0x07) pBuff[i] = 0x20.0 /* 32 pages = 128K */ = = = = = = = = = = pBuf1. U8 *argv[]) { long i. *************************************************************/ void main(U32 argc. } /************************************************************ This is the main entry point for the editor. and then checks for a single parameter which should be the name of the file to edit. pEdit->pBuf pEdit->pBufWork pEdit->iBufMax pEdit->iColMin pEdit->iColMax pEdit->iRowMin pEdit->iRowMax pEdit->sLine pEdit->bSpace pEdit->fVisible MMURTL V1. i++) PutVidAttrs (pEdit->iColMin. fh = 0. pEdit->oBufLast. pBuf2. } } } /* Not fDone */ for (i=pEdit->iRowMin. FALSE.break. 23. 1. SetFileLFA(fh. WriteBytes (fh. 0)). i <=pEdit->iBufMax. It allocates two buffers of equal size (a main and a working buffer). erc = AllocPage(32. pBuf1. 6). SetJobName("Editor". cbFilename = 0. 0). pEdit->sLine+1. erc = AllocPage(32. pBuff[pEdit->oBufLast] = 0. if (!erc) erc = CheckErc(5. /* REM buffer column */ if (fh) { if (pEdit->fVisible) /* fix visible characters */ for (i=0. 0x20. i <=pEdit->iRowMax. 79. } CloseFile(fh). &pBuf2). if (fModified) { erc = CheckErc(6. } *pbExitRet = b. 131071. 80.

3. /*****************************************************/ void main(void) { int erc. MMURTL V1. 0. fModified = 0. ExitJob(0).h" #include "\OSSOURCE\RS232. 0.cLines-1 offset of next char in offset+1 of last char */ */ */ */ */ FillData(filler. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MVid. DumbTerm source code #include <stdio.h" #define NORMVID BRITEWHITE|BGBLUE #define CLIVID WHITE|BGBLACK unsigned long key. 80. i.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MTimer. EMPTY. i<NLINESMAX. 4. pEdit->Line[i] = 0. } DumbTerm DumbTerm is possibly the "dumbest" communications terminal program in existence. fOvertype = FALSE. Listing 16.. i = pEdit->iRowMin. EMPTY. 0. /* Set Overtype OFF */ if (argc > 1) { OpenAFile(argv[1]). It's included here to demonstrate the interface to the RS-232 communications device driver. i++) pEdit->Line[i] = EMPTY. 0. struct statRecC com. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Rev Vid*/ Rev Vid Half Bright Tabs every 4th column oBufLine0 */ cursor. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MKbd.h> #include <ctype.. } Editor(&b). for (i=0. 0.h" #include "\OSSOURCE\MJob. 0x20).h> #include <string. = = = = = = = = = = MARKVID.h> #include "\OSSOURCE\MDevDrv.pEdit->iAttrMark pEdit->iAttrNorm pEdit->iTabNorm pEdit->oBufLine0 pEdit->iCol pEdit->iLine pEdit->oBufInsert pEdit->oBufLast pEdit->oBufMark pEdit->oBufBound SetNormVid(NORMVID).0 -231- RICHARD A BURGESS . EDVID.sLine-1 */ cursor.

ClrScr(). com. 0. com. %d\r\n".XTimeOut). The structure is defined in commdrv. = 1. erc). &i). /* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the RS-232 device driver. 64). printf("Error on Device Stat: %d\r\n". com. but should already be defaulted with standard values when driver was initialized. } /* set the params in the block */ com. char fOK. ExitJob(erc). */ printf("IRQNum: printf("IOBase: printf("sXBuf: printf("sRBuf: printf("RTimeO: printf("XTimeO: %d\r\n". com. SetNormVid(NORMVID). printf(" printf(" Terminally DUMB.Baudrate com. ClrScr(). &com. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID).0 -232- RICHARD A BURGESS . com. 64. CmdOpenC. NO_PAR. &com. ExitJob(erc). Dumb Terminal Program\r\n"). com. %d\r\n". &i). %d\r\n". if (erc) { MMURTL V1. if (erc) { SetNormVid(CLIVID). 0.RBufSize). = 8.IOBase).parity = com. dOpNum. /* Set the params we changed with a DeviceInit */ erc = DeviceInit(6. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. /* View other params which we could set.IRQNum). %d\r\n". %d\r\n".XBufSize).databits com.RTimeOut). printf("Error on Device Init: %d\r\n". dLBA. we open the comms port */ /* device.unsigned char b.stopbits = 9600.h */ erc = DeviceStat(6. } /* If device init went OK. erc). lastb. ClrScr(). (MMURTL Comms Device Driver demo) \r\n"). dnBlocks.

ClrScr(). /* no wait */ if (key & 0x3000) { /* ALT key is down */ switch (toupper(b)) { case 'Q' : /* device. if (erc) printf("WriteByteCError: %d \r\n". pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. 0. dOpNum. CmdCloseC. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6. &i). 0. 0. CmdWriteB. SetNormVid(CLIVID). lastb = b. NORMVID). /* This is it. erc). } } } } /* device. &b). 0. 0. fOK = 1. break. dOpNum. default: break. CmdWriteB.. dLBA. dnBlocks. erc = DeviceOp(6. printf("OpenCommC ERROR: %d \r\n".0 -233- RICHARD A BURGESS . dOpNum.\r\n"). 0. dLBA. ExitJob(erc).SetNormVid(CLIVID). &b). 0. } printf("Communications Port Initialized. dLBA. ClrScr(). } } else { /* device. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(6.. ExitJob(erc). /* add a LF if it's not there after a CR. if (!erc) { TTYOut (&b.. 1. 1. } } } MMURTL V1. 0)) { b = key & 0x7f. erc). dnBlocks. */ if ((lastb == 0x0D) && (b != 0x0A)) TTYOut ("\n". &b). else { if (b == 0x0D) { b = 0x0A. NORMVID). dnBlocks.. 0. CmdReadB. */ while (fOK) { if (!ReadKbd(&key.

h" "\OSSource\Parallel. Print source code /* A simple program that prints a single file directly using the Parallel Device Driver in MMURTL (Device No. char name[80].Print The print program is an example of using the device-driver interface for the parallel LPT device driver.4 or 8) \D .h" "\OSSource\MJob. /*****************************************************/ MMURTL V1. fBinary = 0. long long long long long tabstops = 4.0 -234- RICHARD A BURGESS .Binary print. struct statRecL lpt. notice the device-driver interface is almost identical for each device. fDisplay = 0.h" "\OSSource\MTimer. col = 0.h> <string.h> <stdlib.h> "\OSSource\MDevDrv.h" FF LF CR TAB 0x0C 0x0A 0x0D 0x09 unsigned long key. In listing 16.Display the file while printing \F . Listing 16. (Compare DumbTerm and this program). Print also converts single-line feeds to CR/LF. NoFF = 0. It recognizes the follow command-line switches: \n . Send with no translations. 3 "LPT") */ #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.h> <stdio. The Print program formats a text file and sends it to the LPT device.4.h" "\OSSource\MVid. The differences handling different devices will be the values in the status record and also and commands that are specific to a driver.h> <ctype.4.h" "\OSSource\MKbd. That's the intention of the design.Expand tabs to n space columns (n = 1.2.Suppress the Form Feed sent by the Print command \B . FILE *f.

Tab stop translation value\r\n").No translation at all! */ case 'b' : fBinary = 1. exit(1).0\r\n"). printf("Usage: Filename /1 /2 /4 /8 /F /D /B\r\n"). *ptr. exit(1). case 'D' : /* Display while printing */ case 'd' : fDisplay = 1. switch(*ptr) { case '1' : /* Tab Translation Width */ case '2' : case '4' : case '8' : tabstops = *ptr . SetJobName("Printing". unsigned char b. } } else if(!name[0]) strncpy (name. name[0] = 0. printf("/F no FormFeed at end of file\r\n"). NO translation. printf("/1 /2 /4 /8 . break. if (*ptr == '/') { ptr++. break. no FF\r\n\n"). printf("Error: Source filename required\r\n"). 79). break. default: printf("Invalid switch"). erck. break.0 -235- RICHARD A BURGESS . unsigned char *argv[]) { long erc. i. break.0x30. cl. 8). Version 1. argv[i]. } MMURTL V1. printf("/D Display file while printing\r\n"). for(i=1.void main(long argc. ++i) /* start at arg 1 */ { ptr = argv[i]. case 'B' : /* BINARY . } if (!name[0]) { /* Input file not explicitly named errors out */ printf("Print File. i < argc. case 'F' : /* No FF at end of file */ case 'f' : NoFF = 1. lastb. printf("/B Binary print. char fdone.

. ExitJob(erc). } else if (fBinary) { erc = DeviceOp(3. dnBlocks. name).h We do this just to see if it's a valid device. } else { MMURTL V1. b = (cl & 0xff). /* This is it. erc). while ((!fdone) && (!erc)) { i++. if (!f) { /* device. } col = 0. ExitJob(erc). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. &i). } printf("Printing %s . b = 0. } /* If device status went OK. CmdOpenL. -236- RICHARD A BURGESS .. printf("Can't open: %s\r\n". CmdWriteB. 0. 0.. &i). 64.0 1. if (erc) { printf("Error getting LPT Device Status: %d\r\n". dnBlocks. i = 0. 0. dLBA. */ erc = DeviceStat(3./* Get the 64 byte device status block which is specific to the parallel device driver. if (cl == EOF) { fdone = 1. The structure is defined in parallel. dOpNum. we open the printer port */ /* device. fdone = 0. &lpt. &lastb). */ f = fopen(name. &i). pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. 0. 0. CmdCloseLU. ExitJob(erc). if (erc) { printf("OpenLPT ERROR: %d \r\n". cl = fgetc(f).\r\n". erc). dOpNum. dLBA. "r"). lastb = b.. name).

CmdWriteB. 0. CmdWriteB. erc = DeviceOp(3. if (fDisplay) printf(" ").0 1. &b). 1. 1. break. default: if (fDisplay) printf("%c". 0. 0. } erc = DeviceOp(3. erc = 4. /* reset */ break. col++. } while (col % tabstops). if (i%100==0) /* every 100 chars see if they want to abort */ { erck = ReadKbd(&key. } } &b). CmdWriteB. CmdWriteB. &lastb). CmdWriteB. /* device. CmdCloseL. if (erc) printf("Error Writing Byte: break. col = 0. dnBlocks. 0. erc). } fclose(f). 0. &i). break. pData */ erc = DeviceOp(3. 0). "\f"). &b). /* no wait */ if (!erck) { if (key & 0xff == 0x1b) { fdone = 1. dLBA. case TAB: do { erc = DeviceOp(3. CmdWriteB. 0. -237- RICHARD A BURGESS . " "). if (erc) MMURTL V1. dOpNum. erc = DeviceOp(3. col++. 0.switch (b) { /* print/translate the char */ case CR: erc = DeviceOp(3. b). if (fDisplay) printf("\r\n". lastb). case LF: if (lastb != CR) { lastb = CR. 0. 1. 1. 1. } } } } if ((!fBinary) && (!NoFF)) { erc = DeviceOp(3. %d\r\n".

The following two listings show a simple system service and a client of that service. /* The Message with the Request */ long rqHndl.” It has been expanded some. /* A pointer to a Reqeust Block */ unsigned long NextNumber = 0.0 /* get an exchange */ -238- RICHARD A BURGESS .C Listing Execute this from a command-line interpreter. This is expanded from the sample in the System Programmer chapter to show how to properly deinstall a system service. MMURTL V1. /* Where we wait for Requests */ unsigned long Message[2].h> "\OSSource\MKernel.h" "\OSSource\MVid. /* Used for keyboard request */ void main(void) { unsigned long OSError. Error: %d\r\n". long *pDataRet. and also allows deinstallation with proper termination and recovery of operating-system resources. keycode. } System Service Example Installable system services are the easiest way to coordinate resource usage and provide additional functionality in MMURTL. ErrorToUser. It becomes a system service while keeping its virtual video screen. printf("Done\r\n"). While this program is running. erc). Listing 16. OSError = AllocExch(&MainExch). ExitJob(erc). The steps to deinstall are: 1) UnRegister the Service 2) Serve all remaining requests at service exchange 3) Deallocate all resources 4) Exit */ #include #include #include #include #define #define #define #define <stdio.5 Simple Service Source Code /* Super Simple System Service. /* The number to return */ unsigned long MainExch. run the TestSvc. Pressing any key will terminate the program properly.printf("Can't close LPT.h" ErcOK ErcOpCancel ErcNoSuchSvc ErcBadSvcCode 0 4 30 32 struct RqBlkType *pRqBlk. “Systems Programming. Service.h" "\OSSource\MJob. The program is similar to the example shown in chapter 10.RUN program to exercise the service.

printf("ANY valid keystroke will terminate the service.\r\n").\r\n".0 -239- RICHARD A BURGESS . *pDataRet = NextNumber++.) */ /* look for a system error */ /* Now we wait for a client or for a keystroke to come back */ OSError = WaitMsg(MainExch. &rqHndl. OSError). /* look for a kernel error */ OSError = RegisterSvc("NUMBERS ". if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). &keycode. 1. MainExch. SetNormVid(WHITE|BGBLACK). } pRqBlk = Message[0]. else if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 1) /* User Asking for Number */ { pDataRet = pRqBlk->pData1. MainExch).\r\n"). } else ErrorToUser = ErcBadSvcCode.. NextNumber-1). Respond(pRqBlk. /* Respond with No error */ printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d. 0). 0. 4. /* First DWORD contains ptr to RqBlk */ /* Abort request from OS */ if (pRqBlk->ServiceCode == 0) ErrorToUser = ErcOK. Message)) { pRqBlk = Message[0]. 0. /* 1 in dData0 = WAIT for key */ if (OSError) printf("Error on Keyboard Request:\r\n". while (1) { /* WHILE forever (almost. while (!CheckMsg(MainExch.. /* Respond to Request */ MMURTL V1. ErcNoSuchSvc). /* Give them a number */ ErrorToUser = ErcOK. ExitJob(ErcOpCancel). OSError = Request("KEYBOARD". printf("NUMBERS Service Installed. 0. 1. } DeAllocExch(MainExch).if (OSError) ExitJob(OSError). /* Exch & pointer */ if (!OSError) { if (Message[0] == rqHndl) /* it was a keystroke and NOT a client */ { UnRegisterSvc("NUMBERS "). ErrorToUser). 0. ClrScr(). Message). /* Unknown Service code! */ OSError = Respond(pRqBlk.

Error = AllocExch(&Exch). Number). Error = Request("NUMBERS ". 0. } /* it's nice to do this for the OS */ MMURTL V1.\r\n". else printf("NUMBERS Service gave out number: %d.\r\n".\r\n". if (Error) printf("Error %d from Request. if (Error) printf("Error %d from WaitMsg. } } DeAllocExch(Exch). Exch. Error). Also try it when the service is not running. Error). 1. Error).C Listing The program in listing 16.\r\n".6. Listing 16. 4. rqhndl. 0. if (!Error) { Error = WaitMsg(Exch.C /* Test client for the NUMBERS System Service.h> #include "\OSSOurce\MKernel.\r\n". 0. You should receive a proper error code indicating that the service is not available. /* get an exchange */ /* The number to return */ /* Where hte service will respond */ /* The Message from the service */ if (Error) printf("Error %d allocating Exchange. /* No Send ptrs */ &Number. else { if (Message[1]) printf("Error %d from NUMBERS Service.0. unsigned long Message[2]. &rqhndl. TestSvc. 0.0 -240- RICHARD A BURGESS .h" unsigned long Number. Execute this from a CLI while the service is running.0). Run him from another a CLI when Service is running */ #include <stdio. void main(void) { unsigned long Error.} } } /* Loop while(1) */ TestSvc. Message). unsigned long Exch. Message[1]).6 exercises the sample system service listed previously.

The GDT is 6K in size. use the stack just as a compiler would.Chapter 17.ASM . common variables.This is also a data definition file that sets up the operating system's Page Directory and first page table. I just expend the time up front instead of later. but the number of variable arguments is passed in the EDI register. MPublics.ASM .. A brief description of each of the main source files follows. There are also header files for the C source. This ends up at address 800h physical and linear. This file should also remain in its current order because we have hard-coded its address in some source modules. You may find some of the source files rather large. Two conventions are used throughout the operating system. This is also a required table for the Intel processors when they run in protected mode. MOSPDR. One of my goals was to keep the source code organized in an easy-to-understand fashion. It's not that I couldn't actually figure it out without them. Each logical section is contained in one or more files that are either C or assembler source code. All source files are located in one directory. but it is not used by the processor. In fact. When a human writes this much assembler (and it's to be interfaced with assembler generated by a compiler). MAIN. MOSIDT.). because the entries in the IDT are done dynamically.This is the first assembler file that contains code. This is the first file in the source. The other is a mangled version of what you'd find in most C compilers for functions with an ellipse (. and INCLUDE files for the assembler that tie publics. The position of this file in relationship to the others is critical because the offset to the IDT must be identified to the processor. There are 29 main source files (excluding header and include files).. and used by the processor. Calling Conventions I bring this topic up here because.This defines the basic Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT).This is also a table. and structures together. however. as you look through the code. Comments In the Code You'll find out that I make a lot of comments in my source code. Also some data is defined here. This is really just a data position holder in the data segment. By including the comments. The IDT is a required table for the Intel processors.This defines the Global Descriptor Table (GDT). Many of the lower-lever procedures use registers to pass data back and forth.0 -241- RICHARD A BURGESS . some of the things that tie all of the source files together.ASM . Quite a few of them. but most of the dependent functions will be contained in the file you are viewing or reading. Introduction to the Source Code This chapter discusses each of the important source files. This must be the second source file in the assembler template file. Several selector entries are predefined so you can go directly into protected mode. The operating system entry point is located here (the first OS instruction executed). I call it mangled because the arguments are still pushed left to right. This defines the selector entries for all MMURTL public calls. sometimes I write the comments describing a small block of code before I actually code it. The most prominent and the preferred method is pushing parameters left to right. MOSGDT. Organization The MMURTL source code is organized in a modular fashion. This file should be left in the order I have it in. the human becomes a compiler of sorts. The position of this file is also critical because it is identified to. I hope I’ve met this goal.ASM . You won’t have to go searching through hundreds of files to find a three-line function. you will see that much of the assembler looks almost like it was generated by a compiler. In fact. The caller cleans the stack in this convention. The ordering for MMURTL V1. It helps me think. I can go back a year or two later and figure out what I did. it ends up at physical and linear address 0. with the called procedure cleaning the stack.ASM . and how to build the operating system using the tools included on the CD-ROM. which means its data will be at the lowest address.

but can be modified for four. but it's effective and accurate.ASM . FSys. and the mode.the remainder of the modules is not as important. TmrCode.The code memory allocation.Floppy disk device drivers are much harder to write than IDE hard disk drivers. they must handle it themselves.In many systems.C .C .ASM .This file contains the bulk of the debugger logic. Video. is in this file.ASM . On the other hand.ASM .ASM was one of the first files written.ASM – Lower-level job functions and supporting code for functions in JobC. you're on your own. MMURTL V1.The IDE hard disk device driver was pretty easy to write.ASM . but only to enable the input buffer (which helps). someday). NumCnvrt. If you have MFM drives. if needed. UASM. DevDrvr.The interrupt service routine for the primary system timer . Debugging a debugger is even less fun.Request block management code is in this file. This is one complicated driver. It seems to me that hardware manufacturers could be a little more compassionate towards software people.C .The device-driver interface code and data are contained in this file. as well as port I/O support.0 -242- RICHARD A BURGESS . how much to move. Debugging is never fun when you have to do it at the assembler level.This is an MS-DOS FAT-compatible file system. DMACode.Video code and data was also one of the first pieces I wrote.C . HardIDE. Device driver writers will appreciate this. MiscCode.ASM .ASM . address aliasing and management of physical memory can be found in this file. Floppy. even in the earliest stages of a project. You only need to know the channel.The simple parallel port driver is contained here. It has only the necessary calls to get the job done. Chapter 25 explains all the mysteries behind this table-driven piece of work. This file has routines that handle DMA for you.ASM . SVCCode.Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) handling code can be found here.System service management code such as RegisterSvc() is in this file. You have to see what you're doing. It's not very pretty.C . The reasoning behind controlling the drive motors separately from the rest of the floppy electronics still has me baffled.C . Chapter 26 goes into detail on this files contents. so I am reluctant to begin rewriting it (Although I will. RQBCode. Debugger.The keyboard source goes against my own rule of not combining a device driver with a system service. IntCode.C are contained in this file.are in this file.ASM . It drives two channels. Parallel.The program loader and most of the job-related functions are handled in this file. when a device driver writers need DMA. This provides the re-entrancy protection and also the proper vectoring (indirect calling) of device-driver functions. JobC. System services in assembly language are not fun to write or maintain.along with all of the timer functions such as Sleep() .This is some code used internally that converts numbers to text and vice-versa.C . undoubtedly. It supports the 16550. Keyboard.This file contains the RS-232 UART driver.This file is the debugger disassembler. It is a table-driven disassembler used to display instructions in the debugger. and it works rather well. Leaving them in their current order would probably be a good idea. It think it still works with MFM drives. but you never know where to put. Keyboard. I was surprised. MemCode. I haven't tried playing "musical source files" either. but I don't have any more to test it. JobCode.This is the file that collected all the little things that you need. You will still see remnants of MFM drive commands in here because that's what I started with. It provides stream access as well as block access to files.ASM .ASM . RS232. Highspeed string manipulation and comparison.ASM .

0 -243- RICHARD A BURGESS .INCLUDE Video. If you want a complete listing of all processor instructions and addresses.This file has all the helper routines that initialize most of the of the dynamic operating-system functions. specify /E on the command line after the name. All of the assembly language source files are then assembled with DASM.ATF It's truly that simple. Defines the Interrupt Descriptor Table .ASM . If you want an error file.DATA . An example of compiling one of the source files is: C:\MMURTL> CM32 Monitor. InitCode. Keyboard ISR and Service . Building MMURTL MMURTL requires the CM32 compiler (included on the CD-ROM) for the C source files. The RUN file is in the standard MMURTL Run file format which is described completely in the Chapter 28.Exception handlers such as those required for processor faults are in this file. 6K for GDT @ 00000800h Physical (1. The following is the Assembler Template File (ATF).ASM .ASM . /L on the command line after the name.Kernel. Each of the C source files is turned into an assembler file (which is what the CM32 compiler produces). 6K) . It provides a lot of the OS functionality. but you don't need to read all the DASM documentation to build MMURTL. Most of them cause you to go directly into the Debugger.ASM . .INCLUDE MPublics. Chapter 18 discusses the kernel and presents the most important pieces of its code along with discussions of the code.C .5 minutes on a 486/33. and the DASM assembler (also included).INCLUDE MOSPDR.ASM .” The only two MS-DOS commands you need are CM32 and DASM. .C After all the C source files are compiled. Video code and data MMURTL V1.INCLUDE MOSIDT. This takes about 1.5 Pages.BAT) will build the entire operating system. “DASM:A 32-Bit Intel-Based Assembler. An asterisk (*) by the include file indicates it originates as . a C source file and must be compiled first with .These first 5 INCLUDES MUST be in this order!!!! .ASM . This file is required to assemble complex programs with DASM. Main OS code and some data & START address .ASM . you use the DASM command as follows: C:\MMURTL> DASM MMURTL. Indirect calling address table . . One MS-DOS batch file (MakeALL.INCLUDE Keyboard. CM32 (no switches needed). but it really isn't part of the operating system.The monitor program is contained in this file. You could replace quite easily. The assembler is discussed in detail in chapter 28.0 . Listing 17.Assembler Template File for MMURTL V1.ASM .INCLUDE MOSGDT.INCLUDE MAIN.All of the kernel calls and most of the kernel support code is in this file. Assembler Template File . Ordering for the remainder of the modules is not as important. Except. OS Page Directory & 1st Table (8k) .ASM .ASM . Monitor. DASM produces the operating system RUN file.1.

ASM HardIDE. You would also need to remove the numbers following the RET and RETF statements so the caller could clean the stack as is the C convention. The assembler INCLUDE files that define all the structures actually define offsets from a memory location. Even though I use CM32 to compile the C source files.* .* . You'll find that many items in MMURTL depend on the memory alignment of some of the structures.ASM FSys. no doubt.INCLUDE . you can take the file system code (FSYS. .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . In fact. you can calculate the correct offsets and fix the EQU statements for access where a C compiler would put them on the stack. . .INCLUDE . As each piece of code is assembled.ASM TmrCode.ASM IntCode.INCLUDE .* :* . The same is true for the data as it is encountered in the files. you'll understand that all MMURTL programs are comprised of only two segments . If your C compiler allows it.INCLUDE . .INCLUDE . and they will work fine. . This is because DASM doesn't support structures.INCLUDE . Using Pieces of MMURTL in Your OS You'll find that most of the source code is modular. . CM32 packs all structure fields completely. The same basic warning about the alignment of structures applies. .* .ASM MiscCode.END Debugger.INCLUDE .array.ASM RS232.C) and it can be turned into a free-standing program with little effort. the code can be compiled with any ANSI C compiler.ASM Floppy. it is placed into the code segment in that order.. I built each section of code in modular sections and tried to keep it that way.ASM DMACode.INCLUDE .* Code & Data for Debugger Code & Data for Debugger Disassembler Code and Data for Device Driver Interface Floppy Device Driver IDE Disk Device Driver Serial Comms Device Driver Parallel Comms Device Driver (RAB) File System Service Additional Job management Loader/Job handling Code & Data Timer Code ISR handling code Request Block Code DMA Handling Code Maybe Move to DLL later or can it Memory management code System Service management code Misc.ASM Except. For instance.INCLUDE . The calling conventions (described earlier) may get you into trouble if you want to use some of the assembler routines from a high-level language.ASM Parallel.ASM JobCode.ASM MemCode.ASM NumCnvrt.ASM DevDrvr. Otherwise. Using Pieces of MMURTL in Other Projects Some of you may find some of the code useful in other projects that have absolutely nothing to do with writing an operating system. code (string.ASM RQBCode. MMURTL V1. .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . you can declare them as Pascal functions (some even use the old PLM type modifier). .I/O support) Kernel code Exception handlers Initialization support code The monitor code & data If you've read all of the chapters that precede this one.ASM UASM.ASM Kernel.ASM SVCCode.INCLUDE .* .INCLUDE . . CM32 packs all variables with no additional padding.ASM JOBC.INCLUDE . You will.ASM .INCLUDE .INCLUDE . . . but you would have no problem setting them up for TASM or MASM. .* .ASM InitCode. use another compiler for your project.INCLUDE .code and data. .INCLUDE . This is one thing you should watch.INCLUDE .INCLUDE . The order of the assembler files in the ATF file determines the order of the data and code.0 -244- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM Monitor.

two underscores will be prepended to the name. The actual message handling functions.INC JOB. The code in the kernel is divided into four main sections: data. These are things such as the task state segments. For functions that must be reached by high-level languages (such as C). the scheduler. I have made most of the "called" functions reside above those that call them.0 -245- RICHARD A BURGESS . and offsets into structures and tables.Chapter 18. For public functions that are reached through call gates from applications. Variables named with a leading underscore are accessible from code generated with the C compiler. and the number of tasks ready to run (_nReady).INC RQB. The Kernel Introduction The kernel code is very small. and kernel publics functions. Listing 18.1.INCLUDE . The bulk of the other data items are things for statistics: the number of task switches (_nSwitches).INCLUDE . The data that the kernel primitives deal with are usually used in context to the task that is running. See listing 18. and associated kernel helper procedures turn out to be less than 3K of executable code. These all change with respect to the task that is running. The bulk of them are in the file Main. the name of the routine is unmodified (no underscores used). and memory management tables.INC DD 0 . a single underscore will be prepended to the name.INC TSS. I think it will make more sense to you. The INCLUDE files define things like error codes. Being an old "structured" programmer. internal public functions. If you read through the descriptions of these little "helper" routines before you look at the code for the kernel primitives. Kernel data segment source .INCLUDE .INCLUDE dJunk EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN MOSEDF.Used as temp in Service Abort function TimerTick DD SwitchTick DD dfHalted DD _nSwitches DD _nHalts DD _nReady DD MMURTL V1. local helper functions. For the most part these are statistic-gathering variables. Kernel Data The source file for the kernel doesn't really contain any data variable declarations.DATA . Naming Conventions For helper routines that are only called from other assembly language routines. the number of times the CPU found itself with nothing to do (_nHalts). job control blocks. so I could get to them with the monitor program.ASM.1.

pLBin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead].Local Kernel Helper Functions This section has all of the little functions that help the kernel primitives and scheduler code. Because certain kernel functions may be called from ISRs. OUTPUT : NONE . which means interrupts must be cleared. For this reason we share the HEAD and TAIL link pointers of an exchange for tasks and messages. REGISTERS : EAX. link blocks. an exchange is a place where either messages or tasks wait (link blocks that contain the message actually wait there). and exchanges. and if a task is waiting there. If EAX is NIL then the routine returns. . OR EAX. MODIFIES : EDX . The following lines begin the code segment for the kernel: . It's not that the routines are called so often. pointed to by the ESI register. such as enQueueMsg and deQueueMsg. See listing 18. from an exchange but not yet linked to a TSS and placed on the ready queue). and because portions of other kernel functions may be interrupted by a task change that happens because of an action that an ISR takes. This is because the enQueueTSS functionality is only needed in two places. I also had to really keep good track of which registers I used. the task is immediately associated with the message and placed on the ready queue in priority order.EDX. This especially applies when a message is "in transit" (taken.EAX . is coded in-line.0 -246- RICHARD A BURGESS . There can never be tasks and messages at an exchange at the same time (unless the kernel is broken!). . The concept itself should be very important to you if you intend to write your own multitasking operating system. . Listing 18.2.. if pLBin = NIL THEN Return. for example. JZ eqMsgDone .MsgHead = NIL MMURTL V1. along with enQueueRdy and deQueueRdy.FLAGS . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB]. Queueing for messages at an exchange enQueueMsg: . pExch => EAX. Interrupts will already be disabled when this routine is called. pLBin^. In MMURTL. if . This is important. we must ensure that interrupts are disabled prior to the allocation or deallocation of all kernel data segment resources.ESI. The message can be a pointer to a Request or an 8-byte generic message.Next <= NIL. 0 .EAX .2. 0 . This routine will place the link block pointed to by EAX onto the exchange . A flag tells you whether it’s a task on a message. XCHG ESI. You may notice that there is a deQueueTSS but no enQueueTSS. When a message is sent to an exchange. Most of these functions manipulate all the linked lists that maintain things like the ready queue. The interface to these calls are exclusively through registers.CODE EXTRN LinToPhy NEAR enQueueMsg The enQueueMsg places a link block containing a message on an exchange. and therefore. The functions described have a certain symmetry that you'll notice. This is strictly a speed issue.EAX . it's that they manipulate common data and therefor are not reentrant. INPUT : ESI.

ESI. MOV [ESI+EHead]. OR EAX. but not both.3.head and EBX . See listing 18. MOV [EAX+ETail].msg. Listing 18. if pLBout = NIL then Return. . REGISTERS : EAX.4.ESI .MsgHead^.JNE eqMNotNIL . Put pExch Back in ESI eqMsgDone: RETN . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. JZ deMsgDone .[ESI+EHead] . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.0 -247- RICHARD A BURGESS . . No! (return 0) MOV EAX.EBX . ESI register and place the pointer to the link block dequeued into EAX.ESI . . See listing 18.Next. MOV EBX. If it's a message you remove it from the linked list and return it.MsgHead <= pLBin. Is it a Msg? JZ deMsgDone . 1 . As stated before.MsgTail <= pLBin.ESI . Flag it as a Msg (vice a task) XCHG EAX.ESI .MsgHead <= .MsgHead.FLAGS . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg]. Put pExch Back in ESI RETN .. INPUT : ESI . pLBout <= .[EAX+ETail] . . MOV [EDX+NextLB]. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. then MOV [EAX+EHead]. deQueueTSS The deQueueTSS removes a pointer to a TSS from an exchange if one exists there.[ESI+fEMsg] . If not. exchanges can hold messages or tasks. If not.. This routine will dequeue a link block on the exchange pointed to by the .EBX. MMURTL V1.[EAX+NextLB] ..NextLB <= pLBin. MOV [EAX+ETail]. else eqMNotNIL: MOV EDX. EAX . Get Msg Flag OR EAX.MsgTail^. You check the flag in the exchange structure to see which is there..ESI . EAX . De-queueing a message from an exchange deQueueMsg: .3. you return NIL (0). MODIFIES : *prgExch[ESI]. . OUTPUT : EAX . deQueueMsg The deQueueMsg removes a link block from an exchange if one exists there. . .. it returns NIL (0) in the EAX register. If not.ESI . 1 . . MOV EAX.. deMsgDone: RETN .MsgTail <= pLBin..

The ready queue is a structure of 32 linked lists.EAX . in EBX XCHG EAX. De-queueing a task from an exchange deQueueTSS: . if pTSSout = NIL then Return. OUTPUT : NONE . EBX JNZ deTSSDone . one for each of the possible task priorities in MMURTL. . REGISTERS : EAX. deTSSDone: RETN .EBX.TSSHead <= . pTSSin => EBX SHL EAX. . .EAX . MODIFIES : EAX. This . Priority => EAX.EBX .TSSHead.ESI.TSSHead^.FLAGS . XOR EBX..4. pTSSout <= .EBX.5. if Head = NIL MMURTL V1. See listing 18. pTSSin^. . Add offset of RdyQ => EAX ADD EAX. Adding a task to the ready queue PUBLIC enQueueRdy: .EBX . Set up to return nothing MOV EBX. EAX . EAX pts to proper Rdy Queue CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Head].EBX . . Listing 18. register and place the pointer to the TSS dequeued into EAX. 0 .Next <= NIL. OR EAX. algorithm chooses the proper priority queue based on the TSS priority.5. MOV [ESI+EHead].EBX . EAX return NIL if no TSS is waiting at Exch ESI .0 -248- RICHARD A BURGESS .EDX . INPUT : ESI . if pTSS = NIL then return. MODIFIES : EAX.FLAGS . Msg flag (is it a Msg) OR EBX. This links the TSS to rgQueue[nPRI]. JZ eqRdyDone . 3 . MOV EBX. XOR EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS]. enQueueRdy The enQueueRdy places a task (actually a TSS) on the ready queue. . You dereference the TSS priority and place the TSS on the proper linked list. The Rdy Queue is an array of QUEUES (2 pointers. REGISTERS : EAX. OUTPUT : EAX . get the priority MOV BL. It's a Msg (return leaving EAX 0) MOV EAX...[EAX+NextTSS] . This routine will dequeue a TSS on the exchange pointed to by the ESI .EBX.[ESI+fEMsg] . 0 . . INPUT : EAX . . This routine will place a TSS pointed to by EAX onto the ReadyQueue.EDX .Next.[EAX+Priority] . .RdyQ . OR EAX. head & tail per QUEUE). INC _nReady .EDX. Times 8 (size of QUEUE) LEA EDX. JZ deTSSDone .[ESI+EHead] .Listing 18.

[EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX].6. .[EBX] OR EAX. MOV ECX. . MMURTL V1. . that 0 is the highest priority. RETURN Otherwise. deQueue the process And return with the pointer in EAX . Keep in mind.EBX. . If there was no task queued.ECX. .Tail <= pTSSin. . De-queueing the highest priority task PUBLIC deQueueRdy: . . . .Tail^.RdyQ .6. . this returns NIL (0). .[EAX+Tail] MOV [EDX+NextTSS].sQUEUE LOOP deRdyLoop deRdyFound: OR EAX.nPRI . If none is found. OUTPUT : EAX . The pointer to this TSS is also removed from the list. . See listing 18. deQueueRdy The deQueueRdy finds the highest-priority ready queue (out of 32) that has a task waiting there and returns a pointer to the first TSS in that list. INPUT : NONE . This routine will return a pointer in EAX to the highest priority task . .. REGISTERS : EAX. IF pTSSout is NIL Then there are No TSSs on the RdyQ.ECX deRdyDone: RETN .EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].EBX MOV [EAX+Tail].JNE eqRNotNIL MOV [EAX+Head]. EAX JZ deRdyDone DEC _nReady MOV ECX.. then . . . .0 -249- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Head <= pTSSin. Then the routine will "pop" the TSS from the RdyQ. else . EAX JNZ deRdyFound ADD EBX.EBX RETN eqRNotNIL: MOV EDX.EBX eqRdyDone: RETN . and 31 is the lowest. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX..FLAGS . . . queued on the RdyQ.Tail <= pTSSin. Get pTSSout in EAX IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and check the next priority. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX deRdyLoop: MOV EAX.NextTSS <= pTSSin. .. MODIFIES : RdyQ . Point to the next Priority Queue DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . EAX is returned as NIL. . Listing 18.

the RemoveRdyJob recovers the task state segments (TSSs) that belonged to that job. IF pTSSout is NIL Then go and .0 -250- RICHARD A BURGESS . . ." See Listing 18. OUTPUT : EAX .sQUEUE LOOP ChkRdyLoop ChkRdyDone: RETN .EBX. MODIFIES : RdyQ . They provide things like resource garbage collection and exchange owner manipulation.[EBX] OR EAX. Point to the next Priority Queue . RemoveRdyJob When a job terminates. without actually removing it from the queue.ASM because they work closely with kernel structures. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. .8. "It's a nasty job.nPRI . . . but someone's got to it.ECX. . Internal Public Helper Functions The routines described in the following sections are "public" to the rest of the operating system but not accessible to outside callers.7. DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . . This is called when we are killing MMURTL V1. . This routine provides that functionality for the piece of code in the timer interrupt routine (in TimerCode. Removing a terminated task from the ready queue .FLAGS .8. This why it's specified as PUBLIC. .ChkRdyQ MMURTL's preemptive nature requires that you have the ability to check the ready queues to see what the highest priority task is that could be executed. RemoveRdyJob (NEAR) This routine searchs all ready queue priorities for tasks belonging to pJCB. check the next priority. It WILL NOT remove it from the Queue. EAX JNZ ChkRdyDone ADD EBX.ASM) that provides preemptive task switching. If there was no task queued.7. is queued to run. Get pTSSout in EAX . See listing 18. Listing 18. They are located in Kernel.RdyQ . INPUT : NONE . Listing 18. Finding the highest priority task PUBLIC ChkRdyQ: . This routine will return a pointer to the highest priority TSS that . When one is found it is removed from the queue and the TSS is freed up. EAX is returned as NIL. either by its own choosing or is killed off due to some unforgivable protection violation. Get base address of RdyQ in EBX ChkRdyLoop: MOV EAX. REGISTERS : EAX. MOV ECX.

Procedureal Interface : . . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . Get base address of RdyQ in EBX . No MOV EDI. All done (clean stack) . EDI PUSH EBX . pTSSin^. . . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. .EBX points to begining RemRdyLoop: MOV EAX. pJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . 0 . DEC ECX and LOOP IF NOT ZERO . MODIFIES : RdyQ . Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . Make EAX point to new head TSS . Next Queue please -251- RICHARD A BURGESS . . Point to the next Priority Queue .sQUEUE LOOP RemRdyLoop XOR EAX. Is this from the JCB we want? JNE RemRdy2 . . [EAX+NextTSS] MOV [EBX+Head]. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB):ercType . REGISTERS : All general registers are trashed . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 MMURTL V1.. INC _nTSSLeft . EDI ADD EBX. EAX OR EAX. . Is it Zero? . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. .RdyQ . pJCB is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to.0 . Get pTSS in EAX EDI points to last TSS by default (or NIL) Is pTSS 0 (none left queued here) Valid pTSS! . POP EBX MOV EAX. Yes. . PUSH EBP .nPRI .EAX JNZ RemRdy0 RemRdyLoop1: MOV [EBX+Tail].EAX . .Go here to dequeue a TSS at head of list RemRdy0: CMP EDX.Next <= pFreeTSS.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. EDI always points to last TSS or NIL . EAX POP EBP RETN 4 of next Priority Queue . EDI OR EAX.EBX . INPUT : (pJCB on stack) . PUBLIC _RemoveRdyJob: . No error . deQueue the TSS . . Fix link in Queue list . a job. MOV EBP.ESP .pFreeTSS .[EBX+Head] MOV EDI. Set up the number of times to loop LEA EBX. MOV ECX. OUTPUT : NONE .

Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. EAX JZ RemRdyLoop1 CMP EDX. . . MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. INC _nTSSLeft . pTSSin^. The Exchange allocation routines assume that the caller will own this exchange.This extracts EAX from the list MOV [EDI+NextTSS]. . Listing 18.Make ESI point to NextTSS MOV ESI. [EDI+NextTSS] OR EAX. .Save ptr to RdyQue (crnt priority) . Next Queue please . EAX JMP RemRdy2 RemRdy3: . These are NEAR functions and not available to outside callers (via call gates). ErcOutofRange is returned is the exchange number is invalid (too high) Procedureal Interface : GetExchOwner(long Exch. OR JZ JMP GetExchOwner The code that loads new jobs must have the capability to allocate default exchanges for the new program. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] JE RemRdy3 MOV EDI.9. Get next link in list Valid pTSS? No.9.pFreeTSS . .EBX . ESI PUSH EBX . . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. . SetExchOwner(). . GetExchOwner (NEAR) EBX ESI. [EAX+NextTSS] . 0 . POP . This is not so if it's for a new job. . Trash it. .JMP RemRdy0 . back to check next at head of list . char *pJCBRet): dErrror MMURTL V1. Next TSS .Go here to dequeue a TSS in middle or end of list RemRdy2: MOV EAX.Is EDI the new Tail? (ESI = 0) . ESI RemRdyLoop1 RemRdy2 . This call identifies who owns an exchange by returning a pointer to the job control block.Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX.Now we fix the list (Make Prev point to Next) . See listing 18. deQueue the TSS . ErcNotAlloc is returned if the exchange isn't allocated.EAX points to crnt TSS .Jump the removed link . This function is used with the next one. . .back to check next TSS This routine returns the owner of the exchange specified.Next <= pFreeTSS.Yes. Yes.0 -252- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX . . No. Finding the owner of an exchange . Next Queue please Is this from JCB we want? Yes.EDI points to prev TSS . A pointer to the JCB of the owner is returned.

. . This call sets the exchange owner to the owner of the job control block pointed by the second parameter of the call. No. . .10..sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. .ErcOutOfRange JMP GEOEnd GEO01: MOV EDX.EAX MOV EAX. . . Error in EAX register PUBLIC _GetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . Exch is . Valid Exch (Allocated) . pJCBRet the exchange number. See listing 18. mentioned previously. [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. Changing the owner of an exchange . pJCBRet . . [EBP+12] CMP EAX.10. No error checking is done as the job code does it upfront! Procedureal Interface : SetExchOwner(long Exch.Where to return pJCB of Exchange . . [EDX+Owner] OR EAX. Listing 18.nExch JB GEO01 MOV EAX. .prgExch ADD EDX. ErcNotAlloc JMP SHORT GEOEnd GEO02: MOV ESI. SetExchOwner This is the complimentary call to GetExchOwner(). EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . EAX XOR EAX. . is a pointer to the JCB that the tasks to kill belong to. . Exch . . . . .ESP MOV EAX. . EAX GEOEnd: MOV ESP. SetExchOwner (NEAR) This routine sets the owner of the exchange specified to the pJCB specified. continue Yes. . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EDX -> Exch . . . . char *pNewJCB): dErrror Exch is the exchange number. Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. EAX JNZ GEO02 MOV EAX. . This is used by the Job code to set the owner of a TSS exchange to a new JCB (even though the exchange was allocated by the OS). MMURTL V1. not allocated .0 -253- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . .

Listing 18. other services.. . . telling them that a particular job has died. The kernel knows it's already dead and will reclaim the request block and exchanges that were used. it should respond to it as soon as it gets the abort message. Get the address of rgSVC .prgExch ADD EAX. [EBP+12] MOV EDX. Exch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] . If a service is holding a request from the job that died. Notifying services of a job’s demise . Procedureal Interface : SendAbort(long JobNum. See listing 18. . It should not process any data for the program (because it's dead).ESP MOV ESI. . System services may hold requests from many jobs at a time until they can service the requests (known as asynchronous servicing). . then exited or was killed off because of nasty behavior. . EBX XOR EAX. ValidExch): dErrror JobNum is the job that is aborting ValidExch is any valid exchange so the request will go through JobNum EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] ValidExch EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] . . SendAbort (NEAR) This routine sends one abort message to each valid service with the jobnum of the aborting job. If a program sent a request. pNewJCB is a pointer to the JCB of the new owner. . .11.EDX MOV EBX. . . . Get the number of Service Descriptors PUBLIC _SendAbort: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . .11. . EAX POP EBP RETN 8 SendAbort System services are programs that respond to requests from applications. The error it returns is of no consequence.0 -254- RICHARD A BURGESS . . or the operating system itself.OFFSET rgSVC MOV ECX. . . Exchange Number Compute offset of Exch in rgExch sExch * Exch number Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX -> oExch + prgExch . . .nSVC SAB01: MMURTL V1. . . the SendAbort function is called to send a message to all active services. . We ignore the kernel errors.sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX. . If we receive a kernel error on Request it may be becuase it is a service that is aborting itself. pNewJCB EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+8] PUBLIC _SetExchOwner: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. [EBP+8] MOV [EAX+Owner]. . . .ESP MOV EAX. . .

Save count and pointer to SVC name PUSH ECX . . Request( pSvcName [EBP+56] .pData1 PUSH 0 . Listing 18. [EBP+8] . A system structure called a request block is allocated and some of these parameters are placed in it. Valid name? . A request block is the basic structure used for client/server communications. [EBP+12] . and code for it is in the file SVCCode.dData2 CALL FWORD PTR _Request .Get count and ptr to SVC names back from stack POP ECX POP ESI SAB05: ADD ESI.cbData0 PUSH 0 . The offsets to the stack parameters are defined in the comments for each of calls.Push all the params to make the request PUSH ESI .Exchange PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dJunk . except this function requires several more parameters. . These are called with 48-bit (FAR) pointers that include the selector of the call gate. The exchange where a request should be queued is determined by searching the system-service array for a matching request service name specified in the request block.CMP DWORD PTR [ESI].pHandleRet PUSH 0 .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 .cbData1 MOV EAX. These are functions such as GetPriority().12. .dData0 PUSH 0 .0 -255- RICHARD A BURGESS . next service PUSH ESI . Some of the functions are auxiliary functions for outside callers and not actually part of the kernel code that defines the tasking model.npSend PUSH 0 .dData1 PUSH 0 . Request kernel primitive code . See listing 18. Request() The kernel Request primitive sends a message like the Send() primitive.JobNum PUSH EAX . sSVC LOOP SAB01 XOR EAX.pName PUSH 0 .pData0 PUSH 0 . EAX MOV ESP. wSvcCode [EBP+52] MMURTL V1.Next Service name . 0 JE SAB05 .Abort Service Code MOV EAX. They're in this file because they work closely with the kernel. The procedural interface to Request looks like this: .12. Public Kernel Functions The remainder of the code defines the kernel public functions that are called through call gates. NO. The function that searches the array is GetExchange().asm.

.ercOutOfRange JMP ReqEnd Req03: .0 . [EBP+52] MOV [EBX+ServiceCode].EAX has pRqBlk (Handle) MOV EBX.Put . .No JMP ReqEnd .Put . continue Yes.Get . Get Resp Exchange in EDX Is the exchange out of range? No. .Get . Save the Previous FramePtr .. .No.Did we get one? (NIL (0) means we didn't) JNZ Req04 . ErcNoMoreRqBlks .Get . EAX MMURTL V1. EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV [EBX+RqOwnerJob]. EAX MOV [EBX+ServiceExch]. [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData2]. EAX MOV EAX. EAX MOV EAX.Leaves Service Exch in ESI if no errors OR EAX.put . Sorry.Yes. EAX MOV EAX.Get . Error in EAX register .ESI still has the exchange for the service .. . EAX . . .Get .EDX still has the response exchange .EAX has ptr to new RqBlk (or 0 if none) STI OR EAX. .EBX .Validate service name from registry and get exchange MOV EAX.put .EAX . . [EBP+56] ..Get them a request block CLI CALL NewRQB . AX MOV [EBX+RespExch]. .put . Set up New FramePtr .Put . . [EBP+20] MOV [EBX+dData0]. JMP ReqEnd . [EBP+48] CMP EDX.ESP . EAX ptr to new RqBlk MOV EAX.put .Yes. . .pServiceName CALL GetExchange .nExch JB Req03 MOV EAX.Validate exchange MOV EDX. [EBP+16] MOV [EBX+dData1]. return error Req02: . EAX MOV EAX.Any errors? JZ SHORT Req02 .put now pts to RqBlk Svc Exch into RqBlk Svc Code Svc Code into RqBlk Resp Exch into RqBlk crnt JCB (Job Num of owner) in RqBlk dData0 in RqBlk dData1 in RqBlk dData2 in RqBlk pData1 in RqBlk RICHARD A BURGESS -256- .Get . ESI MOV EAX. dRespExch pRqHndlRet dnpSend pData1 dcbData1 pData2 dcbData2 dData0 dData1 dData2 [EBP+48] [EBP+44] [EBP+40] [EBP+36] [EBP+32] [EBP+28] [EBP+24] [EBP+20] [EBP+16] [EBP+12] ) : dError PUBLIC __Request: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Req04: . . [EBP+36] MOV [EBX+pData1].

Give it to them . . No interruptions from here on .Put nSend PbCbs into RqBlk . EBX .The ptr to the exch is required for deQueueTSS so we get it.Data PUSH EAX . . .Ptr to return handle to . 0 . EBX MOV EDX. CL .Must be 2 or less .it as one anyway (so no problem) MOV EDI. . RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi].The handle is actually a ptr to the RqBlk but they can't use .EDX ESI. AL [EBX+npRecv].Leave in CL . 3 JB Req06 MOV EAX. This is a Request Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB].put in RqBlk . . EAX MOV EAX.Get cbData2 . [EBP+32] MOV [EBX+cbData1]. MOV [EAX+DataLo]. [EBP+44] MOV [EDI].Save RqBlk in EDX CLI . [EBP+24] MOV [EBX+cbData2].Get pData2 . . .REQLB . . sEXCH EDX EDX. .0 .At this point the RqBlk is all filled in.MOV EAX. .EAX JNZ Req08 CALL DisposeRQB MOV EAX. . MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV EAX. [EBP+40] CMP EAX. Save pLB on the stack . free up RqBlk Move error in the EAX register Go home with bad news MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType].Now we allocate a Link block to use MOV EAX. pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.EBX DEC _nLBLeft .ESI now points to the exchange CALL deQueueTSS MMURTL V1.ercNoMoreLBs JMP ReqEnd Req08: MOV EBX.. Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch . EAX <= pFreeLB. Is pFreeLB NIL? (out of LBs) NO. EAX MOV EAX.prgExch EAX. 2 CL. . . DeQueue a TSS on that Exch -257- RICHARD A BURGESS .EDX . ..[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB. 2 Req06: MOV MOV SUB MOV [EBX+npSend].ESI still has the exchange Number for the service.EAX . Store zero in upper half of pLB^. 0 .Get cbData1 . EAX MOV EAX. [EBP+28] MOV [EBX+pData2].Now we will return the RqBlkHandle to the user. . pLB^.put in RqBlk .ESI EDX.Put npRecv in RqBlk .Next .Caculate nRecv (2-nSend) .Next <= NIL. .put in RqBlk .pFreeLB OR EAX. AL CL.Number of Send PbCbs .

OR EAX,EAX JNZ Req10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Req12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT ReqEnd Req12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR ReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 48 Respond() pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; ; ; ; ; ;

Did we get one? Yes, give up the message No, Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch No Error And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params from stack

The Respond primitive is used by system services to respond to a Request() received at their service exchange. The request block handle must be supplied along with the error/status code to be returned to the caller. This is very similar to Send() except it de-aliases addresses in the request block and then deallocates it. The exchange to respond to is located inside the request block. See listing 18.13. Listing 18.13. Respond kernel primitive code ; ; Respond(dRqHndl, dStatRet): dError ; ; dRqHndl EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] dStatRet EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] PUBLIC __Respond: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV ESI, [EAX+RespExch] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Resp02
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Save Callers Frame Setup Local Frame pRqBlk into EAX Response Exchange into ESI Is the exchange out of range? No, continue

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP RespEnd Resp02: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Resp04:

; Error into the EAX register. ; Get out

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Resp04 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. RespEnd ;

MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+RqOwnerJob] CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX, EBX JE Resp06 ;Same job - no DeAlias needed MOV EAX, dRqHndl MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData1] OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp05 MOV EDX, [EAX+pData1] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp05 ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; ;No need to dealias (zero bytes)

;Null pointer!

PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp05: MOV EAX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) MOV EBX, [EAX+cbData2] ; OR EBX, EBX JZ Resp06 ;No need to dealias (zero bytes) MOV EDX, [EAX+pData2] OR EDX, EDX JZ Resp06 ;Null pointer! PUSH ESI ;Save pExch across call PUSH EDX ;pMem PUSH EBX ;cbMem CALL GetCrntJobNum ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _DeAliasMem ;DO it and ignore errors POP ESI ;get pExch back Resp06: MOV EAX, dRqHndl CLI CALL DisposeRQB ; Allocate a link block
MMURTL V1.0

; Get Request handle into EBX (pRqBlk) ; No interruptions ; Return Rqb to pool. Not needed anymore

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RICHARD A BURGESS

MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ Resp07 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP RespEnd Resp07:

; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register

MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next MOV pFreeLB,EBX ; DEC _nLBLeft ; Update stats MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], RESPLB ; This is a Response Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX, dRqHndl ; Get Request handle into EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX, dStatRet ; Get Status/Error into EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ Resp08 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch XOR EAX, EAX ; No Error JMP SHORT RespEnd ; And get out! Resp08: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP JNE XOR JMP Resp10: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR RespEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 MoveRequest() This is the kernel MoveRequest primitive. This allows a service to move a request to another exchange it owns. This cannot be used to forward a request to another service or job, because the pointers in the request block are not properly
MMURTL V1.0

; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ

EAX,pRunTSS Resp10 EAX,EAX SHORT RespEnd

; If the high priority TSS is the ; same as the Running TSS then return ; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; Rtn to Caller & Remove Params

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aliased. It is very similar to SendMsg() except it checks to ensure the destination exchange is owned by the sender. See listing 18.14. Listing 18.14. MoveRequest kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; MoveRequest(dRqBlkHndl, DestExch):ercType ; ; dqMsg is the handle of the RqBlk to forward. ; DestExch the exchange to where the Request should be sent. ; ; ;dRqBlkHndl EQU [EBP+16] ;DestExch EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __MoveRequest: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI, [EBP+12] CMP ESI,nExch JNAE MReq02 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP MReqEnd MReq02: MOV EAX,ESI MOV EDX,sEXCH MUL EDX MOV EDX,prgExch ADD EAX,EDX MOV ESI,EAX MOV EDX, [EAX+Owner] CALL GetpCrntJCB CMP EDX, EAX JE MReq04 MOV EAX, ErcNotOwner JMP MReqEnd MReq04: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq08 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP MReqEnd MReq08: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats ; No interruptions from here on ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Exch => EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX MAKE ESI <= pExch Put exch owner into EDX (pJCB) Leaves it in EAX (uses only EAX) If the exchange is not owned by sender return to the caller with error in the EAX register. Get out ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI Is the exchange is out of range No, continue in the EAX register. Get out

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], REQLB ; This is a Request Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX, [EBP+16] ; RqHandle [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; RqHandle into Lower 1/2 of Msg

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MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+DataHi], PUSH EAX CALL deQueueTSS OR EAX,EAX JNZ MReq10 POP EAX CALL enQueueMsg JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq10: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE MReq12 XOR EAX,EAX JMP SHORT MReqEnd MReq12: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP XOR MReqEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 SendMsg() ; ; ; ; pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS] EAX,EAX

0 ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Store zero in upper half of pLB^.Data Save pLB on the stack DeQueue a TSS on that Exch Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out!

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get the pLB just saved into EBX and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return to Caller with erc ok.

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich ; Keep track of how many swtiches for stats ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) ; Return to Caller with erc ok.

This is the kernel SendMsg primitive. This sends a non-specific message from a running task to an exchange. This may cause a task switch, if a task is waiting at the exchange and it is of equal or higher priority than the task which sent the message. See listing 18.15. Listing 18.15. SendMsg kernel primitive code

; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; SendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the message should be sent. dMsg1 & dMsg2 are DWord values defined and understood only by the sending and receiving tasks.

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SendExchange MessageHi MessageLo

EQU [EBP+14h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+10h] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+0Ch] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

PUBLIC __SendMsg: PUSH EBP MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE Send00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange JMP SendEnd Send00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP Send01: CLI ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT Send02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs JMP SHORT MReqEnd Send02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range the return to caller with error in the EAX register.

EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch EDX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Send01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. SendEnd ;

; No interrupts ; ; ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; caller with error in the EAX register Go home with bad news

; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; Update stats

DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType], DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB], 0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data ; Save pLB on the stack ; No interrupts ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch ; ; ; ; ; ; Did we get one? Yes, give up the message Get the pLB just saved No interrupts EnQueue the Message on Exch And get out (Erc 0)!

PUSH EAX CLI CALL deQueueTSS STI OR EAX,EAX JNZ Send25 POP EAX CLI CALL enQueueMsg JMP Send04 Send25: POP EBX
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX

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CLI MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy MOV EAX,pRunTSS CALL enQueueRdy CALL deQueueRdy CMP EAX,pRunTSS JNE Send03 JMP SHORT Send04 Send03: MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP Send04: XOR EAX,EAX SendEnd: STI MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

No interrupts and put it in the TSS EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ Get the Ptr To the Running TSS and put him on the RdyQ Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ If the high priority TSS is the same as the Running TSS then return Return with ErcOk

; Make the TSS in EAX the Running TSS ; Get the task Id (TR) ; Put it in the JumpAddr ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JMP TSS

; Return to Caller with erc ok.

; ; ; ;

ISendMsg() This is the kernel ISendMsg primitive (Interrupt Send). This procedure allows an ISR to send a message to an exchange. This is the same as SendMsg() except no task switch is performed. If a task is waiting at the exchange, the message is associated (linked) with the task and then moved to the RdyQ. It will get a chance to run the next time the RdyQ is evaluated by the kernel, which will probably be caused by the timer interrupt slicer. Interrupt tasks can use ISendMsg() to send single or multiple messages to exchanges during their execution. Interrupts are cleared on entry and will not be set on exit! It is the responsibility of the caller to set them, if desired. ISendMsg is intended only to be used by ISRs in device drivers. You may notice that jump instructions are avoided and code is placed in-line, where possible, for speed. See listing 18.16. Listing 18.16. IsendMsg kernel primitive code

; Procedural Interface : ; ; ISendMsg(exch, dMsg1, dMsg2):ercType ; ; exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the ; message should be sent. ; ; dMsg1 and dMsg2 are DWORD messages. ; ; Parameters on stack are the same as _SendMsg. PUBLIC __ISendMsg: CLI PUSH EBP
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; ;INTS ALWAYS CLEARED AND LEFT THAT WAY! ;

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MOV EBP,ESP MOV ESI,SendExchange CMP ESI,nExch JNAE ISend00 MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend00:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Get Exchange Parameter in ESI If the exchange is out of range then return to caller with error in the EAX register.

MOV EAX,ESI ; Exch => EAX MOV EDX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EDX ; MOV EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX,EDX ; MOV ESI,EAX ; MAKE ESI <= pExch CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated JNE ISend01 ; return to the caller with error MOV EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 12 ; ISend01: ; Allocate a link block MOV EAX,pFreeLB OR EAX,EAX JNZ SHORT ISend02 MOV EAX,ercNoMoreLBs MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 12 ISend02: MOV EBX,[EAX+NextLB] MOV pFreeLB,EBX DEC _nLBLeft ; pFreeLB <= pFreeLB^.Next ; ; ; NewLB <= pFreeLB; ; IF pFreeLB=NIL THEN No LBs; ; ; caller with error in the EAX register ; ; ;

MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],DATALB ; This is a Data Link Block MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextLB],0 ; pLB^.Next <= NIL; MOV EBX,MessageLo ; Get lower half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataLo],EBX ; Store in lower half of pLB^.Data MOV EBX,MessageHi ; Get upper half of Msg in EBX MOV [EAX+DataHi],EBX ; Store in upper half of pLB^.Data PUSH EAX ; Save pLB on the stack CALL deQueueTSS ; DeQueue a TSS on that Exch OR EAX,EAX ; Did we get one? JNZ ISend03 ; Yes, give up the message POP EAX ; No, Get the pLB just saved CALL enQueueMsg ; EnQueue the Message on Exch JMP ISend04 ; And get out! ISend03: POP EBX MOV [EAX+pLBRet],EBX CALL enQueueRdy ISend04: XOR EAX,EAX MOV ESP,EBP
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; Get the pLB just saved into EBX ; and put it in the TSS ; EnQueue the TSS on the RdyQ

; Return to Caller with erc ok. ;

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POP EBP RETF 12

; ;

WaitMsg() This is the kernel WaitMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task via an exchange. If no message is at the exchange, the task is placed on the exchange, and the ready queue is reevaluated to make the next highest-priority task run. This is a very key piece to task scheduling. You will notice that if there is no task ready to run, I simply halt the processor with interrupts enabled. A single flag named fHalted is set to let the interrupt slicer know that it doesn't have to check for a higher-priority task. If you halted, there wasn't one to begin with. The WaitMsg() and CheckMsg() primitives also have the job of aliasing memory addresses inside of request blocks for system services. This is because they may be operating in completely different memory contexts, which means they have different page directories. See listing 18.17. Listing 18.17. WaitMsg kernel primitive code ; ; A result code is returned in the EAX register. ; ; Procedural Interface : ; ; Wait(dExch,pdqMsgRet):ercType ; ; dExch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to ; where the message should be sent. ; ; pMessage is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the ; message is stored. ; WaitExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] ; ; PUBLIC __WaitMsg: ; PUSH EBP ; MOV EBP,ESP ; MOV ESI,WaitExchange ; Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI,nExch ; If the exchange is out of range JNAE Wait00 ; the return to caller with error MOV EAX,ercOutOfRange ; in the EAX register. MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ; Wait00: MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV CMP JNE MOV MOV EAX,ESI ; ExchId => EAX EBX,sEXCH ; Compute offset of ExchId in rgExch EBX ; EDX,prgExch ; Add offset of rgExch => EAX EAX,EDX ; ESI,EAX ; Put Exch in to ESI DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner], 0 ; If the exchange is not allocated Wait01 ; return to the caller with error EAX,ercNotAlloc ; in the EAX register. ESP,EBP ;

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POP EBP RETF 8 Wait01: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX,EAX JZ Wait02 JMP Wait05 Wait02: MOV EAX,pRunTSS

; ;

; ; ; ; ;

EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If no message (pLB = NIL) Then Wait for Message Else Get Message and Return

; Get pRunTSS in EAX to Wait

;This next section of code Queues up the TSS pointed to ;by EAX on the exchange pointed to by ESI ; (i.e., we make the current task "wait") MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NextTSS], 0 ; pTSSin^.Next <= NIL; XCHG ESI,EAX ; pExch => EAX, pTSSin => ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+EHead], 0 ; if ..TSSHead = NIL JNE Wait025 ; then MOV [EAX+EHead],ESI ; ..TSSHead <= pTSSin; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again JMP SHORT Wait03 ; else Wait025: MOV EDX,[EAX+ETail] ; ..TSSTail^.NextTSS <= pTSSin; MOV [EDX+NextTSS],ESI ; MOV [EAX+ETail],ESI ; ..TSSTail <= pTSSin; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fEMsg], 0 ; Flag it as a TSS (vice a Msg) XCHG ESI,EAX ; Make ESI <= pExch Again ;We just placed the current TSS on an exchange, ;now we get the next TSS to run (if there is one) Wait03: CALL deQueueRdy OR EAX, EAX JNZ Wait035 MOV MOV INC STI HLT CLI XOR MOV JMP Wait035: CMP EAX,pRunTSS JE Wait04 ; Same one as before??? ; You bet! NO SWITCH!!! EDI, 1 dfHalted, EDI _nHalts ; No, then HLT CPU until ready ; Halt CPU and wait for interrupt ; An interrupt has occured. Clear Interrupts EDI,EDI dfHalted, EDI Wait03 ; Get highest priority TSS off the RdyQ ; Anyone ready to run? ; Yes (jump to check pTSS)

; Check for a task to switch to

;Now we switch tasks by placing the address of the ;new TSS in pRunTSS and jumping to it. This forces ;a hardware task switch.

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MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV JMP ; ; ; ; ; Wait04:

pRunTSS,EAX BX,[EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel,BX _nSwitches EAX, TimerTick SwitchTick, EAX FWORD PTR [TSS]

; Make high priority TSS Run. ; ; ;Save time of this switch for scheduler ; ; JUMP TSS (Switch Tasks)

A task has just finished "Waiting" We are now in the new task with its memory space (or the same task if he was high pri & had a msg) If this is a system service it may need RqBlk address aliases If it is an OS service we alias in OS memory!

MOV EDX,pRunTSS MOV EAX,[EDX+pLBRet] Wait05: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; Put the TSS in EAX into EDX ; Get the pLB in EAX

If we got here, we have either switched tasks and we are delivering a message (or Req) to the new task, or the there was a message waiting at the exch of the first caller and we are delivering it. Either way, the message is already deQueued from the exch and the critical part of WaitMsg is over. We can start interrupts again except when we have to return the Link Block to the pool (free it up) ; WE CAN RESTART INTERRUPTS HERE ; Is the link block a Req Link Block? ; No, Treat it as a data link block

STI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType],REQLB JNE Wait06 ;pLB.DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo]

; Save ptr to Link Block ; Get pRqBlk into EBX

;Now we set up to alias the memory for the service ; (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) ;_AliasMem(pMem, dcbMem, dJobNum, ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait051 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData1] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 ; ;is cbData1 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData1 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData1 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of pData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right

PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait051 POP EBX
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MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait051: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX, [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX, ECX JZ Wait052 MOV EAX, [EBX+pData2] OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX, [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX, pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX, EAX JZ Wait052 POP EBX MOV ESP,EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Wait052: POP EAX Wait06: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX,[EAX+DataLo] ECX,[EAX+DataHi] EDX,pMessage [EDX],EBX [EDX+4],ECX ; ; ; ; ;

;Return Error... ; ; ;Second Pointer (pData2) ;Restore ptr to Link Block ;Save again ; Get pRqBlk into EBX ; ;is cbData2 0? ;Yes ; ;is pData2 NULL? ;Yes ;Set up params for AliasMem ;pMem ;cbMem ;dJobNum ;Offset to pData2 in RqBlk ;Linear Address of PData1 ;Error?? ;No, continue ;Make stack right ;Return Error... ; ;

;Restore ptr to Link Block

Get pLB^.Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^.Data in specified memory space (EDX)

;Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX,pFreeLB ; pLBin^.Next <= pFreeLB; MOV [EAX+NextLB],EBX ; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; pFreeLB <= pLBin; INC _nLBLeft ; STI ; XOR EAX,EAX ; ErcOK! (0) MOV ESP,EBP ; POP EBP ; RETF 8 ;

CheckMsg() This is the kernel CheckMsg primitive. This procedure allows a task to receive information from another task without blocking. In other words, if no message is available CheckMsg() returns to the caller. If a message is available it is returned to the caller immediately.
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message should be sent. See listing 18.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk02: CLI CALL deQueueMsg OR EAX. . .ESI . . MOV ESP. MOV ESI. Add offset of rgExch => EAX ADD EAX. ChkExchange EQU [EBP+10h] pCkMessage EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __CheckMsg: . in the EAX register. . exch is a DWORD (4 BYTES) containing the exchange to where the . . MOV EDX. . in the EAX register. Chk01: MOV EAX. pdqMsg is a pointer to an 8 byte area where the message is stored. POP EBP . Exch => EAX MOV EBX. A result code is returned in the EAX register.ChkExchange .EBP . 0 . PUSH EBP .We can be interrupted again . return with erc no msg . Can't be interrupted EAX <= pLB from pExch (ESI) If pLB = NIL Then Go to get msg and return .ercOutOfRange .nExch .sEXCH . . Get Exchange Parameter in ESI CMP ESI.EAX . . return to the caller with error MOV EAX.EAX JNZ Chk03 STI MOV EAX. Is the link block a Req Link Block? RICHARD A BURGESS . address aliasing must also be accomplished here for system services if they have different page directories. CheckMsg(exch.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk03: STI . . MOV ESI. Compute offset of Exch in rgExch MUL EBX . the return to caller with error MOV EAX.REQLB MMURTL V1. Put pExch in to ESI CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+Owner].ESP . . .The caller is never placed on an exchange and the ready queue is not evaluated. . . . .prgExch . .18.ercNotAlloc MOV ESP.0 -270- .pdqMsg):ercType . RETF 8 . . If the exchange is not allocated JNE Chk02 .18. If the exchange is out of range JNAE Chk01 . CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+LBType]. Procedureal Interface : . CheckMsg kernel primitive code .ercNoMsg MOV ESP. MOV EBP. As with WaitMsg().EDX . Listing 18.

cbMem .Yes .Return Error. Save ptr to Link Block .dJobNum . (Alias the 2 Pointers in the RqBlk) .Save again . . EAX JZ Chk031 POP EBX MOV ESP.Yes .Restore ptr to Link Block . dcbMem.Offset to pData2 in RqBlk . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX.Set up params for AliasMem .Make stack right . .Offset to pData1 in RqBlk . [EBX+pData2] OR EAX. ._AliasMem(pMem.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 Chk031: POP EAX PUSH EAX MOV EBX.Make stack right . .JNE Chk04 ..Now we set up to alias the memory for the service .0 -271- RICHARD A BURGESS .No.is cbData1 0? . Treat it as a data link block . MMURTL V1.pLB. Get pRqBlk into EBX . EAX JZ Chk031 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX.Error?? . .Set up params for AliasMem . continue .. [EBX+cbData1] OR ECX. .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .[EAX+DataLo] . [EBX+RqOwnerJob] PUSH EAX ADD EBX. No.Yes . .is cbData2 0? . pData1 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. ECX JZ Chk031 MOV EAX. ECX JZ Chk032 MOV EAX. [EBX+pData1] OR EAX. pData2 PUSH EBX CALL FWORD PTR _AliasMem OR EAX. Get pRqBlk into EBX ..Yes .pMem .Second Pointer (pData2) .pMem ..DataLo is RqHandle (pRqBlk) PUSH EAX MOV EBX. EAX JZ Chk032 POP EBX MOV ESP.[EAX+DataLo] MOV ECX.Linear Address of PData1 .No. continue . .Linear Address of pData1 .is pData2 NULL? . .Return Error.Error?? . ppAliasRet): dError MOV ECX. dJobNum.cbMem .is pData1 NULL? . EAX JZ Chk032 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX MOV EAX. [EBX+cbData2] OR ECX.dJobNum .

pLBin^. . . . CodeSeg. . XOR EAX.Next <= pFreeLB. EIP): dErcRet .Priority OK? -272- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX . INC _nLBLeft . . . . NewTask kernel primitive code .[EAX+DataHi] EDX. For MMURTL version 1. See listing 18. Get pLB^. .Initial stack pointer NTS_EIP EQU [EBP+12] .Data into ECX:EBX Get Storage Addr in EDX Put pLB^. 18h for user task NTS_Pri EQU [EBP+28] . STI .Job Num for this task NTS_CS EQU [EBP+32] . The protect in this version of MMURTL is limited to page protection.Task start address PUBLIC __NewTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.ErcOK! (0) . stack protection is not provided for transitions through the call gates to the OS code. fDebug.Return the LB to the pool CLI MOV EBX. . MOV pFreeLB. NTS_Job EQU [EBP+36] . NewTask() will allocate operating system stack space separately from the stack memory the caller provides as a parameter.TRUE for DEBUGing NTS_Exch EQU [EBP+20] . Priority. NTS_Pri CMP EDX. .x. The change will be transparent to applications when it occurs. Procedural interface: .Exchange for TSS NTS_ESP EQU [EBP+16] .Chk032: POP EAX Chk04: MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EBX. .pFreeLB .Priority of this task NTS_fDbg EQU [EBP+24] . . This creates a new task and schedules it for execution. MOV [EAX+NextLB]. NewTask() This is the kernel NewTask() primitive. and any other access violations caused with result in a general protection violation.ECX .ESP MOV EDX. Exch.Data in specified memory space (EDX) . nPRI-1 MMURTL V1.0 .[EAX+DataLo] ECX.pCkMessage [EDX].EBX [EDX+4]. pFreeLB <= pLBin.Restore Ptr to Link Block .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 . Listing 18.19. . The operating system job-management code uses this to create the initial task for a newly loaded job. This is used primarily to create a task for a job other than the one you are in. NewTask(JobNum.8 for OS.EAX .EAX MOV ESP. In future versions. or page fault.19. . ESP.

Next . .ercOutOfRange NTEnd .EBX [EAX+TSS_ESP0]. ECX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].mov CS into TSS [EAX+TSS_CS]. NTS_ESP .put Priority into TSS DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].EBX CMP DWORD PTR NTS_fDbg. 0 MMURTL V1..pNewTSS into EAX . .JBE NT0000 MOV EAX. EAX POP EAX MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3].CX .0 ..EAX now has pNewTSS MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV [EAX+Priority]. . .0202h . pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.we can't be interrupted . ECX .EBX EBX.No. [ECX+JcbPD] PUSH EAX MOV EAX.Put pJCB into TSS . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS. NTS_Job CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX.get the PD from the JCB MOV EAX.Debug on entry? -273- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX .Restore pNewTSS to EAX .Exch in range? PUSH EAX .ercBadPriority JMP NTEnd NT0000: MOV CMP JBE MOV JMP NT0001: CLI MOV EAX.EAX JNZ NT0002 MOV EAX.Save pNewTSS .ECX MOV EBX. NTS_Job CALL LinToPhy MOV EBX.mov ESP into TSS [EAX+TSS_ESP].Now we get pJCB from JobNum they passed in so we can . nExch NT0001 EAX. NTS_CS .Put new Exch in TSS (ECX is free) EBX.Put Physical Add for PD into TSS_CR3 . NTS_Exch ECX. ECX.Set up to call LinToPhy .Set up to call GetpJCB .ECX now has pJCB . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return. NTS_EIP .[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.ercNoMoreTSSs JMP NTEnd NT0002: MOV EBX.DL .Load the Flags Register [EAX+TSS_Exch].EAX now has pJCB .EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI . .Get Physical Address for PD into EAX .pFreeTSS OR EAX.mov EIP into TSS (Start Address) [EAX+TSS_EIP].Save pNewTSS again . .

Get who's running CMP BYTE PTR [EDX+Priority].EAX .New guy does (lowest num) CALL enQueueRdy .Save time of this switch for scheduler .ErcOk MMURTL V1. fOSCode). .0 -274- RICHARD A BURGESS . As with NewTask().Just put new guy on the ReadyQue (EAX) XOR EAX.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS.We can't be interrupted MOV EDX.ercOk JMP NTEnd . See listing 18. Listing 18. pEntryST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+28] dPriST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+24] fDebugST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+20] pStackST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+16] fOSCodeST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP+12] NewExchST NewTSSST EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] . .Return to caller NT0005: XCHG EAX.New TSS -> EAX . . .Jump to new TSS .20. . .Who got the highest Pri? JA NT0005 . It's the easy way to create additional tasks for existing jobs.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.20. NTS_Pri . 1 NT0004: MOV EBX.BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX. TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.BL .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. . pStack. .EBP POP EBP RETF 28 SpawnTask() SpawnTask is the kernel primitive used to create another task (a thread) in the context of the caller's job control block and memory space. . SpawnTask kernel primitive code .EAX MOV BX. dPriority. Procedural Interface: .pRunTSS . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX.Get priority of new task CLI .Move new TSS into pRunTSS . fDebug. the newly created task is placed on the ready queue if it is not a higher priority than the task that created it. New TSS -> EDX .Yes .EAX NTEnd: STI MOV ESP.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" .CrntTSS -> EAX. SpawnTask(pEntry.Save New TSS .JE NT0004 . .

nPRI-1 JBE ST0001 MOV EAX. move into new TSS MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_EFlags].pEntryST . NewTSS <= pFreeTSS.Load the Flags Register CMP fDebugST.mov ESP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP].Priority OK? .No MOV WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_TrapBit]. OSCodeSel .. JobCodeSel . . EAX JNZ STEnd .Get pJCB from Crnt Task MOV [EAX+TSS_pJCB].Make OS code selector -275- RICHARD A BURGESS .EBX MOV EBX.mov exch into TSS [EAX+TSS_Exch]. EAX . NewExchST PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch OR EAX.pFreeTSS OR EAX..0 . . pStackST . .Yup.Dealloc Exch if we didn't get a TSS PUSH NewExchST CALL FWORD PTR _DeAllocExch MOV EAX.Defaults to OS code selector fOSCodeST.EDX MOV EDX. JMP NTEnd ST0002: MOV EBX. bad news .Yes ST0004: MMURTL V1.ESP SUB ESP. NewExchST .Allocate exchange . IF pFreeTSS=NIL THEN Return.EDX .No. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] . 0 ST0003 WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS]. [EBX+TSS_CR3] . . 1 .ercNoMoreTSSs .see if we got an error .EAX JNZ ST0002 STI .0202h . 0 . .we can't be interrupted . .Allocate a new TSS CLI MOV EAX. .Next .mov EIP into TSS MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP].Debug on entry? JE ST0004 .EBX WORD PTR [EAX+TSS_CS].Get CR3 from crnt task MOV [EAX+TSS_CR3]. NewTSSST.[EAX+NextTSS] MOV pFreeTSS.EBX DEC _nTSSLeft STI MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP JNE MOV ST0003: MOV EBX. 8 CMP dPriST. pFreeTSS <= pFreeTSS^.PUBLIC __SpawnTask: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.EBX MOV EBX.Save new TSS EBX. pRunTSS MOV EDX.EBX MOV [EAX+TSS_ESP0].two local DWORD vars .ercBadPriority JMP STEnd ST0001: LEA EAX.

The Exchange Handle is a DWORD (4 BYTES). .Place crnt TSS on Q . .pRunTSS CMP [EDX+Priority]. . 0 MMURTL V1. New TSS -> EDX .MOV EBX. . Allocate exchange code . . .New TSS -> EAX .If crnt >.Return to caller .Save time of this switch for scheduler . .EBP POP EBP RETF 20 AllocExch() . AllocExch(pExchRet):dError . . .mov priority into BL . . TimerTick MOV SwitchTick.21.put in TSS .ErcOk . returned.CrntTSS -> EAX. This is an auxiliary function to allocate an exchange.[EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.0 . Get number of exchanges in ECX . Listing 18.Move new TSS into pRunTSS . . pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . . EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] XOR EAX. See listing 18. Procedural Interface : . Zero the Exch Index .BX INC _nSwitches MOV EAX.EAX STEnd: STI MOV ESP.Get who's running .we can't be interrupted .Old guy does.EDX PUSH EDX CALL enQueueRdy POP EAX MOV pRunTSS. EBX <= ADR rgExch .Jump to new TSS . It is property of a Job (not a task).EAX JMP STEnd ST0005: XCHG EAX.BL JA ST0005 CALL enQueueRdy XOR EAX.Put Selector/Offset in "TSS" . Is this exchange free to use RICHARD A BURGESS -276- .Who got the highest Pri? . .EAX MOV BX.nExch AE000: CLI CMP DWORD PTR [EBX+Owner]. just put new guy on Q.ercOk . PUBLIC __AllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP.prgExch MOV ECX.21.ESP XOR ESI.New TSS -> Stack . The exchange is a "message port" where you send and receive messages. . New guy does (lowest num) .ESI MOV EBX. dPriST MOV [EAX+Priority].BL CLI MOV EDX.

Deallocate exchange code .EBP . . RETF 4 . Get pRunTSS in EDX MOV EAX. it may have left over link blocks hanging on it. .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. Make the Exch owner the Job STI . . . .sEXCH EDX EDX. .[EDX+TSS_pJCB] . MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+EHead]. .EDX ECX. Put Index of Exch at pExchRet MOV EDX. PUBLIC __DeAllocExch: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Messages are deQueued.[EDX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. Those link blocks may also contain requests. .ESI EDX.0 .EAX . DEC _nEXCHLeft .EDX . . DeAllocExch() This is the compliment of AllocExch(). . TSSs. .0 -277- RICHARD A BURGESS . .EAX . . Make the msg/TSS queue NIL MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+ETail]. .ercNoMoreExch MOV ESP.0 . This means that DeAllocExch() must also be a garbage collector. Procedural Interface : . . .22.[EBP+0CH] EAX. Exch is the Exchange Handle the process is asking to be released.pRunTSS . .pRunTSS EBX. POP EBP . however. Get the pJCB in EAX MOV [EBX+Owner]. . and request blocks are freed up as necessary. . If we found a Free Exch. . .ESP MOV MOV MOV MUL MOV ADD MOV MOV MOV MOV CMP ESI.JE AE001 ADD EBX. . Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV [EDX].ESI . . and link blocks. Load the Exchange Index in ESI Get the Exchange Index in EAX Compute offset of Exch in rgExch Add offset of rgExch => EAX Make a copy in ECX (ECX = pExch) Get the pRunTSS in EDX Get pJCB in EBX Get the Exchange Owner in EDX If the CurrProc owns the Exchange.[EAX+Owner] EBX.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 AE001: . Listing 18. See listing 18.22. When an exchange is returned to the free pool of exchanges. This function has a lot more to do.[EBP+0CH] . Stats XOR EAX.prgExch EAX. MMURTL V1. DeAllocExch(Exch):ercType . .EAX EDX. JUMP Point to the next Exchange Increment the Exchange Index Keep looping until we are done There are no instances of the MOV EDX.sEXCH INC ESI LOOP AE000 STI MOV EAX.

Get the message off of the Exchange OR EAX.EBP . Yes. These services use the default exchange in the TSS to make a request for the caller of a procedural interface. . DE002: MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+Owner]. INC _nTSSLeft . ECX . pTSSin^. Free up the exchange. Stats STI . 0 . Go check for Task (TSS) MOV ESI. EAX JZ DE002 . pFreeTSS <= pTSSin. Nothing there. .EBP POP EBP RETF 4 DE000: . Go And Check for more. JMP DE000 .23. No. If we find an RqBlk on the exchange we must respond . GetTSSExch() This is an auxiliary function that returns the exchange of the current TSS to the caller. JMP DE001 . if not owner.0 -278- RICHARD A BURGESS .Return the LB to the pool MOV EBX. CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+TSS_pJCB]. is this the OS??? .JE DE000 CMP EBX. .ercNotOwner MOV ESP. 0 .pFreeLB . Go And Check for more.with ErcInvalidExch before we continue! This will . MOV [EAX+NextLB]. MMURTL V1. INC _nLBLeft . ECX . ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueTSS .instructions or a service crashes! . Go free the Exch. MOV pFreeLB. NIL = Empty. ESI must point to Exch for deQueue CALL deQueueMsg . POP EBP . yes .ercOK (0) MOV ESP. MOV DWORD PTR [ECX+fEMsg]. 0 .EAX . CLI . MOV [EAX+NextTSS]. Check to See if TSS is queued JE DE002 .EAX . INC _nEXCHLeft . JUMP MOV ESI. pLBin^. . See listing 18. Get the TSS off of the Exchange .EBX . .Free up the TSS (add it to the free list) MOV EBX. Reset msg Flag. pFreeLB <= pLBin.pFreeTSS . yes . This is primarily provided for system services that provide direct access blocking calls for customers.only happen if a system service writer doesn't follow .Next <= pFreeTSS. DE001: CMP DWORD PTR [ECX+EHead]. Make TSS invalid MOV pFreeTSS. 0 . RETF 4 . OFFSET MonJCB JE DE000 MOV EAX.0 .EBX .Next <= pFreeLB.EAX . XOR EAX. See if a message may be queued JE DE001 .

Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV EBX. the complimentary call GetPriority() should be used so the task can be returned to its original priority. MOV EBP. The Exchange is a DWORD (4 BYTES). See listing 18. Set priority code . MOV EAX. Procedural Interface : .pRunTSS .This sets the priority of the task that called it .0 -279- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . PUSH EBP .ESP .EBX . This doesn't really affect the kernel. pExchRet is a pointer to where you want the Exchange Handle . PUBLIC __SetPriority . MOV EBP. because the new priority isn't used until the task is rescheduled for execution. . MOV EAX. RETF 4 . EAX . .No error. POP EBP . MMURTL V1.ESP .23. Nothing higher than 31! MOV BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority].[EBP+0CH] . .[EBP+0CH] . [EAX+TSS_Exch] . PUBLIC __GetTSSExch: . Get the new pri into EBX AND EBX. . . . . EAX . bPriority is a byte with the new priority.Listing 18. PUSH EBP . to the priority specified in the single parameter. . Procedural Interface : . ErcOK . Put Index of Exch at pExchRet XOR EAX. SetPriority(bPriority):dError .24. BL . .24 Listing 18. Get the pExchRet in EDX MOV EBX.Put it in the TSS XOR EAX. ErcOK POP EBP . If this is used to set a temporary increase in priority.pRunTSS . RETF 4 SetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that sets the priority of the caller's task. Get Exch in EBX MOV [ESI]. returned. GetTSS exchange code . Get the Ptr To the Running TSS MOV ESI. 01Fh . GetTSSExch(pExchRet):dError . SetPriority .

See listing 18. Get the MOV DL.25. XOR EAX. MOV EBP.25. DL . .pRunTSS . . MOV EAX. Get priority code . Callers should use GetPriority() before using the SetPriority() call so they can return to their original priority when their "emergency" is over. GetPriority . . .This gets the priority of . Procedural Interface : . SetPriority(bPriorityRet):dError . Get the MOV EBX. priority returned. bPriorityret is a pointer to a . Listing 18. RETF 4 . PUSH EBP . . and passes it to bPriorityRet.0 -280- RICHARD A BURGESS . ErcOK POP EBP . BYTE PTR [EAX+Priority] MOV BYTE PTR [EBX]. the task that called it byte where you want the Ptr To the Running TSS return pointer into EBX No error.[EBP+0CH] .GetPriority() This is an auxiliary function that returns the current priority of the running task.ESP . PUBLIC __GetPriority . EAX . MMURTL V1. .

I call these internal support code.1 is the data segment portion of the memory management code. 20 Bit Address AVL00DA00UWP 00000000000000000000100000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000111b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000000000000101b 00000000000000000000100000000000b 00000000000000000000000000000001b EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU .We alloc the "next" page table . Memory Management Code Introduction The memory management code is contained in the file MemCode. Listing 19.Semaphore exchange for Mem Mgmt . The variable naming conventions should help you follow the code.ASM.Chapter 19. the code section must start with the .Page Allocation Map .User Writable (Data) .1 bit/4Kbytes . The following definitions are used to set memory pages for specific access rights: .User Writable .User Readable (Code) .DATA . The first section comprises all of the internal routines that are used by the public functions users access. It begins with data definitions that are used by all the private (local) and public functions.INC .INC PUBLIC _nPagesFree PUBLIC _oMemMax PUBLIC rgPAM PUBLIC sPAM sPAMmax MemExch pNextPT DD 0 DD 000FFFFFh DB 2048 DUP (0) DD 32 EQU 2048 DD 00000000h DD 00000000h .INCLUDE MOSEDF.1.2048 bytes = 64Mb .System Read/Write Internal Code The code is divided into two basic sections.INCLUDE TSS.0 -281- RICHARD A BURGESS .CODE command.in advance (MANDATORY) It was easier for me to define masks in assembly language. Memory management constants and data . As with all assembler files for DASM. Memory Management Data Three important structures that you modify and deal with are the page allocation map (PAM). MMURTL V1.INCLUDE JOB. I will describe the purpose of each of these functions just prior to showing you the code. The task state segments are also used extensively.Default to 1 MB . page directories (PDs) and page tables (PTs). Listing 19.Number of free physical pages left .Max is 2048 (64Mb) .INC . MEMALIAS MEMUSERD MEMUSERC MEMSYS ALIASBIT PRSNTBIT .Deafult is 32 (1Mb) .

Continuation of memory management init.3 ADD EAX.Read test string into EBX .Next table entry MMURTL V1. 4 . See listing 19. Listing 19. Present MOV EBX.3. OFFSET pTbl1 .ECX MOV EBX.0 -282- RICHARD A BURGESS . We assume 1MB to start. . You also calculate the number of pages of physical memory this is and store it in the GLOBAL variable nPagesFree.Are we above 64 megs .0h MOV DWORD PTR [EAX]. Memory management initialization code .NO! . 32 CMP EAX. 0001h . in megabytes.Make it the last DWord again . EAX . you have.Zero out for next meg test The Page Allocation Map is now sized and Zeroed. EAX CALL MarkPage .OUT: . oMemMax must be last byte .See if we got it back OK . EAX . InitMemMgmt: MOV _nPagesFree. It sets nPagesFree after finding out just how much you have.top of 2 megs (for DWORD) .Next Meg .3 MOV _oMemMax.'mrtl' test string value for memory .100000h ADD _nPagesFree.Supervisor.InitMemMgmt InitMemMgmt finds out how much memory. Its the law! Listing 19.ECX JNE MemLoopEnd ADD EAX. . Note that linear addresses match physical addresses for the initial OS data and code.2.EAX SUB EAX. PUBLIC Nothing Nothing (except that you can use memory management routines now!) ALL REGISTERS ARE USED. This first part MARKS the OS code and data pages as used . Now you must fill in bits used by OS.Yes! . 256 MOV EAX.1FFFFCh XOR EBX.IN: .Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX]. The code in listing 19. It places the highest addressable offset in global oMemMax. 0FFFFF000h .Move in test string . and makes PTEs.Yes. and the Video RAM and Boot ROM. .EBX JMP MemLoop MemLoopEnd: .3 also fills out each of the page table entries (PTEs) for the initial OS code and data.Another megs worth of pages . neither of which you consider free.Increase PAM by another meg .DWORD PTR [EAX] CMP EBX. MOV EDX.USED: . which means we start at the top of 2Mb (1FFFFCh).1 Mb of pages = 256 .Set it to zero intially .Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. which was just loaded.3FFFFFCh JAE MemLoopEnd XOR EBX.2.EBX MOV ECX. by writing to the highest dword in each megabyte until it fails a read-back test.Marks page in PAM ADD EDX.Point to 1st physical/linear page (0) IMM001: MOV [EDX]. 256 ADD sPAM.Set oMemMax .06D72746CH MEMLoop: MOV DWORD PTR [EAX].EDX points to OS Page Table 1 XOR EAX.

Make it index (SHR 12.0 -283- RICHARD A BURGESS .5. The initial page directory and the page table are static. Several chip sets on the market. EAX .Clear prefetch queue MMURTL V1. 4096 . IMM002: MOV MOV SHR MOV ADD IMM003: MOV [EDX]. EBX. Now you allocate an exchange that the OS uses as a semaphore use to prevent reentrant use of the any of the critical memory management functions. . EAX . CR0 .Mark it "User" "ReadOnly" & "Present" MOV EBX.Store Control Reg 0 IM0005 . EAX . which is the upper 384K of the first megabyte.5.Leave upper 20 Bits OR DWORD PTR [EDX]. EDX. and then writing it again.Get Control Reg 0 EAX. Listing 19. allow you to set ROM areas as usable RAM. Continuation of memory management init.ADD CMP JAE JMP EAX. 30000h SHORT IMM002 SHORT IMM001 . Right now you just mark everything from A0000 to FFFFF as used.Next page please CMP EAX. 0A0000h EAX 10 OFFSET pTbl1 EBX . 0FFFFF000h . EBX. Listing 19. OFFSET PDir1 . 100000h .Go for more Now you fill in PAM and PTEs for Video and ROM slots.Points to 128K Video & 256K ROM area . The routine in listing 19.Make Page Table Entry AND DWORD PTR [EDX].Store in Control Reg 3 EAX. EAX. EAX . Now we can go into paged memory mode.Mark it used in the PAM ADD EDX. finding the inaccessible ones and marking them as allocated in the PAM.Yes JMP SHORT IMM003 . This is done by loading CR3 with the physical address of the page directory. After the MOV CR0 you must issue a JMP instruction to clear the prefetch queue of any bogus physical addresses. ANDing it with 8000000h. 0101b . 4 .Setup for MarkPage call CALL MarkPage .EDX pts to Page Table IMM004: MOV MOV MOV OR MOV JMP IM0005: . go back for more . 4096 EAX.1Mb yet? JAE IMM004 . See listing 19.6. then reading CR0. 80000000h .Set paging bit ON CR0. See listing 19. This covers A0000 through 0FFFFFh.Reserve 192K for OS (for now) . SHL 2) . EDX.4. Turning on paged memory management EAX.4 could be expanded to search through the ROM pages of ISA memory. such as the 82C30 C&T. but I can't be sure everyone can do it. nor can I provide instructions to everyone. C0000h –FFFFFh.Physical address of OS page directory CR3.Next PTE entry ADD EAX.No.

See listing 19. It also marks the page as used.Send a dummy message to pick up 0FFFFFFF1h 0FFFFFFF1h FWORD PTR _SendMsg You must allocate a page table to be used when one must be added to a user PD or OS PD. Finishing memory management init. This must be done in advance of finding out we need one because we may not have a linear address to access it if the current PTs are all used up! It a little complicated.No EAX.IN : .All 8 pages used? FHP2 .Done initializing memory managment . .8. PUSH 1 . OFFSET rgPAM MOV EAX. or 0 if error EBX.OUT : . Listing 19. Find highest physical page code . LEA EAX. PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage .Where we are in PAM .. OFFSET pNextPT . MemExch . I'm afraid. Listing 19. 1 page for Next Page Table MOV EAX. sPAM DEC EAX . Of course.0 -284- RICHARD A BURGESS .no memory left. Allocation of memory management exchange . See listing 19..7. This reduces nPagesFree by one.6. 0 . assuming that you will allocate it.Alloc Semaphore Exch for Memory calls PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL MemExch . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.0FFh .7. Get 'em! RETN .Page Allocation Map . FindHiPage FindHiPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the top down and returns the physical address of it to the caller. this means if you call FindHiPage and don't use it you must call UnMarkPage to release it.8.EAX+ECX will be offset into PAM FHP1: CMP JNE CMP JE BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX].Are we at Bottom of PAM? FHPn .Listing 19. MMURTL V1.USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page.

.0FFh FLP2 EAX EAX.Another Byte lower . EBX FHPf EBX. or 0 if error EBX. This reduces nPagesFree by one. sPAM FLPn SHORT FLP1 -285- RICHARD A BURGESS . we must call UnMarkPage to release it.No .Error (BAD CPU???) .Next bit . assuming that you will allocate it.Back for next byte .\ Listing 19.All 8 pages used? .Get the byte with a whole in it.Another Byte lower ..Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) .Set to zero for error FindLoPage finds the first unused physical page in memory from the bottom up and returns the physical address of it to the caller. . Once again. EAX .OUT : . .At the bottom of the Byte? . OFFSET rgPAM XOR EAX. DL SHL EAX.0 BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. 7 XOR EDX.IN : . 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FHPn: XOR EBX.Set the bit indexed by EBX .no memory left. See listing 19.Page Allocation Map . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FHP3: BT JNC CMP JE DEC JMP FHPf: BTS EDX. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FindLoPage EDX.Add page number in byte .. if we call FindLoPage and don't use it.Start at first byte in PAM . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV ECX.Test bits .9.Back for next byte FLP1: CMP JNE INC CMP JAE JMP FLP2: MMURTL V1.FOUND ONE! (goto found) .USED: Nothing EBX is the physical address of the new page. It also marks the page as used. Find lowest physical page code . .One less available . 3 ADD EBX..DEC EAX JMP SHORT FHP1 FHP2: MOV EBX. EDX MOV DL.Set page in use .Are we past at TOP of PAM? .. 0 FHPn EBX FHP3 . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. EAX SHL EBX.9.Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) .

Get Bit offset into PAM AND EBX.Set page in use . 8 FLPn FLP3 . This reduces nPagesFree by one. DL .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to mark Nothing EBX. This function is used with the routines that initialize all memory management function.Error (BAD CPU???) .Get the byte with a whole in it. EBX SHR ECX.OUT : .Set the bit indexed by EBX . 12 DEC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN FLPn: XOR EBX.Get the byte into DL BTS EDX. .End of the Byte? . 0FFFFF000h . See listing 19.ECX is now byte offset into PAM SHR EBX. EAX SHL EBX..Add page number in byte .XOR EBX. . [EAX+ECX] . 12 . Code to mark a physical page in use . BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX] FLP3: BT JNC INC CMP JAE JMP FLPf: BTS EDX.Now EBX = Physical Page Addr (EBX*4096) . OFFSET rgPAM . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. EDX MOV DL. EBX XOR EDX. . Listing 19.Set to zero for error Given a physical memory address.Test bits ..0 -286- RICHARD A BURGESS .BitSet nstruction with Bit Offset MOV [EAX+ECX].Save the new PAM byte DEC _nPagesFree .Multiply time 8 (page number base in byte) . EBX MOV BYTE PTR [ECX+EAX]. 15 .10.FOUND ONE! (goto found) .Page Allocation Map AND EBX.Next bit . 07h . MarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and sets it to show the physical page in use. EBX FLPf EBX EBX.One less available . DL SHL EAX. 3 ADD EBX.One less available POP EDX MMURTL V1.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM MOV DL.10.IN : . EBX .Round down to page modulo 4096 MOV ECX. EBX POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN MarkPage EDX.

DMA operations. INPUT: EAX -. USED: EAX.12. EBX MOV [EAX].Job Number that owns memory we are aliasing . See listing 19. . DL INC _nPagesFree POP EDX POP ECX POP EAX RETN . Flags PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH EDX MOV EAX. ECX MOV DL. etc. 07h ADD EAX. Listing 19.OUT : . Code to free a physical page for reuse .Page Allocation Map .11. PUBLIC LinToPhy: MMURTL V1.BitReset instruction . EBX SHR ECX. See listing 19. [EAX] BTR EDX. . The JCB is used to identify whose page tables you are translating. 12 AND EBX. 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. EBX -. OUTPUT: EAX -.IN : . EBX. UnMarkPage finds the bit in the PAM associated with it and resets it to show the physical page available again. EFlags . ESI. Code to convert linear to physical addresses . This increases nPagesFree by one.11. .POP ECX POP EAX RETN UnMarkPage Given a physical memory address.Physical Address .0 -287- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET rgPAM AND EBX.One more available LinToPhy LinToPhy looks up the physical address of a 32-bit linear address passed in.EBX is now bit offset into byte of PAM . ESI -. This call is used for things like aliasing for messages.Linear Address of PTE for this linear address . This also leave the linear address of the PTE itself in ESI for callers that need it. The linear address is used to look up the page table entry which is used to get the physical address. Listing 19. .USED: EBX is the physical address of the page to UNmark Nothing EBX. 15 SHR EBX.Linear address .ECX is now byte offset into PAM . This function supports the similarly named public routine.12.Round down to page modulo . .

13. EBX . IN : EAX . in which case we return 0. EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. the caller sets it to 256 if you are looking for user memory. FindRun: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PD Shadow Base Offset for memory (0 for OS. . 12 SHL EBX. Code to find a free run of linear memory . [EBX] POP EBX PUSH EBX AND EBX.Get original linear . .Get rid of upper 10 bits . 2048 SHR EBX.Keeps count of how many free found so far . 00000FFFh OR EAX. . The linear address of the run is returned in EAX unless no run that large exists.Cut off upper 22 bits of linear .EAX now has Linear of Page Table . 003FFFFFh SHR EBX. [EBX] AND EAX.*4 makes it byte offset in PT . This is either at address base 0 for the operating system.Move to shadow addresses in PD . The linear run may span page tables if additional tables already exist.0 -288- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX now has ptr to PD! . 2 ADD EBX.Index into shadow addresses from EAX .ESI now has ptr to PD .Leaves pJCB in EAX . [EAX+JcbPD] ADD ESI. 2 ADD EBX.Index into PD for PT we are working on . 2048 FR0: MMURTL V1. EBX .Address of PD saved here .13. OUT: EAX .Save this address for caller . or the 1Gb address mark for the user.Move to shadow addresses MOV ECX. This is an interesting routine because it uses two nested loops to walk through the page directory and page tables while using the SIB (Scale Index Base) addressing of the Intel processor for indexing.PUSH EBX CALL GetpJCB MOV EAX. EBX MOV EAX.mask off lower 12 .Get original linear back in EBX . EBX RETN FindRun .EBX now points to Page Table entry! . EFlags (all other registers saved & restored) EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI .Save Linear .EBX/EAX now points to shadow . EAX MOV EAX.Save it again . EBX MOV EDX. 0FFFFF000h POP EBX AND EBX.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .get rid of lower 12 to make it an index . .*4 to make it a byte offset into PD shadow . Listing 19.Holds count of pages (saved for caller) .Physical base of page is in EAX . See listing 19. . 256 for user) Number of Pages for run Linear address or 0 if no run is large enough still has count of pages EBX.Copy number of pages to ECX. 22 SHL EBX. Save in EBX .Shift out lower 22 bits leaving 10 bit offset . USED: EAX. [EAX+JcbPD] ADD EAX. The EAX register will be set to 0 if you are looking for OS memory. EAX MOV ESI.EAX now has REAL PHYSICAL ADDRESS! FindRun finds a contiguous run of free linear memory in one of the user or operating-system page tables.

we have a linear run large enough to satisy the request. while EAX was index into PT. See listing 19.Not done yet.empty (available) .If .We found enough entries goto OK . . 1024 FR3 EDX SHORT FR0 . go for it XOR EAX. This is the way FindRun left them. or tables.14. EDI . EAX.Not empty. and the count of pages should be in EBX. . 12 OR EAX. . EAX FR2: CMP JB INC JMP FR3: CMP DWORD PTR [EDI+EAX*4]. EDX DEC EBX SHL EBX.Yes.Zero means it's . 22 SHL EAX.The starting linear address is equal to number of the last . The address determines the protection level of the PTE's you add.Is the address NON-ZERO (valid)? JNZ FR1 .If we got here it means that ECX has made it to zero and . 12 SUB EAX. EBX FREXIT: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddRun AddRun adds one or more page table entries (PTEs) to a page table.PTE we found minus ((npages -1) * 4096) .EBX still has count of pages. Many functions that pass data in registers are designed to compliment each other's register usage for speed. [ESI+EDX*4] . EBX . If it is less than 1GB it means operating-system memory space that you will set to system.One more empty one! .go INC MOV JMP FROK: . Next PTE Please.EDX is 10 MSBs of Linear Address .No. Above 1Gb is user which we will set to user level protection. The linear address of the run should be in EAX.In use .EDX was index into PD. .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .Return 0 cause we didn't find it! JMP SHORT FREXIT .Times size of page (* 4096) . keep testing . . EAX .From current linear address in tables we got here we must reset ECX for full count and back and start looking again EAX .EAX indexes into PT (to compare PTEs) MMURTL V1. . . . next PTE please ECX.MOV EDI. 0 JNE DEC JZ INC JMP FR4: .This is the linear address we ended at . if the run spans two or more tables.One less page (0 offset) .0 -289- RICHARD A BURGESS . FR1: XOR EAX.Next PT! . . SHL EDX.Lin address of next page table into EDI OR EDI.We kept original count in EBX FR2 FR4 ECX FROK EAX SHORT FR2 . .EAX is next 10 bits of LA .

EDX MOV EDX.Sets User/Writable bits of PTE -290- RICHARD A BURGESS .Set PTE to present. .0 .Start at the entry 0 of next PT JMP SHORT AR0 . [ESI] .Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use).Are we done?? JZ ARDone ADD EDX.Are we past last PTE of this PT? JB AR1 . MEMSYS CMP EAX. AddRun: EAX Linear address of first page EBX Number of Pages to add Nothing EAX.No. OUT: .Make it index to DWORDS . THEN store it in PT. EDX.LinAdd into EDX again .SO EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. 40000000h JB AR2 OR EBX. EDI is pointing the next PT. 4 . . . EDX.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .Offset to shadow address of PD . .Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .ESI now points to initial PT (EDX now free) .Restore linear address . Adding a run of linear memory .EDX .(save for caller) . CMP EDX. 10 AR0: MOV EDI.Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .Next PTE please. USED: .EBX has Phys Pg (only EBX affected) . .At this point. User ReadOnly . 4096 . . .Now we must call FindPage to get a physical address into EBX. [EAX+JcbPD] POP EAX ADD ESI.Yes. AR1: CALL FindHiPage OR EBX. EBX .Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) . . EFlags PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH MOV MOV SHR SHL EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI ECX. EBX EAX 22 2 .14. 003FF000h SHR EDX.then check the original linear address to see if SYSTEM or USER .EDX is index to exact entry DEC ECX . ARDone: MMURTL V1. IN : . EAX AND EDX. EDX.See if it's a user page . . 2048 ADD ESI. .ESI now has ptr to PD! .and OR in the appropriate control bits. go do next PTE ADD ESI.LinAdd to EDX .Listing 19. next PDE (to get next PT) XOR EDX.Linear address of next page table into EDI PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI.Get index into PD for first PT . MEMUSERD AR2: MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX]. 4 .

LinAdd to EDX . EBX Number of Pages to alias . 8 MOV AliasLin.This first section sets to make [ESI] point to first PT that .POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddAliasRun .Make it index to DWORDS . IN : EAX Linear address of first page of new alias entries . Listing 19. . USED: EAX. .ESP SUB ESP. . . EDX PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH EBX ECX EDX ESI EDI . if the run spans two or more tables . The ESI register has the linear address you are aliasing and the EDX register has the job number. AliasLin EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-4] AliasJob EQU DWORD PTR [EBP-8] AddAliasRun: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Aliased runs are always at user protection levels even if they are in the operating-system address span.15. EDX. and the count of pages should be in EBX. .we have to move the other guy's physical pages into MOV MOV SHR SHL ECX. EBX EAX 22 2 . [EAX+JcbPD] MMURTL V1.ESI now has linear address of PD PUSH EAX CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV ESI. . Once again. EDX. EDX. this is the way FindRun left them.15.Copy number of pages to ECX (EBX free to use). .0 -291- RICHARD A BURGESS . Adding an aliased run of linear memory . . . OUT: Nothing . See listing 19.Get index into PD for first PT . . . EDX Job Number of Job we are aliasing . ESI Linear Address of pages to Alias (from other job) . AddAliasRun adds one or more PTEs to a page table . EFlags . . The new linear address of the run should be in EAX. .(save for caller) . ESI MOV AliasJob.Save EAX thru GetpCrntJCB call .adding PTEs from another job's PTs marking them as alias entries. (from find run) .Leaves pCrntJCB in EAX .or tables.

At this point.EDX is index to exact entry . . 003FF000h SHR EDX. 0FFFFF000h OR EAX. .POP EAX ADD ESI. MOV ESP. EDI is pointing to the PT we are in.cut off system bits of PTE .Are we done?? .LinAdd into EDX again .Next PTE please. EDX MOV EDX.get rid of upper 10 bits & lower 12 .mark it MEMALIAS before adding it to PT. .Yes.Set system bits as ALIAS . 4096 CALL LinToPhy We must . . . AliasJob MOV EBX.Now store it in new PTE MOV DWORD PTR [EDI+EDX].Restore linear address .Address we are aliasing .This is the Physical address to store in the new PTE. . 4 XOR EDX.No.SO then EDI+EDX will point to the next PTE to do. 4 CMP EDX.Now we must call LinToPhy with Linear Add & JobNum . to get a physical address into EAX.Index into PD for PT (10 vice 12 -> DWORDS) .ESI now points to first PT of interest . 4096 JB ALR1 ADD ESI. 2048 ADD ESI.Save for next loop (used by LinToPhy) .Linear address of crnt page table into EDI .0 -292- RICHARD A BURGESS . .Set up for next loop (post increment) . . .EBP POP EBP RETN MMURTL V1.Job we are aliasing . AliasLin ADD AliasLin. go do next PTE . AND EAX.EDX JMP SHORT ALR0 ALRDone: POP POP POP POP POP EDI ESI EDX ECX EBX . EAX AND EDX.Start at the entry 0 of next PT . EAX DEC ECX JZ ALRDone ADD EDX. . MEMALIAS POP ESI .Are we past last PTE of this PT? .Offset to shadow addresses in PD . ALR1: PUSH ESI MOV EAX. . 10 ALR0: MOV EDI.EAX now has physical address for this page . [ESI] . next PDE (to get next PT) . . .Restore ESI (LinToPhy used it) .

ESI now points to PD . .Sorry. pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .no free phy pages!) . initializes it.Move to shadow .Physical address in lower half . Find first empty slot CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EDI. .0 -293- RICHARD A BURGESS .pJCB in EAX . OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem .ESI now points to upper 1 GB in PD .16. 511 AUPT02: ADD ESI. MEMUSERD [ESI].EAX will have Physical address . EBX .Linear add back into EBX . [ESI] OR EBX.(save for caller) PUSH ECX . 2048 EBX. This will be in user address space above 1GB. _nPagesFree OR EAX. EBX LOOPNZ AUPT02 . EFlags .AddUserPT AddUserPT creates a new user page table.Number of entries (at least 1 is already gone) ESI now points to empty Slot Physical Address of new table is still in EAX Get Linear address back into EBX and put them into PD EAX. .EDI points to UserPD Address . . EAX MOV ESI. Listing 19. IN : Nothing . [EDI] ADD ESI.Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR MOV ADD MOV MOV MMURTL V1. JcbPD ADD EDI. AddUserPT: PUSH EBX . 4 MOV EBX. MOV EAX. PUSH EDI . out of physical mem . 2048 MOV ECX. . See listing 19. EAX JNZ AUPT01 MOV EAX. Put it in the User PD (and linear in shadow). because there is no need to update anyone else's PDs. pNextPT [ESI]. Next possible empty entry .See if have enuf physical memory . This is easier than AddOSPT. PUSH ESI . Individual PTEs will be set read-only for code. . PUSH EDX . This sets the protection on the PT to user-Read-and-Write. EAX ESI.Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) . USED: EAX. as shown in the following.Leaves job num in EAX (for LinToPhy) . ErcNoMem JMP AUPTDone AUPT01: CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.Set user bits (Read/Write) .16. Adding a page table for user memory . and sticks it in the user's page directory.Offset to PcbPD in JCB . Is it empty? . No! (Try again) .

1 XOR EAX. OFFSET PDir1 MOV ECX.size of request . pNextPT CALL LinToPhy .Sorry. . Find first empty slot MOV ESI.no free phy pages!) . ErcNoMem JMP AOPTDone AOPT01: MOV EAX. . ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AUPTDone AUPT05: MOV pNextPT. . EAX JNZ AUPT05 MOV EAX. IN : Nothing . ESI points to OS Pdir .17. OUT: 0 if OK or Error (ErcNoMem . Listing 19.See if have enuf physical memory . AddOSPT: PUSH EBX . You must do this to ensure the operating-system code can reach its memory no matter what job or task it's is running in. 1 MOV EBX. 511 MMURTL V1. in many cases. _nPagesFree OR EAX.. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. EAX CALL AddRun AUPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN AddOSPT AddOSPT is more complicated than AddUserPT because a reference to each new operating-system page table must be placed in all user page directories.OS Job Number (Monitor) . PUSH EDI . Adding an operating system page table . EAX JNZ AOPT01 MOV EAX. . .AddRun will return NON-ZERO on error .Pre allocated Page (Linear Address) .0 . USED: EAX.was there an error (0 means no mem) .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . .next time. it won't happen except once or twice while the operating system is running. PUSH ESI . PUSH EDX . MOV EAX. Adding an operating-system page table doesn't happen often. See listing 19. . Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX. .17. Put it in the OS PD (and linear in shadow).Now we now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . EFlags .(save for caller) PUSH ECX . out of physical mem .save pNextPT (the linear address) . Count of PDEs to check -294- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX will have Physical address .

Source EAX . nJCBs AOPT03: MOV EAX.Get values from stack ADD EBX. 2048 .See if PD id zero (Inactive JCB) . OFFSET PDir1 PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL POP POP EBX .Put in Linear address of PT (upper half) OR EAX.EAX now has pointer to a job's PD .Save values on stack MOV EDX. .Move to shadow PUSH EAX PUSH 1024 .EAX NOW points to PD of JCB . # of dynamic JCBs .Upper half of PD (Linear Adds) CALL FWORD PTR _CopyData POP EDX AOPT04: DEC EDX CMP EDX. . 2048 . Is it empty? . Next possible empty entry . ECX JZ AOPT04 ADD EAX.AOPT02: ADD ESI.Move to shadow . PRSNTBIT MOV [ESI]. Not a valid JCB (unused) . EAX ADD ESI.Physical address in lower half . No! (Try again) now points to empty PDir Slot still has Physical Address of new table Physical Address back into EBX put them into PDir . 4 MOV EBX.0 .Destination 1024 . EDX CALL GetpJCB MOV ECX. ESI EAX Get and . JcbPD MOV EBX. pNextPT MOV [ESI].Set present bit .Save nJCB we are on . The OS will usually not take 4 MBs even with ALL of its dynamic structures (except on a 32 Mb system or larger and when fully loaded) . .Source of Copy . EBX LOOPNZ AOPT02 .Is it a valid Job? (0 if not) .Lower half of PD (Physical Adds) FWORD PTR _CopyData EBX EAX .Move to shadow PUSH EBX ADD EAX. . . Get back JCB number . .Linear add back into EBX .Next JCB . 2048 MOV EBX.No. 2 JA AOPT03 MMURTL V1.Jobs 1 & 2 use PDir1 (Mon & Debugger) -295- RICHARD A BURGESS . EBX . . [EAX+JcbPD] OR ECX. [ESI] OR EBX. Update ALL PDs from PDir1 !! This doesn't happen often if it happens at all.

CX Selector number for call gate in GDT (constants!) . ESI. Get a run of 1 for next new page table MOV EBX.0 -296- RICHARD A BURGESS .At this point the new table is valid to ALL jobs! . USES: EAX. DPL entry of 2 CC0x (Not used in MMURTL) . AddGDTCallGate AddGDTCallGate builds and adds a GDT entry for a call gate. ErcNoMem JMP SHORT AOPTDone AOPT05: MOV pNextPT. ESI Offset of entry point in segment of code to execute .next time. This is 40h through the highest allowed call gate number.18. EAX AOPTDone: POP EDI POP ESI POP EDX POP ECX POP EBX RETN .size of request . Listing 19. . Not all of the calls are present here because some are very similar. . This call doesn't check to see if the GDT descriptor for the call is already defined. EBX. allowing access to OS procedures. . Adding a call gate to the GDT . else 0 if all's well . It assumes you know what you are doing and overwrites one if already defined. 1 XOR EAX. .AddRun . . Public Memory Management Calls You now begin the public call definitions for memory management. .PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) . IN: AX . EAX CALL AddRun XOR EAX. EAX JNZ AOPT05 MOV EAX. ECX. . See listing 19. DPL entry of 1 AC0x (Not used in MMURTL) .save pNextPT (the linear address) . The calling conventions all follow the Pascal-style definition. (x = count of DWord params 0-F) .was there an error (0 means no mem) . DPL entry of 3 EC0x (most likely) . OUT: EAX Returns Errors.Word with Call Gate ID type as follows: .Set ErcOK (0) . EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX. . The selector number is checked to make sure you're in range..18.We now need another PreAllocated Page Table for . . DPL entry of 0 8C0x (OS call ONLY) . EFLAGS MMURTL V1. .

SI . 8 .Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. for a task gate. The selector of the call is always 8 for interrupt or trap. 16 MOV WORD PTR [EDX+6]. GDTBase . . RETF AddCG02: MOVZX EBX. MOV EAX.Yes.Gates are 8 bytes each (times 8) .EDX now points to gate .Offset of entry point in OS code to execute (THIS MUST BE 0 FOR TASK GATES) EAX. EBX. Adding entries to the IDT . USES: AX .PUBLIC __AddCallGate: CMP CX. . 3 ADD EDX. AX MOV WORD PTR [EDX+2]. ESI MOV WORD PTR [EDX].16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. . interrupt. nCallGates . CX SHL EDX. . ESI.see if too high! JBE AddCG02 . .Word with Gate ID type as follows: Trap Gate with DPL of 3 8F00 Interrupt Gate with DPL of 3 8E00 Task Gate with DPL of 3 8500 .Put Gate ID into gate .Put in the selector -297- RICHARD A BURGESS . 40 . .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.Extend INT Num into EDX .0 . SI . . IN: . 40h .No.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06].19. CX . ECX. AX MOV EAX. Listing 19.Selector of gate (08 or TSS selector for task gates) . CX SUB EBX. the selector of the call is the task state segment (TSS) of the task. 3 . .Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX.Is number within range of callgates? JAE AddCG01 . 16 . EDX.not too low. ercBadGateNum RETF AddCG01: MOVZX EBX. EAX . . OFFSET IDT MOV WORD PTR [EDX+4]. See listing 19.Put Offset 15:00 into gate . MOV EAX. BX MMURTL V1. . or task gate.NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02]. . ercBadGateNum . EFLAGS PUBLIC __AddIDTGate: MOVZX EDX. AX SHR EAX.19. .Word with Interrupt Number (00-FF) BX CX ESI .make index vice selector CMP EBX.call DPL & ndParams XOR EAX. AX .0 = No Error RETF AddIDTGate AddIDTGate builds and adds an interrupt descriptor table (IDT) trap.Put Offset 31:16 into gate .

The steps involved depend on the internal routines described above.See if have enuf physical memory . .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . Listing 19. we're maxed out EAX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .size of request . we add another page table to the operating-system page directory. ErcNoMem SHORT ALOSPExit .20. Allocating a page of linear memory .These equates are also used by AllocPage ppMemRet EQU [EBP+0Ch] .EAX ALOSP00 EAX. If the current PT doesn't have enough contiguous entries.n4KPages XOR EAX. pRunTSS ADD EAX. n4KPages EQU [EBP+10h] . _nPagesFree ALOSP01 EAX. .RETF . A result code is returned in the EAX register.Can't be zero! .ercBadMemReq ALOSPExit . . . Find a contiguous run of linear pages to allocate. AllocOSPage(dn4KPages. EAX JNZ SHORT ALOSP02 . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.0h JNE SHORT ALOSPExit MOV OR JNZ MOV JMP ALOSP00: CMP JBE MOV JMP ALOSP01: MOV EBX. . This allows runs to span table entries.20.No Error! EAX. but not close enough to easily combine their code. AllocOSPage This allocates one or more pages of physical memory and returns a linear pointer to one or more pages of contiguous memory in the operating system space. The steps are: Ensure you have physical memory by checking nPagesFree.0 -298- RICHARD A BURGESS . .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. Allocate each physical page.Sorry boss.Yes! Serious problem.Yes .Kernel Error?? .ppMemRet): dError .If we didn't find a run big enuf we add a page table MMURTL V1. .size of request . placing it in the run of PTEs You search through the page tables for the current job and find enough contiguous PTEs to satisfy the request.PD shadow offset needed by FindRun (0) .More than 0? . Procedureal Interface : .(0 = No Runs big enuf) . PUBLIC __AllocOSPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. AllocPage and AllocDMAPage are not shown here because they are almost identical to AllocOSPage. See listing 19.Yes .n4KPages EAX. EAX CALL FindRun OR EAX.

ppAliasRet EQU [EBP+12] .Save last error PUSH MemExch .pMem EQU [EBP+24] .Add a new page table (we need it!) . however . Code to alias memory . . Listing 19.Give em new LinAdd XOR EAX. dJobNum.Get address of caller's pointer MOV [EBX]. See if they are available. The pages are created at user protection level even if they are in operating memory space. EAX .ERROR!! . . if it crosses page boundaries. dcbMem is the number of bytes needed for alias access. . EAX . MMURTL V1. This is for the benefit of system services installed in operating-system memory. . Calculate how many entries (pages) will be needed. . .No error ALOSPExit: . RETF 8 . Make PTE entries and return alias address to caller. This allows system services to access a caller memory for messaging without having to move data around.21. The step involved in the algorithm are: See if the current PD equals specified Job PD. POP EBP . ppAliasRet): dError .JobNum EQU [EBP+16] . . No alias is needed.Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Only an entry in a table.Go back & try again . EAX JZ SHORT ALOSP01 JMP SHORT ALOSPExit ALOSP02: . dcbMem. PUSH EAX . . Even if the address is only two bytes.0 -299- RICHARD A BURGESS . JobNum is the job number that pMem belongs to.CALL AddOSPT OR EAX. This wastes no physical memory.EBP . . you need two pages. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h .Does not return error . AliasMem AliasMem creates alias pages in the current job's PD/PTs if the current PD is different than the PD for the job specified. POP EAX . . .See if it's 0 (0 = NO Error) .EAX now has linear address . ppAliasRet is the address to return the alias address to. Procedureal Interface : .EBX still has count of pages CALL AddRun . pMem is the address to alias.dcbMem EQU [EBP+20] .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) MOV ESP.EAX still has new linear address MOV EBX. AliasMem(pMem. ppMemRet . CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg . If so. Exit. .

.ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV EBX.Wait at the MemExch for Msg . 256 JMP SHORT ALSP01 ALSP011: XOR EAX.Add the remainder of address DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .Exit. .OS Job? .See if it is OS based service .Yes. EAX. . . [EBP+24] . EAX JNZ ALSP04 CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.EAX is now linear address or 0 if no run is large enough . EAX.EAX is now nPages we need! EAX . 1 JE SHORT ALSP03 CALL AddUserPT JMP SHORT ALSP03 MMURTL V1.PUBLIC __AliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Yes . . TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.pMem into EAX 0FFFh . pRunTSS ADD EAX. We're IN! ALSP00: MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV EBX. EAX ALSP01: MOV EBX. EAX JMP ALSPDone . ECX CALL FindRun . EAX ECX. . EBX JNE ALSPBegin XOR EAX. .See if it is OS based service .Kernel Error?? .EBX still has count of pages OR EAX.Was there enough PTEs? .Yes! Serious problem.MODULO 4096 (remainder) [EBP+20] . 1 JE SHORT ALSP011 MOV EAX. we're done ALSPBegin: .Number of pages we need into EBX . . PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. . EBX.Puts Current Job Num in EAX . User memory .EAX is nPages-1 .Save nPages in ECX .EAX is 256 for user space.0 .0h JNE ALSPDone .EAX has 0 or 256 .dcbMem EBX .Add to dcbMem 12 .EBX is number of pages for run CALL GetCrntJobNum CMP EAX.Now wait our turn with memory management . 0 for OS .Get Job number for pMem . EAX.Now we find out whos memory we are in to make alias .No! Add a new USER page table -300- RICHARD A BURGESS .Yes . .Set up for OS memory space .No. alias it .Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . EAX.Yes . No Error .No.OS Job? . [EBP+16] CMP EAX.Are they the same Page Directory?? .

. you do not need to go through the operating system memory semaphore exchange because you are only zeroing out PTE's one at a time. EAX .Set to 0 (no error) .0 = NO Error . . take new alias mem and add trailing bits to address . dcbAliasBytes. . . dcbAliasBytes is the size of the original memory aliased MMURTL V1. See listing 19.EBP POP EBP RETF 16 . POP EAX ALSPDone: MOV ESP.We are done ALSPExit: . [EBP+24] EAX. Code to remove alias PTEs .Get original error back (ignore kernel erc) . JobNum):ercType .No! Add a new OS page table MOV EDI.EAX .and return to caller so he knows address (EDI is lin add) MOV AND ADD MOV MOV XOR EAX. PUSH EAX . This would not interfere with any of the memory allocation routines. EDI EAX. DeAliasMem DeAliasMem zeros out the page entries that were made during the AliasMem call. CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg .pAliasRet .22. . [EBP+24] MOV EDX.Save last error . PUSH MemExch .EBX .Address to alias .original pMem .ERROR!! . pAliasMem is the address to "DeAlias" .Send a Semaphore msg (so next guy can get in) .ALSP02: CALL AddOSPT ALSP03: OR EAX.Set has linear address (from find run) Sve in EDI still has number of pages to alias ESI to linear address of pages to alias (from other job) EDX job number of job we are aliasing . 0FFFh EDI. [EBP+16] CALL AddAliasRun . [EBP+12] [ESI]. EAX JZ SHORT ALSP00 JMP SHORT ALSPExit ALSP04: .Save alias page address base .Job number . Listing 19.Go back & try again .Get remaining bits .22.Set .0 -301- RICHARD A BURGESS .Returned address to caller! . EAX MOV ESI. DeAliasMem(pAliasMem. .Now. Procedureal Interface : . . PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . . EAX ESI. PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h . .

Next linear page . [EBP+20] . if so just ZERO PTE.Yes. EAX DALM03: ADD EDX.0 .. EDX MOV EAX.dcbAliasBytes . 4096 LOOP DALM01 DALMExit: MOV ESP. [EBP+16] .NO . XOR EAX. . PRSNTBIT JNZ DALM02 CMP JNE MOV JMP DALM011: MOV EAX.Is page present (valid)??? .Call this to get address of PTE into ESI EBX.DO not zero it! . .pMem into EAX EBX. EBX . it's page is present .Linear Mem to DeAlias .Is page an ALIAS? . EDI DALM011 EAX.EAX is now nPages we need! ECX. . 12 .pAliasMem . . EAX MOV [ESI].See if PTE is an alias.Calculate the number of pages to DeAlias MOV AND MOV ADD ADD SHR INC MOV MOV MOV DALM01: MOV EBX. .ESP . DWORD PTR [EBP+20] .We did some.AliasJobNum EQU [EBP+20] EQU [EBP+16] EQU [EBP+12] .Now we have Physical Address in EAX (we don't really need it) . . PUBLIC __DeAliasMem PUSH EBP MOV EBP.Save also in EDI (for compare) EDX. [EBP+12] CALL LinToPhy .Number of pages into EDI & ECX EDI. ALIASBIT JZ DALM03 .MODULO 4096 (remainder) EAX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . [EBP+20] . EAX . -302- RICHARD A BURGESS .dcbMem EAX.Address of next page to deallocate .EAX is nPages-1 EAX .If we got here the page is presnt and IS an alias .and pointer to PTE in ESI (We NEEDED THIS).EBP MMURTL V1.Add the remainder of address EAX. .Add to dcbMem EAX.None at all! . 0FFFh .Job num into EAX for LinToPhy .NO! (did we do any at all) .DO NOT deallocate the physical page MOV EBX. ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DALMExit .ECX .ZERO PTE entry .Get PTE into EBX .but less than you asked for! ECX. [ESI] TEST EBX. .We dealiased what we could.so we zero out the page. ErcBadAlias JMP SHORT DALMExit DALM02: TEST EBX.

PUBLIC __DeAllocPage: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. its page is present -303- RICHARD A BURGESS . pOrigMem EQU [EBP+10h] n4KPagesD EQU [EBP+0Ch] .23.POP EBP RETF 12 .23. .and pointer to PTE in ESI.See if PTE is an alias.Wait at the MemExch for Msg .Get PTE into EBX . . . DeAllocPage This frees up linear memory and also physical memory that was acquired with any of the allocation calls. providing it is valid. pOrigMem AND EDX. .Yes. See listing 19. deallocate. Deallocating linear memory . The lower 12 bits of the pointer is actually ignored .Leave Job# in EAX for LinToPhy .Yes! . 0FFFFF000h MOV ECX. . EDX CALL GetCrntJobNum CALL LinToPhy .Now we have Physical Address in EAX .ESP PUSH MemExch MOV EAX. Procedureal Interface : . DeAllocPage(pOrigMem.Address of next page to deallocate . Listing 19. .else deallocate physical page THEN zero PTE MOV EBX.Drop odd bits from address (MOD 4096) . this will deallocate or deAlias as much as it can before reaching an invalid page. n4KPages is the number of 4K pages to deallocate .0h JNE DAMExit MOV EDX. . Even if you specify more pages than are valid.Number of pages to deallocate . .0 .Linear Mem to deallocate . It will always free linear memory. . pOrigMem is a POINTER which should be point to memory page(s) to be .Is page present (valid)??? . . . if so just ZERO PTE. TSS_Msg PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg CMP EAX.Put Msg in callers TSS Message Area . n4KPages):ercType . . PRSNTBIT JNZ DAP02 MMURTL V1. because we deallocate 4K pages. [ESI] TEST EBX. n4KPagesD DAP01: MOV EBX.Error?? . This will only free physical pages if the page is not marked as an alias. pRunTSS ADD EAX.

ErcBadLinAdd SHORT DAMExit . over memory error . . 0 JNE DAMExit1 POP EAX DAMExit1: MOV ESP.save Memory error . it's an Alias . ALIASBIT JNZ DAP03 . EAX MOV [ESI]. . AND EBX.Kernel error has priority .Yes. Procedureal Interface : .Next linear page . pdnPagesRet is a pointer where you want the count of pages MMURTL V1.Is page an ALIAS? . . Listing 19. so next guy can get in .ZERO PTE entry . . QueryMemPages(pdnPagesRet):ercType .get rid of OS bits . Their 1Gb linear space is sure to hold what we have left. EAX ADD EDX.24.We deallocated what we could.If we got here the page is presnt and NOT an alias .EBP POP EBP RETF 8 QueryMemPages This gives callers the number of physical pages left that can be allocated. 0FFFFF000h CALL UnMarkPage DAP03: XOR EAX.If we fall out EAX = ErcOK already . .NO! (did we do any at all) .but less than you asked for! . . 4096 LOOP DAP01 DAMExit: PUSH EAX PUSH MemExch PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h PUSH 0FFFFFFF1h CALL FWORD PTR _SendMsg CMP EAX.None at all! MOV EAX.We did some.Send a dummy message to pick up . . Code to find number of free pages . You can do this because you can give them any physical page in the system. .0 -304- RICHARD A BURGESS . n4KPagesD DAP011 EAX.. . See listing 19.so we must unmark (release) the physical page.24. ErcShortMem JMP SHORT DAMExit DAP02: TEST EBX. .CMP JNE MOV JMP DAP011: ECX.get Memory error back .

EBP POP EBP RETF 12 . Keep in mind that the last 12 bits of the physical address always match the last 12 of the linear address because this is below the granularity of a page. .No Error . EAX .25. Procedureal Interface : .0 -305- RICHARD A BURGESS . . GetPhyAdd(JobNum. pMemleft EQU [EBP+0Ch] PUBLIC __QueryPages: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. left available returned . . GetPhyAdd This returns the physical address for a linear address. . pPhyRet .JobNum EQU [EBP+20] . EAX XOR EAX. pPhyRet points to the unsigned long where the physical address will . . [EBP+20] CALL LinToPhy MOV ESI. PUBLIC __GetPhyAdd: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. This call would be used by device drivers that have allocated buffers in their data segment and need to know the physical address for DMA purposes. pPhyRet):ercType .LinAdd EQU [EBP+16] . No Error . EAX MOV ESP. . Linear Address . . . LinAdd is the Linear address you want the physical address for .25.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .pPhyRet EQU [EBP+12] . . be returned . _nPagesFree [ESI]. Public for linear to physical conversion .. Listing 19. Job Number .ESP MOV EBX. MOV ESP.END OF CODE MMURTL V1. EAX EAX. LinAdd. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI]. .ESP MOV MOV MOV XOR ESI. [EBP+16] MOV EAX. . . pMemLeft EAX. See listing 19. . .

.

The average really depends on program loading.1.. In a 10ms period we have 200.000 clocks on a 20-MHz machine. testing is the only real way to be sure it will function properly.2 percent of available bandwidth. etc. I was consuming less than 0.0h JNE IntTmr02 PUSH EAX PUSH ECX PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] MOV EAX.Chapter 20. I ended up with 10ms. As you well know. Back when I started this project. divided by the total clocks for the same period. certain problems with memory access such as non-cached un-decoded instructions. It was 0. This file contains all of the code that uses or deals with timing functions in MMURTL. Your bandwidth is the percentage of clocks executed for a given period.200 BPS will interrupt every 520us.2 percent. My calculated worst case was approximately 150us. I added up all the clock cycles in the ISR for a maximum time-consuming interrupt. Listing 20. actually the scheduler. or 3000 clocks. Even more important than total bandwidth. as well as the fastest one possible. and anything less than 20-MHz all but disappearing.6 percent for the worst case. See listing 20. The following are the instructions in the timer interrupt service routine that could be "looped" on for the maximum number of times in the worst case. It's at the end of the timer ISR. The average is was far less. Timer Management Source Code Introduction The timer code is the heart of all timing functions for the operating system.0 -307- RICHARD A BURGESS . because the timer interrupt sends messages for the Sleep() and Alarm() functions. The numbers before each instruction are the count of clocks to execute the instruction on a 20MHz-386. however.FALSE JE IntTmr03 CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. 20-MHz machines were "screamers" and I was even worried about consuming bandwidth on machines that were slower than that. MMURTL is no exception. which is very conservative. so I simply added 10 percent for the overhead.1. along with a piece of the kernel. But even with these calculations. memory wait-states. which works out to about 1. Loop in timer ISR 6 3 6 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 40 IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. Somewhere between these two was the average. The timer interrupt service routine (ISR) is also documented here. Choosing a Standard Interval Most operating systems have a timer interrupt function that is called at a fixed interval to update a continuously running counter. a slow machine. was the effect on interrupt latency. I experimented with several different intervals. I did some time-consuming calculations to figure what percentage of CPU bandwidth I was using with my timer ISR. with 100-MHz machines around. -1 PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg MMURTL V1. I began with 50ms but determined I couldn't get the resolution required for timing certain events. and it also wasn't fast enough to provide smooth. The most time-critical interrupts are nonbuffered serial communications. preemptive multitasking. Two of them will come in at 260us. This doesn't take into account nonaligned memory operands. especially synchronous. my worries were unfounded. A single communications channel running at 19.

These are the offsets into the structure . .2. plus 130 clocks for the execution of ISendMsg() in each loop. Multiply the total (255) times the maximum number of timer blocks (64) and it totals 16.DATA . the exchange number of a task that is sleeping.DD 00000000h . TIMER INTERRUPT COUNTER and TimerBlocks . EXTRN SwitchTick DD EXTRN dfHalted DD PUBLIC TimerTick DD 0 . or 20us.DD 00000000h TmrRespExch EQU 4 . The only additional time consumer is if we tack on a task switch at the end if we must preempt someone.Number of timer blocks in use PUBLIC rgTmrBlks DB (sTmrBlk * nTmrBlks) DUP (0) MMURTL V1. See listing 20. and finally with test programs.INCLUDE MOSEDF. The Timer Block is a structure that contains .DD 00000000h CountDown EQU 8 . Timer Data The following section is the data and constants defined for the timer interrupt and associated functions. A task switch made by jumping to a TSS takes approximately 400 clocks on a 386.Incremented every 10ms (0 on bootup). But.320 clocks. and 250 on a 486 or a Pentium. PUBLIC nTmrBlksUsed DD 0 . The real worst case would probably be more like 150us. Each TimerBlock is 12 Bytes long .INC . that would be 860us just for this worst-case interrupt. and I tried a hundred calculations with a spread sheet. This I could live with. including the 10 percent overhead.ALIGN DWORD .FALSE DEC nTmrBlksUsed JMP IntTmr03 IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX. SwitchTick and dfHalted are flags for the task-scheduling portion of the timer interrupt.2. or one that has requested an alarm.2 2 6 5 7 6 2 11 POP ECX POP EAX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse]. . Listing 20. hold on a minute! That only happens if all of the tasks on the system want an alarm or must wake up from sleep exactly at the same time. The odds of this are truly astronomical.INC .0 -308- RICHARD A BURGESS . That's a bunch! On a 20-MHz machine. This doesn't cause a problem at all.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 This works out to 125 clocks for each loop. sTmrBlk EQU 12 fInUse EQU 0 . Data and constants for timer code . 400 clocks on a 20-MHz CPU is 50 nanoseconds times 400.INCLUDE TSS.

You have now interrupted that task. You check to see if the same task has been running for 30ms or more.CODE EXTRN ChkRdyQ NEAR EXTRN enQueueRdy NEAR EXTRN deQueueRdy NEAR . The timer interrupt service routine .No.nTmrBlks CLD . Listing 20.goto next block CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown]. The timer interrupt fires off every 10 milliseconds. -1 . See listing 20.save ptr to rgTmpBlk PUSH ECX .save current count PUSH DWORD PTR [EAX+TmrRespExch] .Timer Code The timer interrupt and timing related function are all defined in the file TmrCode.Timer Block found? JE IntTmr03 . It would require manipulating items in the TSS to make it look as if they weren't nested.. It's really the only part of task scheduling that isn't cooperative.. If so. 0 JE SHORT TaskCheck IntTmr00: LEA EAX.0 -309- RICHARD A BURGESS . The task you interrupted is placed back on the ready queue in exactly the state you interrupted it. Listing 20. yet very important part.Move forward thru the blocks IntTmr01: CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].0h . the first things defined in this code segment. you switch to it.3.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.Yes . which is the one you interrupted. You couldn't reschedule tasks this way if you were using interrupt tasks because this would nest hardware task switches. and they may be of an equal. we call ChkRdyQ and check the priority of that task.Yes .EAX has addr of Timer Blocks .Yes! . allow the timer interrupt to access kernel helper functions from Kernel. .ISend Message MOV EAX. The Sleep() and Alarm() functions set these blocks as callers require.4.ASM. or higher. PUBLIC IntTimer: PUSHAD INC TimerTick CMP nTmrBlksUsed. If it is the same or higher.Timer Tick. They may have been placed there by other ISRs.3. At all times on the system.is count at zero? JNE IntTmr02 .No . priority than the task that is now running.4. It is a small. Other tasks maybe waiting at the ready queue to run. The three external near calls.FFFFFFFFh MMURTL V1.INTS are disabled automatically .ECX has count of Timer Blocks .Anyone sleeping or have an alarm set? . INT 20 . only one task is actually executing.ASM.FALSE . Keep this in mind if you use interrupt tasks instead of interrupt procedures like I do. The timer interrupt code also performs the important function of keeping tabs on CPU hogs. See listing 20.No . The Timer Interrupt The timer interrupt checks the timer blocks for values to decrement. External functions for timer code .goto decrement it PUSH EAX . The timer interrupt is part of the scheduling mechanism.

his . EAX JNZ TaskCheckDone MOV EAX.BX .DL is pri of current .tell him his times up! POP ECX . MOV ESI. CMP EAX.. and on the RdyQ MOV pRunTSS.EDI . Keep track of # of preemptive switches MOV EAX. Keep track of how many switches for stats INC _nSlices . .get count back POP EAX .Free up the timer block DEC nTmrBlksUsed .Change this to change the "time slice" . ESI CALL enQueueRdy ..number was higher and we DON'T .0 -310- RICHARD A BURGESS . dfHalted OR EAX.bogus msg CALL FWORD PTR _ISendMsg ..We will now check to see if this guy has been running . [EAX+Priority] JC TaskCheckDone CALL deQueueRdy MOV EDI.YES. SUB EAX.Is this from a HALTed state? .empty blk IntTmr02: DEC DWORD PTR [EAX+CountDown] IntTmr03: ADD EAX.Correct count of used blocks JMP IntTmr03 . [ESI+Priority] CMP DL.bogus msg PUSH EAX .next block please! . JL SHORT TimerTick SwitchTick EBX 3 TaskCheckDone . no need to check tasks . pRunTSS MOV DL. Make the TSS in EDI the Running TSS MOV BX.sTmrBlk LOOP IntTmr01 .The CMP subtracts Pri of Queued from . That means . we want to Switch. MMURTL V1. Put it in the JumpAddr for Task Swtich INC _nSwitches .or Equal.PUSH EAX . and save in EDI .get ptr back MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Hasn't been 30ms yet for this guy! CALL ChkRdyQ OR EAX..Get next highest Pri in EAX (Leave Queued) .switch him out if someone with an equal or higher pri . EAX JZ TaskCheckDone . MOV EBX. If so. Save time of this switch for scheduler MOV SwitchTick..FALSE . Put current one in EAX .keep going .for more then 30ms (3 ticks). TimerTick .Must do this before we switch! CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ .[EDI+Tid] .If current is higher(lower num). EAX .No. we will .is on the RdyQ TaskCheck: MOV EAX.Is there one at all?? .skip decrement .Compare current pri to highest queued . Get the task ID MOV TSS_Sel. EAX MOV EAX.current pri.unless were done . PUSH 0 . Get high priority TSS off the RdyQ .10ms more gone. If the Queued Pri is LOWER .if we got a CARRY on the subtract.

TRUE .EBP .ESP .TSS_Msg .EBX . DelayCnt CMP EAX.5.Offset of msg area PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _WaitMsg .No .ErcOk . PUBLIC __Sleep: PUSH EBP . .unless were done MOV EAX.all is well JMP Delay03 Delay02: STI ADD EAX. The exchange used is the TSS_Exch in the TSS for the current task.0 -311- RICHARD A BURGESS .Must do this before we switch! .Up the blocksInUse count MOV ECX. TaskCheckDone: PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ POPAD .DelayCnt . IRETD .Sorry.Use the Timer Block INC nTmrBlksUsed . See listing 20.Pass exchange (for WaitMsg) ADD ECX.EBX .Empty block? JNE Delay02 . MOV EAX.FALSE . Listing 20.rgTmrBlks .can't let others interfere CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Get TSS_Exch for our use MOV EBX.ErcNoMoreTBs .goto next block MOV EBX.FAR return from publics MMURTL V1. Sleep() .pRunTSS . This requires an exchange.sTmrBlk LOOP Delay01 . MOV EBP. RETF 4 .and Wait for it to come back MOV EAX.5. out of timer blocks Delay03: MOV ESP.nTmrBlks . 0 . POP EBP .[ECX+TSS_Exch] . JMP TSS (This is the task swtich) . The timer interrupt sends the message and clears the block when it reaches zero. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].put it in timer block! STI PUSH EBX .Count of timer blocks CLD . MOV [EAX+TmrRespExch].clear direction flag Delay01: CLI . Code for the Sleep function DelayCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . The sleep routine delays the calling task by setting up a timer block with a countdown value and an exchange to send a message to when the countdown reaches zero.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.Get delay count MOV [EAX+CountDown].See if there's no delay JE Delay03 LEA EAX.JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] POPAD IRETD .

KillAlarm() KillAlarm searches the timer blocks looking for any block that is destined for the specified Alarm exchange. MOV EBP.nTmrBlks . DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].0 . AlarmExch EQU [EBP+10h] AlarmCnt EQU [EBP+0Ch] . nothing will stop it. AlarmCnt):dErc . The message is not repeatable. . 0 .FALSE . which means the message has already been sent. Alarm(nAlarmExch. .Alarm() Alarm() sets up a timer block with a fixed message that will be sent when the countdown reaches zero.EBP POP EBP RETF 8 .See if there's no delay JE Alarm03 LEA EAX. PUBLIC __Alarm: PUSH EBP .all is well Alarm03 . Procedural Interface: .put it in timer block! .sTmrBlk LOOP Alarm01 MOV EAX. It must be set up each time. Code for the Alarm function .It's OK to interrupt now EAX.6. -312- RICHARD A BURGESS .Up the blocksInUse count EBX.clear direction flag Alarm01: CLI CMP JNE MOV MOV MOV INC MOV MOV STI MOV JMP Alarm02: STI ADD EAX.EAX points to timer blocks MOV ECX.Use the Timer Block nTmrBlksUsed .ESP . out of timer blocks .Get delay count [EAX+CountDown]. AlarmCnt CMP EAX.TRUE .7.goto next block EBX.Empty block? Alarm02 .unless were done . The message will always be two dwords with 0FFFFFFFFh (-1) in each.6. AlarmExch [EAX+TmrRespExch].EBX . All alarms set to fire off to that exchange are killed.It's OK to interrupt now .ErcOk . If the alarm is already queued through the kernel. MOV EAX. MMURTL V1. .Sorry. See listing 20.EBX . Listing 20. See listing 20.Count of timer blocks CLD .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].No .AlarmCnt .ErcNoMoreTBs Alarm03: MOV ESP.rgTmrBlks .

-313- RICHARD A BURGESS .EAX MOV ESP.EBX .8.It's OK to interrupt now .Block in use? KAlarm02 .Make Empty nTmrBlksUsed .ESP CMP nTmrBlksUsed.No blocks in use . so we get out! . But it's still very much needed. Listing 20. .unless were done .Count of timer blocks . . The task is actually not suspended at all. which drives the processor clock.ErcOk .TRUE . . Procedural Interface MicroDelay(dDelay):derror PUBLIC __MicroDelay: PUSH EBP MMURTL V1. The count is in 15us increments. . Procedural Interface: .Listing 20.Make blocksInUse correct KAlarm02: STI ADD EAX.sTmrBlk LOOP KAlarm01 KAlarm03: XOR EAX.EAX points to timer blocks .goto next block [EAX+TmrRespExch]. Code for the KillAlarm function . KAlarmExch EQU [EBP+0Ch] . The refresh bit is based on the system's quartz crystal oscillator.7.No . This forms an instruction loop checking the toggled value of an I/O port.clear direction flag . 0 JE KAlarm03 MOV EBX. The call can also be inaccurate due to interrupts if they are not disabled.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . KillAlarm(nAlarmExch):dErc .ALl done -. PUBLIC __KillAlarm: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. See listing 20. .nTmrBlks CLD KAlarm01: CLI CMP JNE CMP JNE MOV DEC .FALSE . MicroDelay() Microdelay() provides small-value timing delays for applications and device drivers.KAlarmExch LEA EAX. The timing for this delay is based on the toggle of the refresh bit from the system status port.rgTmrBlks MOV ECX.8. This call will not be very accurate for values less than 3 or 4 (45 to 60 microseconds).Get exchange for killing alarms to . .can't let others interfere DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].Does this match the Exchange? KAlarm02 DWORD PTR [EAX+fInUse].0 . Code for the MicrDelay function .

get out if they came in with 0! . Code to read the CMOS time . Procedural Interface: GetCMOSTime(pdTimeRet):derror pCMOSTimeRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSTime: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. Listing 20.71h MOV BL. EAX MOV ESP.ESP MOV ECX.Seconds . [EBP+0Ch] CMP ECX.04h OUT 70h.AL IN AL. MMURTL doesn't keep the time internally. 0 JE MDL01 MDL00: IN AL.MOV EBP. . pCMOSTimeRet MOV [ESI]. See listing 20. . the next byte is the Hours in BCD. . 10h CMP AH. The time is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. EBX MMURTL V1.Hours . and the high order byte is 0.Get delay count .ESP XOR EBX. AL LOOP MDL00 MDL01: XOR EAX.Give 'em the time -314- RICHARD A BURGESS . 8 MOV EAX.Clear time return . the next byte is the minutes in BCD.00h OUT 70h.AL SHL EBX. . 61h AND AL.9.AL IN AL.0 .check refrest bit . AL JE MDL00 MOV AH.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Check toggle of bit . 8 MOV EAX. GetCMOSTime() This reads the time from the CMOS clock on the PC-ISA machines. AL SHL EBX. . The low order byte is the seconds in Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).Get system status port .Minutes .02h OUT 70h.No toggle yet . EBX MOV EAX.71h MOV BL.Toggle! Move to AH for next compare .9.AL MOV ESI. .AL IN AL.71h MOV BL.

Day of month .ESP . EAX MOV ESP.10. . MOV EBP. EBX XOR EAX. 0-6 0=Sunday). AL SHL EBX. 8 MOV EAX.71h MOV BL. pCMOSDateRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetCMOSDate: PUSH EBP .0 -315- RICHARD A BURGESS .71h MOV BL. GetCMOSDate() The Date is returned from the CMOS clock as a dword. EAX MOV ESP. pCMOSDateRet MOV [ESI].Month . No Error .07h OUT 70h.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 . . . XOR EBX.09h OUT 70h. The low-order byte is the day of the week (BCD.Give 'em the time . See listing 20.AL IN AL. . . and the high order byte is year (BCD 0-99). 8 MOV EAX.AL IN AL. Procedural Interface: . the next byte is the month (BCD 1-12). .Clear date return MOV EAX. . MMURTL V1. AL SHL EBX.71h MOV BL.AL IN AL.XOR EAX.AL IN AL.08h OUT 70h.EBP POP EBP RETF 4 .Year . Code to read the CMOS date .10. 8 MOV EAX.71h MOV BL. the next byte is the day (BCD 1-31). GetCMOSDate(pdTimeRet):derror .06h OUT 70h. No Error .Day of week .AL SHL EBX. EBX .AL MOV ESI. Listing 20.

Timer 2. AL MOV AL.0 . pTickRet MOV EAX. AL IN AL. AH NOP NOP NOP NOP OUT 42h.ECX needs length of tone ON-TIME in 10ms increments BEEP_Work: MOV AL. MSB.Send quotient (left in AX) -316- RICHARD A BURGESS . The system clock drives the timer so the formula to find the proper frequency is a function of the clocks frequency.193182Mhz . which is connected to the system internal speaker. Code to return the timer tick . Helper function for Beep() and Tone() . Listing 20.This does all work for BEEP and TONE . . With a 10ms interval. . EAX XOR EAX.ESP MOV ESI. LSB. This means the system tick counter will roll-over approximately every 16 months. MMURTL maintains a double word counter that begins at zero and is incremented until the machine is reset or powered down.No Error . The Current Timer Tick is returned (it's a DWord). Because it is a dword. The length of time the tone is on is controlled by the Sleep() function which is driven by the system tick counter.800.12. Binary .11. EDX MOV EAX.The clock freq to Timer 2 is 1. . pTickRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetTimerTick: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. The procedural interface: .11.EBX needs the desired tone frequency in HERTZ .DIVISOR is in EBX (Freq) . . .193182Mhz by Desired Freq.1.To find the divisor of the clock. .12. See listing 20. Hardware timer number 2. Listing 20. there are over 4 billion ticks before rollover occurs. . this amounts to 262. EAX POP EBP RETF 4 Beep_Work() Beep_Work() is an internal function (a helper) used by the public calls Tone() and Beep().193182 Mhz . 10110110b OUT 43h.000 ticks per month. . 61h MMURTL V1. AL XOR EDX. See listing 20.GetTimerTick() This returns the ever-increasing timer tick to the caller. divide 1. TimerTick MOV [ESI]. 1193182 DIV EBX OUT 42h. GetTimerTick(pdTickRet):derror . is used to generate tones.

350ms . . 11111100b OUT 61h. AL RETN Beep() . dTickseRet):derror dFreq is a DWord with the FREQUENCY in HERTZ dTicks is a DWord with the duration of the tone in 10ms increments EQU [EBP+10h] EQU [EBP+0Ch] ToneFreq ToneTime . .13. 800 MOV ECX. if it had. . This call uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. I couldn't resist.14.ECX is TIME ON in 50ms incs. See listing 20. MMURTL V1. .Freq . . Code to produce a tone . CALL FWORD PTR _Sleep IN AL. 00000011b PUSH EAX POP EAX OUT 61h. AL PUSH ECX . . Code to produce a beep . . . . I would have called it Beep_Beep(). Listing 20. 61h NOP NOP NOP NOP AND AL. See listing 20.13. 35 CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF Tone() .0 -317- RICHARD A BURGESS . Listing 20. .ESP MOV EBX. Tone allows the caller to specify a frequency and duration of a tone to be generated by the system's internal speaker.) This provides a fixed tone from the system's internal speaker as a public call for applications to make noise at the user. Procedural Interface: Beep() PUBLIC __Beep: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. It uses the helper function Beep_Work described earlier. This function has nothing to with the Road Runner. (Sorry. Procedural Interface: Tone(dFreq.14.OR AL.

PUBLIC __Tone: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. MMURTL V1.ESP MOV EBX. . ToneTime CALL Beep_Work POP EBP RETF 8 . ToneFreq MOV ECX.0 -318- RICHARD A BURGESS . .

Main Operating System Data . Initial TSS for Debugger NIL .Chapter 21.ASM. Initialization Code Introduction This chapter contains code from two separate files. This is because many things have to be started before you can allocate memory where the dynamic allocation of resources can begin.INC . and Public Call Gate table. and I don't worry about the rest of it. .INCLUDE JOB. It defines the selectors for public call gates so the rest of the OS code can call into the OS. Initial OS Page Table (PT).INCLUDE TSS. Following these tables is the data segment portion from Main. Everything is packed unless you tell it otherwise with the . access to the data is faster if it is.ASM which is presented later in this chapter.” I covered the basics of a generic sequence that would be required for initialization of an operating system. Kernel Structures . The code contains comments noting which of these items are temporary.======================================================= . Pointer to Free List of Task State Segs 0 .0 -319- RICHARD A BURGESS .INC for structure details.ASM.ALIGN DWORD . The assembler does no alignment on its own.INCLUDE MOSEDF. It is the entry point in the operating system. The first file is Main. a workhorse for Main. the first instruction executed after boot up.INC .See MOSEDF.ASM. Certain data structures and variables are allocated that may only be used once during the initialization process. In chapter 7. Initial TSS for OS/Monitor sTSS dup (0) . ptr to alloced mem for dynamic TSSs nTSS-2 . Global Descriptor table (GDT). The order of the first 5 files included in the assembler template file for MMURTL are critical. The public call gate table is not a processor-defined table as the others are. “OS Initialization.======================================================= PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC MonTSS DbgTSS pFreeTSS pDynTSSs _nTSSLeft DB DB DD DD DD sTSS dup (0) .1.ALIGN DWORD command issued to the assembler. OS Global Data Listing 21.1 begins the data segment after the static tables that were in previous include files. Periodically you will see the . Listing 21.ALIGN command. For stats (less static TSSs) MMURTL V1. I generally try to align data that is accessed often. The second file is InitCode.INC . Initial OS Page Directory (PD). The tables prior to this portion of the data segment are: Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT). Even though the Intel processors can operate on data that is not aligned by its size.DATA .

;-----------------PUBLIC rgLBs DB (nLB*sLINKBLOCK) dup (0) ; pool of LBs PUBLIC pFreeLB DD NIL ; Ptr to Free List of Link Block PUBLIC _nLBLeft DD nLB ; For Monitor stats ;-----------------; The RUN Queue for "Ready to Run" tasks PUBLIC RdyQ DB (sQUEUE*nPRI) dup (0) ; Priority Based Ready Queue

;-----------------; Two static Job Control Blocks (JCBs) to get us kick-started. ; The rest of them are in allocated memory PUBLIC MonJCB PUBLIC DbgJCB ;-----------------PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC GDTLimit GDTBase IDTLimit IDTBase DW DD DW DD 0000h 00000000h 0000h 00000000h ;Global Descriptor Table Limit ;base ;Interrupt Descriptor Table Limit ;base DB sJCB dup (0) DB sJCB dup (0) ; Monitor JCB ; Debugger JCB

;-----------------PUBLIC rgSVC DB (sSVC*nSVC) dup (0) Descriptors

; Setup an array of Service

;-----------------;Exchanges take up a fair amount of memory. In order to use certain kernel ;primitives, we need exchanges before they are allocated dynamically. ;We have an array of 3 exchanges set aside for this purpose. After ;the dynamic array is allocated an initialized, we copy these into ;the first three dynamic exchanges. These static exchanges are used ;by the Monitor TSS, Debugger TSS, and memory Management. PUBLIC nExch rgExchTmp DD 3 ; This will be changed after allocation ; of dynamic exchanges. 3) dup (0) ; Setup three static temporary Exchanges ; for Monitor and Debugger TSSs ; These are moved to a dynamic Exch Array ; as soon as it's allocated. OFFSET rgExchTmp ; Pointer to current array of Exchanges. 0 ; Pointer to dynamic array Exchanges. nDynEXCH ; For Monitor stats

DB (sEXCH *

PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

prgExch

DD

pExchTmp DD _nEXCHLeft DD

;------------------;Scheduling management variables PUBLIC TSS PUBLIC TSS_Sel .ALIGN DWORD PUBLIC pRunTSS PUBLIC SwitchTick PUBLIC dfHalted
MMURTL V1.0

DD 00000000h DW 0000h

; Used for jumping to next task ; " "

DD NIL DD 0 DD 0

; Pointer to the Running TSS ; Tick of last task switch ; nonzero if processor was halted

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PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC

_nSwitches _nSlices _nReady _nHalts

DD DD DD DD

0 0 0 0

; ; ; ;

# # # #

of of of of

switches for statistics sliced switches for stats task Ready to Run for stats times CPU halted for stats

;THESE ARE THE INITIAL STACKS FOR THE OS Monitor AND Debugger OSStack DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K OS Monitor Stack OSStackTop DD 00000000h OSStackSize EQU OSStackTop-OSStack Stack1 Stack1Top Stack1Size DD 0FFh DUP (00000000h) ;1K Debugger Stack DD 00000000h EQU Stack1Top-Stack1

;----------------rgNewJob cbNewJob rgOSJob cbOSJob rgDbgJob cbDbgJob _BootDrive DB 'New Job' EQU 7 DB 'MMOS Monitor' EQU 12 DB 'Debugger DD 12 DD 00 ' ;Placed in New JCBs

;Placed in first JCB

;Name for Job ;Size of Job Name ;Source drive of the boot

Operating System Entry Point
The first instruction in Main.ASM is the entry point to the operating system. This is the first instruction executed after the operating system is booted. Look for the .START assembler command. The address of this instruction is known in advance because the loader(boot) code moves the data and code segments of the operating system to a specific hard-coded address. The .VIRTUAL command allows you to tell the assembler where this code will execute, and all subsequent address calculations by the assembler are offset by this value. It is similar to the MSDOS assembler ORIGIN command, with one major difference: DASM doesn't try to fill the segment prior to the virtual address with dead space. The .VIRTUAL command can only be used once in an entire program and it must be at the very beginning of the segment it's used in. For MMURTL, the start address is 10000h, the first byte of the second 64K in physical memory. You'll see many warnings about the order of certain initialization routines. I had to make many warnings to myself just to keep from "housekeeping" the code into a nonworking state. I felt it was important to leave all of these comments in for you. See listing 21.2. Listing 21.2. OS Initialization Code and Entry Point

; This begins the OS Code Segment .CODE ;

MMURTL V1.0

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RICHARD A BURGESS

.VIRTUAL 10000h ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

;64K boundry. This lets the assembler know ;that this is the address where we execute

BEGIN OS INITIALIZATION CODE This code is used to initialize the permanent OS structures and calls procedures that initialize dynamic structures too. "Will Robinson, WARNING, WARNING!! Dr. Smith is approaching!!!" BEWARE ON INITIALIZATION. The kernel structures and their initialization routines are so interdependent, you must pay close attention before you change the order of ANYTHING. (Anything before we jump to the monitor code that is)

EXTRN InitCallGates NEAR EXTRN InitOSPublics NEAR EXTRN _Monitor NEAR EXTRN InitIDT NEAR EXTRN InitFreeLB NEAR EXTRN InitDMA NEAR EXTRN Set8259 NEAR EXTRN InitKBD NEAR EXTRN AddTSSDesc NEAR EXTRN InitMemMgmt NEAR EXTRN InitNewJCB NEAR EXTRN InitVideo NEAR EXTRN InitFreeTSS NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicJCBs NEAR EXTRN InitDynamicRQBs NEAR EXTRN DbgTask NEAR ;========================================================================== ; Set up the initial Stack Pointer (SS = DS already). ; This is the first code we execute after the loader ; code throws us into protected mode. It's a FAR jump ; from that code... ;========================================================================== .START PUBLIC OSInitBegin: LEA EAX,OSStackTop MOV ESP,EAX MOV _BootDrive, EDX

; Setup initial OS Stack ; FIRST THING IN OS CODE. ; Left there from BootSector Code

;========================================================================== ; Set up OS Common Public for IDT and GDT Base and Limits ; THE SECOND THING IN OS ;========================================================================== SGDT FWORD PTR GDTLimit SIDT FWORD PTR IDTLimit ;A formality - we know where they are! ;

;========================================================================== ; Setup Operating System Structures and motherboard hardware ; THIS IS RIGHT AFTER WE GET A STACK. ; YOU CAN'T ALLOCATE ANY OS RESOURCES UNTIL THIS CODE EXECUTES!!! ;========================================================================== CALL InitCallGates ; Sets up all call gates as DUMMYs ; except AddCallGate which must be made valid first!

MMURTL V1.0

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CALL InitOSPublics CALL InitIDT

; Sets up OS PUBLIC call gates ;Sets up default Interrupt table ;NOTE: This uses CallGates! ; count of Link Blocks ; EDX is size of a Link Block ; Init the array of Link Blocks ; Sets up DMA with defaults ; Set up 8259s for ints (before KBD) ; Initialize the Kbd hardware ; Highest IRQ number (all IRQs) ; Tell em to work

MOV ECX,nLB MOV EDX,sLinkBlock CALL InitFreeLB CALL InitDMA CALL Set8259 CALL InitKBD PUSH 0 CALL FWORD PTR _EndOfIRQ

;Set time counter divisor to 11938 - 10ms ticks ;Freq in is 1.193182 Mhz/11932 = 100 per second ;or 1 every 10 ms. (2E9Ch = 11932 decimal) MOV OUT MOV OUT STI AL,9Ch 40h,AL AL,02Eh 40h,AL ; ; ; ; Makes the timer Tick (lo) 10 ms apart by setting clock divisior to (hi byte) 11,932

; We are ready to GO (for now)

;========================================================================== ; The following code finishes the initialization procedures BEFORE the ; OS goes into paged memory mode. ; We set up an initial Task by filling a static TSS, creating and loading ; a descriptor entry for it in the GDT and we do the same for the debugger. ;========================================================================== ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Make the default TSS for the CPU to switch from a valid one. This TSS is a valid TSS after the first task switch. IMPORTANT - Allocate Exch and InitMemMgmt calls depend on pRunTSS being valid. They can not be called before this next block of code!!! Note that this TSS does NOT get placed in the linked list with the rest of the TSSs. It will never be free. We also have to manaully make it's entry in the GDT.

;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Montitor program) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET MonTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of TSS Address of GDT entry to fill

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself ;and Load Task Register with the descriptor (selector) ;Note that none of the TSS register values need to be filled in ;because they will be filled by the processor on the first ;task switch.
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MOV MOV MOV SUB MOV MOV LTR MOV

EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX pRunTSS,EBX ;this IS our task now!!! EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ;ptr to initial TSS descriptor EAX, OFFSET GDT ;Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) WORD PTR [EBX+Tid] ; Setup the Task Register BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 25 ;Priority 25 (monitor is another APP) MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Phys address of PDir1 MOV WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 1 ;Number of first TSS (Duh) ;Set up Job Control Block for Monitor (always Job 1) ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], 1 ;Number the JCB MOV EBX, OFFSET MonTSS ;Must put ptr to JCB in TSS MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX ;pJCB into MonTSS MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 ;Page Directory MOV ESI, OFFSET rgOSJob ;Job Name MOV ECX, cbOSJob ;Size of Name XOR EDX, EDX ;NO pVirtVid yet (set up later in init) CALL InitNewJCB

; IMPORTANT - You can't call AllocExch before pRunTSS is VALID! ; THIS IS THE FIRST POINT AllocExh is valid MOV EAX, pRunTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for initial (first) TSS

;============================================================================= ; ; Set up DEBUGGER Task and Job ; The debugger is set up as another job with its one task. ; The debugger must not be called (Int03) until this code executes, ; AND the video is initialized. ; We can't use NewTask because the debugger operates independent of ; the kernel until it is called (INT 03 or Exception) ; ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the initial TSS (for Debugger) and places it into the GDT MOV EAX, sTSS MOV EBX, 0089h MOV EDX, OFFSET DbgTSS MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 CALL AddTSSDesc ; ; ; ; Limit of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0) Address of Debugger TSS Address of GDT entry to fill in

;Now that we have valid Descriptor, we set up the TSS itself MOV EAX, OFFSET rgTSSDesc+8 ; ptr to second TSS descriptor SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS
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MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV

EBX, OFFSET DbgTSS ; Get ptr to initial TSS in EBX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFh; I/O Permission [EBX+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (Task ID) BYTE PTR [EBX+Priority], 1 ; Debugger is HIGH Priority DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CR3], OFFSET PDir1 ;Physical address of PDir1 EDX, OFFSET DbgTask [EBX+TSS_EIP],EDX WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_CS],OSCodeSel ; Put OSCodeSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_DS],DataSel ; Put DataSel in the TSS WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ES],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_FS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_GS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS],DataSel ; WORD PTR [EBX+TSS_SS0],DataSel ; EAX, OFFSET Stack1Top DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP],EAX ; A 1K Stack in the Dbg TSS DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_ESP0],EAX ; DWORD PTR [EBX+TSS_EFlags],00000202h ; Load the Flags Register WORD PTR [EBX+TSSNum], 2 ; Number of Dubegger TSS

;Set up Job Control Block for Debugger ;JOB 0 is not allowed. First JCB IS job 1, debugger is always 2 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JobNum], MOV [EBX+TSS_pJCB], EAX MOV EBX, OFFSET PDir1 MOV ESI, OFFSET rgDbgJob MOV ECX, cbDbgJob MOV EDX, 1 CALL InitNewJCB

2 ;Number the JCB ;EBX still points to DbgTSS ;Page Directory (OS PD to start) ;Name ;size of name ;Debugger gets video 1

;Now allocate the default exchange for Debugger MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgTSS ADD EAX, TSS_Exch PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocExch

;Alloc exch for Debugger TSS

At this point, all of the static data that needs to be initialized is done. You had to set up all the necessary items for kernel messaging so we could initialize memory management. This was necessary because memory management uses messaging. There are many "chickens and eggs" here. Move one incorrectly and whamo – the code doesn't work. Not even the debugger. This really leaves a bad taste in your mouth after about 30 hours of debugging with no debugger. The memory-management initialization routines were presented in chapter 19, “Memory Management Code.” See listing 21.3. Listing 21.3. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; ALSO NOTE: The InitMemMgmt call enables PAGING! Physical addresses ; will not necessarily match Linear addresses beyond this point. ; Pay attention! ; CALL InitMemMgmt
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;this the first point it can be called. ;It also calls SEND! Once we have the memory allocation calls working, we can allocate space for all of the dynamic arrays and structures such as task state segments, exchanges, and video buffers. See listing 21.4. Listing 21.4. Continuation of OS initialization

;================================================================ ; FIRST POINT memory management calls are valid ;================================================================ ;Now we will allocate two virtual video screens (1 Page each) ;for the Monitor and Debugger and place them in the JCBs ;Also we set pVidMem for Monitor to VGATextBase address ;cause it has the active video by default PUSH 1 ; 1 page MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Ptr to Monitor JCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid ; Offset in JCB to pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! MOV EAX, OFFSET MonJCB ; Make VirtVid Active for Monitor MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+pVidMem], VGATextBase

PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB ADD EAX, pVirtVid PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage MOV EAX, OFFSET DbgJCB MOV EBX, [EAX+pVirtVid] MOV [EAX+pVidMem], EBX CALL InitVideo

; 1 page ;

; Get 'em! ; ; Video NOT active for Debugger ;Set Text Screen 0

; ;

MOV EAX,30423042h ;BB on CYAN - So we know we are here! MOV DS:VGATextBase+00h,EAX

;=============================================================== ; FIRST POINT video calls are valid ; FIRST POINT Debugger is working (only because it needs the video) ; At this point we can allocate pages for dynamic structures and ; initialize them. ;=============================================================== ; Allocate 8 pages (32768 bytes) for 64 Task State Segments (structures). ; Then call InitFreeTSS (which fills them all in with default values) PUSH 8 ; 8 pages for 64 TSSs (32768 bytes) MOV EAX, OFFSET pDynTSSs ; PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage ; Get 'em! XOR EAX, EAX
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MOV ECX, 8192 MOV EDI, pDynTSSs REP STOSD MOV EAX, pDynTSSs MOV ECX, nTSS-2 CALL InitFreeTSS CALL InitDynamicJCBs CALL InitDynamicRQBs

; (512 * 64 = 32768 = 8192 * 4) ; where to store 0s ; Do it

; count of dynamic TSSs (- OS & Dbgr TSS) ; Init the array of Process Control Blocks

;================================================================ ; Allocate 1 page (4096 bytes) for 256 Exchanges (16*256=4096). ; Exchanges are 16 bytes each. Then zero the memory which has ; the effect of initializing them because all fields in an Exch ; are zero if not allocated. PUSH 1 MOV EAX, OFFSET pExchTmp PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX, EAX ECX, 1024 EDI, pExchTmp STOSD ; 1 pages for 256 Exchs (4096 bytes) ; Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs ; ; Get it! ; ; ; ; Clear allocated memory (4*1024=4096) where to store 0s Store EAX in 1024 locations

;Now we move the contents of the 3 static exchanges ;into the dynamic array. This is 60 bytes for 3 ;exchanges. MOV MOV MOV REP MOV MOV MOV ESI, prgExch EDI, pExchTmp ECX, 12 MOVSD EAX, pExchTmp prgExch, EAX nExch, nDynEXCH ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Source (static ones) Destination (dynamic ones) 12 DWords (3 Exchanges) Move 'em! The new ones prgExch now points to new ones 256 to use (-3 already in use)

All of the basic resource managers are working at this point. You actually have a working operating system. From here, you go to code that will finish off the higher-level initialization functions such as device drivers, loader tasks. See listing 21.5. Listing 21.5. End of Initialization Code

CALL _Monitor ;

;Head for the Monitor!!

;The Monitor call never comes back (it better not...) ; HLT ; ;Well, you never know (I AM human)

Initialization Helpers
The file InitCode.ASM provides much of the support "grunt work" that is required to get the operating system up and running. The procedure InitOSPublics() sets up all the default values for call gates, and interrupt vectors, and it initializes some of the free dynamically allocated structures such as TSS's and link blocks.

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Near the end of this file are the little assembly routines to fill in each of the 100-plus call gate entries in the GDT. I have not included them all here in print because they are so repetitive. This is noted in the comments. See listing 21.6. Listing 21.6. Initialization Subroutines

.CODE ; EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN

IntQ NEAR IntDivBy0 NEAR IntDbgSS NEAR IntDebug NEAR IntOverFlow NEAR INTOpCode NEAR IntDblExc NEAR INTInvTss NEAR INTNoSeg NEAR INTStkOvr NEAR IntGP NEAR INTPgFlt NEAR IntPICU2 NEAR IntTimer NEAR IntKeyBrd NEAR

;=========================================================================== ;The following code initializes structures just after bootup ;=========================================================================== ; ; INPUT : ECX,EDX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; REGISTERS : EAX,EBX,ECX,FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeLB,rgLBs ; ; This routine will initialize a free pool of link blocks. ; The data used in this algorithm are an array of ECX link blocks (rgLBs), ; each EDX bytes long and pointer to a list of free link blocks (pFreeLB). ; ; The pFreeLB pointer is set to address the first element in rgLBs. Each ; element of rgLBs is set to point to the next element of rgLBs. The ; last element of rgLBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). ; PUBLIC InitFreeLB: LEA EAX,rgLBs ; pFreeLB <= ^rgLBs; MOV pFreeLB,EAX ; LB_Loop: MOV EBX,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; rgLBs[I].Next <= MOV [EBX+NextLB],EAX ; ^rgLBs[I+1]; LOOP LB_Loop ; MOV DWORD PTR [EBX+NextLB], 0 ; rgFree[1023].Next <= NIL; RETN ; ;======================================================================= ; AddTSSDesc ; Builds a descriptor for a task and places it in the GDT. If you ; check the intel documentation the bits of data that hold this ; information are scattered through the descriptor entry, so ; we have to do some shifting, moving, anding and oring to get
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; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

the descriptor the way the processor expects it. See the Intel docs for a complete description of the placement of the bits. Note: The granularity bit represents the TSS itself, not the code that will run under it!

IN: EAX - Size of TSS EBX - Decriptor type (default for OS TSS is 0089h) (0089h - G(0),AV(0),LIM(0000),P(1),DPL(00),(010),B(0),(1)) EDX - Address of TSS EDI - Address of Desc in GDT OUT: GDT is updated with descriptor USED: EFlags (all other registers are saved)

PUBLIC AddTSSDesc: ;The following code section builds a descriptor entry for ;the TSS and places it into the GDT PUSH EAX PUSH EBX PUSH EDX PUSH EDI DEC EAX ; (Limit is size of TSS-1) SHL EBX,16 ; Chinese puzzle rotate ROL EDX,16 ; Exchange hi & lo words of Base Addr MOV BL,DH ; Base 31 .. 24 MOV BH,DL ; Base 23 .. 16 ROR EBX,8 ; Rotate to Final Alignment MOV DX,AX ; Limit 15 .. 0 with Base 15 .. 0 AND EAX,000F0000h ; Mask Limit 19 .. 16 OR EBX,EAX ; OR into high order word MOV [EDI],EDX ; Store lo double word MOV [EDI+4],EBX ; Store hi double word POP EDI POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX RETN ;========================================================================= ; InitFreeTSS ; INPUT : EAX, ECX ; OUTPUT : NONE ; USED : ALL General registers, FLAGS ; MODIFIES : pFreeTSS (and the dynamic array of TSSs) ; ; This routine initializes the free pool of Task State Segments. ; On entry: ; EAX points to the TSSs to initialize (allocated memory). ; ECX has the count of TSSs to initialize. ; The size of the TSS is taken from the constant sTSS. ; ; The pFreeTSS pointer is set to address the first TSS. The NextTSS ; field in each TSS is set to point to the next free TSS. The ; last TSS is set to point to nothing (NIL). The IOBitBase field is ; also set to FFFFh for NULL I/O permissions in each TSS. ; NOTE: The allocated memory area for the TSS MUST BE ZEROED before
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; calling this routine. By deafult, we add the TSS descriptors at OS ; protection level. If we spawn or add a User level TSS we must ; OR the DPL bits with 3!

PUBLIC InitFreeTSS: MOV pFreeTSS,EAX MOV EDI, OFFSET rgTSSDesc ADD EDI, 16 MOV EDX, sTSS MOV EBX, 3

; ; ; ; ;

First one free to use ptr to TSS descriptors First two TSSs are Static (Mon & Dbgr) Size of TSS (in bytes) into EDX Number of first dynamic TSS

TSS_Loop: MOV ESI,EAX ; for I = 0 TO ECX ADD EAX,EDX ; EAX <= rgTSSs[I].Next MOV [ESI+NextTSS],EAX ; ^rgTSSs[I+1]; MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_IOBitBase], 0FFFFh ; IOBitBase MOV [ESI+TSSNum], BX ; TSS Number MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_DS], DataSel ;Set up for Data Selectors MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_ES], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_FS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_GS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS], DataSel MOV WORD PTR [ESI+TSS_SS0], DataSel PUSH EAX ;Save pTSS MOV EAX,EDI ; Get offset of Curr TssDesc in EAX SUB EAX, OFFSET GDT ; Sub offset of GDT Base to get Sel of TSS MOV WORD PTR [ESI+Tid],AX ; Store TSS Selector in TSS (later use) PUSH EBX PUSH EDX MOV EAX,EDX MOV EDX,ESI MOV EBX,0089h CALL AddTSSDesc ADD EDI,8 ; Point POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX INC EBX LOOP TSS_Loop MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextTSS], 0 RETN to Next GDT Slot (for next one) ; Size of TSS (TSS + SOFTSTATE) ; Address of TSS ; G(0),AV(0),LIM(0),P(1),DPL(0),B(0)

; TSS Number ; ; rgFree[LastOne].Next <= NIL; ;

;========================================================================= ; DUMMY CALL for uninitialized GDT call gate slots ;========================================================================= DummyCall: MOV EAX, ercBadCallGate RETF Besides setting up all the call gates with a dummy procedure, InitCallGate() takes care of another problem. This problem is that the call to AddCallGate() is a public function called through a Call Gate. This means it can't add itself. This code manually adds the call for AddCallGate() so you can add the rest of them. As I mentioned before, each of the over 100 calls are placed in the GDT. There is room reserved for over 600.

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InitIDT, a little further down, sets up each of the known entries in the IDT as well as filling in all the unknown entries with a dummy ISR that simply returns from the interrupts. I have left all of these in so that you can see which are interrupt gates and which are interrupt traps. The processor handles each of these a little differently. See listing 21.7. Listing 21.7. Initialize call gates amd the IDT

;========================================================================= ; InitCallGates inits the array of call gates with an entry to a generic ; handler that returns ErcNotInstalled when called. This prevents new code ; running on old MMURTLs or systems where special call gates don't exist ; without crashing too horribly. ; ; IN: Nothing ; Out : Nothing ; Used : ALL registers and flags ; PUBLIC InitCallGates: ;First we set up all call gates to point to a ;dummy procedure MOV ECX, nCallGates ;Number of callgates to init

InitCG01: PUSH ECX ;Save nCallGates DEC ECX ;make it an index, not the count SHL ECX, 3 ; ADD ECX, 40h ;Now ecx is selector number MOV EAX, 0EC00h ;DPL 3, 0 Params MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET DummyCall ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX SUB EBX, 40 ;sub call gate base selector SHR EBX, 3 ;make index vice selector MOVZX EBX, CX ;Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX, GDTBase ;NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02], 8 ;Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX], SI ;0:15 of call offset SHR ESI, 16 ;move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06], SI ;16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04], AX ;call DPL & ndParams POP ECX LOOP InitCG01 ;ignore error... ;This decrements ECX till 0

;Another chicken and egg here.. In order to be able ;to call the FAR PUBLIC "AddCallGate" though a callgate, ;we have to add it as a callgate... ok.... MOV EAX, 08C00h ;AddCallGate -- 0 DWord Params MOV ECX, 0C8h MOV DX, OSCodeSel MOV ESI, OFFSET __AddCallGate ;Same code as in PUBLIC AddCallGate MOVZX EBX, CX
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OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate POP ECX LOOP InitID01 .========================================================================= . Offset IntDbgSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate . . 08F00h .DPL 3. ISRs loaded with device drivers must use SetIRQVector.DPL 3. 08F00h . OSCodeSel .Divide By Zero MOV EAX. 3 . InitIDT .Now we add each of the known interrupts MOV ECX. EBX. GDTBase .16:31 of call offset MOV [EBX+04]. 0 . CX . 3 . 255 . 4 .make index vice selector MOVZX EBX. Second.DPL 3. 40 . AX . EAX. ESI. SI . OSCodeSel MOV ESI. . TRAP GATE OSCodeSel .call DPL & ndParams RETN .NOW a true offset in GDT MOV WORD PTR [EBX+02].SUB EBX. 08F00h .DPL 3. OFFSET IntDivBy0 CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.move upper 16 of offset into SI MOV [EBX+06]. IN : Nothing . 16 . Out : Nothing . inits the IDT with 256 entries to a generic . OSCodeSel . PUBLIC InitIDT: MOV ECX. MOV ESI.Extend selector into EBX ADD EBX. OSCodeSel .0 -332- RICHARD A BURGESS .This will be filled in with TSS of Dbgr later MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. adds each of the basic IDT entries for included . 08E00h . software and hardware interrupt handlers.DPL 3. OFFSET IntDebug CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. 1 . First.0:15 of call offset SHR ESI.Overflow 08F00h .sub call gate base selector SHR EBX.Single Step MOV EAX.Breakpoint MOV EAX. OFFSET IntOverFlow MMURTL V1. SI . handler that does nothing (except IRETD) when called.Last IDT Entry InitID01: PUSH ECX MOV EAX.Put Code Seg selector into Call gate MOV [EBX]. 8 . . Used : ALL registers and flags . Trap Gate (for Debugger) WAS 8F00 MOV EBX. MOV ESI.Trying 8E00 (Int gate vice trap gate which leave Ints disabled) MOV ECX. Trap gate MOV EBX. .

Invalid OPcode MOV EAX. OFFSET IntNoSeg CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Eh . IRQ0 IRQ1 22h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.DPL 3. MOV ESI. 21h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. EBX. 0Ch . 0Ah .DPL 3. OFFSET IntPICU2 MMURTL V1. ESI. OFFSET IntInvTSS CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . 8 . 08F00h . OFFSET IntPgFlt CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntKeyBrd CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX.DPL 3. 08F00h .DPL 3.DPL 3. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI. 20h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 08F00h .DPL 3. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. OFFSET IntOpCode CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 0Dh .GP fault MOV EAX.Int PICU 2 (from PICU) IRQ2 08E00h . MOV ESI.DPL 3. 08F00h . MOV ESI.Invalid TSS MOV EAX.0 -333- RICHARD A BURGESS . 08E00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Int KEYBOARD MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . 0Bh . 08F00h . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntTimer CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.DPL 3. OSCodeSel . 08F00h . TRAP GATE MOV EBX.Double Exception MOV EAX. OSCodeSel .DPL 3.Int Stack Overflow MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE OSCodeSel .Int TIMER MOV EAX. OSCodeSel . TRAP GATE MOV EBX. EAX. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . MOV ESI. TRAP GATE MOV EBX.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. TRAP GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntGP CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntDblExc CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OFFSET IntStkOvr CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 08F00h .Seg Not Present MOV EAX. 08E00h .Int Page Fault MOV EAX. 6 .DPL 3.

....CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. MOV EAX.DPL 3.. 27h .. OFFSET IntQ . OSCodeSel .. MOV ESI. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. MOV EAX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 29h .. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. .. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.IntLPT1 MOV EAX... 08E00h .Int Floppy IRQ6 MOV EAX....DPL 3... 08E00h . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX..DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV MOV MOV MOV ECX. OSCodeSel . 08E00h .FDD will set this himself CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.Int .. MOV EAX.0 -334- RICHARD A BURGESS .DPL 3...DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 28h .DPL 3. OSCodeSel .DPL 3... INTERRUPT GATE ..Int .Int COM2 MOV EAX. 08E00h .Int COM1 MOV EAX. EAX. MOV ESI.Int . 2Bh . ESI. OSCodeSel .DPL 3. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX.Int . OSCodeSel . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. OSCodeSel .... MOV ESI..Int LPT2 MOV EAX. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX.. 08E00h . MOV EAX.Int .. MOV ESI. OSCodeSel . 24h .. 26h .. 08E00h . 08E00h . 2Ch 08E00h OSCodeSel OFFSET IntQ . MOV ESI. MOV ESI. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. MOV ESI.. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. 2Ah .. MOV ESI. 25h . 08E00h .. EBX. OSCodeSel .. 23h .DPL 3. 08E00h ....DPL 3... IRQ7 IRQ8 IRQ9 IRQ10 IRQ11 IRQ12 MMURTL V1.. MOV ESI...

. 2Dh . IN : Nothing . MOV EAX.. OSCodeSel .3 DWord Params. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. DPL 3 MOV ECX. PUBLIC InitOSPublics: MOV EAX. 08E00h .. OSCodeSel . OS primitive thorugh a call gate!!! . OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX. but MUST be called before the first far call to any .========================================================================== . 08C03h .. OFFSET __WaitMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. 2Eh .. 0EC02h . DPL 0 MOV ECX.WaitMsg -. OSCodeSel .. 08E00h ..DPL 3.SendMsg -. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. 2Fh . INTERRUPT GATE MOV EBX. OFFSET __SendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX. IF YOU ADD AN OS PUBLIC MAKE SURE IT GETS PUT HERE!!!!! ..Set Priority . . MOV EAX.Int .. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 48h MOV DX.. MOV ESI.ISendMsg -..1Dword param. 50h MOV DX. DPL 3 MOV ECX.. 08E00h ..Int .DPL 3.3 DWord params. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. 40h MOV DX. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. OFFSET __ISendMsg CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MOV EAX.. DPL 3 MOV ECX. MOV EAX.0 -335- RICHARD A BURGESS ... InitOSPublics adds all OS primitives to the array of call gates.. OFFSET __SetPriority CALL FWORD PTR _AddCallGate MMURTL V1.CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate MOV ECX....DPL 3. OFFSET IntQ CALL FWORD PTR _AddIDTGate RETN IRQ13 IRQ14 IRQ15 ... MOV ESI. Out : Nothing . MOV ESI...Int ..2 DWord Params. OSCodeSel MOV ESI. Used : ALL registers and flags . This can't . before initcallgates. 0EC03h ... 58h MOV DX. 0EC01h .

The rest of the call gate set ups go here.0 -336- RICHARD A BURGESS .. RETN MMURTL V1.

request blocks. Job Management Subroutines . Ptr to free Job Control Blocks . I have tried to break it down logically and keep it all in a high-level language. Pieces of related code in the kernel.Ptr to JCB that is to be filled in . are used by almost every module in the operating system.jobs (Monitor & Debugger) .================================================================ . making sure that each was correctly set and filled out.INC .1.Linear Ptr to Page Directory for Job MMURTL V1.INCLUDE JOB. The program loader is in this chapter. INPUT : EAX -. For Monitor stats EXTRN MonJCB DB . Reclamation of Resources Equally as difficult as the loader. Job Management Helpers The file JobCode.Begin Code ================== . this is the where you'll end up. can be a complicated scenario.CODE . exchanges. Monitor JCB reference EXTRN _BootDrive DD .INCLUDE MOSEDF.1 Listing 22. When things don't work right.INCLUDE TSS. TSSs. See listing 22. PUBLIC InitNewJCB: .======= End data. it is usually quite a mess. In the functions ExitJob() and Chain().INC . many of them public functions. and finally starting the new task.ASM provides many small helper functions for job management. the monitor. These calls. From Main.Chapter 22.DATA . was the death of a job and the reclamation of its valuable resources. link blocks. Before I wrote this code. The process of allocating all the resources. JCBs are in allocated memory . It was every bit as difficult as I imagined. pictures of the complications of writing a loader floated in my head for quite a while. Job Management Code Introduction After you get the kernel out of the way and you want to begin loading things to run on your system. and finally the operating system memory.asm . the JCB. EBX -. The resources you reclaim include all of the memory. and other places provide assistance with resource reclamation.0 -337- RICHARD A BURGESS . I drift in and out of assembly language to do things like switch to a temporary stack when the task that is running no longer has a valid one.INC PUBLIC pFreeJCB PUBLIC pJCBs PUBLIC _nJCBLeft DD 0 DD 0 DD nJCBs .InitNewJCB is used initially by the OS to fill in the first two .

We can't use its position .EAX points to next one MOV [ESI+NextJCB]. This is used to initilaize a new JCB during OS init and when a new Job is loaded and run. . PUBLIC InitFreeJCB: MOV pFreeJCB. EDX MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nCols].size is filled in .ESI EFLAGS .Size of JCBs . EBX .pbJobName ECX -.Video number is in JCB . EDX. in the array because some JCBs are static (Mon and Debugger).1st number for Dynamic JCBs JCB_Loop: MOV ESI.EDX. .cbJobName EDX -.0 -338- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . sbJobName MOV BYTE PTR [EDI]. EFlags MODIFIES : JCB pointed to in EBX This fills in a JCB with new information. . CL INC EDI REP MOVSB MOV [EAX+pVirtVid]. others (the ones we are initializing now) are dynamicly allocated. .first byte of name .Make last one NIL RETN . . 25 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+NormAttr]. 7 MOV EAX.Address of JCBs to be initialized . while . .Count of JCBs .Put Ptr to PD into JCB .EAX . . EAX points to the first JCB..EBX MOV EDI. . The last element of rgJCBs is set to point to nothing (NIL). InitFreeJCB .Set up global ptr to first JCB MOV EBX. MMURTL V1. . . EAX . .Go back till done MOV DWORD PTR [ESI+NextJCB]. Each element of rgJCBs is set to point to the next element of rgJCBs.Set up OS pointer to list MOV pJCBs. MODIFIES: pFreeJCB. . .EDI points to JCB .EAX .Make current point to next MOV [ESI+JobNum].EAX .Number it INC EBX LOOP JCB_Loop .EBX. MOV [EAX+JcbPD]. This routine will initialize the free pool of Job Control Blocks (JCBs). ECX . The pFreeJCB pointer is set to address the first element in rgJCBs. The JCBs are also sequentially numbered. ESI. 0 . pJCBs . ECX. EDI. ESI -. . 3 . EDX is size of each JCB. [EAX+JobNum] RETN .EBX has pointer to current one ADD EAX.EDX . 80 MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+nLines]. . OUTPUT : NONE . INPUT : EAX .ECX.============================================================================= .Move it in . ECX is count of JCBs. EDX . . . USED: EAX. .Pointer to Job Virtual Video Buffer (all jobs have one!) OUTPUT : JOB Number in EAX USED : EAX.Now to JobName . . EBX. . . EAX ADD EDI.

OUTPUT : EAX . . Returns ptr to allocated mem in pJCBs . . JE DispJCBDone . . CMP EAX. If pJCBin = NIL THEN Return.FLAGS . This routine will return in EAX register the address of the next free jcb. This routine will also .============================================================================= PUBLIC DisposeJCB: . OFFSET pJCBs PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _AllocOSPage XOR MOV MOV REP EAX. OUTPUT : NONE . INPUT : NONE . The data used in this algorithm is the free jcb pointer (pFreeJCB).Get pointer to next free one MOV pFreeJCB. REGISTERS : EBX. sJCB CALL InitFreeJCB RETN . MOV EAX. .Invalidate JCB MMURTL V1. 0 . . . 0 .FLAGS .Get OS pointer to JCBs CMP EAX.Put it in OS pointer DEC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft . MOV EBX. This routine will return to the caller a pointer to the next free jcb. . . then EAX will contain NIL (0). INPUT : EAX .pFreeJCB .[EAX+NextJCB] . REGISTERS : EAX.0 -339- RICHARD A BURGESS . . pJCBs MOV ECX. the free pool.. . NewJCBDone: RETN . pool of JCBs pointed to by (pFreeJCB) if EAX is not NIL.EBX.0 . . 4 pages for 32 JCBs (16384 bytes) . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . Get 'em! . . EAX ECX. . update the value of pFreeJCB to point to the next "unused" JCB in .============================================================================= PUBLIC NewJCB: .DWORDS!) where to store 0s Do it Ptr to JCBs Count of Job Control Blocks EDX is size of a JCB Init the array of JCBs MOV EAX. . This invalidates the JCB by placing 0 in JcbPD. Clear allocated memory for JCBs (4*4096=16384 . Then call InitFreeJCB PUBLIC InitDynamicJCBs: PUSH 4 MOV EAX. MOV DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD]. . .IF pFreeJCB=NIL THEN Return. . MODIFIES : pFreeJCB . pJCBs STOSD . If none exists. Allocate 4 pages (16384 bytes) for 32 Job Control Blocks (structures). This routine will place the jcb pointed to by EAX back into the free . nJCBs MOV EDX.================================================================ . 4096 EDI.EBX . . JE NewJCBDone .

Many OS functions deal with the Job number. OUTPUT: EAX -. in EAX.============================================================ . All TSSs are . All TSSs are . is a field in the JCB structure. EFlags . USED: EAX. GetCrntJobNum . OFFSET MonJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB1: CMP EAX. GetpJCB .Current Job Number . [EAX+TSS_pJCB] . USED: EAX. . Returns a pointer to the current Job Control Block in EAX.pFreeJCB MOV [EAX+NextJCB]. EFlags . This is based on which Task is executing.Linear Address of the JCB or 0 for invalid number . pRunTSS . . INPUT: Nothing . . All TSSs are assigned to a Job.Linear Address of current JCB .Move ptr to newly frred JCB to OS . assigned to a Job! A Job may have more than one Task. assigned to a Job. . PUBLIC GetpCrntJCB: MOV EAX.============================================================ . . . 1 JNE GetpJCB1 MOV EAX. .Job Number of desired pJCB . . USED: EAX.EAX INC DWORD PTR _nJCBLeft DispJCBDone: RETN . PUBLIC GetpJCB: PUSH EDX CMP EAX. . . This is based on which Task is executing. Returns the Job number for the currently executing task. INPUT: Nothing . OUTPUT: EAX -.0 -340- RICHARD A BURGESS .Pointer to JCB RETN . A Job may have more than one Task. .Current JCB RETN . PUBLIC GetCrntJobNum: CALL GetpCrntJCB MOV EAX.============================================================ . Returns a pointer to a Job Control Block identified by number . EFlags .EBX has OS ptr to free list . [EAX+JobNum] .MOV EBX.Move it into newly freed JCB . . OUTPUT: EAX -.Current Task State Segment MOV EAX. The Job number . INPUT: EAX -. . . GetpCrntJCB .EBX MOV pFreeJCB. 2 MMURTL V1.

Within range of JCBs .0 . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _AllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. . . ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. EAX JNZ SHORT AJCB01 MOV EAX. OUTPUT: EAX -. The Job number . . is a field in the JCB structure. . . . . . .Add in two static JCBs . Sorry.============================================================ .Current Job Number . .Take off static JCBs+1 (make it an offset) . .Current JCB RETN . nJCBs+2 JLE GetpJCB3 XOR EAX. This is a NEAR . 3 MOV EDX. INPUT: EAX pJCB we want job number from. GetJobNum . pdJobNum EQU [EBP+12] . Many OS functions deal with the Job number.JNE GetpJCB2 MOV EAX. pdJobNumRet is the number of the new JCB. pJCBs POP EDX RETN . . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the pointer to the new JCB is returned. call to support the public job management calls in high level . Returns the Job number for the pJCB in EAX in EAX. out of them! -341- RICHARD A BURGESS . . Procedureal Interface : . .============================================================ . ppJCBRet):ercType . . [EAX+JobNum] . AllocJCB(pdJobNumRet. languages. sJCB MUL EDX ADD EAX. . . PUBLIC GetJobNum: MOV EAX. EAX POP EDX RETN GetpJCB3: SUB EAX. EFlags .ESP CALL NewJCB OR EAX. ErcNoMoreJCBs MMURTL V1. AllocJCB (NEAR) . OFFSET DbgJCB POP EDX RETN GetpJCB2: CMP EAX. We got one! .Times size of JCB . USED: EAX.Now points to desired JCB . . . . Get a new JCB . This allocates a new JCB (from the pool).

DeAllocJCB(pJCB):ercType . . This is a NEAR .Job Num . .No error . GetpJCB . . . DeAllocJCB (NEAR) . .============================================================ . call to support the public job management calls in high level . . . . . . . . Get a new JCB . pJCB EQU [EBP+8] PUBLIC _DeAllocJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. ErcNoMoreJCBs will be returned if no more JCBs are avaialble. pJCB . . . . .MOV ESP. dJobNum is the number of the JCB you want. MMURTL V1.============================================================ . ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is out of range . . . pJCBRet):ercType . . [EBP+8] CALL DisposeJCB XOR EAX. EAX MOV ESP. . . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. . you specifiy. pJCB is a pointer the JCB to be deallocated.EBP POP EBP RETN 8 AJCB01: MOV ESI. languages in the OS code. . . . GetpJCB(dJobNum.ESP MOV EAX. .EBP POP EBP RETN 8 . . This PUBLIC returns a pointer to the JCB for the JobNum . EAX MOV ESI. .0 -342- RICHARD A BURGESS .pJCBRet . .===== BEGIN PUBLIC FAR JOB CALLS =========================== . . [EBP+8] MOV [ESI]. EAX XOR EAX. Procedureal Interface : . EAX MOV ESP.============================================================ . [EBP+12] CALL GetJobNum MOV [ESI].EBP POP EBP RETN 4 . . Procedureal Interface : . This Deallocates a JCB (returns it to the pool). .

0 is invalid CMP EAX. ErcBadJobNum will be returned if dJobNum is invalid . . EAX POP EBP RETF 4 .EBP .pJobNumRet .============================================================ . .puts address of JCB in EAX MOV ESI.EBP . This is . MOV ESP. . . [EBP+16] . . . GetJobNum . ErcBadJobNum . the job that the task that called this belongs to. GetJobNum(pJobNumRet):ercType . EAX XOR EAX.. or 0 will be returned with the data.EBP . POP EBP . . .Dynamic + 2 static JBE GetpJcbOK GetpJcbBad: MOV EAX.ESP . . RETF 8 . [EBP+12] .0 -343- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . EAX CMP DWORD PTR [EAX+JcbPD].JCB we are pointing to is unused MOV ESP. Procedureal Interface : . 0 . RETF 8 . .ESP CALL GetCrntJobNum MOV ESI.pJCBRet MOV [ESI].Leave jobnum in EAX . POP EBP . . . nJCBs + 2. . pJobNumRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetJobNum: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. ErcInvalidJCB . . . GetpJcbOk: CALL GetpJCB . GetpJcbOk1: XOR EAX. POP EBP . RETF 8 .Job Num OR EAX. This PUBLIC returns the number for the current Job.No Error . dJobNum EQU [EBP+16] . pJCBRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetpJCB: PUSH EBP MOV EBP. EAX JZ GetpJcbBad .Is this a valid JCB JNE GetpJCBOk1 MOV EAX. . pJCBRet is a pointer where you want the JCB returned. MMURTL V1. EAX MOV ESP. MOV EAX. [EBP+12] MOV [ESI].

[EBP+12] . . Jobc. It contains the public functions: Chain() LoadNewJob() ExitJob() GetExitJob() SetExitJob() SetCmdLine() GetCmdLine() GetPath() MMURTL V1. This is from the public .2. loads ExitJob if specified Gets run file name that will be loaded upon ExitJob Sets run file name to load upon ExitJob Sets the command line for next job Gets the command line for the current job Gets the path prefix for the current job -344- RICHARD A BURGESS . . . Listing 22. EAX .c source code /* This file contains functions and data used to support loading or terminating jobs (or services). variable _BootDrive defined in Main. pSysDiskRet is a pointer to a byte where . MOV EAX. pSysDiskRet EQU [EBP+12] PUBLIC __GetSystemDisk .pJobNumRet MOV [ESI].get rid of high bits MOV ESI.0 Loads new job run file in current JCB & PD Loads a new job into a new JCB & PD Exits current job.ESP . . GetSystemDisk . Functions for starting new jobs. and public functions for working with the job control block are contained in this module. This code is here for lack of a better place.asm. It return 0-n (which corresponds to A-x) . PUSH EBP . Jobc. ending jobs. . _BootDrive AND EAX. RETF 4 . Procedureal Interface : . . . 7Fh .================= MODULE END ================================= Job Management Listing This file.. . This PUBLIC returns a single byte which represents the . contains all of the major high-level functions for job management. GetSystemDisk(pSysDiskRet):ercType . MOV EBP.No Error POP EBP . AL . still be needed if a loadable filesystem is installed. .c.============================================================ . disk that the system booted from. And will . XOR EAX. It's really not a filesystem function either. the number representing the system disk is returned. .

h" #define MEMUSERD 7 #define #define #define #define #define ErcOpCancel ErcOutOfRange ErcBadJobNum ErcNoExitJob ErcBadRunFile 4 10 70 76 74 /* User Writable (Data) */ /* /* /* /* /* Operator cancel */ Bad Exchange specified in OS call */ A Bad job number was specified */ No ExitJob specified on ExitJob(n)*/ Couldn't load specified ExitRunFile */ /* Near Support Calls from JobCode. /* Temporary NEAR externals from the monitor program for debugging */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. static struct JCBRec *pCrntJCB. long Exch).0 /* Used to access a JCB */ -345- RICHARD A BURGESS . char *pJCBRet)..ASM */ extern extern extern extern extern long long long long long AllocJCB(long *pdJobNumRet. GetExchOwner(long Exch. char *ppJCBRet).). extern U32 Dump(unsigned char *pb. /* 512 byte temporary stack */ /* Used for allocating/filling in new JCB */ static struct JCBRec *pNewJCB. MMURTL V1. SendAbort(long JobNum..h" "MTimer. long cb).h" "MVid. RemoveRdyJob(char *pJCB).h" "MMemory. */ static long TmpStack[128]. SetExchOwner(long Exch.h" "MJob. char *pNewJCB).Setpath() SetUserName() GetUserName() */ Sets the path prefix for the current job Sets the Username for the current job Gets the Username for the current job #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 1 "MKernel.h" "MKbd. . /* We switch to this stack when we clean out a user PD before we rebuild it. static struct JCBRec *pTmpJCB.h" "MData.h" #include "runfile.h" "MFiles.

BogusMsg[2]. This leaves a blank PD for reuse if needed. oData. *pData. static long sCode. NOTE: This must be called from a task that is running in the JCB that owns the memory! ******************************************************/ static void CleanUserPD(long *pPD) { long i. erc. ExchE. 0. we eliminate the user PDEs. 0. /* Ptrs in User mem to load to */ /* Size of segments */ /* Offset in file to Code & Data */ /* Virtual Offset for Code & Data Segs */ /* From the Monitor */ = = = = = = = static char *pStart. *pStack. /************* INTERNAL SUPPORT CALLS ******************/ /****************************************************** This deallocates all user memory in a PD.static long JobNum. 0. 0. ercE. unsigned long *pPT. char *pMem. for (i=768. sStack. extern unsigned long KillExch. 0.0 /* Look at each shadow PDE */ -346- RICHARD A BURGESS . filetype. static unsigned long oCode. job_fhE. static unsigned long oCDFIX nCCFIX oCCFIX nDDFIX oDDFIX nDCFIX oDCFIX nCDFIX = 0. i<1024. *pPDE. 0. /* For ExitJob and Chain cause They can't have local vars! */ static static static static static static long long long long char long JobNumE. offData = 0. This is used when we ExitJob to free up all the memory. sData. i++) { MMURTL V1. k. *pExchJCBE KeyCodeE. static long cbFileE. static char aFileE[80]. iE. /* Run file data */ static char *pCode. When all PTs have been cleaned. static struct tagtype tag. 0. static long offCode = 0. We get the pointer to the PD and "walk" through all the User PTs deallocating linear memory. j.

j<1024. if ((filetype < 1) || (filetype > 3)) erc = ErcBadRunFile. nDDFIX = 0.id = 0. 1. /* one more page */ if (k) { /* we have pages (one or more) */ erc = DeAllocPage(pMem. j++) { /* If it's a linear address (non 0)*/ /* Point to Page Table */ /* Get Beginning address for each run to deallocate */ k = 0. fh. The caller is responsible for closing the file!!! *********************************************************/ static long GetRunFile(char *pFileName. offData = 0. junk. oDDFIX = 0. while ((pPT[j++]) && (j<1024)) k++. dret. nDCFIX = 0. /* default to 0 */ /* Mode Read. if (!erc) { /* File opened OK */ fDone = 0. it leaves it open and returns the file handle.0 -347- RICHARD A BURGESS . nCDFIX = 0. long cbFileName. oDCFIX = 0. i. 5. nCCFIX = 0. &filetype. /* nPages to deallocate */ pMem = ((i-512) * 0x400000) + (j * 4096). oCDFIX = 0. cbFileName. switch (tag. long *pfhRet) { long erc. offCode = 0. oCCFIX = 0. erc = ReadBytes (fh. 0. reads and validates the run file. for (j=0. &dret). k).id) { case IDTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. &tag. *pfhRet = 0. char fDone.if (pPD[i]) { pPT = pPD[i] & 0xFFFFF000. Stream type */ erc = OpenFile(pFileName. &fh). If all is well. MMURTL V1. else it closes the run file and returns the error to the caller. } } } } } /********************************************************* This opens. &dret). while ((!erc) && (!fDone)) { tag. 1.

&dret).len).len). case DCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. break. 4. &sStack. &dret).break.0 */ */ */ */ */ */ -348- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &oCCFIX). case DOFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. nCDFIX = tag. oCDFIX+tag. case CDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &oDCFIX). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it break. &offCode. break. case COFFTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. case DDFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. case DATATAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. &oDDFIX). /* skip it break.len). 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oDDFIX+tag. 4.len/4.len/4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* skip it */ if (erc) erc = ErcBadRunFile. /* skip it break. i+tag. &pStart. &sCode. /* skip it break. &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &offData. &i). if (tag. case ENDTAG: fDone = TRUE.len > 1024) erc = ErcBadRunFile. &sData.len). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oData+tag. nDCFIX = tag. case CCFIXTAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh.len).len). case SEGTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. oCode+tag. 4. MMURTL V1. oCCFIX+tag. &oCDFIX). &dret).len). oDCFIX+tag. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. nDDFIX = tag. &oData).len/4. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* skip it break. break. case STRTTAG: erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. case CODETAG: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. 4. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. break. &oCode). nCCFIX = tag.len/4. &dret). default: erc = GetFileLFA(fh. break. /* skip it break. &dret).

/* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0]. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /********************************************************/ /*********** PUBLIC CALLS FOR JOB MANAGEMENT ************/ /********************************************************/ /**************************************************/ long far _SetExitJob(char *pRunFile. GetJobNum(&JobNum). *pdcbRunRet = i. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. GetpJCB(JobNum. erc). return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _GetExitJob(char *pRunRet. i. else { CopyData(pRunFile. pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = dcbRunFile. } if (!erc) *pfhRet = fh. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long dcbPath) { long JobNum. dcbRunFile). if (dcbPath > 69) return (ErcBadJobParam). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetPath(char *pPath. if (erc) xprintf("Erc from GetRunFile in JobC: %d\r\n". i). } } if (erc) CloseFile(fh). GetJobNum(&JobNum).0 /* Get pJCB to current Job */ -349- RICHARD A BURGESS . MMURTL V1. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbRunFile > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). else if (!dcbRunFile) pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. pRunRet. long dcbRunFile) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. } return(0).break. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbExitRF[1]. return (erc). long *pdcbRunRet) { long JobNum. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB).

pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = dcbPath. } return(0). erc. erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. else { CopyData(pCmd. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetCmdLine(char *pCmd. dcbCmd). GetpJCB(JobNum. MMURTL V1. *pdcbCmdRet = i. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetCmdLine(char *pCmdRet. &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. *pdcbPathRet = i. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetPath(long JobNum. else { CopyData(pPath. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[1]. i). long *pdcbCmdRet) { long JobNum. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbPath[1]. /* Get pJCB to JobNum */ if (!erc) { i = pTmpJCB->sbPath[0]. else if (!dcbCmd) pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbPath). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetUserName(char *pUser. i. &pTmpJCB->sbPath[1].else if (!dcbPath) pTmpJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0]. long dcbUser) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). i).0 -350- RICHARD A BURGESS . long dcbCmd) { long JobNum. } return(0). pCmdRet. pPathRet. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbCmd > 79) return (ErcBadJobParam). } return(erc). return(0). char *pPathRet. pTmpJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = dcbCmd. &pTmpJCB). long *pdcbPathRet) { long i.

long dcbName) MMURTL V1. i. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysIn(char *pName. *pdcbUserRet = i. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. &pTmpJCB). *pdcbFileRet = i. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. dcbName). return(0). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbUser > 29) return (ErcBadJobParam). long *pdcbUserRet) { long JobNum. } return(0). } /**************************************************/ long far _SetSysOut(char *pName. else { CopyData(pUser. pFileRet. pUserRet. &pTmpJCB). /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0]. long dcbName) { long JobNum. GetpJCB(JobNum. GetJobNum(&JobNum). i). GetJobNum(&JobNum). else { CopyData(pName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). GetpJCB(JobNum. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0]. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetUserName(char *pUserRet. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. dcbUser). i. return(0). i). &pTmpJCB). &pTmpJCB). pTmpJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = dcbName. else if (!dcbUser) pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. &pTmpJCB->sbUserName[1]. } return(0). pTmpJCB->sbUserName[0] = dcbUser. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysIn(char *pFileRet.GetJobNum(&JobNum).0 -351- RICHARD A BURGESS . GetpJCB(JobNum.

*pVid. } /********************************************************* This creates and loads a new Job from a RUN file. if (i) CopyData(&pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if ((dcbName > 49) || (!dcbName)) return (ErcBadJobParam). GetpJCB(JobNum. else { CopyData(pName. *pdcbFileRet = i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long *pJobNumRet) { long erc. &pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[1].{ long JobNum. nPages. &pTmpJCB). long cbFileName. i. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ if (dcbName > 13) dcbName = 13. *pPT. &pTmpJCB->sbJobName[1]. if (dcbName) CopyData(pName. return(0). i).0 -352- RICHARD A BURGESS . U32 PhyAdd. pFileRet. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ i = pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0]. &pTmpJCB). long dcbName) { long JobNum. *********************************************************/ long far _LoadNewJob(char *pFileName. i. GetJobNum(&JobNum). dcbName). cbFileName. GetJobNum(&JobNum). long *pdcbFileRet) { long JobNum. } return(0). unsigned long *pPD. *pOSPD. long *pFix. GetpJCB(JobNum. } /**************************************************/ long far _SetJobName(char *pName. dret. fh. if (!erc) { MMURTL V1. GetpJCB(JobNum. pTmpJCB->sbJobName[0] = dcbName. } /**************************************************/ long far _GetSysOut(char *pFileRet. erc = GetRunFile(pFileName. dcbName). pTmpJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = dcbName. This returns ErcOK and new job number if loaded OK else an error is returned. &pTmpJCB). return(0). &fh).

/* We set these to zero so we can tell if they have been allocated in case we fail so we know what to deallocate */ JobNum = 0. &PhyAdd). 0).0 /* set to whole pages */ -353- RICHARD A BURGESS . if (sCode%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. nPages = sData/4096. /* xprintf("pOSPD : %08x\r\n". pPT. pNewJCB = 0. /* Now we can allocate User Job Memory */ /* Allocate user memory for Stack Code and Data */ /* This is STILL done in the OS PD */ nPages = sStack/4096. xprintf("pUserPT: %08x\r\n". erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sData%4096) nPages++. xprintf("pUserPD: %08x\r\n". pPT). pVid = pPD + 8192. /* Alloc OS memory pages required for new job */ if (!erc) erc = AllocOSPage(3. pVid = 0. &pStack). nPages = sCode/4096. pOSPD[768] = pPT. /* Get Phy Add for new PT */ PhyAdd |= MEMUSERD. ReadKbd(&KeyCodeE. PT * pVirtVid */ /* 1 page later */ /* 2 pages later */ /* Zero user PT */ /* Zero user video */ /* Get OS pJCB */ /* Pointer to OS PD */ GetPhyAdd(1. MMURTL V1. &pCode). sStack = nPages * 4096. 4096. &pNewJCB). FillData(pVid. pPD = 0. 4096. &pData). 0). if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. pPD). /* Job's PD. 1). pOSPD[256] = PhyAdd. pOSPD = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. GetpJCB(1. PhyAdd). pPT = 0. erc = AllocJCB(&JobNum. &pTmpJCB). pPT = pPD + 4096. if (!erc) { FillData(pPT. &pPD). if (sStack%4096) nPages++. xprintf("PhyAdd : %08x\r\n". */ /* Set user code bits in PDE */ /* Make User PDE in OS PD */ /* Shadow Linear Address of PT */ pOSPD).

&dret). &dret). pPD. oData).offData + pData. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. sData.offData + pData. oCDFIX).0 -354- RICHARD A BURGESS .offCode + pCode. oCode). pCode. 4. &i. /* Copy OS PD to User PD */ /* All Job memory is now allocated. pFix = pData + i. pFix = pCode + i. &i. oDCFIX). pData. } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. oDDFIX). &dret). so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &dret). 4. oCCFIX). */ CopyData(pOSPD./* Right now. sCode. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pData + i. &dret). 4096). /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. &i. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. the OS PD looks exacly like we want the User PD to look. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4. 4. } MMURTL V1. } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. pFix = pCode + i. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. We will now copy the entire OS PD into the User's New PD.offCode + pCode. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix .

/* Clean OS PD of User PDEs */ FillData(&pOSPD[768]. pStack+sStack-4. pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData. &pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[1]. /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Lin Add of PD */ Add of Stack */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Add of Code */ Size of Code */ Zero UserName */ No Default path */ No Exit Run File */ No Cmd Line */ CopyData("KBD".} } /* Clean the OS PD of User memory */ FillData(&pOSPD[256]. pNewJCB->CrntX = 0. pNewJCB->JcbCmdLine[0] = 0. pNewJCB->sbPath[0] = 0. 25. 0). &pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[1]. pNewJCB->CrntY = 0.0 -355- RICHARD A BURGESS . pStart+pCode-offCode). pNewJCB->nCols = 80. 3). pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. 3). if (!erc) SetExchOwner(i. 1024. pNewJCB->fCursOn = 1. /* Size */ pNewJCB->pVidMem = pVid. /* Exch now belongs to new JCB */ } CloseFile(fh). 0). pNewJCB->nLines = 25. pNewJCB->JcbSysOut[0] = 3. if (!erc) erc = NewTask(JobNum. 0x18. 0. 1024. pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode. pNewJCB->pVirtVid = pVid. pNewJCB->sbUserName[0] = 0. pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. pNewJCB->JcbSysIn[0] = 3. pNewJCB->VidMode = 0. pNewJCB->JcbExitRF[0] = 0. /* Clean OS PD of User Shadow */ /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbPD = pPD. /* Size */ CopyData("VID". pNewJCB). pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. we crank up the new task and schedule it for execution! */ if (!erc) erc = AllocExch(&i). pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. i. pNewJCB->fCursType = 0. /* /* /* /* /* /* Default to Virt Vid */ Virtual Video memory */ Vid X Position */ Vid Y Position */ Columns */ Lines */ /* 80x25 VGA Color Text */ /* Cursor On */ /* UnderLine */ /* Finally. /* read run file OK */ } if (!erc) MMURTL V1.

&pStack). (CleanPD left the first PT for us). &dret). while ((nCDFIX--) && (!erc)) { MMURTL V1.0 /* set to whole pages */ /* back to fixups */ -356- RICHARD A BURGESS . nPages. oCode). /* Allocate user memory for Stack. if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. /* Now that we have read in the code and data we apply fixups to these segments from the runfile */ if (!erc) { if (nCDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. &pData). oCDFIX). pNewJCB = pJCB. erc = AllocPage(nPages. &pCode). sCode. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. i. erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sStack%4096) nPages++. if (!erc) erc = AllocPage(nPages. if (sCode%4096) nPages++. pData. pCode. nPages = sData/4096. } /********************************************************* This loads a job into an existing PD and JCB. pVid & first PT still exist in OS memory. so let's LOAD IT! */ if (!erc) erc = SetFileLFA(fh. return(erc). This is called by Chain() and may also be called by ExitJob() if an ExitJob was specified in the current JCB. long fh) { long erc. sStack = nPages * 4096. The PD. if (sData%4096) nPages++. &dret). dret. if (!erc) erc = ReadBytes (fh. ExitJob and Chain are responsible for opening and validating the runfile and setting up the run file variables. oData). Code and Data */ /* This is done in the context of the USER PD */ nPages = sStack/4096.*pJobNumRet = JobNum. nPages = sCode/4096. sData. long *pFix. *********************************************************/ static long LoadJob(char *pJCB. /* All Job memory is now allocated.

This task. oCCFIX). /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . /* back to fixups */ while ((nDCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbCode = pCode. and TSS will be reclaimed by the monitor along with the JCB and all OS memory pages for the PD. /* back to fixups */ while ((nCCFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. 4.0 -357- RICHARD A BURGESS . its exchange. } } /* Now we fill in the rest of the User's JCB */ pNewJCB->pJcbStack = pStack. &dret). } } if (nCCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. This is done to allow memory access and also reuse the code for ExitJob in the monitor. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbData = sData. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . &i. pFix = pData + i. oDDFIX). } /****************************************************** This is started as new task in the context of a job that is being killed off. MMURTL V1. &i. /* Add of Stack */ pNewJCB->sJcbStack = sStack. &i. /* Size of Code */ pNewJCB->pJcbData = pData.offCode + pCode.offData + pData. } } if (nDDFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh.offCode + pCode. 4. /* Where in CSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . ******************************************************/ void _KillTask(void) { GetJobNum(&JobNumE). &dret). 4. 4. pFix = pCode + i. /* Size of Code */ } CloseFile(fh). &dret). /* back to fixups */ while ((nDDFIX--) && (!erc)) { erc = ReadBytes (fh. &i. return(erc). } } if (nDCFIX) { erc = SetFileLFA(fh. oDCFIX).offData + pData. /* Add of Code */ pNewJCB->sJcbCode = sCode.erc = ReadBytes (fh. &dret). pFix = pData + i.PT and video. /* Where in DSeg */ *pFix = *pFix . pFix = pCode + i.

ISendMsg(KillExch. A job may terminate itself with ExitJob(). */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* Get pJCB to this Job */ /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory to be deallocated by the caller (monitor or whoever). BogusMsg). erc = GetpJCB(JobNum. or terminate a job just for the fun ot it. while(!ercE) /* clear the exchange */ ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. ercE = 0. It results in a violent death for the job specified. The task we are in does not belong to the job we are killing so we can remove them all. CleanUserPD(pPDE). */ pPDE = pTmpJCB->pJcbPD. WaitMsg(ExchE. &pTmpJCB). if (erc) return(erc). /* Get pJCB to the Job */ pTmpJCB->ExitError = ErcOpCancel. This must never be called from a task within the job to be killed. Debugger or the current job. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from one job to kill another job or service. GetTSSExch(&ExchE).0 -358- RICHARD A BURGESS . */ RemoveRdyJob(pTmpJCB). BogusMsg). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate ALL exchanges for this job */ MMURTL V1. ExchE. ******************************************************/ long far _KillJob(long JobNum) { long erc. if ((JobNum == JobNumE) || (JobNum == 1) || (JobNum == 2)) return(ErcBadJobNum).GetpJCB(JobNumE. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. SetPriority(31). ErcOpCancel). This is used to kill run-away jobs. /* Operator said DIE! */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. &pTmpJCB). /* Make sure it's not the Monitor.

/* make him the owner */ SendAbort(JobNum. /* It always returns ErcOk */ MMURTL V1. We will allocate one exchange for the job that is being killed so we can use it for SendAbort and also as the exchange number we send to the KillExch in the monitor which will kill of the JCB completely (he also switches video and keyboard if needed). CodeSeg. &TmpStack[127]. return(erc). ExchE). &pCrntJCB). /* Notify all services */ /*JobNum. This cleans up ALL resources that the job had allocated. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. pTmpJCB). GetpJCB(JobNumE. /* He's History! */ } /****************************************************** This called from Exit() in C or directly from a user job or service. } ercE = 0. if ((!ercE) && (pExchJCBE == pTmpJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). If no exit run file is specified we just kill the JCB entirely and if video and keyboard are assigned we assign them to the Monitor. ESP. &pExchJCBE). EIP */ erc = NewTask(JobNum. fDebug. Exch.0 -359- RICHARD A BURGESS . We send "Abort" messages to all services. iE = 0. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service. This also checks for an exit run file to load if one is specified. iE++. Priority. 3. 0x08. ExchE. pCrntJCB->ExitError = dError. 0. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. &_KillTask). /* Get an Exch */ SetExchOwner(ExchE. */ erc = AllocExch(&ExchE). ******************************************************/ void far _ExitJob(long dError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE).ercE = 0. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). /* Clear the error */ /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests.

ExchE). EAX. EBP. /* Exit Run File!! */ MMURTL V1. iE++. &cbFileE). */ SendAbort(JobNumE. Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). If no exit run file. while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. ercE = 0. iE = 0. /* Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. ercE = 0. &pExchJCBE). The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE). /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange */ BogusMsg). CleanUserPD(pPDE). This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any service./* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX.0 -360- RICHARD A BURGESS . OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. Send Abort messages to all services. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. we deallocate the PD and JCB then return to JOB 1. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. ercE = 0. ESP. /* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE.

/* We are NO MORE */ } } /****************************************************** This is called to execute a program without changing the ExitJob. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. WaitMsg(ExchE. ercE). ExchE. SUB EAX. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* something failed or we don't have an ExitRF */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . Chain will only return to you if there was an MMURTL V1. &job_fhE). Information can be passed to Job B by calling SetCmdLine (if Job B reads it). */ #asm MOV EAX. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. This is so you can run program B from program A and return to program A when program B is done.0 -361- RICHARD A BURGESS . Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch.if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. ADD EAX. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. MOV ESP. SetPriority(31). job_fhE).We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error. This runs Job B in the "context" of Job A which means Job B inherits the JCB and PD of job A so it can use things like the command line and path that were set up by A. MOV EBX. BogusMsg). and also by setting the ExitError value in the parameter. MOV EBP. if (!ercE) ercE = GetRunFile(aFileE. if (!ercE) { pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. cbFileE.

cbFileName). &pCrntJCB).error loading the Job. if Chain fails in a critial section we try to load the ExitJob and pass it the error. In other words. ercE = 0. iE = 0. ercE = GetRunFile(pFileName. cbFileName. cbFileE = cbFileName. /* if it had a handle at all */ return(ercE). while (ercE != ErcOutOfRange) { ercE = GetExchOwner(iE. */ MMURTL V1. The job will not be able to initiate requests or send messages after this unless it is done with the TSSExchange because it will get a kernel error (invalid exchange). Send Abort messages to all services. iE++. ******************************************************/ long far _Chain(char *pFileName. long cbFileName. /* we will open it again after SendAbort */ GetJobNum(&JobNumE). /* It always returns ErcOk */ /* Deallocate all exchanges for this job except the one belonging to current TSS! The Dealloc Exchange call will invalidate all TSSs found at exchanges belonging to this user. This closes all files that were opened by the Job and frees up any other resources held for this job by any services. if ((!ercE) && (iE != ExchE) && (pExchJCBE == pCrntJCB)) DeAllocExch(iE). */ /* Find out what our TSS exchange is so we don't deallocate it to! */ GetTSSExch(&ExchE).0 -362- RICHARD A BURGESS . pCrntJCB->ExitError = dExitError. &job_fhE). GetpJCB(JobNumE. if (ercE) { CloseFile(job_fhE). long dExitError) { /* NO LOCAL VARIABLES BECAUSE WE SWITCH STACKS!! */ CopyData(pFileName. } CloseFile(job_fhE). and will also free up RQBs and Link Blocks. The task we are in won't be removed because its RUNNING! */ RemoveRdyJob(pCrntJCB). aFileE. /* Get pJCB to current Job */ /* Remove ALL tasks for this job that are at the ReadyQue. } /* Now that the user can't make anymore requests. &pExchJCBE).

/* while(!ercE) /* ercE = CheckMsg(ExchE. The only thing left to do is Look for Exit Run file to load if any exists. we kill this guy and return to the monitor if he had the screen. */ pPDE = pCrntJCB->pJcbPD. and we can't run the chain file (bummer). job_fhE). The original user's job is destroyed. &cbFileE).0 -363- RICHARD A BURGESS . CleanUserPD(pPDE). /* Try to load the Chain file. if (ercE) { /* We have errored in a critical part of Chain (LoadJob). Clear the error */ /* We must now switch to a temporary stack so we can clean out the user PD (we are on his stack right now!). cbFileE. if (!ercE) ercE = /* Exit Run File!! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. OFFSET _TmpStack 508 EAX EAX /* Clean the PD of all user memory leaving OS memory for next job if there is one. /* Clear the error */ clear the exchange of abort responses*/ BogusMsg). If no exit run file. } if (!ercE) { /* No error */ pStart = pStart+pCode-offCode. */ MMURTL V1. if (!ercE) ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB.SendAbort(JobNumE. /* Now we RETURN to new job's address after we put him on his new stack. ercE = 0. EAX. &job_fhE). &job_fhE). /* it was valid before!*/ ercE = LoadJob(pCrntJCB. if (!cbFileE) ercE = ErcNoExitJob. ercE = 0. */ GetExitJob(aFileE. Don't bother checking error cause it was valid if we got here! */ GetRunFile(aFileE. */ #asm MOV ADD MOV MOV #endasm EAX. ExchE). job_fhE). cbFileE. ESP. EBP.

#asm STI #endasm SetPriority(31). MOV EBP. SUB EAX. /* We are NO MORE */ } } /*********************** End of Module *****************/ /* ISend clears ints! */ MMURTL V1. Then he will WIPE US OUT! We use ISend (vice send) so he can't run before we get to the exchange otherwise we will be placed back on the readyQueue! */ ISendMsg(KillExch. PUSH EAX RETF #endasm } if (ercE) { /* Something failed loading the job (Chain or Exit) */ _pStack _sStack EBX 4 EAX EAX _pStart . MOV EBX.We are history! /* In case there is no job to run or a fatal error has happened we send a message (ISendMsg) to the monitor status task with our TSSExch and the Error.0 -364- RICHARD A BURGESS . WaitMsg(ExchE. PUSH 18h MOV EAX. BogusMsg). MOV ESP.#asm MOV EAX. ercE). ADD EAX. ExchE.

They are made to match those of the interrupted task. Listing 23. small pieces of the debugger have been added as they were needed. but is still very immature. . Next.1. we save the current pRunTSS and place the debugger's TSS in MMURTL V1. which are all debug exceptions.1. If we get here. The two major things that are changed are the pointer to the JCB and the CR3 register in the debugger's TSS. See listing 23. . Exception Handlers for Entering Debugger . one of the exceptions has activated and has done a little work based .===================== Debugger Entry (Int 3) =========================== PUBLIC IntDebug: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . Get Flags . All of the debugger's . task (without going through the kernel).===================== Debugger Single Step (Int 1) ====================== PUBLIC IntDbgSS: POP POP POP JMP dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEFlgs EnterDebug . debugger operate in the current tasks memory space. This makes the . First we copy the Page Dir . Get EIP of offender for debugger . and ended up duplicating them several times after combining them. While writing the operating system.Chapter 23. Debugger Interrupt Procedure This code excerpt is taken from the file EXCEPT. The debugger is a separate task.Enter debugger . . . I did this because on occasion I had to modify one individually. It has grown substantially. This allows the debugger to operate in the memory context of the task that was interrupted. but it is not entered directly from the breakpoint address as an interrupt task. then it jumped here to enter the debugger. You will note that even though the two exception procedures are the same. then copy the CR3 . Debugger Code Introduction The debugger initially began as a crude memory dumper built into the operating system. Breakpoints. This piece of code sets up to enter the debugger. This code effectively replaces the interrupted task with the debugger . are set up to execute a interrupt procedure that does some rather tricky manipulation of the debugger task state segment (TSS). . .EnterDebug . entry from the current job into the debuggers job. code and data are in OS protected pages (which are shared with all tasks).0 -365- RICHARD A BURGESS .ASM which contains handlers for all system exceptions. . so this is OK to do even if the offending task referenced a bogus address. Get CS . on which exception is was. I have left them as individual procedures. Get EIP of offender for debugger .Enter debugger . register from the current TSS into the debugger's TSS.

then jump to the debugger's selector. pRunTSS DbgpTSSSave. [EAX+TSS_pJCB] EDX. task switch MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX. OFFSET DbgTSS [EDX+TSS_CR3].External near Variables MMURTL V1.Save the current pRunTSS . EBX EAX.INC .we MUST save PUSH EBX . . .Set Dbgr as running task MOV BX.. pRunTSS EBX.ALIGN DWORD .INC RQB.make his registers right! .INCLUDE MOSEDF.pDebuggerJCB -> EDX .current CR3 -> EBX . EBX EAX. caller's registers them before the into the debugger . Debugger Data and Code . [EAX+TSS_CR3] EDX.pDebuggerTSS -> EDX . we come here PUSH dbgOldEFlgs PUSH dbgOldCS PUSH dbgOldEIP IRETD . EAX EAX.CrntJob Page Dir -> EBX . with the exception of the disassembler. .Install Debugger's as current .2.pCrntJCB -> EAX . EAX This switches tasks. You'll see much of it is display "grunt work. [EDX+TSS_pJCB] EBX." The debugger also has its own read-keyboard call in the keyboard service to allow debugging of portions of the keyboard code.2 presents the debugger code in its entirety. OFFSET DbgTSS pRunTSS.INCLUDE . and restore PUSH EDX .Set up debugger selector .When the debugger exits.INC JOB. pRunTSS. [EAX+JcbPD] [EDX+JcbPD].0 -366- RICHARD A BURGESS .INCLUDE .Go back to the caller Debugger Source Listing Listing 23.pRunTSS -> EAX .Put the stack back the way it was .DATA .INCLUDE .Switch tasks to debugger .CR3 -> DebuggerTSS . Listing 23.Page Dir -> Debugger JCB . [EAX+Tid] MOV TSS_Sel.INC TSS. BX POP EDX POP EBX POP EAX JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] . EnterDebug: PUSH EAX .

Address of instructions we are displaying .To save interrupted video user DB '00000000' .debugger variables and buffers PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC PUBLIC DbgpTSSSave dbgFAULT dbgFltErc dbgOldEIP dbgOldCS dbgOldEflgs DD DD DD DD DD DD 0 0FFh 0 0 0 0 .CR LF for Dump etc.'AddInfo ' ' ' 'ENTER to continue.0 -367- RICHARD A BURGESS .Has Dbg Video been initialized? .0B3h. .flag 1 = Msg.General purpose DDs (used all over) .For Debugger entry conditions dbgFltMsg DB 'FATAL Processor Exception/Fault: ' MMURTL V1. ESC to quit. dbgTaskMsg 'SStep'. 0Ah DB 0 .are we dumping DWORDS? . .'DumpD'.For line and column display coordination DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DD 0 DB 0 DB 0 DB 0Dh..'CrntAddr' 'DumpB'.'Tasks'.' ' ' .' '.ALIGN DWORD cbBufLen2 DD dbgKeyCode DD NextEIP DD dbgGPdd1 DD dbgGPdd2 DD dbgGPdd3 DD dbgGPdd4 DD dbgGPdd5 DD dbgGPdd6 DD dbgNextAdd dbgCrntAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgX dbgY dbgBPAdd dbgfDumpD fDbgInit dbgCRLF dbgChar dbgMenu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .' '. DB DB DB dbgSpace DB dbgCont DB dbgClear DB dbgAsterisk DB .0B3h.Active bytes in buf2 .0B3h.EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN rgTmrBlks pJCBs RdyQ rgPAM DD DD DD DB ..'ClrBP'.For Disassem display (next ins to be executed) .0B3h.0B3h. .Crnt Breakpoint Linear addresses .0B3h.TO save the TSS we interrupted .For ReadDbgKbd .Address we are dumping .0FFh is NO FAULT DbgVidSave dbgBuf dbgBuf2 DD 0 . dbgExchMsg .Address we are setting as next . .'CS:EIP ' 'Exchs'. 0 = Exch .0B3h.General use buffers DB '0000000000' .40 bytes 42 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Exch Owner dMsgLo dMsgHi Task' 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 DB 'Task# Job pJCB pTSS Priority ' .0B3h.'SetBP'.0B3h.Boolean.

'TSS: 0B3h.'EDX: 0B3h.Register display text dbgTxt00 dbgTxt01 dbgTxt02 dbgTxt03 dbgTxt04 dbgTxt05 dbgTxt06 dbgTxt07 dbgTxt08 dbgTxt09 dbgTxt10 dbgTxt11 dbgTxt12 dbgTxt13 dbgTxt14 dbgTxt15 dbgTxt16 dbgTxt17 dbgTxt18 dbgTxt19 dbgTxt20 dbgTxtAddr DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 0B3h.'ESP: 0B3h.' SS: 0B3h.sdbgFltMsg DD $-dbgFltMsg .'EIP: 0B3h.' ES: 0B3h.' FS: 0B3h.' GS: 0B3h.For Important Address Info Display dbgM0 dbgM1 dbgM2 dbgM3 dbgM4 dbgM5 dbgM6 dbgM7 dbgM8 dbgM9 dbgPA dbgMB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 'IDT: 'GDT: 'RQBs: 'TSS1: 'TSS3: 'LBs: 'RdyQ: 'JCBs: 'SVCs: 'Exch: 'PAM: 'aTmr: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .'EBP: 0B3h.'ECX: 0B3h.'CR3: 0B3h.'CR2: 0B3h.0 -368- RICHARD A BURGESS . Begin Code ========================== .'Erc: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' DB 'Linear address: ' .'EAX: 0B3h. OFFSET DbgVidSave .'EFL: 0B3h.Save number of vid we interrupted PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetVidOwner STI MMURTL V1.'ESI: 0B3h.'EBX: 0B3h.CODE EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN EXTRN DDtoHex NEAR HexToDD NEAR _disassemble NEAR ReadDbgKbd NEAR PUBLIC DbgTask: MOV EAX.' DS: 0B3h.' CS: 0B3h.'CR0: 0B3h.'EDI: 0B3h.==================== End Data.

0FFh .[EAX+TSS_EFlags] . so we shouldn't have to reset it.EBX .Store correct CS MOV [EAX+TSS_CS].the stack (entering the debugger) into the caller's TSS. I guess I'm not reading it right or ROD SERLING LIVES! .Color Black on RED -369- RICHARD A BURGESS .PUSH 2 CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner CMP fDbgInit. EAX PUSH EAX PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. .interrupt procedure they enterred to get to the debugger. the values of .We set the FAULT variable based on which interrupt .way they were when the exception fired off becuase of the . .When a fault or debug exception occurs.dbgOldEflgs . The debugger . .NOTE: The "book" says the TF flag is reset by the processor .dbgOldEIP .REF .dbgOldCS .. 1 DbgInitDone: MOV EAX. CMP DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.NO .BX MOV EBX.Was the dbgr entered on a FAULT? JE dbg000 .procedure was entered.Dbgr is Job 2 .EBX . (we chanage the tasks) .Reset TF in case single steping AND EBX. But we do. DbgpTSSSave . MOV EBX. when the handler is entered.dbgFltMsg PUSH EAX PUSH sdbgFltMsg PUSH 40h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV EAX.See page 3-4 System Software Writer's Guide XOR EAX..Store correct EIP MOV [EAX+TSS_EIP]. and number at 0 . is always entered as a procedure.We make them the same by putting the values we got from . Code Seg.the Instruction Pointer.EAX still has DbgpTSSSave MOV EBX. This only applies if . the handler is a procedure (NOT a task). MOV EBX.Display fault message and .NOTE: Must eventually add SS/ESP for a change in CPL on faults!!! . 0 JNE DbgInitDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV fDbgInit.EBX . . and flags are not the .0FFFFFEFFh MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].Store correct flags MOV [EAX+TSS_EFlags].0 .dbgFAULT PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. .0 .

[EBX+TSS_EFlags] OR ECX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX.Get USER pUserTSS MOV EAX. OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd . 10h JNE dbg03 MMURTL V1.Display Instruction at CS:EIP MOV EBX.=========================================================== .ECX JMP dbgExit dbg02: CMP EAX. 0Fh JNE dbg02 MOV EBX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd.Reset X & Y to 0.This puts the instruction on the line MOV NextEIP.Set BP (Current Address . 0FFh . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll .dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MOV DWORD PTR dbgFAULT.Back to where we were PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY .ESCAPE (Exit) .reset fault indicator .=================================================================== dbg000: CALL DbgRegVid .Set TF in flags for single step .Display BackLink's Register values CALL dbgDispMenu .CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. 0FFh LEA EAX. MOV EAX.dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut XOR EAX. EAX INC EAX MOV dbgY.0 .Fall through to keyboard loop .00000100h MOV [EBX+TSS_EFlags].DbgpTSSSave .Single Step (F1) .Display menu PUSH dbgX .1 .F2) -370- RICHARD A BURGESS .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. EAX MOV dbgX.Now we read the keyboard dbg00: MOV EAX. EAX . EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble .Color White on black .Get USER pUserTSS . 1Bh JE dbgExit CMP EAX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX. .

EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP. EAX DR7.This puts the instruction on the line .Return to CS:EIP (F4) .See if we need to scroll up .Clear BP (Current Address . EAX dbg00 . . 12h JNE dbg05 MOV EBX. 16h JNE dbg09 CALL dbgSetAddr PUSH dbgX PUSH dbgY CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY MOV EAX. . 15h JNE dbg08 JMP dbg00 dbg08: CMP AL.Address displayed .DbgpTSSSave MOV EAX.Clear BP saved address .Move into BreakPoint Reg 0 .F3) . EAX DR6. EAX EAX. [EBX+TSS_EIP] MOV dbgCrntAdd. . . 13h JNE dbg06 CALL dbgDispExchs JMP dbg000 dbg06: CMP EAX. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg05: CMP EAX. 00000002h DR7.See if we need to scroll up . EBX DR0. . EAX dbg00 EAX. EAX dbgBPAdd. EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.Back to where we were . 11h dbg04 EAX.Sets NextEIP .BP0 Set global .Full display .Memory Dump Bytes (F9) -371- RICHARD A BURGESS .Save it so we know where BP is .This puts the instruction on the line . EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 dbg09: CMP AL.MOV MOV MOV XOR MOV MOV MOV JMP dbg03: CMP JNE XOR MOV MOV JMP dbg04: EBX. 14h JNE dbg07 CALL dbgDispTasks JMP dbg000 dbg07: CMP EAX. .Set Disassembly Address (F8) .Not used yet . EBX EAX. 17h JNE dbg10 MOV BL. NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd.Display Exchanges (F5) .Task array display (F6) .0 . 00 MMURTL V1. dbgCrntAdd dbgBPAdd.Get USER pUserTSS CMP EAX.

EAX CALL dbgShowBP PUSH EAX CALL _disassemble MOV NextEIP.we put up an asterisk to indicate it's the breakpoint .we are about to display.This puts the instruction on the line . EAX BX.EAX must be preserved MOV EBX. 18h JNE dbg12 MOV BL.dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.Memory Dump DWORDS (F10) .0 .Back to begining .Info Address dump (F12) . .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY .MOV dbgfDumpD. [EAX+Tid] TSS_Sel. EAX CALL dbgCheckScroll JMP dbg00 . 02h JNE dbg14 MOV EAX.See if we need to scroll up dbg14: JMP dbg00 DbgExit: LEA EAX. DbgpTSSSave pRunTSS.Next time we enter the debugger task it will be here! JMP DbgTask . dbgCrntAdd MMURTL V1. . NextEIP MOV dbgCrntAdd. BX . 0FFh MOV dbgfDumpD.Address displayed -372- RICHARD A BURGESS .============================================================== dbgShowBP: . 01Ah JNE dbg13 CALL DbgInfo JMP dbg00 dbg13: CMP AL. If they are the same.Change screens back MOV MOV MOV MOV EAX.Set up caller's TSS selector JMP FWORD PTR [TSS] .Display next Instruction (Down Arrow) . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg10: CMP AL.Query XY . .GO back for another key PUSH DbgVidSave CALL FWORD PTR _SetVidOwner . .Return saved pRunTSS . BL CALL dbgDump JMP dbg000 dbg12: CMP AL.This compares the current breakpoint the address .

02 MOV ESI.This sets up and calls to display all of the regsiter .information on the right side of the debugger video display DbgRegVid: MOV EBX.OFFSET DbgTxt04 MOV EAX.00 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EBX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.07 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_ESI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Save EAX across call .ECX Display . ECX JZ dbgShowBP1 RETN dbgShowBP1: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgAsterisk PUSH 01h PUSH 47h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POP EAX RETN .EBP Display MMURTL V1.ESI Display .EAX MOV AX.MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_ECX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.DbgpTSSSave MOV ECX.04 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EAX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Reverse Vid WHITE on RED .TSS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt01 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_EDX] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt07 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt02 MOV EAX.============================================================== .05 MOV ESI.EBX MUST be DbgpTSSSave .OFFSET DbgTxt03 MOV EAX.EAX Display .BP Address .EDI Display .EDX Display .01 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt00 XOR EAX.0 -373- RICHARD A BURGESS .03 MOV ESI.Number of this TSS .OFFSET DbgTxt05 MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt06 MOV EAX. dbgBPAdd CMP EBX.3 params to TTYOut .EBX Display .06 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSSNum] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_EBP] CALL DispRegs .[EBX+TSS_EDI] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.

SS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt19 MOV EAX.17 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt11 MOV EAX.MOV ECX.EAX MOV AX.19 MOV ESI.FS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt14 XOR EAX.16 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt15 XOR EAX.[EBX+TSS_GS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ES Display .DS Display .CR2 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.0 .CR0 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt09 MOV EAX.EAX MOV AX.EAX MOV AX.OFFSET DbgTxt12 XOR EAX.OFFSET DbgTxt16 MOV EAX.09 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EFlags] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.ESP Display .CR3 CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt20 MOV EAX.[EBX+TSS_ESP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.15 MOV ESI.08 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt18 MOV EAX.13 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_CS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_DS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.Fault Error Code Display -374- RICHARD A BURGESS .11 MOV ESI.10 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.CS Display .OFFSET DbgTxt13 XOR EAX.EAX MOV AX.[EBX+TSS_ES] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.20 MOV ESI.CR0 Display .GS Display .CR3 Display .[EBX+TSS_FS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.[EBX+TSS_SS] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.18 MOV ESI.[EBX+TSS_EIP] CALL DispRegs MOV ECX.OFFSET DbgTxt08 XOR EAX.EIP Display .14 MOV ESI.EAX MOV AX.dbgFltErc MMURTL V1.OFFSET DbgTxt10 XOR EAX.12 MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgTxt17 MOV EAX.EFlags Display .CR2 Display .

We save all registers cause the vid calls don't DispRegs: PUSHAD PUSH EAX .dbgMenu PUSH EAX PUSH 78 PUSH 70h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut PUSH 25 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. ECX loaded with number of text line to display on .0 -375- RICHARD A BURGESS .Display Debugger FKey Menu PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. ESI loaded with EA of text line to display . Call with: EAX loaded with value to display (from TSS reg) .============================================== .Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut POPAD RETN .========================================================================== . This displays the debugger function key menu dbgDispMenu: PUSH 0 .Save number to display PUSH 66 PUSH ECX CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 05h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut MMURTL V1. . This is for Debugger Register display .CALL DispRegs RETN .

PUSH 51 PUSH 24 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.Queries user for address then dumps data to screen dbgDump: MMURTL V1.dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut RETN .Crnt size PUSH 8 .length of string . cbBufLen2 . . 0 JNE DumpDone LEA EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine .ptr to destination DD . dbgChar . PUSH EAX . PUSH EAX .Allows the user to pick the currently displayed address dbgSetAddr: PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX. dbgNextAdd MOV NextEIP.Ignore error if any MOV AL. 0Dh JNE dbgSetAddrDone LEA EAX. dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. EAX dbgSetAddrDone: CALL dbgClearQuery RETN ..did they exit with CR? ..ptr to string .0 -376- RICHARD A BURGESS . .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! MOV EAX.=========================== . dbgChar CMP AL. PUSH EAX . DbgBuf2 .Goto Query Line .Convert String to DD .ptr to size returned LEA EAX.Max size LEA EAX.ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . 0 JNE dbgSetAddrDone . dbgNextAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.=========================== .Go home. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX.

line counter begins at 24 dbgDump01: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd3. PUSH EAX .Max size LEA EAX.Ignore error if any MOV AL. PUSH EAX .dbgDumpAdd has address to dump! .ptr to destination DD .ptr to string .Crnt size PUSH 8 .length of string . PUSH EAX . dbgTxtAddr PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.convert address to text LEA EAX. 0 JNE DumpDone . LEA EAX.Go home. 0 JNE DumpDone CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr dbgDump00: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1. cbBufLen2 . dbgChar CMP AL.Goto Query Line .byte offset begins at 6 -377- RICHARD A BURGESS . 24 .Convert String to DD .ptr to size returned LEA EAX..did they exit with CR? . dbgSpace MMURTL V1.. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd PUSH EAX PUSH cbBufLen2 CALL HexToDD CMP EAX.Black On White CALL FWORD PTR _EditLine . 4 . . dbgChar .PUSH 0 PUSH 23 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY LEA EAX.0 .number of quads per line PUSH dbgDumpAdd . 0Dh JE dbgDoDump CALL dbgClearQuery RETN dbgDoDump: LEA EAX. 6 LEA EAX. dbgBuf2 PUSH EAX LEA EAX. DbgBuf2 . dbgBuf PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX.pEdString PUSH cbBufLen2 .ptr to char returned PUSH 70h . 0 JNE DumpDone dbgDump02: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.

dbgBuf . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.Display First byte . [EBX] .Yes display Quad PUSH EAX PUSH 8 PUSH 07 CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP DumpDin dumpB: LEA EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h MMURTL V1. dbgBuf ADD EAX.display 3rd byte -378- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgDumpAdd .Display 1 spaces .0 . display 1 space . dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.ignore error . 0 JNE DumpDone MOV EBX.Dumping DWORDS CMP AL. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.go to display bytes LEA EAX. dbgBuf ADD EAX.make it a DD Text LEA EAX. dbgfDumpD .get dump address MOV EAX.display 2st byte .NO .PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut CMP EAX. 0 JE DumpB .point to second 2 bytes . dbgBuf ADD EAX. dbgBuf PUSH EAX CALL DDtoHex MOV AL.ignore error . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX.Get what it's pointing to PUSH EAX .

CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.23lines yet?? JNZ dbgDump01 . 16 PUSH EAX PUSH 16 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Display 2 spaces LEA EAX. DEC dbgGPdd1 .go back for next 4 bytes .Query XY PUSH dbgX . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut LEA EAX.done with 4 quads?? .NO .a space .Yes .Do CR/LF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut .ignore error . dbgSpace PUSH EAX PUSH 1 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DEC dbgGPdd2 DEC dbgGPdd2 LEA EAX. dbgDumpAdd SUB EAX. dbgGPdd2 PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut DumpDin: INC INC INC INC DEC JNZ dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgDumpAdd dbgGPdd3 dbgDump02 .Put 16 TEXT chars on right PUSH dbgY MOV EAX.size of "cont text" PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut dbgDump03: MMURTL V1. LEA EAX.display 4th byte . dbgCont .NO .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX.dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY . dbgCRLF .ignore error LEA EAX.ignore error . dbgBuf ADD EAX.0 -379- RICHARD A BURGESS ."Continue" Text PUSH EAX PUSH 31 .

Exch number .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX. dbgKeyCode AND EAX. sEXCH EDX EDX. dbgCRLF PUSH EAX PUSH 2 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _TTYOut JMP dbgDump00 .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Then we do the Exch Owner (Job Number) next to it MOV MOV MUL MOV EAX.prgExch . 1 . 1Bh .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg .Escape (Quit??) JE DumpDone LEA EAX.Do CR/LF 0 .Convert Exch number for display . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Displays exchanges that are allocated along with .First we do the exchange on the current line dbgDE01: PUSH dbgGPdd2 PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .Col dbgGPdd1 .0 -380- RICHARD A BURGESS . dbgGPdd2 EDX.Col PUSH 0 .line we are one . PUSH 54 . 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.ExchNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 0 RETN .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . Add offset of rgExch => EAX MMURTL V1. 0 dbgDE00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Exch# we are on . DumpDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. 0FFh . . Compute offset of Exch in rgExch . 0 JE dbgDump03 CMP EAX.=========================== .MOV EAX.messages or tasks that may be wiating at them dbgDispExchs: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.

.Line OFFSET dbgBuf . [EAX+Owner] XOR EAX.Get dMsg1 .Display Messages dbgDE04: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. [EBX+JobNum] dbgDE03: PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . [EAX+fEMsg] OR EBX.Flag to indicate we are doing messages .Is is 1 (a message)? .Yes.For next msg in chain (if it exists) . [EBX+DataHi] MOV EDX. EAX MOV EAX. EAX now pts to Exch pExch into save variable pJCB of Owner into EBX Clear for use as JobNum pNIL? (No owner if so) .No.Convert dMsg2 -381- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0 ."simplicity of maintenance is as important as simplicity of design" PUSH EDX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf MMURTL V1. MOV EAX..Line OFFSET dbgBuf .pExch -> EAX . . .Save dMsg2 .Could have left it on stack.Convert Job Number 10 .ADD EAX.Save for loop .Convert dMsg1 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Set pNextMsg to 0 MOV dbgGPdd5. EAX OR EBX. EAX MOV EBX.Get dMsg2 .pMsg -> EBX . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EBX. [EBX+DataLo] PUSH EDX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 . EBX JZ dbgDE03 MOV EAX. . .. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .See if there is a first message MOV EAX. 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . Go check for tasks . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Is is NIL (no msg or task)? . EBX JZ dbgDE05 MOV EBX.MsgFlag -> EBX . .Get dMsg2 back POP EDX .pMsg -> EBX 20 . . [EAX+EHead] OR EBX. Go to next Exch . [EAX+EHead] . [EBX+NextLB] MOV dbgGPdd5.EDX MOV dbgGPdd3. but would be confusing later.0 . .

length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .0 .Line OFFSET dbgCont .Save ptr to next task if it exists . All Exchs displayed CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MMURTL V1.Is is 0 (no TSS)? . dbgGPdd3 MOV EBX.Clear pNextTask . EAX EAX. PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgDE07: 50 .Flag to indicate we are doing tasks 0 .pExch -> EAX . MOV EAX.Col .Line . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX.Get Number of Task at exch . 1Bh JE dbgDEDone . 31 . 0FFh CMP EAX. [EAX+EHead] OR EBX.See if there are tasks waiting dbgDE05: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd6. .23 lines yet? JB dbgDE09 . dbgDE08: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL 0 .Lop off key status bytes . [EBX+TSSNum] . INC dbgGPdd1 . EAX AX.pTSS -> EBX .Col dbgGPdd1 . . [EBX+NextTSS] dbgGPdd5.Convert Task Number 1 . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDEDone . 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . -382- RICHARD A BURGESS .CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL JMP 30 dbgGPdd1 OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars dbgDE07 . 23 . EBX JZ dbgDE07 dbgDE06: MOV MOV XOR MOV EAX.Escape (Quit??) CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. nDynEXCH . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd5. MOV EAX.Next line CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Col 24 .Next line please .Line OFFSET dbgBuf . dbgKeyCode AND EAX.No .

2 dbgDT03 EBX.NonZero if we are doing tasks . OFFSET DbgTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . Is this TSS 2 (Static memory) . Is this TSS 1 (Static memory) .Messages INC dbgGPdd2 .No . Back to display new exch num dbgDEDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX. we increment TSS number and go back . . We are on line 1 again .Col PUSH 0 . we get all the data BEFORE we display it . . nDynEXCH . 1 .for the next one dbgDT01: . EAX.0 -383- RICHARD A BURGESS .Another pointer in the link? .line. 1 . dbgGPdd6 OR EAX.Line for labels .line we are one . Go back for prompt (to pause) JMP dbgDE01 .Tasks . dbgGPdd2 EAX.PUSH 0 PUSH 0 PUSH OFFSET dbgExchMsg PUSH 54 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.=========================== . EBX JZ dbgDE13 MOV EAX.If so. OFFSET MonTSS SHORT dbgDT04 . EAX JNZ dbgDE06 JMP dbgDE04 dbgDE13: . 1 dbgDT02 EBX.Set up to loop for next msg/task .Length of message PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Displays Tasks that are active along with .pertinent address info about them dbgDispTasks: MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2.Col . Number of dynamic exchanges JAE dbgDE08 .If not. .We get pJCB out of TSS and get JobNum from JCB MOV CMP JNE MOV JMP dbgDT02: CMP JNE MOV JMP EAX. 0 RETN . MOV DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Task# we are on dbgDT00: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr PUSH 0 . MMURTL V1.Length of message . PUSH 54 .Line for labels PUSH OFFSET dbgTaskMsg . Exch number CMP DWORD PTR dbgGPdd2. Task number . 1 dbgDE09: MOV EBX. dbgGPdd5 XOR EBX. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY.First we get pTSS and see if it is valid .

EAX .of TSSs . nTSS .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .EAX now pJCB MOV dbgGPdd4. DDtoHex 10 . 512 ECX EBX.Convert TSS number for display OFFSET dbgBuf DDtoHex 0 . EAX MOV EBX.Make TSS Num offset in dynamic array .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf . EBX PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL . dbgGPdd3 . pDynTSSs EAX EAX EAX ECX. go for next Task number INC EAX CMP EAX.Not used. dbgGPdd4 . EAX .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Col dbgGPdd1 .Col dbgGPdd1 .Convert and display Job number OFFSET dbgBuf . ECX MOV EAX. MOV CL. JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2.Col dbgGPdd1 .0 -384- RICHARD A BURGESS .Priotity of this task MOV dbgGPdd6. EAX JMP SHORT dbgDT01 .EBX points to TSS! dbgGPdd2 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . ECX . EBX . DDtoHex 20 . [EBX+Priority] .Job number is first DD in JCB EBX. [EBX+TSS_pJCB] .NON zero means it's valid JNZ dbgDT05 MOV EAX.back for next one dbgDT05: .EBX has pTSS of interest MOV dbgGPdd5.Save pJCB for display .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Convert and display pTSS PUSH dbgGPdd5 MMURTL V1. dbgGPdd2 .TaskNum 8 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . 8 .EAX has pJCB OR EAX. .dbgDT03: MOV DEC DEC DEC MOV MUL ADD dbgDT04: .Save pTSS for display XOR ECX.Convert and display pJCB OFFSET dbgBuf . [EAX] MOV dbgGPdd3. 8 .

This is for Debugger Address Info display .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . OFFSET dbgKeyCode PUSH EAX CALL ReadDbgKbd MOV EAX. DDtoHex 30 . 0 RETN . We save all registers cause the vid calls don't . EAX loaded with address to display (Linear Address) .No.0 -385- RICHARD A BURGESS .Col 24 .Lop off key status bytes CMP EAX.Convert and display Priority OFFSET dbgBuf .length of Cont string 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Line we are one OFFSET dbgBuf .Col dbgGPdd1 .23 lines yet? dbgDT06 . DDtoHex 40 . .PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf . 23 .Size 07h FWORD PTR _PutVidChars .====================================================================== .Next line DWORD PTR dbgGPdd1.Line OFFSET dbgCont . go back for next 0 .Save it for the top MOV EAX. 8 . continue prompt dbgDT01 .go for next Task number .Col dbgGPdd1 .Save number to display MMURTL V1. dbgGPdd2 INC EAX CMP EAX.Yes. EAX INC CMP JAE JMP dbgDT06: PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL dbgGPdd1 .Back for next screen dbgDTDone: CALL FWORD PTR _ClrScr MOV DWORD PTR dbgX.Escape (Quit??) JE dbgDTDone JMP dbgDT00 . Call with: . 1Bh . ESI loaded with EA of text line to display . dbgKeyCode AND EAX. 0 MOV DWORD PTR dbgY. dbgGPdd6 . MOV EAX. 31 . .=================================================================== DispAddr: PUSHAD PUSH EAX . 8 . nTSS JE dbgDT06 MOV dbgGPdd2. 0FFh .

GDT LEA EAX. OFFSET MonTSS CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. rgLBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.ptr to line .Exchs MOV EAX.Vid Attribute .DbgInfo .Do it .JCBs MOV EAX.PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL ESI 06h 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut .Displays important linear address for the OS DbgInfo: MOV ESI.Get number back for display POP EAX PUSH EAX PUSH OFFSET dbgBuf CALL DDtoHex PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL OFFSET dbgBuf 8 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut OFFSET dbgCRLF 2 07h FWORD PTR _TTYOut CALL dbgCheckScroll POPAD RETN .OFFSET DbgM7 .OFFSET DbgM8 .OFFSET DbgM0 . rgPAM CALL DispAddr MMURTL V1.LBs LEA EAX.MonTSS MOV EAX. pRQBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM6 . IDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI. pJCBs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.=============================================== . rgSVC CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM1 . pDynTSSs CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM9 .OFFSET DbgM2 .RdyQ LEA EAX.pTSS3 MOV EAX.IDT LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgPA . GDT CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.RQBs MOV EAX.OFFSET DbgM4 .PAM (Page Allocation map) LEA EAX.SVCs LEA EAX.OFFSET DbgM5 .Length of line . prgExch CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.OFFSET DbgM3 .0 -386- RICHARD A BURGESS . RdyQ CALL DispAddr MOV ESI.

.Lines 0-23 1 .dbgX PUSH EAX LEA EAX. and line 0 to 24. Line 22 PUSH 22 CALL FWORD PTR _SetXY dbgNoScroll: RETN . dbgCheckScroll: LEA EAX.fUp (1) FWORD PTR _ScrollVid PUSH 0 .OFFSET DbgMB .Are we at bottom (just above menu)?? . query line. Scroll test area (Col 0-64.Got to Column 0. go back for next key 0 .All of the debugger text is displayed in a window .dbgY PUSH EAX CALL FWORD PTR _GetXY CMP DWORD PTR dbgY.Timer Blocks LEA EAX. 40 chars) dbgClearQuery: PUSH 0 . .Columns 0-65 24 . 23 JB dbgNoScroll PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH PUSH CALL .======================================================= .======================================================= .areas are resrved for the menu.This checks to see if the cursor is on line 23.===================== module end ====================== MMURTL V1.ignore error RETN . The other . we scroll up the text area by one line.between colums 0 and 66.No.Col 0. Line 0-24) 0 66 .Yes.and the register display. Line 23 PUSH 23 PUSH OFFSET dbgClear PUSH 40 PUSH 07h CALL FWORD PTR _PutVidChars . rgTmrBlks CALL DispAddr RETN .Clear the query line (Line 23.Query XY (See what line and Col) . .MOV ESI. .0 -387- RICHARD A BURGESS .If so.

.

extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. you're on your own. in addition to those in the code itself. Unlike large portions of the rest of the MMURTL code. This eliminates a lot of confusion for me. Listing 24. IDE Device Driver Data (Defines and Externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char /* MMURTL OS PROTOTYPES */ extern far AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). many device drivers are written in C. One of the things you'll note is that I don't depend on CMOS RAM locations to provide the hard disk drive geometry. Even some of the ISRs are done in C.1. but I think you're OK. They simply save some typing and help my brain realize what is signed and unsigned. You will find these little #define statements at the top of almost every C source file I have. and they are also fairly compatible with the MFM hard disk controllers. The code comments should suffice for the detailed explanations of otherwise confusing code.1. They were designed that way. This seems to be the best. In fact. I found so many variations in the different ROMs that I gave up and actually read the disk itself to find out. and maybe the only dependable way to do it. U32 dfReplace). All of the operating system calls are prototyped here. The CM32 C compiler requires ANSI prototypes for functions. this device driver should work with MFM drives. Comments.. S8 *pDCBs. so you don't have to go digging to see what I'm doing. I feel this is the best way to try to pass information to someone in a source file. The two device drivers are for the IDE disk drives and the RS232 asynchronous communications device (UARTS). though I would rather have done them in assembler. unsigned long int). All of the hardware commands are well documented. Selected Device Driver Code Introduction This chapter contains the source code for two MMURTL device drivers.g. You'll see that I sometimes slip back to the long-hand notation (e. but I try not to. U32 nDevices.Chapter 24. otherwise I would have just included the standard MMURTL header files. IDE Disk Device Driver The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) device driver was actually one of the easiest drivers to write. You may also notice that almost everything in MMURTL is unsigned anyway. but I haven't owned any for a couple of years and can't find any to test it. precede sections of the code to explain the purpose of an entire section.0 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). extern far U32 MMURTL V1. -389- RICHARD A BURGESS . See listing 24. Time was the deciding factor. There are no include files. If you have MFM drives.

static U32 check_busy(void). It's called xprintf(). U8 *pDataIn).. U32 dnBlocks). Listing 24. static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void). U8 *pDataRet). void OutWord(U16 Word. U8 *pDataOut. U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. U32 dBytes). U32 dOpNum. static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. OutWords(U32 dPort. U32 *pMsgRet). void OutByte(U8 Byte.2. U32 nBlks). U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. U32 msg2). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. I needed a method to get data to the screen. U32 msg1. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). /* The HD interrupt function */ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U16 wPort). static U32 hd_init(U8 drive). U32 dBytes). While writing the operating system. S8 *pIRQ). U32 dnBlocks. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U8 *pDataOut). static U32 hd_recal(U8 drive). . U8 InByte(U16 wPort). static U32 send_command(U8 parm). U32 HdSect. U32 dLBA. U16 wPort). U8 *pDestination.0 -390- RICHARD A BURGESS . static U32 hd_wait (void). The monitor has a function that works very similar to printf in C.). U32 dnBlocks. U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). Continuation of IDE Driver Data (protos and defines) /* Near External for troubleshooting */ extern long xprintf(char *fmt. U32 dnBlocks. /* LOCAL PROTOTYPES */ U32 hdisk_setup(void). InWords(U32 dPort. static U32 setupseek(U32 dLBA. U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. static void hd_reset(void). See listing 24. U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 msg2). U8 *pDataIn. U32 dBytes). static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA. Any section of the operating system code included at build time can use this function for displaying troubleshooting information. You must simply keep in mind that it writes to the video screen for the job that called the device driver. U32 msg1. U32 *pMsgRet). U16 InWord(U16 wPort). MMURTL V1. static U32 hd_seek(U32 dLBA). /* The following 3 calls are required in every MMURTL device driver */ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. U8 ReadCMOS(U16 Address).. static U32 hd_status(U8 LastCmd). static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. U32 Sleep(U32 count).2. U32 count).

. static U32 /* LOCAL DEFINITIONS */ #define ok 0 /* Error Codes to return */ #define ErcNoMsg 20 #define ErcNotInstalled 504 #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define ErcBadBlock ErcAddrMark ErcBadECC ErcSectNotFound ErcNoDrive0 ErcNotSupported ErcBadHDC ErcBadSeek ErcHDCTimeOut ErcOverRun ErcBadLBA ErcInvalidDrive ErcBadOp ErcBadRecal ErcSendHDC ErcNotReady ErcBadCmd ErcNeedsInit ErcTooManyBlks ErcZeroBlks ErcWriteFault 651 652 653 654 655 656 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 675 676 677 678 /* The controller can only do 128 max */ /* 0 Blocks not allowed for this cmd */ /* WriteFault bit set. U32 dStatusMax. U32 *pdSatusRet).0 -391- RICHARD A BURGESS . bummer */ #define ErcMissHDDInt #define ErcHDDMsgBogus #define ErcHDDIntMsg #define ErcHDDAlarmMsg /* Commands accepted by this HD driver */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdNull CmdRead CmdWrite CmdVerify CmdFmtBlk CmdFmtTrk CmdSeekTrk CmdSetMedia CmdResetHdw 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 /* Not used unless mountable */ /* Used to reset controller hardware */ MMURTL V1. hddev_stat(U32 dDevice.. U32 sdInitData). S8 *pInitData. hddev_init(U32 dDevNum. S8 * pStatRet.U8 static U32 *pData).

sector count (1F2h) 3 .error register (1F1h) 2 . This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.16 bit) 1 . either one set) */ /* HDC Status Register Bit Masks (1F7h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define BUSY READY WRITE_FAULT SEEKOK DATA_REQ CORRECTED REV_INDEX 0x80 0x40 0x20 0x10 0x08 0x04 0x02 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* busy./* CmdReadSect is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. Cylinder is HiWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.low cyl (1F4h) 5 . */ #define CmdReadSect 256 /* only device specific call in HDD */ /* HDC port definitions */ #define HD_PORT 0x1f0 /* When writing to the port+X (where X =): 0 .sector number (1F3h) 4 .command register (1F7h) When reading from the port+X (where X =): 0 .size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .read data (1F0h ..write data (1F0h . Bit Desc 0 Not used 1 Not used 2 Reset Bit . head and Sector number. and Sector number is LowWord in dnBlocks. wait 50us.16 bit) 1 .Set.sector count (1F2h) 3 . Head is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call.size/drive/head (1F6h) 7 .low cyl (1F4h) 5 .0 -392- RICHARD A BURGESS .status register (1F7h) */ #define HD_REG_PORT 0x3f6 /* This is a byte wide write only control port that allows reset and defines some special characteristics of the hard drives. can't talk now! */ Drive Ready */ Bad news */ Seek Complete */ Sector buffer needs servicing */ ECC corrected data was read */ Set once each disk revolution */ MMURTL V1.pre-comp (1F1h) 2 .sector number (1F3h) 4 . then Reset 3 Mucho Heads Flag. Set = More than 8 heads 4 Not used 5 Not used 6 Disable retries 7 Disable retries (same as six.high cyl (1F5h) 6 .high cyl (1F5h) 6 .

fDataReq. */ /* Current number of heads. I would have to do them all to ensure they would be contiguous. cylinders. See listing 24. hd0_secpertrk. hd1_secpertrk. /* Calculated from LBA .which head */ hd_nsectors.3. /* Calculated from LBA .n sectors to read/write */ hd_sector. The operating system requires the DCB and status record field to be contiguous in memory. hd0_cyls. hd1_heads. /* Current control byte value */ hd_command.#define ERROR 0x01 /* data address mark not found */ /* HDC Error Register Bit Masks (1F1h) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define BAD_SECTOR BAD_ECC BAD_IDMARK BAD_CMD BAD_SEEK BAD_ADDRESS 0x80 0x40 0x10 0x04 0x02 0x01 /* /* /* /* /* /* bad block */ bad data ecc */ id not found */ aborted command */ trk 0 not found on recalibrate. and sectors set by caller */ static static static static U8 U8 U8 U16 hd0_type. static U8 static U8 static U8 MMURTL V1. /* Current Physical Drive. hd0_heads. 0 or 1 */ hd_head. hd_control.Starting sector */ /* Current type drive 0 & 1 found in CMOS or Set by caller.0 -393- RICHARD A BURGESS . If I did one member. Listing 24. hd1_type.3. or bad seek */ data address mark not found */ /* HDC internal command bytes (HDC_Cmd[7]) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define HDC_RECAL HDC_READ HDC_READ_LONG HDC_WRITE HDC_WRITE_LONG HDC_VERIFY HDC_FORMAT HDC_SEEK HDC_DIAG HDC_SET_PARAMS 0x10 0x20 0x22 0x30 0x32 0x40 0x50 0x70 0x90 0x91 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0101 0111 1001 1001 0000 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ You may notice that I don't initialize any variables in structures because that would place them in a different place in the data segment. Continuation of IDE Driver Data (data structures) /* L O C A L static U8 static U8 static U8 static static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 D A T A */ /* For all 8 command bytes */ /* Flag to indicate is fDataRequest is active */ /* From HDC status register last time it was read */ hd_Cmd[8]. /* Calculated from LBA . statbyte. /* Current Command */ hd_drive.

static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. LastErcByte1. /* out to 64 bytes */ static struct statstruct hdstatus. S16 nBPB. U8 type_now. ResetStatByte. /* padding for DWord align */ U32 nCyl. /* total physical cylinders */ U32 nHead. U32 OS4. U32 OS1. }. static struct statstruct HDStatTmp.0 /* two HD device control blocks */ -394- RICHARD A BURGESS . #define sStatus 64 static struct statstruct { U32 erc. static struct dcbtype hdcb[2]. S8 *pDevSt. /* Number of bytes per sect. /* total heads on device */ U32 nSectors. 32 bytes out to here. MMURTL V1. U32 blocks_done. LastErcByte0. /* Interrupt was received on HDC_RESET */ filler0. LastSeekErc0. U32 last_erc. S8 *pDevInit. U32 nBlocks. LastRecalErc1. /* current fdisk_table for drive selected */ U8 resvd0[2]. /* Status Byte immediately after RESET */ U32 resvd1[2]. fIntOnReset. U32 OS6. U32 OS2.static U16 hd1_cyls. }. /* Sectors per track */ U32 nBPS. U32 OS3. U8 fNewMedia. U8 fSingleUser. LastSeekErc1.*/ U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 U32 U32 U8 U8 U8 U8 LastRecalErc0. U32 OS5. LastStatByte0. U32 BlocksMax. U8 fDevReent. S8 type. S16 wJob. filler1. LastStatByte1. S8 *pDevOp. S8 sbName.

sbName hdcb[0].4.pDevInit hdcb[1]. The hdisk_setup() function is called from the monitor to initialize the driver.Name[2] hdcb[0]. 'D'. /* Max */ hd0_secpertrk = 17. &hddev_init. static long HDDInt.pDevInit hdcb[0]. /* Max */ hd1_type = ReadCMOS(0x1A).2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.type hdcb[0]. 524288. In a loadable driver.pDevOp hdcb[0]. &hddev_stat.2Gb disks*/ &hddev_op.pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 'H'.pDevOp hdcb[1]. Listing 24. /* These are defaulted to non zero values to ensure we don't get a divide by zero during initial calculations on the first read. MMURTL V1. hd1_heads = 16. static U32 hd_msg2. 'D'.Name[0] hdcb[1].nBPB hdcb[1]. 1./* Exch and msgs space for HD ISR */ static U32 hd_exch.sbName hdcb[1]. hd1_cyls = 1024. /* most common */ hd0_cyls = 1024.nBlocks hdcb[1].Name[0] hdcb[0].nBPB hdcb[0]. IDE Device Driver Code (Initialization) U32 { U32 hdisk_setup(void) erc.4.type hdcb[1]. 'H'.Name[1] hdcb[0]. 3.nBlocks hdcb[0]. 3. &hddev_init. 1. '1'. */ hd0_type = ReadCMOS(0x19).Name[1] hdcb[1]. &hddev_stat. /* largest device handled . static U32 hd_msg. '0'.0 -395- RICHARD A BURGESS . this would be the main() section of the C source file. /* Random */ 512. 524288. /* largest disk handled .Name[2] hdcb[1].pDevSt hdcb[1]. /* read this but don't use it */ hd0_heads = 16. See listing 24. /* Random */ 512. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ hdcb[0]. hd1_secpertrk = 17.

/* try to recal */ if (erc) { /* try one more time! */ hd_reset(). */ hd_reset().last_erc = erc. The driver MUST be able to recal the first physical drive or the Driver won't inititalize. If the second drive is not there. MMURTL V1. */ erc = hd_recal(0). but they don't.hd_reset resets the controller (which controlls both drives). */ hd_reset().0 -396- RICHARD A BURGESS . UnMaskIRQ(14). /* Guess it's not a valid drive */ if (!erc) /* We must redo drive 0 cause some cheap controllers lockup on us if drive 1 is not there. erc = hd_recal(0). Now we try drive 1 if type > 0. /* try to recal */ if (erc) { hdcb[0].erc = AllocExch(&hd_exch). /* no error is returned */ /* Now we attempt to select and recal both drives. SetIRQVector(14. In this case we have to reset it again so it will work. /* Must not be a valid drive */ return(ErcNoDrive0).last_erc = erc. but to make it function with the widest range of IDE and MFM controllers this is the only way I have found that works. */ /* Reset the HDC . They SHOULD simply return a Bad Command bit set in the Error register. &hdisk_isr). /* Exhange for HD Task to use */ /* Documentation lists the fixed disk types at CMOS 11h and 12h. We have to make this sucker work the hard way. hd1_type = 0. /* try to recal if CMOS says it's there */ if (erc) { hdcb[1]. then try both physical drives. We have to do it once. some controllers will lock-up (the el-cheapos). hd0_type = 0. */ if (hd1_type) { erc = hd_recal(1). It seems like a lot of work. They vary from BIOS to BIOS. We don't actually read them because they are not dependable. and also shows them at 19h and 1Ah. } } /* if we got here. drive 0 looks OK and the controller is functioning.

It just waits for an interrupt.ResetStatByte = statbyte. HDDInt = 1. UnMaskIRQ(14). Sleep(20). This tells the HD task currently running that it's got some status to act on! ****************************************************************/ static void interrupt hdisk_isr(void) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). This should only be called by DeviceInit or hdisk_setup.seems some controllers are SLOW!! */ i = CheckMsg(hd_exch. } } /* recal drive 0 */ return(erc = InitDevDr(12.fIntOnReset = 1. If it's 0 then the controller became ready in less than MMURTL V1. /* 200ms . } /************************************************************* The ISR is VERY simple. *************************************************************/ static void hd_reset(void) { U32 i. ISendMsg(hd_exch.0 */ /* The ISR gets statbyte */ -397- RICHARD A BURGESS . 0xfffffff0). and clear the reset bit */ OutByte(hd_control & 0x0f. EndOfIRQ(14). 2. 0xfffffff0. if (i) hdstatus. OutByte(4. else hdstatus. } /************************************************************* This checks the HDC controller to see if it's busy so we can send it commands or read the rest of the registers. gets the single status byte from the controller (which clears the interrupt condition) then sends an empty message to the exchange where the HD Driver task will be waiting. /* Eat Int if one came back hdstatus. /* /* /* enable the IRQ */ reset the controller */ Delay 60us */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ /* Clear "MUCHO" heads bit. MicroDelay(4). } /************************************************************ Reset the HD controller.last_erc = erc. 1)). This resets the controller and reloads parameters for both drives (if present) and attempts to recal them. &hdcb. &hd_msg). hdcb[0]. The caller should call check_busy and check the error. HD_REG_PORT).erc = hd_recal(0). HD_REG_PORT). We will wait up to 3 seconds then error out.fIntOnReset = 0.

We also set the Alarm() function so we get a message at that exchange.). /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd1_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. /* hds & drv */ } hd_Cmd[1] = 0. /* cyl = 0 for init */ erc = send_command(HDC_SET_PARAMS). hd_Cmd[3] = 0. /* sector count */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | ((hd0_heads-1) & 0x0f) | 0xa0. while (count++ < 60) { statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7). return(erc). check_busy(void) count = 0. It leaves the status byte in the global statbyte. /* 50ms shots */ } return(ErcNotReady). nSectors. hd_Cmd[4] = 0.3 seconds. See listing 24. if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SET_PARAMS).5. /* hds & drv */ } else { /* Drive 1 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd1_secpertrk. ****************************************************************/ static U32 { S16 count. /* cyl = 0 for init */ hd_Cmd[5] = 0. You expect the hard disk controller to come back in a short period of time by sending us a message from the ISR. etc.0 -398- RICHARD A BURGESS . sectors and cylinders */ if (drive == 0) { /* Drive 0 */ hd_Cmd[2] = hd0_secpertrk. even if the controller goes into Never-Never land. Listing 24. /* controller out to lunch! */ } /************************************************************* This sends the SetParams command to the controller to set up the drive geometry (nHeads. Sleep(5). } The hd_wait() function has a good example of using the Alarm() function. erc = hd_wait(). if ((statbyte & BUSY) == 0) return(ok). Continuation of IDE Driver Code (code) /* Send the command */ /* wait for interrupt */ /****************************************** MMURTL V1. ****************************************************************/ static U32 hd_init(U8 drive) { U32 erc.5. ErcNotReady will be returned otherwise. /* set max heads.

erc = send_command(HDC_RECAL).LastRecalErc1 = erc. Time-out and return if no interrupt. /* Alarm sends 0xffffffff } else { KillAlarm(hd_exch).LastRecalErc0 = erc.0 -399- RICHARD A BURGESS . &hd_msg). return(ok). else return(ErcHDCTimeOut). if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). } } /******************************************** Recalibrate the drive. 300). KillAlarm(hd_exch). /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_RECAL). KillAlarm(hd_exch). /* kill any pending alarm */ erc = Alarm(hd_exch. if (hd_msg != 0xfffffff0) { /* HD interrupt sends fffffff0 */ if (HDDInt) return(ErcMissHDDInt). /* Set it up again */ if (erc) return(erc). } /******************************************** Send the command to the controller. hd_recal(U8 drive) */ hd_Cmd[6] = (drive << 4) | (hd_head & 0x0f) | 0xa0. else hdstatus. *********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. if (drive) hdstatus. ********************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. return(erc). hd_wait(void) /* Set alarm for 3 seconds */ HDDInt = 0. Clear the Echange of any left over MMURTL V1. /* bad problem */ erc = WaitMsg(hd_exch.Wait for the hardware interrupt to occur.

head and sector variables for all commands that require them (read. HD_PORT+1). format. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). OutByte(hd_control. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[1]. HD_PORT+2). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[4]. verify. The caculated values are placed in the proper command byte in anticipation of the command being sent. &msg) == 0). /* Empty it */ /* bit 3 of HD_REG must be 1 for access to heads 8-15 */ if (hd_head > 7) { hd_control |= 0x08. if (!erc) OutByte(Cmd. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[6]. } erc = check_busy().0 /* 0==256 for controller */ /* remainder */ RICHARD A BURGESS -400- . if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). } /************************************************************* This sets up the cylinder. HD_REG_PORT). U32 nBlks) if (nBlks > 256) return ErcTooManyBlks. HD_PORT+5).alarm or int messages before we send a command. setupseek(U32 dLBA. U16 cyl. *********************************************/ static U32 send_command(U8 { U32 erc. seek). hd_nsectors = nBlks. HD_PORT+7). MMURTL V1. Cmd) while (CheckMsg(hd_exch. if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). HD_PORT+4). msg[2]. write. *************************************************************/ static U32 { U32 j. For IDE/MFM controllers this is 128 sectors. j = dLBA % (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[3]. if (nBlks == 0) return ErcZeroBlks. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[2]. nBlks ca NOT be greater than the hardware can handle. if (hd_nsectors == 256) hd_nsectors = 0. if (!erc) OutByte(hd_Cmd[5]. return(erc). HD_PORT+3). HD_PORT+6). if (hd_drive == 0) { /* drive 0 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd0_heads * hd0_secpertrk). if (!erc) erc = check_busy(). /* set bit for head > 7 */ hd_control &= 0xf7.

1). hd_sector = j % hd0_secpertrk + 1. if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). hd_sector = j % hd1_secpertrk + 1. } = = = = = nBlks. hd_status(U8 LastCmd) MMURTL V1.LastSeekErc0 = erc. /* hd_sector. /* remainder */ /* We now know what cylinder.0 -401- RICHARD A BURGESS . calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd0_secpertrk. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0./* we now know what cylinder.. */ /* wait for interrupt */ /******************************************************* Called to read status and errors from the controller after an interrupt generated by a command we sent. /* cyl & 0xff. j = dLBA % (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk).. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. } /* sets up for implied seek */ /* Not implied anymore. hdstatus. The error checking is based on the command that we sent. hd_seek(U32 dLBA) erc = setupseek(dLBA. return(erc). if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_SEEK). ZERO returned indicates no errors for the command status we are checking. *********************************************************/ static U32 { U32 erc. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_SEEK). /******************************************************* Move the head to the selected track (cylinder). but simply indicate status or indicate an action we must take next. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] return ok. /* sector number start at 1 !!! */ } else { /* drive 1 */ cyl = dLBA / (hd1_heads * hd1_secpertrk). This is done because certain bits in the status and error registers are actually not errors. Calculate head and sector */ hd_head = j / hd1_secpertrk.

MMURTL V1. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. if (hd_drive) hdstatus. else if (errbyte & BAD_ECC) erc = ErcBadECC.U8 statbyte.0 -402- RICHARD A BURGESS . After all.LastStatByte0 = statbyte. */ erc = check_busy(). if (!erc) errbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+1). default: break. else if (errbyte & BAD_SECTOR) erc = ErcBadBlock. /* We shouldn't see the controller busy. else if (errbyte & BAD_IDMARK) erc = ErcSectNotFound. else hdstatus. } else { erc = check_busy(). if (errbyte & BAD_ADDRESS) erc = ErcAddrMark. else return(erc). break. /* default */ switch (LastCmd) { case HDC_READ: case HDC_READ_LONG: case HDC_WRITE: case HDC_WRITE_LONG: case HDC_SEEK: case HDC_RECAL: if (statbyte & WRITE_FAULT) erc = ErcWriteFault.LastStatByte1 = statbyte. else if ((statbyte & SEEKOK) == 0) erc = ErcBadSeek. else if (errbyte & BAD_CMD) erc = ErcBadCmd. he interrupted us with status. else return(erc). else hdstatus. } return(erc). errbyte.LastErcByte1 = errbyte. /* puts status byte into global StatByte */ if (!erc) statbyte = InByte(HD_PORT+7).LastErcByte0 = errbyte. if ((statbyte & ERROR) == 0) { /* Error bit not set in status reg */ erc = ok. case HDC_SET_PARAMS: case HDC_VERIFY: case HDC_FORMAT: case HDC_DIAG: break. else if (errbyte & BAD_SEEK) erc = ErcBadSeek.

--nleft. hd_sector. U32 dnBlocks. erc = check_busy(). nBPS). nBPS. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Write. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). This reads 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. } /************************************************************* This is called for the DeviceOp code Read.else erc = ErcBadHDC. pDataOut. This writes 1 or more whole sectors from the calculated values in hd_head. U32 dnBlocks. while ((nleft) && (!erc)) { erc = hd_wait(). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. /* sets up for implied seek */ if (!erc) erc = send_command(HDC_READ). nBPS = hdcb[hd_drive]. dnBlocks). nSoFar. pDataRet+=nBPS. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. /* From nBytesPerBlock in DCB */ nleft = dnBlocks. if (!erc) /* && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) */ { InWords(HD_PORT. erc = setupseek(dLBA. nBPS). dnBlocks). erc = setupseek(dLBA. pDataRet.nBPB.nBPB. nleft. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_WRITE). pDataOut+=nBPS. } } return(erc). } while ((nSoFar < dnBlocks ) && (erc==ok)) { MMURTL V1. /* no error bits found but should have been! */ } return erc. /* No INT occurs for first sector of write */ if ((!erc) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT.0 -403- RICHARD A BURGESS . nBPS. /* From n BytesPerBlock in DCB */ nSoFar = 0. U8 *pDataOut) { U32 erc. hd_sector. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_read(U32 dLBA. nSoFar++. and hd_cyl *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_write(U32 dLBA.

if ((erc==ok) && (statbyte & DATA_REQ)) { OutWords(HD_PORT. RICHARD A BURGESS MMURTL V1. erc = hd_wait(). } } if (!erc) erc = hd_wait(). This allows you to read ONE sector specified by Cylinder.0 -404- . head and Sector number. pDataOut. HD %d. erc = setupseek(dLBA. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). U16 cyl. hd_sector = (HdSect >> 16) & 0xffff. /* hd_sector. /* (hd_drive << 4) | (hd_head & How many sectors */ Which sector to start on */ cylinder lobyte */ cylinder hibyte */ 0x0f) | 0xa0. *******************************************************************/ static U32 ReadSector(U32 Cylinder. } /****************************************************************** ReadSector is the only device specific call in the IDE/MFM hard disk device driver. /* wait for final interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_WRITE). cyl = Cylinder. } /************************************************************* This formats the track beginning at the block address given in dLBA. Head is LoWord of dnBlocks in DeviceOp call. return(erc). *************************************************************/ static U32 hd_format_track(U32 dLBA. return(erc). pDataOut+=nBPS. SEC %d\r\n". cyl. U8 *pDataRet) { U32 erc. dLBA must always be a multiple of the number of sectors per track minus 1 for the disk type. /* wait for interrupt */ if (erc==ok) erc = hd_status(HDC_FORMAT). Cylinder is LoWord of dLBA in DeviceOp call. /* sets up for implied seek */ erc = send_command(HDC_FORMAT). /* cyl & 0xff. */ hd_Cmd[2] hd_Cmd[3] hd_Cmd[4] hd_Cmd[5] hd_Cmd[6] = = = = = 1. /* For testing xprintf("\r\nCYL %d. hd_head = HdSect & 0xffff.erc = hd_wait(). hd_head. U32 dnBlocks) { U32 erc. and Sector number is HiWord in dnBlocks. hd_sector). dnBlocks). U32 HdSect. /* (cyl >> 8) & 0xff. nSoFar++. nBPS).

Listing 24. else hd_drive = 1. “Programming Interfaces. if (!erc) InWords(HD_PORT. erc = 0. 512). *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_op(U32 dDevice. return(erc). there I provided an overview of MMURTL's device driver interface. 12=0 and 13=1. U32 dLBA. } else { if (hd1_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. if (hd_drive==0) { if (hd0_type==0) erc = ErcInvalidDrive. This will check to make sure a drive type is assigned and check to see if they are going to exceed max logical blocks. &hd_msg). } Chapter 8. Continuation of IDE Driver Code (Device Interface) /****************************************** Called for all device operations. See listing 24. /* wait for interrupt */ if (!erc) erc = hd_status(HDC_READ). pDataRet. U8 *pData) { U32 erc. /* Check to see if we have a leftover interrupt message from last command. MMURTL V1. The three calls that all MMURTL device drivers must provide are next.6.erc = send_command(HDC_READ). erc = hd_wait().” discussed device driver interfaces. U32 dnBlocks. /* Reset values in Status record */ hdstatus. U32 dOpNum. This assigns physical device from logical number that outside callers use. If so then we eat it (and do nothing) */ CheckMsg(hd_exch.blocks_done = 0. For Hard disk. /* Set drive internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive = 0.0 /* Ignore error */ -405- RICHARD A BURGESS .6.

break. dnBlocks). dnBlocks. if (!erc) { switch(dOpNum) { case(CmdNull): erc = ok.} /* make sure they don't exceed max blocks */ if (!erc) if (dLBA > hdcb[hd_drive]. */ break. case(CmdVerify): erc = ErcNotSupported. break. case(CmdWrite): erc = hd_write(dLBA. break. pData). break.nBlocks) erc = ErcBadLBA. default: erc = ErcBadOp. break. /* Null Command */ break. pData). U32 *pdStatusRet) MMURTL V1. } } hdcb[hd_drive]. dnBlocks. Returns 64 byte block of data including current drive geometery. /* Read */ /* Write */ /* Verify */ /* hd_verify is not supported in this version of the driver */ /* erc = hd_verify(dLBA. U32 dStatusMax. pData). break. case(CmdResetHdw): /* Reset Ctrlr */ hd_reset(). S8 * pStatRet. dnBlocks. break. return(erc). erc = 0.0 /* update DCB erc */ -406- RICHARD A BURGESS . This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceStat! *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_stat(U32 dDevice. case(CmdReadSect): /* Read Sector(s) */ erc = ReadSector(dLBA.last_erc = erc. case(CmdFmtTrk): /* Format Track */ erc = hd_format_track(dLBA. } /****************************************** Called for indepth status report on ctrlr and drive specified. case(CmdRead): erc = hd_read(dLBA. pData). dnBlocks. case(CmdSeekTrk): /* Seek Track */ erc = hd_seek(dLBA).

else i = sStatus. hdstatus. CopyData(&hdstatus. This should ONLY be called once for each HD to set its parameters before it is used the first time after the driver is loaded. } /****************************************** Called to reset the hard disk controller and set drive parameters. hdstatus. The caller normally reads the block (DeviceStat).nHead = hd0_heads. This is called by the PUBLIC call DeviceInit.last_erc.nHead = hd1_heads.nCyl = hd0_cyls.erc = hdcb[0].0 -407- RICHARD A BURGESS .erc = hdcb[1]. The Initdata is a copy of the 64 byte status block that is read from status. The DCB values are updated if this is successful. /* Set status for proper device */ if (dDevice == 12) { hdstatus. hdstatus. } /* Calculate size of status to return.nSectors = hd1_secpertrk. makes changes to certain fields and calls DeviceInit pointing to the block for the changes to take effect. hdstatus. *******************************************/ static U32 hddev_init(U32 dDevice. hdstatus. hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[0].type_now = hd1_type. S8 *pInitData. hdstatus.nCyl = hd1_cyls. return ok. U32 sdInitData) /* copy to their status block */ /* tell em how much it was */ MMURTL V1.).nBPB. pStatRet. or after a fatal error is received that indicates the controller may need to be reset (multiple timeouts etc. *pdStatusRet = i. Return no more than asked for! */ if (dStatusMax <= sStatus) i = dStatusMax.{ U32 i.type_now = hd0_type. hdstatus.last_erc.nBPB. hdstatus. hdstatus. i).nSectors = hd0_secpertrk. } else { hdstatus.nBPS = hdcb[1].

nSectors.nCyl. initialize it and recal */ if (!erc) erc = hd_init(hd_drive). } /* update DCB erc */ /* no more than 64 bytes! */ /* copy in their init data */ MMURTL V1. return(erc). CopyData(pInitData.nSectors * HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.nCyl * HDStatTmp. hd0_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nBPS. } else { hd1_type = HDStatTmp. /* If no error. &HDStatTmp.nSectors.nHead. } /* If no error.last_erc = erc. hdcb[hd_drive]. hdcb[hd_drive].nCyl. erc = 0. if (hd0_type) { hd0_cyls = HDStatTmp. else i = sdInitData. hd0_heads = HDStatTmp. } else erc = ErcInvalidDrive.{ U32 erc.nHead. i. if (!erc) erc = hd_recal(hd_drive). i). hd1_secpertrk = HDStatTmp.nHead. hd1_heads = HDStatTmp. /* Set internal drive number */ if (dDevice == 12) hd_drive=0. else hd_drive = 1.nBlocks = HDStatTmp. } hdcb[hd_drive]. if (hd1_type) { hd1_cyls = HDStatTmp.nBPB = HDStatTmp.type_now.last_erc = 0. if (hd_drive==0) { hd0_type = HDStatTmp. update corresponding DCB values */ if (!erc) { hdcb[hd_drive].type_now.0 -408- RICHARD A BURGESS . /* Read the init status block in */ if (sdInitData > sStatus) i = sStatus.

Unlike the IDE disk device driver. 16450.The RS-232 Asynchronous Device Driver The RS-232 driver is designed to drive two channels with 8250. unsigned long IOBase. unsigned long Baudrate. as well as status. or 16550 UARTs. MMURTL V1. */ 150-38400 */ 0. other than that. The C structure for the status record is also defined here and will be needed to initialize. It needs more work. You may notice the differences between the IDE driver.0 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Owner of this comms port. unsigned long LastErc. 2=odd */ nDatabits for this port. Listing 24..7.. unsigned long XTimeOut. unsigned char stopbits.38400 */ Parity for this port. 1=even. 0 for not in use */ Result of last device operation */ Total bytes moved in last operation */ Baudrate for this port. which is a block oriented random device. it is a fully functional driver. 150 . They are two different animals with the same basic interface. but. which is a sequential byte-oriented device.. This same header file is used in the sample communications program in chapter 16. unsigned long XBufSize.h Header File #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define MIN_BAUD MAX_BAUD NO_PAR EV_PAR OD_PAR ErcRecvTimeout ErcXmitTimeout ErcRcvBufOvr ErcBadPort ErcRcvBufOvr ErcNotOpen ErcChannelOpen ErcNotOwner ErcBadBaud ErcBadParity ErcBadDataBits ErcBadStopBits ErcBadIOBase ErcBadCommIRQ ErcBadInitSize 150L 38400L 0 1 2 800 801 802 803 805 807 809 812 820 821 822 823 824 825 827 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Recv Buffer Empty */ Xmit Buffer never Emptied */ Receive buffer overrun */ Invalid port on OpenCommC */ Buffer full!!! */ Channel not open. unsigned long RBufSize. the driver. */ It's opened by someone else.. unsigned char IRQNum. See listing 24. “MMURTL Sample Software. and this driver. unsigned long RTimeOut.7. RS-232.” The header file defines certain parameters to functions. This header file was also designed to be used by programs that use the driver. a header file is included in the RS232 driver source file. unsigned long LastTotal.. 0=none. 1 or 2 */ IRQNum for this channel */ IO base address for hardware */ Size of Xmit buffer */ Size of Recv Buffer */ Xmit Timeout in 10ms increments */ Recv Timeout in 10ms increments */ out to 64 bytes */ -409- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 or 2 */ Must be 5-8 */ Must be 1 or 2 */ if 0 */ < 3 */ At least 40 bytes for this version */ struct statRecC{ unsigned long commJob. unsigned char databits. such as complete flow control for XON/XOFF and CTS/RTS. */ It's already open. as well as explaining all the error or status codes that the driver will return. as well as by the driver itself. 5-8 */ stop bits for this port. unsigned long resvd[6].. unsigned char parity.

h" /* MMURTL OS Prototypes */ extern far U32 AllocExch(U32 *pExchRet). S8 MMURTL V1. The only commands that are shared with the default command number are reading and writing blocks of data (command 1 and 2).8.}. U32 nPages). RS-232 Device Driver Code (defines and externs) #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define U32 unsigned long S32 long U16 unsigned int S16 int U8 unsigned char S8 char TRUE 1 FALSE 0 #include "RS232.8. U32 dfReplace). extern far U32 MaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum).0 *pIRQ). RICHARD A BURGESS -410- . See listing 24. S8 *pDCBs. extern far U32 SetIRQVector(U32 IRQNum. extern far U32 DeAllocPage(U8 *pOrigMem. extern far U32 UnMaskIRQ(U32 IRQNum). All other command are specific to this driver. Further down in the file you will notice that commands are defined 1 though 32. Listing 24. extern far U32 InitDevDr(U32 dDevNum. U8 **ppMemRet). you will notice the shorthand for the rather lengthy C-type declarations. U32 nDevices. /* Device Driver interface commands (Op numbers) */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define CmdReadRec 1 CmdWriteRec 2 CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 CmdReadB 31 CmdWriteB 32 /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Read one or more bytes */ Write one or more bytes */ Open Comm Channel */ Close Comm Channel */ Trash input buffer */ Set Recv timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set Xmit timeout 10ms incs in dLBA */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Set DTR (On) */ Set CTS (On) */ Send BREAK (10ms incs in dLBA) */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CD ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if DSR ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if CTS ON */ Returns byte TRUE to pData if RI ON */ Recv a single byte */ Xmit a single byte */ Once again. extern far U32 AllocOSPage(U32 nPages.

*/ #define CTS MMURTL V1. #define CmdReadRec #define CmdWriteRec #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define 1 2 /* Read one or more bytes */ /* Write one or more bytes */ /* Open Comm Channel */ /* Close Comm Channel */ CmdOpenC 10 CmdCloseC 11 CmdDiscardRcv 12 CmdSetRTO 13 CmdSetXTO 14 CmdSetDTR 15 CmdSetRTS 16 CmdReSetDTR 17 CmdReSetRTS 18 CmdBreak 19 CmdGetDC 20 CmdGetDSR 21 CmdGetCTS 22 CmdGetRI 23 31 32 /* /* /* /* Set Set Set Set DTR CTS DTR CTS (On) (On) (On) (On) */ */ */ */ #define CmdReadB #define CmdWriteB /* The following definitions are used to identify. void CopyData(U8 *pSource. void OutByte(U8 Byte. U32 Alarm(U32 Exch. set and reset signal line condition and functions.extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern extern far far far far far far far far far far far far far U32 EndOfIRQ(U32 IRQNum). U32 dBytes). U32 msg2). U32 WaitMsg(U32 Exch. U16 wPort). U32 SendMsg(U32 Exch. S8 *pStatRet. void MicroDelay(U32 us15count). These will be called form the device driver interface. extern far long GetJobNum(long *pJobNumRet). U32 dnBlocks. U8 *pDestination. U32 Sleep(U32 count). U32 *pdStatusRet). U32 msg2). U32 KillAlarm(U32 Exch). static U32 comdev_op(U32 dDevice. S8 *pMsgRet). U8 *pData). U32 CheckMsg(U32 Exch. S8 *pMsgRet).0 0x10 /* Clear To Send */ RICHARD A BURGESS -411- . U32 sdInitData). */ static U32 comdev_stat(U32 dDevice. U32 count). U32 GetTimerTick(U32 *pTickRet). static S32 comdev_init(U32 dDevice. U32 dStatusMax. U8 InByte(U16 wPort). U32 msg1. U32 dOpNum. /* local prototypes. U32 dLBA. S8 *pInitData. U32 ISendMsg(U32 Exch. U32 msg1.

/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* Transmitter Holding Register */ Interrupt Enable Register */ Interrupt Id Register */ FIFO control for 16550 */ Line Control Register */ Modem Control Register */ Line Status Register */ Modem Status Register */ same address as THR */ /* same address as IER */ MMURTL V1. sSendBuf[2]. int_id[2]. stat_byte[2].#define DSR #define RI #define CD #define DTR #define RTS #define OUT2 0x20 0x40 0x80 0x01 0x02 0x08 /* Data Set Ready /* Ring Indicator /* Carrier Detect */ */ */ /* Data Terminal Ready */ /* Request To Send */ /* Not used */ /* Values from IIR register */ #define #define #define #define #define MDMSTAT NOINT TXEMPTY RVCDATA RCVSTAT 0x00 0x01 0x02 0x04 0x06 /* For errors returned from Comms calls see COMMDRV. /* NON-ZERO = an error has occurred */ /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* pointers to Xmit bufs */ Next char to send */ Where next char goes in buf */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ pointers to Recv bufs */ Next char from chip */ Next char to read for caller */ Count of bytes in buf */ Size of buffer (allocated) */ static U32 recv_error[2].H */ #define SSENDBUF 4096 #define SRECVBUF 4096 static U32 static U32 /* 1 Page Send Buf Default */ /* 1 Page Recv Buf Default */ /* 10ms intervals */ /* 10ms intervals */ recv_timeout[2] = 1. tail_recv[2]. sRecvBuf[2]. LCR[2]. mstat_byte[2]. head_recv[2]. DLAB_HI[2]. /* array of registers from port base for each channel */ static static static static static static static static static static U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 U16 THR[2].0 -412- RICHARD A BURGESS . FCR[2]. cSendBuf[2]. cRecvBuf[2]. DLAB_LO[2]. /* variables for ISRs */ static static static static static U8 U8 U8 U8 U8 f16550[2]. fExpectInt[2]. IER[2]. MSR[2]. static U8 control_byte[2] = 0. static static static static static static static static static static U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 U8 U32 U32 U32 U32 *pSendBuf[2]. head_send[2]. LSR[2]. IIR[2]. *pRecvBuf[2]. tail_send[2]. xmit_timeout[2] = 10. MCR[2].

FIFO Rcv Trigger Level 00 . \ \_____________ = (16550 only) 00 = FIFOs disabled non-zero = 16550 enabled 6 | | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | FCR -.1 char 01 . Listing 24. Divisor Latch LSB IER -. MMURTL V1. You can very easily see the break-out of the bits and follow what is being tested or written throughout the source code.Interrupt Identification Register 7 | | | | | | | | 4 3 2 1 0 | \_\_\_\__________ 0001 = no interrupt | 0110 = rcvr status | 0100 = rcvd data | 0010 = THR empty | 0000 = Modem status | 1101 = Rcv Fifo Timeout (16550) \_________ = 0. I liked it so much because it was easy to read in a bit-wise fashion.Interrupt Enable. 0.FIFO Control Register (16550 only) This is a write only port at the same address as the IIR on an 8250/16450 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \__= | | | | | | \___ = | | | | | \_____ = | | | | \_______ = | | | \_________ = | | \___________ = \__\_____________ = 1 = FIFO Enable 1 = Recv FIFO Reset 1 = Xmit FIFO Reset (DMA) 0 = Single char.9. \___________ = 0.TX data. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (register bits) /* Complete description of Register bits follows: THR -.I saw register bits defined like those in listing 24.2 chars 10 .4 chars 11 . RX data.0 -413- RICHARD A BURGESS . 1 = Multichar 0.9 in some documentation while working on an AM65C30 USART. Divisor Latch MSB 7 | | | | \ 6 | | | | _ 5 | | | | _ 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | \_ | | | \___ | | \_____ | \_______ _\_________ Data Available Xmit Holding Reg Empty Receiver Line Status Modem Status Always 0000 IIR -.8 chars LCR -- Line Control Register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | | | \_ Word Length Select Bit 0.

H. MMURTL V1. 1=2) | | \_______ Parity Enable | \_________ Even Parity Select \___________ Stick Parity \_____________ Set Break \_______________ Divisor Latch Access Bit | | | | | MCR -. See listing 24. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (status record) /* Record for 64 byte status and init record */ /* This structure is peculiar to the comms driver */ #define sStatus 64 static struct statRecC comstat[2].0 -414- RICHARD A BURGESS .| | | | | | | | | | \___ Word Length Select Bit 1. static struct statRecC *pCS.10.) Loop = Always 0 LSR -.Modem Control Register 7 | | | | | \ 6 | | | | | _ 5 4 3 2 1 0 | | | | | \_ | | | | \___ | | | \_____ | | \_______ | \_________ _\___________ Data Terminal Ready Request to Send Out 1 Out 2 (= 1 to enable ints.10. Listing 24. The members of this structure are defined in the header file RS232.Modem Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Delta Clear to Send | | \___ Delta Data Set Ready | \_____ Trailing Edge Ring Indicator \_______ Delta Rx Line Signal Detect \_________ Clear to Send \___________ Data Set Ready \_____________ Ring Indicator \_______________ Receive Line Signal Detect 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | */ The status record for each driver is specific to that particular driver.Line Status Register 7 | | | | | | | 3 2 1 0 | | | \_ Data Ready | | \___ Overrun Error | \_____ Parity Error \_______ Framing Error \_________ Break interrupt \___________ Transmitter Holding Reg Empty \_____________ Transmitter Shift Reg Empty \_______________ Recv FIFO Error (16550 Only) 6 | | | | | | 5 | | | | | 4 | | | | MSR -. It is documented in the preceding section in this chapter. | | | \_____ Number Stop Bits (0=1.

It calls InitDevDr() after it has completed filling out the device control blocks and setting up the interrupts. S8 fSingleUser. This means it's ready for business. S16 nBPB.This is the same device control block (DCB) record structure used in all MMURTL device drivers.12.Name[0] comdcb[0]. S8 *pDevOp. U32 nBlocks. *********************************************************/ U32 { U32 coms_setup(void) erc. See listing 24. U32 OS2.11. S8 type. the following initialization routine is called once to set up the driver. S8 *pDevSt.12. as is required by MMURTL. S8 sbName. U32 last_erc. }. static struct dcbtype comdcb[2]. and they are contiguously defined. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB init) /********************************************************* This is called ONCE to initialize the 2 default comms channels with the OS device driver interface. Listing 24. /* first we set up the 2 DCBs in anticipation of calling InitDevDr */ comdcb[0]. U32 OS5.Name[1] comdcb[0].11. S16 wJob. One for each channel. See listing 24. U32 OS6. 8N1. static void interrupt comISR1(void).0 = 'C'. S8 *pDevInit. /* Two RS-232 ports */ /* THE COMMS INTERRUPT FUNCTION PROTOTYPES */ static void interrupt comISR0(void).Name[2] MMURTL V1. -415- RICHARD A BURGESS . = 'M'. RS-232 Device Driver Code continued (DCB) static struct dcbtype { S8 Name[12]. = 'O'. It sets up defaults for both channels to 9600. Listing 24. U32 OS1. U32 OS4. Note that there are two of DCB’s. Just as with the IDE hard disk device driver. U32 OS3. S8 fDevReent.

2.parity comstat[0]. &comdev_stat.nBlocks comdcb[0].sbName comdcb[0]. &comISR1). 4. = 2. 2. } MMURTL V1. = 2. &comdev_init. /* none */ = 8. &comdcb.Name[2] comdcb[0].stopbits comstat[1].nBlocks comdcb[1]. &comISR0).pDevSt comdcb[1].pDevSt = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = '1'.pDevInit comdcb[0].0 -416- RICHARD A BURGESS . = 1. /* 0 for Sequential devices */ &comdev_op. /* none */ = 8.XTimeOut comstat[1]. = 4096. return(erc = InitDevDr(5.pDevInit comdcb[1].RTimeOut comstat[0].XTimeOut comstat[0]. 4. = 4096. '2'. 'C'. /* Set default comms params in stat records */ comstat[0]. MaskIRQ(3). SetIRQVector(3.pDevOp comdcb[1].XBufSize comstat[1].Name[2] comdcb[1]. = 100.Baudrate comstat[0]. 0x2F8.RBufSize sSendBuf[1] = 4096. = 4096.comdcb[0]. 0x3F8. &comdev_stat. /* Sequential */ 1. 3.sbName comdcb[1]. /* 0 for Sequential devi